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The following represents a completed Freedom to Know Act request submitted to the PA DEP, received on or about Dec 3, 2012

. This document represents combined documents: Cabot O&G Stalter Nov 9-19-11.pdf (4 pages) Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Chichura 000.jpg Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Chichura 001.jpg Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Como 000.jpg Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Como 001.jpg Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Jensen 000.jpg Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Jensen 001.jpg Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Rozell 000.jpg Stalter Dertomation Complaint Contamination - Rozell 001.jpg PSU - How to Interpret a Water Analysis Report.pdf (4 pages) The last document was obtained here: http://www.environmentalservicelab.com/docs/PSU%20%20How%20to%20Interpret%20a%20Water%20Analysis%20Report.pdf All are 1 page document scans, except where noted. 16 pages total + this cover page. These were processed by an OCR program, to allow the text to be searchable.

Pennsylvania
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION NORTHCENTRAL REGIONAL OFFICE

September 19, 2011

NOTICE OF VIOLATION

CERTIFIED MAIL NO. 7010 2780 0001 8652 0148

Mr. Phil Stalnaker Cabot Oil and Gas Five Penn Center West Suite 401 Pittsburgh, PA 15276

Re:

Gas Migration Investigation Lenox Township, Susquehanna County

Dear Mr. Stalnaker: On August 16, 2011, the Department received a complaint of methane being present in a private water supply serving a residence located in Lenox Township, Susquehanna County. The private water supply is located approximately 1,400 feet from the gas well pad housing the Stalter 1H Well, Permit 115-20517, the Stalter 2H Well, Permit 115-20496, and the Stalter 8V Well, Permit 115-20457. The Department investigated and collected samples at this private water supply on both August 16 & 18,2011. Methane levels in the private water supply increased from 0.290 milligrams per Liter (mg/L) in the pre-drill sample collected on November 11, 2010, to 49.200 mg/L in a sample collected on August 16, 2011, and 57.600 mg/L in a sample collected on August 18,2011, Combustible gas was also detected in the headspace of the affected private water supply well. Additionally, inspections of your company's three natural gas wells referenced above on August 18, 2011, documented the presence of natural gas between the various casing strings of the three wells. On September 15, 2011, the Department reviewed a down hole video of the Stalter 8 V Well which documented the improper construction of the 5 inch casing string. In light of the information gathered to date, the Department has identified the following violations of the Oil and Gas Act, 58 P.S. § 601.101 et seq., and the Clean Streams Law, 35 P.S. § 691.1 et seq., and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder: 1. Failure to prevent the migration of gas or other fluids into sources of fresh groundwater

208 West Third Street | Suite 101 | Williamsport, PA 17701-6448 570.327.3636 | Fax 570.327.3565
Printed on Recycled paper

www.depweb.state.pa.us

Mr. Phil Stalnaker

-2-

September 19, 2011

Our investigation revealed that Cabot Oil and Gas has caused or allowed gas from lower formations to enter fresh groundwater in Lenox Township, Susquehanna County. This is a violation of 25 PA Code § 78.81(a)(2) and (3), which state, in part: "The operator shall conduct casing and cementing activities under this section and §§ 78.8278.87 .... The operator shall case and cement a well to accomplish the following: ... (2) Prevent the migration of gas or other fluids into sources of fresh groundwater. (3) Prevent pollution or diminution of fresh groundwater." 2. Defective Casing or Cementing

Our investigation revealed that Cabot Oil and Gas failed to report the defective, insufficient, or improperly cemented casing. This is a violation of the Department's regulations, 25 Pa Code §78.86(a) which provides: "In a well that has defective, insufficient or improperly cemented casing, the operator shall report the defect to the Department within 24 hours of discovery by the operator and shall correct the defect. The operator shall correct the defect or submit a plan to correct the defect for approval by the Department within 30 days. If the defect cannot be corrected or an alternate method is not approved by the Department, the well shall be plugged under §§ 78.91 - 7 8 . 9 8 (relating to plugging). 3. Unpermitted discharge of polluting substances

