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Inttrnatbnal Critiral CcmmnTtarp



of i^t #ltr anb




Rei^us Professor of Hebmv, Oxford;



M.A., D.D.,

Master of University

Durham ;



Rohinson Professor of Biblical Theology, Union Theological Seminary, New York.




Inttntational Critiral


on t^t Jpoly Scriptures oi iht Qiia anb



before the


many Commentaries,

written by British and American divines, of a popular or


The Cambridge Bible for

the Handbooks for Bible Classes and Private Students, The Speaker's Commetitary, The Popular Commentary (SchaflF),

special place

The Expositof's Bible, and other similar series, have their and importance. But they do not enter into
of Commentaries as the Ktirzgefasstes exegetisches

the field of Critical Biblical scholarship occupied by such

Handbuch zum A. T.; De Wette's Kurzgefasstes exegetisches Handbuch sum N. T. * Meyer's Kritisch-exegetischer Kom;



* Keil and Delitzsch's Biblischer Comm.entar iiber

das A. T.

* Lange's

Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk



Nowack's Handkommeniar zum. A. T. Holtzmann's Ilandkommeniar zum, N. T. Several of these have been translated,



some cases enlarged and adapted,

for the


English-speaking public

others are in process of translation.

But no corresponding series by British or American divines
has hitherto been produced.

The way has been prepared

by special

Commentaries by Cheyne, Lightfoot, Perowne, Westcott, and others
in the


and the time has
this enterprise,

judgment of the projectors of
practicable to combine British



and American
biblical scholar-









that will be abreast of






a measure lead


Authorised Translations published by Messrs. Clark.




T. Clark of Edinburgh, Scotland, and

Messrs. Charles Scribner's Sons of





propose to publish such a series of Commentaries on the

Old and

New Testaments,
for the for the

under the editorship of Prof. S. R.

Driver, D.D.,

Old Testament, and the Rev. Alfred

Plummer, D.D.,




Great Britain


and of Prof. C. A. Briggs, D.D.,


The Commentaries

be international and inter-con-



be free from polemical and ecclesiastical



be based upon a thorough

study of

the original texts of the Bible,

and upon


methods of

They are designed

chiefly for students

clergymen, and will be written

a compact





be preceded by an Introduction, stating the results

of criticism upon

and discussing impartially the questions

remaining open.


details of criticism will


in their

proper place in the body of the Commentary.


section of the Text will be introduced with a paraphrase,


of contents.

Technical details of textual and

philological criticism will, as a rule, be kept distinct from

matter of a more general character



in the

Old Testaas




notes will

be arranged,


possible, so as to be serviceable to students not acquainted

with Hebrew.

The History of
notices of the

Interpretation of the


be dealt with, when necessary,

the Introductions,


the subject.

most important literature of and Archaeological questions, as

well as questions of Biblical Theology, are included in the

plan of the Commentaries, but not Practical or Homiletical


The Volumes

will constitute

a uniform series.

President W. R. HARPER of Chicago University, announcing the Series in "The World," writes: "It is hardly ne-^^sary to say that this Series will stand It stands with and first among all English serial commentaries upon the Bible. admirably supplements the 'international Theological Library,' to which we haue already learned to look for the best and most recent in the historical, literary, and linguistic study of the Bible. We arc greatly in need of Just what this Series

promises to give."



following eminent Scholars have contributed, or are

engaged upon, the Volumes named below


The Rev. T. K. Cheyne, D.D.,
Interpretation of


Professor of the


Scripture, Oxford.


The The

Rev. A. R. S.

Kennedy, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew,

University of Edinburgh.

Rev. H. A.

White, M.A.,

Fellow of





Buchanan Gray, M.A.
field College,

Lecturer in Hebrew, Mans-


The Rev.

S. R.

Driver, D,D., Regius Professor of Hebrew.



The Rev. George

Smith, D.D., Hebrew, Free Church College, Glasgow.




The Rev. GEORGE MoORE, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass. [Ready, 12s.


The Rev. H. P. Smith, D.D., late Professor of Hebrew, Lane Theological Seminary, Cincinnati, Ohio. The Rev. Francis Brown, D.D., Professor of Hebrew and
Cognate Languages, Union Theological Seminary, York City.




Rev. A. B. Davidson, D.D., LL.D., Professor of Hebrew, Free Church College, Edinburgh.


Minor Prophets.

The Rev. A. F. Kirkpatrick, D.D., Regius Professor Hebrew, and Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. W. R. Harper, Ph.D., President of the University


The Rev. CHARLES A. Briggs, D.D., Edward Robinson










The Rev. The Rev.

C. H. Toy, D.D., Professor of Hebrew. Harvard

University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
S. R.

Driver, D.D., Regius Professor of Hebrew,










P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia,



of St. Michael's Church,

Ezra and Nehemiah.

The The

Rev. L.

New York City. W. Batten, Ph.D., Professor

of Hebrew,

P. E. Divinity School, Philadelphia.

Rev. EDWARD L. CuRTis, D.D., Professor of Hebrew, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICAL COMMENTARY— continued.. Trinity College.. Principal of the Theological College. D. T. The Rev. A.. Oxford. Mark. Professor of New Testament Exegesis. University of Chicago. D.. Hatfield's Hall. Oxford. A.. Charles.D. Robert H.. K. Ernest D. M. Philadelphia. MARSHALL. Dean of Exegesis. Ropes. [/^eady. THE NEW TESTAMENT.. Literature. D. los. 6d.D. Ireland's Professor Hebrews. D. Walter Lock.B. Divinity School. las. The The Rev.D.A. of University [J^eaifv. Gould. The Rev. The Rev. D. Philippians and The Rev.D. Aberystwyth. The Rev. KENT. Revelation. Corinthians. Professor of Biblical Philemon. Rev. Alfred Plummek. T. izs. Principal of Bishop Galatians. Oxford All Souls [J?eatfy. B. Durham. A.. Arch. Lady Margaret Pro- fessor of Divinity. & . M. The Pastoral Epistles. The Rev. Marvin R.. The Rev. E. C. C. Fellow of College.. and Exeter College. Luke. 38 George Street. Union Theological Seminary. Robertson. The Rev. formerly Professor of Biblical Greek. Bala . Christ's Romans.Lit. Ephesians and Colossians. late Principal of University College of Wales. William Sanday. Headlam.D. and the Rev.D. Dublin.. CLARK. Edinburgh London: SIMPKIN. James H. D. Oxford.. HAMILTON. Other engagements will he announced shortly. CO. E.D. LTD. Acts. Vincent. Trinity College. New York City. Dublin. Burton. : T.D. The Rev.A. Frederick H. The Rev. D. B.. Fellow of College. in Instructor in New Testa- ment Criticism Harvard University. and Canon of Christ Church. Cambridge. P.D. Chase.. Durham. D.B. & T. P. Edwards. Abbott. James. Master College.. Professor of New- Testament Literature.

D.D. . driver.DEUTERONOMY. R. S. Rev.




it is also one of the . and it poshistorical. Certainly Hebrew . it is an epoch-making expression of the and feeling of the prophetic nation. may be abreast of the best scholarship and know- ledge of the day. most important. for long English theological literature. On the other hand. books of the Old and a Commentary which may render even its many-sided contents has c. moreover. Testament approximate justice to been a desideratum the in Deuteronomy is one of the most attractive. even this has frequently afforded me the opportunity of illustrating delicacies of Hebrew usage. by many religious history of Israel. the contents of Deuteronomy call for much explanation and discussion they raise many difficult and con: and they aiford frequent scop>e for Deuteronomy interesting and sometimes far-reaching inquiry. stands out conspicuously in the literature of the Old Testament it has important relations. theological. sesses itself a profound moral and spiritual significance . which might escape the attention of some readers. The aim (in accordance with the plan forms part) is to supply the English reader with a Commentary which. .PREFACE. of which permit as it. with other parts of the Old Testament troverted questions . it. text (except in parts of 32. literary. I have done my best to give due prominence and by pointing to these and similar characteristic features out both the spiritual and other factors which Deuteronomy presupposes. : . so far as the writer's powers of the present volume it of the series. either originated with to define the position or received from it a fresh impulse. difficult nevertheless. 33) is not. which it occupies in the national and Deuteronomy. and the spiritual and other influences which life . as a rule.

does not seem to me to be intelligible. In dealing with the passages where this is the case. and by that process to analogous to those of His natural revelation of Himself to man was accomfor all. Nor in is The study of Deuteronomy critical carries the reader into the very heart of the arise problems which part connexion with the Old relation of Testament. step. the question of the Deuteronomy to other parts of the Pentateuch forces itself upon the student's attention. its author availed himself. though intelligible. and upon the manner in which they are . was nevertheless and much light may reared upon the same material basis often be thrown. The adoption of this no detraction either from the inspired authority of Deuteronomy. both upon the institutions and customs to which it alludes. legislative At almost every (c. than it was. education of the chosen people spiritual providence are Deuteronomy marks a stage in the Divine but the methods of God's : providence : the plished not once (Heb. authorship verdict of be maintained. though permeated by a from that of other ancient nations. in i^). I have stated the facts as clearly and completely as was possible within the limits of space at my disposal.XII of the observances which that spirit PREFACE it enjoins.) and the stage which Deuteronomy belongs is not the age . researches of recent years. from the archaeological this all. treat them at greater length. we cannot hope but enough clear to show we may abandon cannot criticism the traditional however regretview of its origin and that. I must own. especially in the central. if it stood i. but through many diverse channels a gradual historical process. Deuteronomy. is it. bears witness to the fact different Israel's civilization. when viewed in the light shed upon it by other parts of the Old Testament a study of it in that light reveals too many — — : features which are inconsistent with such a supposition. adding. if the history of Israel had been other perfectly alone. or from its ethical and implies religious value. references to authorities who As a work of the Mosaic age.e. 12-26). entire secret of its composition. where necessary. treated by the Hebrew legislator. The to and the full nature of the sources of which discover fully .