Our investigation revealed that Cabot Oil and Gas has caused or allowed the unpermitted discharge of natural gas, a polluting substance, to waters of the Commonwealth. This is a violation of Section 401 of the Clean Streams Law, 35 P.S. § 691.401, which provides: "It shall be unlawful for any person or municipality to put or place into any of the waters of the Commonwealth, or allow or permit to be discharged from property owned or occupied by such person into any waters of the Commonwealth, any substance of any kind or character resulting in pollution as herein defined." A violation of the Oil and Gas Act or the rules or regulations promulgated thereunder is contrary to Sections 505 and 509 of that Act, for which the Department could institute administrative, civil, and/or criminal proceedings. The Act provides for up to $25,000 in civil penalties plus $1,000 for each day of continued violation, up to $300 in summary criminal penalties, and up to $5,000 in misdemeanor criminal penalties for each violation. Each day of continued violation constitutes a separate offense. A violation of the Clean Streams Law or the rules or regulations promulgated thereunder is contrary to Sections 602 and 611 of that Act, for which the Department could institute administrative, civil, and/or criminal proceedings. The Act provides for up to $10,000 per day in civil penalties, up to $10,000 in summary criminal penalties, and up to $25,000 in misdemeanor criminal penalties for each violation. Each day of continued violation constitutes a separate offense.

Mr. Phil Stalnaker

-3-

September 19, 2011

Please provide a written response within 30 days of receipt of this letter, as to when the above listed violations were, or will be corrected, and what steps are being taken to prevent their recurrence. The Department requests that your response be in the form of a summary report of your investigation as required by 25 PA Code § 78.89, and that it include:

Efforts taken, or planned to be taken, to mitigate the problem both at the gas wells and in the areas impacted by the migration including homes, wells, surface waters and subsurface soils; A plan to correct the defective casing for approval by the Department; On-going measures that will be needed to maintain public safety as a result of the gas migration; An explanation of the cause of the gas migration. Please discuss casing pressures and monitoring prior to and during the incident; evidence indicating which well is the likely source of the migration; the hydrologic connection of formations below the depth (or depths) of the surface casings and the surface expression of gas detection; information relative to the specification of the casing pipe utilized for the nearby wells. Please provide copies of all casing and cement information and field documents, daily drilling reports and digital copies of all logging information obtained above the kick off point, i.e. mud log, open hole electric logs, cement bond logs, all down hole videos, etc. At a minimum, this information should be provided for the wells located on the Stalter well pad location, but also for any other nearby Cabot Oil 8c Gas gas wells that are suspected as potential sources; Preventative measures that will be utilized to prevent similar situations from occurring in the future. Include any changes to well construction/materials that Cabot Oil & Gas will employ; also include any changes to casing pressure monitoring, venting, or other relevant practices and procedures.

• •

All reports submitted in accordance with the above requirements that contain an analysis of geological or engineering data shall be prepared and sealed by a geologist or engineer licensed in this Commonwealth. This Notice of Violation is neither an order nor any other final action of the Department of Environmental Protection. It neither imposes nor waives any enforcement action available to the Department under any of its statutes. If the Department determines that additional action is appropriate, you will be notified of when the Department takes that action.

Mr. Phil Stalnaker

-4-

September 19, 2011

Shouid you have any questions, please feel free to contact me by telephone at 570.327.0553 or by electronic mail at mcooley@pa.gov. Sincerely,

Marc B. Cooley Environmental Group Manager Oil and Gas Management Scranton District Office cc: Jennifer Means Marc B. Cooley Kevin P. Costello Stephen Watson Eric Rooney NCRO File

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION NORTHCENTRAL REGIONAL OFFICE