"• '«• ' 33"^. occur* Comp. but a later age. xxxiv. and to infuse Israel's whole national life with new spiritual and moral energy. and the motives prompting their selection. partly by exegetical annotaHomiletical comments. —especially when they are nearly or entirely restricted to a particular group of writings. It is a noblyconceived endeavour to stir the conscience of the individual Israelite. which characterizes the higher teaching of the Old Testament. rather than elegance . and influence. legal or theological. PREFACE of Moses. which is sometimes very inadequately represented by the conventional rendering adopted in the English versions. are tions. . And in virtue of the wonderful combination of the national with the universal. so long as human nature ' remains what It is it is the first it is the bearer of a message to all time.. xixfF. it appeals to motives and principles. or even exhaustive. which called for explanation. xjtvf. — has been generally distinguished from the Commentary as such by being thrown into smaller type. of Deuteronomy have seemed to me to call for somewhat full illustration. The translations have for their aim exactness. xxviii. &c. archaeological or topographical notes. purposely excluded from the plan of the series but I hope that I have not shown myself neglectful of the more distinctive features of Biblical theology.* / duty of a Commentator to explain his text : and this I have striven to do to the best of my ability.! The illustrative references : may in some force instances appear to be unnecessarily numerous but the and significance of words. below. it fulfils a yet wider mission : it speaks in accents which all can still understand . — can often be only properly estimated by copious. partly by summaries of the argument. but of many generations of God-inspired men.. which can never lose their validity and truth. spiritual lessons XIII Deuteronomy gathers up the and experiences not of a single lifetime. The explanations of various technical expressions. . &c.. it will be borne in mind. »*• » 6" 12' 20" 22" t Sec conspicuous examples in 42*32«. or literary finish : they are intended to express as fully as pos- sible the force of the original Hebrew. particulars and the literary affinities. pp. Subordinate illustrative matter — such as the discussion of special difficulties.

s or s). in the case of the Tables. or irregularity. be found I have not deemed it desirable to exclude entirely Hebrew words from the text of the Commentary but I have endeavoured usually to meet the needs of those not conversant with Hebrew. form Jehovah this. ^ c= gh. where regularly into the notes. in citations. in which its application might seem to . as I have done in other instances The Tetragrammaton not without (pp. will. or a diacritic point {h. — — : . hesitation has been represented by its popular.. PREFACE the English versions. savour of pedantry. I trust. 157 f. &c. t. sometimes.). 181 f. — — . in the transliteration of a proper of which may not have seen. An occasional overname. &c. k. the origfinal sight. of which the latter. I should have transcribed both texts in English.. though undoubtedly incorrect. in a volume not designed solely for the use of specialists. hope. by adding translations.* and Syriac words in square Hebrew characters. lo. might be to some readers a distasteful innovation. will. Distinctions between Hebrew sounds. For typographical reasons. to quote the Hebrew text. 19. I have thought worth preserving. or otherwise so framing my notes as to render them intelligible to such readers.) in using which the reader is supposed to have the Hebrew text of Deuteronomy open before him will the Hebraist have an advantage over the non-Hebraist. Arabic words have usually been transliterated in Roman characters. ^ —d. where they can be represented by a breathing. I A special acknow- • J = dh I . be pardoned. . though I have shrunk from carrying this principle out in the case of one or two words of very common occurrence (such as Canaan). The authorities to which I am principally indebted will be usually apparent from the names quoted. I was tempted. had I felt that will not be envious the space at my disposal would permit it.XIV ring in useful. 24. Philological matter of a technical kind has been thrown Only. =h: ^=ch. i?=t. it is hoped. marked sufficiently the fact that the name was a personal one and Yahweh. it was felt. by its superior brevity. and in the Tables of parallel passages (pp.

30-40 years ago. § which for thoroughness. and how greatly by his labours sufficient to show how At the and German readers are not quite the same and hence. -Kings). August Dillmann.* he had. Professor Robertson Smith (who. possessed an almost unique knowledge of these subjects). same time. 4.t the Hexateuch. after a few days* July 1894. Deuteronomy. in is. cut short a career of exceptional literary energy. as is well known. 1891. however. due to the great philologist and exegete whose death. t 1869. May 1895. 2. and Joshua. ed. since 1869. * Genesis. greater length. his Ethiopic Lexicon— sl volume of nearly 800 pages in 1865 he also edited the Ethiopic Octateuch (Gn. and placing upon a basis. which even advancing years seemed powerless to cripple or impair. XV of Berlin. 1886. which appeared about a month afterwards. already undermined by the fatal malady to which ere long he archaeological interest . there are others which I have deemed it necessary to treat at he has raised the ideal of a Biblical Commentary. ed. as remarked above. . to appear before long. § 1890. the study of Ethiopic. fine scholarship. opens many topics of and when commencing my preparations for the present Commentary. it is understood. Numbers. 1880.PREFACE ledgment illness.+ and Isaiah. the needs of English . while I have not felt it incumbent upon me to notice all the points touched upon by Dillmann. among the best that have ever been Knobel. as well as many other Ethiopic texts. did much for the exegesis . P* 35°'''^" 1892: Exodiis and Leviticus. and critical yet sober judgment. to inquire whether there were any particular points on which he could Unhappily his strength was supply me with illustration. list of his publications in the Expository Times. rank written. See a complete * His Ethiopic mag^nificent folio — . Deuteronomy. At the time of his death he had just completed an edition of the Ethiopic Apocrypha. his laurels as scientific Having in his younger and middle life won an Orientalist by reviving. Grammar appeared in 1857. and produced commentaries upon Job. I wrote to my friend. An English translation of the Commentary on Genesis is likely. 1875. devoted himself largely to the exegesis of the Old Testament. of the Hexateuch is but a comparison of Dillmann's volumes materially he has contributed to the advance of Biblical learning.

April 1895.XVI PREFACE . was destined to succumb and he was not able to furnish me with more than a few isolated notes (see the Index. before using the volume. he has bequeathed a legacy to posterity. to notice list Addenda and Corrigenda (pp. of R. D. R. xviii— xxiii). XVIII-XXIIl). additional notes in first only by the corand by the introduction of the Addenda and Corrigenda (pp. . D. A year has now passed since this most . S. and his Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (not to mention scattered articles in the Encyclopcedia Britannica and elsewhere). and to stimulate reflexion and research. 434). October 1896. and the principal abbreviations employed (pp. The some present edition differs from the rection of a few slight errata. S. brilliant in his accomplished scholar was taken to his rest but and Old Testament in the Jewish Churchy his Prophets of Israel. xxv-xxviii). p. which will for long continue to be prized by students. The the reader is requested.

. Relation of Deuteronomy the preceding Books of the .... Ideas §4. .. .... Date... Authorship... Scope and Character of Deuteronomy : and Structure .. Pentateuch § 3.>^ CONTENTS...... is? (21*32"'^) . . 1-425 425 427 . ... § 5. Language and Style Commentary Additional Note on Index ... .. .. ... iii its dominant xix xxxiv Ixxvii . Outline of Contents to . § 2. . PACK xviii xxv i-xcv i §1. Addenda and Corrigenda Principal Abbreviations employed Introduction ... Introductory. .. . .. ......... .. .

" or "of the parts across" (cf. 4J miles S. it seems that Tell 'Ashtera (not 'Ashtere). ed. is uncertain. 1. there is a large village. P.339 ffOi supports also ver}. Dt. will be the 'Ashteroth-karnaim of Gen. it will be seen. overhanging the deep gorge of the Jarm :k. Lagarde. 14'. Smith. if it had been written under either Manasseh or Josiah. According to Eusebius [Onom. notice of the present argument deduced (p. and may perhaps also have been the 'Ashtaroth of 'Og though others identify the latter with Tell el-'Ash'ari. and that its whole perspective is so plainl}. 8. is another not less significant indication of the country in which the Pentateuch was written. 9 miles apart. Tijdschr. p. and 7 or 8 NW. xliii. in an appreciative and instructive work (Critical Review. 268) there were two "Ashtaroths in Bashan. P. El-mezeirib. A. in which it was actually written. 262). the name being merely abbreviated : . XVIII . note. of Tell 'Ashtera. 6-13.strong^ly the post-Mosaic origin of Deuteronomy. A. Geogr. upon Eusebius: so far as the Biblical data go. p. of Tell 'Ashtera. however. p. xlii ff. that of Jordan. situated on a projecting headland. xliv. jP. 209. which is 15 miles from Edre^i. 213.ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. pp. For a detailed criticism of van Hoonacker's position. the 'Ashtaroth of 'Og being 6 miles from Edre'i if. Oct. 'Ashtaroth. About 9 miles S. a position of great strength. note\ Certainly it is easier to feel satisfied that Deuteronomy is not the work of Moses than it is to fix the decade. the capital of 'Og. therefore. 1895. G. of Edre'i. which seems to have been once a strongly fortified place : this may well have been the second 'Ashtaroth of Eusebius. liv. that its standpoint is Western Palestine. Mar. or even the generation. of Edre'i. 32^" Nu. The supposition that there were two 'Ashtaroths depends. The site of Og's capital. 1896. these statements are correct. 2712 33^7.that of some centuries after the events it describes. The " mountain(s) of the 'Abarim. 48^ of the range East endorsing. might be identical with 'Ashteroth-karnaim. pointing in particular to the facts "that it nowhere avers to be by Moses. between Edre'i and Abila. 190 ff. P. see Kosters in the Th. and is inclined consequently to assign it to the close of the reign of Hezekiah (cf. 'Ashtaroth. xlii) from such passages as 23^ '^'. Professor G. it would have contained traces of the distinction between the persecuted servants of Jehovah and the tj^rannical powers of the nation. and 1 1 miles NW. Smith." and also p.the He thinks.