September 21, 2011

CERTIFIED MAIL NO. 7010 2780 0001 8652 0186

Andrew Chichura 9345 State Route 106 Kingsley, PA 18826

Re: Act 223, Section 208 Determination Complaint No. 282431 Lenox Township, Susquehanna County Dear Mr. Chichura; The Department has investigated the possible degradation of your water supply well located at 9345 State Route 106, Lenox Township, Susquehanna County in response to an 8/16/2011 complaint that recent gas well drilling activities may have affected your water well. On 8/16/2011 and 8/18/2011, the Department collected samples from your water supply. The samples were submitted to the Department's laboratory in Harrisburg for analysis. The analytical reports for the samples are included, as well as documents that will assist you with interpreting the sample results. The sample results showed methane was present at 49.20 milligrams per Liter (mg/L) on 8/16/2011 and 57,60 mg/L on 8/18/2011 in your water supply. Combustible gas was also detected in the headspace of your water well. The Department investigation indicates that gas well drilling has impacted your water supply. Methane is the predominant component of natural gas. Federal water standard limitations have not been established for methane gas. The level of concern begins above 28 mg/L methane, which is referred to as the saturation level. At this level, under normal atmospheric pressure, the water cannot hold additional methane in solution. This may allow the gas to come out of the water and concentrate in the air space of your home or building. There is a physical danger of fire or explosion due to the migration of natural gas into water wells or through soils into dwellings where it could be ignited by sources that are present in most homes/buildings. Natural gas can also cause a threat of asphyxiation, although this is extremely rare. •When the Department is made aware of methane levels greater than 7 mg/L, we notify the water supply owner of the hazards associated with methane in their water supply. Please be aware however, that the methane levels can fluctuate. This means that even with a relatively low level of methane, you should be vigilant of changes in your water that could indicate an increase in methane concentration.

208 West Third Street, Suite 101 | Williamsport, PA 17701-6448 570.327.3636 Fax 570.327.3565 Printed on Recycled Paper www.depweb.state.pa.us

Mr. Andrew Chichura

-2-

9/21/2011

It is the Department's recommendation that all water wells should be equipped with a working vent, This will help alleviate the possibility of concentrating these gases in areas where ignition would pose a threat to life or property. Please note that it is not possible to completely eliminate the hazards of having natural gas in your water supply by simply venting your well. The Department is continuing to work to permanently resolve this issue. Should you have any questions concerning this matter, please feel free to contact Eric Rooney at 570-346-5543.

Sincerely,Jennifer W, Means Environmental Program Manager Oil and Gas Management Enclosures: Laboratory Analytical Results "How to Interpret A Water Analysis Report" cc: Jennifer Means Marc B. Cooley William J. Kosmer, P.G. Eric Rooney Ryan Klemish Complaint File 282431 Chichura File

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DISTRICT OIL & GAS OPERATIONS

March 2, 2012 John Como 1723 Royal Road East Meadow, NY 11554 CERTIFIED MAIL NO. 7011 2970 0002 9461 4777 Re: Act 223, Section 208 Determination Lenox Township, Susquehanna County Dear Mr. Como; The Department has investigated the possible degradation of your water supply well located at 505 Creek Road, Lenox Township, Susquehanna County in response to a report that recent gas well drilling activities may have affected your water well. On 10/19/2011, the Department collected samples from your water supply. The samples were submitted to the Department's laboratory in Harrisburg for analysis. The sample results showed manganese in your water at 0.26 milligrams per liter (mg/L). This concentration exceeds the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 0.05 mg/L for manganese. SMCLs are guidelines regulating compounds that may cause aesthetic effects (taste, odor, color) in drinking water. In addition, the sample results showed methane was present at 17.10 mg/L in your water supply. The Department investigation indicates that gas well drilling has impacted your water supply. Methane is the predominant component of natural gas. Federal water standard limitations have not been established for methane gas. The level of concern begins above 28 mg/L methane, which is referred to as the saturation level. At this level, under normal atmospheric pressure, the water cannot hold additional methane in solution. This may allow the gas to come out of the water and concentrate in the air space of your home or building. There is a physical danger of fire or explosion due to the migration of natural gas into water wells or through soils into dwellings where it could be ignited by sources that are present in most homes/buildings, Natural gas can also cause a threat of asphyxiation, although this is extremely rare. When the Department is made aware of methane levels greater than 7 mg/L, we notify the water supply owner of the hazards associated with methane in their water supply, Please be aware however, that the methane levels can fluctuate. This means that even with a relatively low level of methane, you should be vigilant of changes in your water that could indicate an increase in methane concentration. It is the Department's recommendation that all water wells should be equipped with a working vent. This will help alleviate the possibility of concentrating these gases in areas where ignition