1302 P. 1893. 49. read Tristram.). given by Mr. . the identification is not. & T. P. Canaan) are properly the names of two P. 47. 1.313 fP. (see Winckler's translation of the letters in Schrader's Keilinschriftliche Bibliothek. Machallat. II from bottom. Gesch. Professor Sayce has since abandoned this view of Caphtor.Amurri " is mentioned el-Amama letters (c. See more fully the writer's art. 14. Buhl. it appears that it was in fact simply a district. Palmyra and Zenobia P. Mais. by G. July 1895. Professor J. in the Tell From the terms in which the " Land . are found only on the slopes of the Jebel Hauran. 48-49. Sidon. in J61an the plain of Hauran is destitute either of oaks or of other trees. Kais. 314). The Arabs on Uie east of Jordan call basalt iron. 109). F. 9. on the ground that a place of that name (Kaptar) is mentioned amongthe places conquered by Ptolemy Auletes {Academy. 38. for Asshurnazirpal (b. 45. pp. see further F. 7 : for on read in. the Sail es-Sa'ideh flows into the Mojib from the East. Ixxi. like Phoenicia and Palestine in g-eneral. 1. S nc'T : see also p. 1. (Bliss in PEFQuSt. middle paragr. in History. P. B. 4 from bottom. 885-860) speaks of receiving the tribute of the kings of "Tyre. of Palestine. : : ('895). it should have been stated. The identification of the Leja with Argob is rejected also (independently). Apr. P. and Arvad. p.C. 205-233. still P. See Schrader's discussion of the name in the Berichte of the Berlin Academy.. 215). of 'Ara'ir (below. PEFQuSt. pp. Asien und Europa nach altagypt- ischen pp. /.: ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA XIX from it. 50. lines 8-7 from bottom. 5. or "canton. 1894. the Sail Lejjfln flowing into it from S. Amenophis IV. fF. B. 215. 45). 1. 56. 1894." in the N. Moab. (G. about to be published by T. Land of Israel. 8" . P. P.. from the S. however. It was at this time. 159-161. by E.C. 1400). Clark. 12 top. in the Bil^e Dictionary. last line for Tristram. On Edom. 104 ff. The district bears the same name as late as the. at a point slightly to the E. 204. 'Arair "crowns one of the natural buttresses that round out from the cliffs. note*. note on ii. Smith). 14. Gebal. AsHTAROTH. . p. 54. the land of Aviurrai. Smith. 20 Dec. 406-408. or on the West. 47. in the neighbourhood of Phoenicia. A. A. the Wady Balu'a. under Egyptian rule and its governor. Bliss. addresses many letters to the Pharaoh. 41. July 1895. 34. and the Monu- ments (1894). See also W. p. 551. arrives independently at the same conclusion that Amorite and Canaanite (though each may be \x%eA generally of the pre-Israelitish population of distinct peoples.c. I am glad to see. p. phil. p. and a shorter stream. The oaks. 38. 12. 6-7. certain see Moore on Jud. on the great sea of the West " (ib. P. McCurdy. Geogr. iii. . P. p. P. P. Although Kenath is very commonly identified with Kanawat. Aziru. 1 1 f.9th cent. Wright. v. The three deep gorges formed by these streams unite to form the Wady Mojib. and p. Prophecy. der Edomiter. P. Max Miiller. and aff"ords a capital bird's-eye view of the upper waters of the Arnon" 1. 1. According to the map and description Denkmdlem. and comp.

Geogr. j . (p. 8"* 491.T. my friend. i '• i P.2^.in Dt. must have been considerably to the N. and opening out on a narrow flat of garden-land at the other end and even this open extremity of the ravine is blocked by a high ridge at right angles to the town. Ixxi. The descent into the town. 22^^-). were convenient for chariot warfare (i K. are so steep that a rider is almost compelled to dismount and lead his horse. 1. 14'' . Oxford. i^" Jer. 'JO top.. Fellow of Magdalen College. Die Bundesvorstellung im A. The town hangs on the steep sides of a narrow gorge. far too South. while there is no line of natural highway between it and Samaria or Jezreel. shows that it must have been a place of administrative and strategic importance with respect to Bashan on the one hand (i K. note*. Jer. P.'mx cnv Gn.. Israel on the other (i K. only 18 miles N. word | Nos. P. . writes: "A survey of the references to Ramoth in the OT. and cannot therefore be the same place as the Moabite Bezer. but also elsewhere. n^q:) it is commonly rendered to possess. of Moab. Kraetzschmar. ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 7 : \ I /o possess it (nncn*?). . 1. nnnn I 1. — : . 22. Es-Salt is.). there must have been easy communication between Jerash .. proposes Jerash. nvn the heir. A. 587) would prefer a site still further North. 5 from bottom the "covenant. and indeed considerably N. though (for distinction from '?nj. as i K. of the El-jal'ud. that this sense of the it is word inheritance. and nearer to Edre'i (Der'at). On the very common Deut. Studies in Biblical Archceology (1894).. !« &c. 1 1 On the claims of es-Salt to represent the ancient Ramoth of Gile'ad.^. and in Graeco-Roman times. about 22 miles NW.. 1896. 21^' ncn' D31. ' enough for chariots. the Rev. Cooke himself (with G. p. moreover. Jacobs. Any one who has visited es-Salt must have been convinced of the impossibility of approaching it with chariots. and the streets on the two sides of the ravine. Dt. 67. 294 ff. p. Smith points out. at any rate. as Professor G. in nearly the same parallel of latitude as Samaria and it is true that the rolling plateau on which Jerash stands would be . to succeed to (cf.Gerasa) and W. Cf. Cooke. 64. 4. is hardly more suitable Jabbok. Mic. (i*-^ &c. 79. 33*. the physical features of which present none of the conditions which the Biblical passages require for Ramoth. i \ \ . 32*) . j ] . : I and R." This suggestion must be admitted to be a plausible one though Mr. The Bo<rop" of i Mace. Smith. whence access would be easy to either Jezreel or Samaria. p. not onlj. Dillmann's site. of es-Salt. and 12 miles South of the Jabbok it is quite off" the road to Bashan. Religionsgesch. It is difficult under these circumstances to understand how it can have been identified with es-Salt. . pp. of the Jabbok its environs. closing up the only outlet.Hab.. Palestine.. 22^^'''-). 284 ff". A. entirely shut in on the N. who visited the site in 1894. it denotes properly to take possession of as heir. : . 64-103 (where the question whether there are Totem-Clans in the OT. 1 : 1 j | ^ j ." See. it is still S. 2 S. 79. up the broad valley now called the suitable : | . also. and Syria and N. p. 5^**. 4^^). Ixxviiiff. A. Alttest. rT 158 . and gives point to most of the passages in which ni'-i^ //j^ rrg-^^ q/" ' ( used. it should have been stated that. P. P. Merrill. accessible from Samaria and Jezreel bj' road (i K. however. of the Dead Sea. 68." see also Smend. xix. On "is found first in JE.XX P. 22'''' 2 K. is discussed with discrimination). 2^^. G. See also J. East of Jordan. 8"^'* 9^^) it must have lain consequently N. 46).

p. ViNUM. 5. libros. 6 from bottom. would have been better rendered/r^^A oil. The reference is probably. H. 103. and ought It is the freshly expressed juice of to be represented by a different word. In the Aram. in particular. Moses being represented as speaking in the plains of Moab. capable. but corn which has been threshed out (Nu. The verb JJVt occurs Job 15** (of the . Smith points out the great difficulty involved in the supposition that the words in front of Gilgal a. The Wines of the Bible. were apt to pass up the avenues of trade. . A. is the freshly expressed juice of the olive. 4" shows. Der'at is NNE. The cultivator uses his feet to regulate the flow of water to each part. The Land of the Pharaohs. 31). Smith's Z>/r/. which. 140. and the sing. cf. each plot of land is divided into small squares by ridges of earth a few inches in height and the water. 384 f. s. into Israel (cf. verbs). as in 7* to Dy. Smith. ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA about 25 m. as given on p. The lastnamed word (7« 11" 12^^ 1423 iS'* 28"). after it has been raised from the Nile by the Shadt'if or the Sakieh. P. 133 f. 301 ff. 129. and 30 m. is conducted into these squares by means of small trenches. where it is shown that the ancients in making the best wines allowed the fermentation of the grapejuice to run its full course of nine days. PiTn is distinguished from p'. to epidemics such as the plague. on Tirosh.. would be far more natural) might perhaps be taken as referring to p. p.'*. towards the beginning. of Dan. the grape (cf. and in 20^ to the collective j'D'n p'K of v. and 11" 12" 14® 18* 28«> 33* should have been ne-w -wine. The last-named explanation is probably the correct one. xii. through Philistia and the Maritime Plaiq. P. just opposite to Gilgal. cf.i. for distinction from pr (S^ 28*» 32" 33-*). T. ESE. the denom. and adopts the punctuation and rendering of Colenso. G." and therefore fermented. ad loc.v. 103. leading up from the Jordan to Jezreel (ib. in plerosque V. \2f) footnote. P. n'rjjr "make fresh oil " in Job 24". as Hos. . iii. A. 10) may 3 Gratz {Emendd. footnote. Geogr. 3^" Joel 2^). starting from the NE. but probably with the fermentation arrested at an earlier stage than was the case with "wine" (f") properly so called (comp. of Jerash. A. 1. by a dexterous movement of the toes raising or breaking down small embankments in the trenches. analogously to vn'n. On the difficult verse Jud. p. and opening or closing apertures in the ridges (Manning. p. in 1" the suffix (though the pi. 134. palm-branch). 157-160). 18^) and nnx*. Add Jer. be right in supposing that the verbs pB"urn and pjnin have : accidentally changed places . of "taking away the understanding. P. 1877.Te intended to define the position of mountains so far distant as 'Ebal and Gerizim. of the Lake of Gennesarcth. of Nebuchadrezzar {^flourishing). G. In lines 9-10 of the same page. <& and 7'. "if not absolutely" is hardly correct pn is not the raw produce of the and can is a lapsus calami for on^. 1887.*^ (where notice vSy. 4' pjn is also used fig. P. or must. but that sweet wines were often manufactured by its being arrested after two or three days). P. See more fully. Wine. Pr. P. 1'". 1894. fields. XXI Wady Jal'ad. For purposes of irrigation. here (7"). 102. pp. see Moore. Fasc. 1. Wilson. on 7^'. of Classical Antiqxiities.). comer of the Delta. 8^ 16" 31"'' 44*.