208 West Third Street, Suite 101, Williamsport, PA 17701-6448 570.327.3636) Fax 570.327.3565 Printed on Recycled Paper www.depweb.state.pa.us

Mr. John Como

-2-

March 2, 2012

would pose a threat to life or property. Please note that it is not possible to completely eliminate the hazards of having natural gas in your water supply by simply venting your well. The Department is continuing to work to permanently resolve this issue. Should you have any questions concerning this matter, please feel free to contact Eric Rooney at 570-346-5543. Sincerely,

Environmental Program Manager Oil and Gas Management Enclosures: Laboratory Analytical Results "How to Interpret A Water Analysis Report"

cc: Jennifer Means Marc B. Cooley William J. Kosmer, P,G. Eric Rooney Ryan Klemish Complaint File Como File

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION DISTRICT OIL & GAS OPERATIONS

September 11, 2012 Norman and Dorothy Jensen 34 Knollview Drive Asheville, NC 28806 CERTIFIED MAIL NO. 7010 0290 0003 1042 9550 Re: 58 Pa. C.S § 3218 Determination Complaint ID 290453 Lenox Township, Susquehanna County

Dear Mr. Jensen: The Department has investigated the possible degradation of your water supply well located at 9761 State Route 106 Kingsley, Susquehanna County, in response to a report that recent gas well drilling activities may have affected your water well. On 7/5/2012, the Department collected samples from your water supply. The samples were submitted to the Department's laboratory in Harrisburg for analysis. The sample results showed methane was present at 20.10 mg/1 in your water supply, In addition, ethane was detected at 0.489 mg/1 in your water supply. The Department's investigation indicates that gas well drilling has impacted your water supply. Methane is the predominant component of natural gas. Federal water standard limitations have not been established for methane gas. The level of concern begins above 28 mg/1 methane, which is referred to as the saturation level. At this level, under normal atmospheric pressure, the water cannot hold additional methane in solution. This may allow the gas to come out of the water and concentrate in the air space of your home or building. There is a physical danger of fire or explosion due to the migration of natural gas into water wells or through soils into dwellings where it could be ignited by sources that are present in most homes/buildings. Natural gas can also cause a threat of asphyxiation, although this is extremely rare. When the Department is made aware of methane levels greater than 7 mg/1, we notify the water supply owner of the hazards associated with methane in their water supply. Please be aware however, that the methane levels can fluctuate. This means that even with a relatively low level of methane, you should be vigilant of changes in your water that could indicate an increase in methane concentration. It is the Department's recommendation that all water wells should be equipped with a working vent. This will help alleviate the possibility of concentrating these gases in areas where ignition would pose a threat to life or property. Please note that it is not possible to completely eliminate the hazards of having natural gas in your water supply by simply venting your well.
208 West Third Street, Suite 101, Williamsport, PA 17701-6448
Printed on Recycled Paper

570.327.3636 | Fax 570.327.3565

www.depweb.state.pa.us

Norman and Dorothy Jensen

-2-

September 11,2012

The Department is continuing to work to permanently resolve this issue. Should you have any questions concerning this matter, please feel free to contact Eric Rooney at 570.346.5543. Sincerely,

Gas Manager Bureau of District Oil and Gas Operations Enclosures: Laboratory Analytical Results "How to Interpret A Water Analysis Report" cc: Jennifer Means Marc Cooley William J. Kosmer, P.G. Eric Rooney Ryan Klemish Complaint File ID 290453 Chichura GMI File

DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION NORTHCENTRAL REGIONAL OFFICE

October 11,2011 Ms. Janet Rozell 571 Creek Road Kingsley, PA 18826

CERTIFIED MAIL NO. 7009 3410 00003617 9606 Re: Act 223, Section 208 Determination Lenox Township, Susquehanna County Dear Ms. Rozell: The Department has investigated the possible degradation of your water supply well located at your residence at 571 Creek Road, Lenox Township, Susquehanna County. On 8/23/2011 and 9/1/2011, the Department collected samples from your water supply. The samples were submitted to the Department's laboratory in Harrisburg for analysis. The analytical reports for the samples are included, as well as documents that will assist you with interpreting the sample results. The sample results showed manganese in your water ranging from 0.14 milligrams per liter (mg/L) to 1,24 mg/L. These concentrations exceed the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 0.05 mg/L for manganese, SMCLs are guidelines regulating compounds that may cause aesthetic effects (taste, odor, color) in drinking water. In addition, the sample results showed aluminum in your water at a concentration of 1.527 mg/L. This concentration exceeds the SMCL of 0.2 mg/L for aluminum. Also, the sample results showed iron in your water ranging from 0.38 to 4.86 mg/L. These concentrations exceed the SMCL of 0.3 mg/L for iron. The sample results showed methane was present at 25.70 mg/l on 8/23/2011 and 14.30 mg/L on 9/1/2011 in your water supply. The levels of methane in the samples taken 7/12/2010 and 12/11/2010 were substantially lower. Combustible gas was also detected in the headspace of your water well. The Department investigation indicates that gas well drilling has impacted your water supply. Methane is the predominant component of natural gas. Federal water standard limitations have not been established for methane gas. The level of concern begins above 28 mg/l methane, which is referred to as the saturation level. At this level, under normal atmospheric pressure, the water cannot hold additional methane in solution. This may allow the gas to come out of the water and concentrate in the air space of your home or building. There is a physical danger of fire or explosion due to the migration of natural gas into water wells or through soils into dwellings where it could be ignited by sources that are present in most homes/buildings. Natural gas can also cause a threat of asphyxiation, although this is extremely rare.

Northcentral Regional Office | 208 West Third Street | Wllliamsport, PA 17701-6448 570.321.6550 | Fax 570.327.3420
Printed on Recycled Paper

www.depweb.state.pa.us

Ms. Janet Rozell

-2-

October 11,2011

When the Department is made aware of methane levels greater than 7 mg/1, we notify the water supply owner of the hazards associated with methane in their water supply. Please be aware however, that the methane levels can fluctuate. This means that even with a relatively low level of methane, you should be vigilant of changes in your water that could indicate an increase in methane concentration. It is the Department's recommendation that all water wells should be equipped with a working vent. This will help alleviate the possibility of concentrating these gases in areas where ignition would pose a threat to life or property. Please note that it is not possible to completely eliminate the hazards of having natural gas in your water supply by simply venting your well. The Department is continuing to work to permanently resolve this issue. Should you have any questions concerning this matter, please feel free to contact Eric Rooney at 570-346-5543. Sincerely,

Oil and Gas Management Enclosures: Laboratory Analytical Results "How to Interpret A Water Analysis Report" cc: Jennifer Means Marc Cooley William J. Kosmer, P.G. Eric Rooney Ryan Klemish Complaint File Rozell File

College of Agricultural Sciences

Cooperative Extension

Agricultural and Biological Engineering How to Interpret a Water Analysis Report
Paul D. Robillard, Assistant Professor of Agricultural Engineering William E. Sharpe, Professor of Forest Hydrology Bryan R. Swistock, Extension Associate