Tribute (AV. phil. on 19H A high importance was attached in ancient BabyIonia also to the landmark . See also Trumbull. So in S (cf." should have been added. 2" Ps.T.T js should perhaps be read (of. 1891." now in the Bibliotheqiie Nationale at Paris the inscription on this is translated in Trumbull. r«D3.n'"? (ffi'?3. 68*^ was accidentalh' overAfter "besides. 19 (20) : Gratz also adopts npa-n for nsani. P. : i 1 . p. -i-iK45S Gratz (cf. 1. 14 irp' for T3r GSi' Gratz (cf. "and small quadrupeds. nn?? . 3 : It should have been explained that rwi^ (Pr. p. 5: on hc2. p. with the references.Add Ez. "except with nouns formed from n"^ looked. 15. while both these forms are common from verbs . and.2. NHWB. The Threshold Covenant. Mai. xyi.^^ (it nno rrnjo). verbs. 1. 5 it's Ps. phil. 167-9. 5: add " Dt. also the c"3>n j. and Nima and Kin? mean dysentery on the other hand. ai^oi^ Hos. 4^t) from rh is irregular and that even rec". P. ] 1 I I . 245 ff. Dawn of Civilization. suggests ^23 (G iKireffov cf. returns to the old explanation of it. 14310 i8i5 31" 3728. 10^ 13** t. P. P. note on xxx. 180. 1. 2 K.). metaphorical sense. 1. an is allied species of the Hyrax (the Hyrax which would be as convenient an English name for the shaphiin as could readily be found. n. xxix. notice the preceding 3) cf. Ex. 27. I i . p. 181. 326. 6'*).) comes from a very improbable etymological connexion with D? tasi-it<ork (20^^). 762 f. 5: It is true the Syr. Gratz). on 27". he finds beginning in Lam. 1895. pp. j (used in post-Bibl. of the falling off of limbs). with Nu. xxiv. in a long study on the expression {ZA TW. 4. 24^ (Budde. 2. and many of the stone pillars which once served as landmarks still exist. XY. j j ] | \ . 31"^ 35^'^''- P. P. of note on V.'. 310. P. 1. conCapensis) called the rock-rabbit. 21^2 2221-2^ i K. ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA 2 from bottom : comp. see on 7^ (phil. ). 3307^^Mo/f. pointing in ^rticular to the support which this derives from Jer. : ' \ ] j I : ! verseh'. 1 i I ' < \ 126*. Gratz suggests nro (better. then 5" 31^).. in? means tenestno laboravit. n^). I ff. 1^"". where also there is a representation of the so-called " Michaux stone. 228). 269.. inscribed with terrible imprecations directed against anj' who should disturb them see Maspero. 6-7 is used of concrete. note*. 20-^ 2)^^. phil. 163. 451 P.". | ' | : .XXII P. 1 { P. 46'.) and Levy. 9 '?J"'?3 "C'n ->. and Ez."!^ of Neh. iii. | 1 : j 1 . 21^: the more general. 10: for the strange ncc. 1896. The Threshold Covenant. P. w'x'Cngood. xxiiL 25 : is -yar a gloss on "irsjD ? P. P. as the weasel and the mouse (Lev. v. P. in a passage (Ez. also (5) of Sir. 162. perhaps. 276. The combination D'D^ ni'np (not D'nan m^p) agrees with the usage of E. Preuschen. Heb. xix. 3*) and om. however. cf. as inFj-c. 1. 329. 196.zh cy . note on v. P. . 2>^) where the text is (upon other grounds) doubtful. 48*'-. K"prBp in the Pesh. (from en) is a form only once found from a verb I'j. Gratz. ZATW. and completed in Job 42'°. P. 297. About the Cape. &c. 206.. ' :- . 142. of i S." in 1. %^^ . comp. . 9". note on v." P. material objects so that cmne will probably have denoted rather dysenteric tumours. 7-8: add {after reptiles). 161. 255. RV. 234 f. 232." P.