F 103

W

hether your water causes illness, stains on plumbing, scaly deposits, or a bad taste, a water analysis (see F 105 Where to Have Your Water Tested) identifies the problem and enables you to make knowledgeable decisions about water treatment. What is the significance of the parameters listed in the water test report? This fact sheet outlines some of the major parameters you may see on the analysis and assists you in understanding the report. Features of a Sample Report Once the lab has completed testing your *** *** ANALYTICAL LABORATORY REPORT water, you will receive a report that looks Collected by: KM Client: Client's name similar to Figure 1. It will contain a list of Project Number: CL000001 Project: Analytical Laboratory Services contaminants tested, the concentrations, and, in some cases, highlight any problem Time Collected: 7:35 am Date Collected: 08/28/90 contaminants. An important feature of Lab Number: 01000 Sample Identification: Kitchen Tap the report is the units used to measure the contaminant level in your water. Analysis Results Units Milligrams per liter (mg/l) of water are # /100ml 50 Total Coliform Bacteria mg/l 4.55 Nitrate-Nitrogen used for substances like metals and units 7.50 pH nitrates. A milligram per liter is also equal mg/l 0.55 Iron mg/l 280 Hardness as CaCo3 to one part per million (ppm)—that is one mg/l 32.0 Sulfate Sulfur mg/l 25.4 Chloride part contaminant to one million parts umhos/cc 344 Specific Conductance water. About 0.03 of a teaspoon of sugar dissolved in a bathtub of water is an approximation of one ppm. For extremely On the basis of the above test result(s), this water sample DOES NOT MEET PaDER toxic substances like pesticides, the units drinking water standards used are even smaller. In these cases, parts per billion (ppb) are used. Another The following notes apply to this sample: unit found on some test reports is that The Total Coliform Bacteria exceeded the max. lev. of 1 colony/100ml. The Iron level exceeded the limit of 0.3 mg/l. used to measure radon—picocuries per liter. Some values like pH, hardness, Submitted by:_____________________ conductance, and turbidity are reported in Laboratory Manager units specific to the test. In addition to the test results, a lab may make notes on any contaminants that exceeded the PaDEP drinking Figure 1. A sample water analysis report water standards. For example, in Figure 1 the lab noted that total coliform bacteria and iron both exceeded the standards. Retain your copy of the report in a safe place as a record of the quality of your water supply. If polluting activities such as mining occur in your area, you may need a record of past water quality to prove that your supply has been damaged.

An Equal Opportunity University

College of Agricultural Sciences, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Pennsylvania Counties Cooperating

Water test parameters
The following tables provide a general guideline to common water quality parameters that may appear on your water analysis report. The parameters are divided into three categories: health risk parameters, general indicators, and nuisance parameters. These guidelines are by no means exhaustive. However, they will provide you with acceptable limits and some information about symptoms, sources of the problem and effects. To find out more about how to treat the water or eliminate the contaminant at the source, see related publication F 103 How to Interpret a Water Analysis Report. See the end of this publication for information on how to obtain additional publications.

Table 1 Health Risk Parameters. The parameters in Table 1 are some commons ones that have known health effects. The table lists acceptable limits, potential health effects, and possible uses and sources of the contaminant. Table 2 General Water Quality Indicators are parameters used to indicate the presence of harmful contaminants. Testing for indicators can eliminate costly tests for specific contaminants. Generally, if the indicator is present, the supply may contain the contaminant as well. For example, turbidity or the lack of clarity in a water sample usually indicates that bacteria may be present. The pH value is also considered a general water quality indicator. High or low pHs can indicate how corrosive water is. Corrosive water may further indicate that metals like lead or copper are being dissolved in the water as it passes through distribution pipes. Table 2 shows some of the common general indicators.

Table 1: Standards, symptoms, and potential health effects of regulated contaminants.

Contaminant Acceptable Limit

Sources/Uses

Potential Health Effects at High Concentrations

Atrazine

3ppb or .003 ppm

used as a herbicide; surface or groundwater contamination from heart and liver damage agricultural runoff or leaching gasoline additive; usually from accidental oil spills, industrial uses, or landfills used in batteries; lead gasolines and pipe solder; may be leached from brass faucets, lead caulking, lead pipes, and lead soldered joints soil by-product of agricultural fertilization; human and animal waste leaching to groundwater possible bacterial or viral contamination from human sewage or animal manure blood disorders like aplasticaremia; immune system depression; acute exposure affects central nervous system causing dizziness, headaches; long term exposure increases cancer risks nervous disorders and mental impairment, especially in fetuses and infants; kidney damage; blood disorders and hypertension; low birth weights methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease) in infants (birth-6 months); low health threat to children and adults diarrheal diseases, constant high level exposure can lead to cholera and hepatitis

Benzene

5ppb or .005 ppm

Lead at tap

0.01 mg/l

Nitrates (NO3) Total Coliform

10 mg/l (nitrate-N) 45 mg/l (nitrate)

<1 coliform/100 ml

Radon

300 pCi/l*

naturally occurring gas formed from uranium decay; can seep breathing gas increases chances of lung into well water from surrounding cancer; may increase risk of stomach, rocks and be released in the air colon and bladder cancers as it leaves the faucet

* Recommended level in water at which remedial action should be taken. No mandatory standards have been set.

Table 2. General water quality indicators.

Indicator

Acceptable Limit

Indication An important overall measure of water quality, pH can alter corrosivity and solubility of contaminants. Low pH will cause pitting of pipes and fixtures or a metallic taste. This may indicate that metals are being dissolved. At high pH, the water will have a slippery feel or a soda taste.

pH value

6.5 to 8.5

Turbidity

<5 TU

Clarity of sample can indicate contamination. Dissolved minerals like iron or manganese. High TDS also can indicate hardness (scaly deposits) or cause staining, or a salty, bitter taste.

Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)

500 mg/l

Nuisance contaminants are a third category of contaminants. While these have no adverse health effects, they may make water unpallatable or reduce the effectiveness of soaps and detergents. Some nuisance contaminants also cause staining. Nuisance contaminants may include iron bacteria, hydrogen sulfide, and hardness. Table 3 shows some typical nuisance contaminants you may see on your water analysis report. Hardness is one contaminant you will also commonly see on the report. Hard water is a purely aesthetic problem that causes soap and scaly deposits in plumbing and decreased cleaning action of soaps and detergents. Hard water can also cause scale buildup in hot water heaters and reduce their effective lifetime. Table 4 will help you interpret the hardness parameters cited on your analysis. Note that the units used in this table differ from those indicated in Figure 1. Hardness can be expressed by either mg/l or a grains per gallon (gpg). A gpg is used exclusively as a hardness unit and equals approximately 17 mg/l or ppm. Most people object to water falling in the "hard" or "very hard" categories in Table 4. However, as with all water treatment, you should carefully consider the advantages and disadvantages to softening before making a purchasing a water softener.

Additional Resources
For more detailed information about water testing ask for publication Water Tests: What Do the Numbers Mean? at your local extension office or from the following sources. Please access: Website: http://wqext.psu.edu Email: mxh16@psu.edu Fax: (814) 863-1031 Phone: (814) 865-7685

For more information about other Outreach Publications and Resources from the Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering: Website: http://www.age.psu.edu Email: aqm5@psu.edu Address: Penn State 246 Agricultural Engineering Bldg. University Park, PA 16802 Phone: (814) 865-7685 Fax: (814) 863-1031

PSU rev. 8/01

Table 3. Common nuisance contaminants and their effects.
Contaminant Chlorides Copper (Cu) Iron (Fe) Manganese (Mn) Sulfates (SO4) Iron Bacteria Acceptable Limit 250 mg/l 1.3 mg/l 0.3 mg/l 0.05 mg/l or 5 ppb 250 mg/l present Effects salty or brackish taste; corrosive; blackens and pits stainless steel blue-green stains on plumbing fixtures; bitter metalic taste metallic taste; discolored beerages; yellowish stains, stains laundry black stains on fixtures and laundry; bitter taste greasy feel, laxative effect orangeish to brownish slime in water

Table 4. Hardness classifications.
Concentration of hardness minerals in grains per gallon (GPG) below 1.0 1.0 to 3.5 3.5 to 7.5 7.5 to 10.5* 10.5 and above Hardness Level soft slightly hard moderately hard hard very hard

* level at which most people find hardness objectionable

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