p. Ex. April. whence Giesebrecht infers that the letters have been transposed through some accident from pscKni the words cv 'CKT jiEDKHi. 49®'*. 411.e. . on 33^'^*.Vsg* i. some allusion to exile might naturally have been expected among the threatened judgments. No. the place of ':12B' n3"i3 in Gen. either (cf.. — — — — : in v. P. Deuterotiomium 33.) and Gen. observing. p. 1895) . 284 Ball. 416. Ball in the Proceed- ings of the Soc. G. 98). though not frea from corruption. 32. 39S.) and Oort {I. 130) to KaroiKTiffet (5 /cai e/nropia vapdXiop KaroiKoivTwv have read stands for 'jjir 'jidoi (see Gen. 292 f. ^lo-is &c. i*. P. 33. On Dt. 15. line by line. ^nc" 4 times for p. 1896. 422. 404 f. 20*). if it had been a work of the Chaldsean age. p. '"pn an error of transcription by the side of pns:. 300. P. which points to the reading dXi^^eta. since JIBO everywhere else means panelled (i K. 7^-' Jer. Either of these words would form a good antithesis to nnns in the following clause (cf. and formulated on the basis of the phrase P.' aiToD yen iS'? |n ^non vh'? ynni which much improves the poetical symmetry of the verse (corap. Ball. intended as an allusion to the incidents recorded in Nu. P. cf.* cy 'fkt fjoxrina. Robinson {I. i K. Smith supports Dillm.).— ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA — XXIII P. p. 311-313. The comparison is instructive it shows that the text of Dt. of Bibl. cf. must at least be or an anomalous variation for it pns'). is more correct than that of Gen. 1894. u. So also Tijdschr. xi. van der Flier.e. 404. 'rsii. . p. 389.X(l>v irapdXun JOS'' D'D' ^mh I^i3i). on 33*. Een exegetisch-historische studie (Leiden. 409.'s date for the Song.) saw in 1838 but one. 162 f.). 22" Hag. A. lay on the . 123 f. •*' where Za)3oi. on 33"^ The difficulties of clauses ' of this verse especi^ ally of clause where reserved is a most questionable paraphrase. p. €"• '') are removed if the means adopted are not thought too violent by an ingenious suggestion of Giesebrecht's {ZATW. P. Th. which also. 1887. J. p. 49^^. 1896. 1. 32. p. and appears (Ball. which in 1888 had become a stump {ZDPV. Oort (in a review of the present work).).) argue that the reference here is to the great North-Israelitish sanctuary of Bethel (Am. takes for in Dt. <& for KH'i pED has (rwtjy/ji^vuv a/M. For nJVD Lagarde (/. the Abb^ Loisy in the Bulletin Critique. Lagarde {Agathangelus. nJO. pn'tff P. p. on 33". and C. P. that. 346 f. given by Schiirer. On the palm-groves of Jericho. he then supposes to have been originally a gloss. .. 298 ff. Boklen {Stud. as they connect indifferently with what precedes.in c.356. 163) proposes nhyoha. iS^). see also A. 156.c. prints this passage. '• shoulder " of a hiU (Jos. At present they have all but disappeared. on 33^='.. ^K?. which is poetically preferable. see also the numerous quotations. 6. 1887. koX TV avSpl rifi 6ffl(p. on 33^. as it happens. ii8ff. Arch. among other things. Krit. p. in parallel columns. (Er has here Aire Aeuei SriKoiis avrov. 1896. principally from the classical writers. P. it may be noticed. 365 f.


.) . An English translation will. which may It mended to English Hebraists. Riehm. 1893-1894. 1881 ff. . . Dictionary of the Bible. time to be referred to on c 29 fF. Kautzsch. Wilhelm Gesenius' . S. 2 (Aaron-Juttah). Benzinger. ed. Edin.. it is hoped. appear before long.\n the Kitrzgefasstes Exegetisches Handbuch zum. ^4 Treatise on the Use of the Tenses in Hebrew (ed. ably-written survey of the antiquities of the Old Testament. Ewald. 1861).. . A. 8. translated by J. iS^^. 1894. ed.-K.] in the same series. Biblical Researches in Palestine. Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. Dav. An eminently readable. 1881. or ed. or ed. The best grammar for ordinary purposes. R. 1889. ed. Hebrew Syntax (Edin. 2 (London. 25. B. or DB. Holz'mger. 7. 2. 1870.. . . 3. i. (or Di. Benzinger . CIS. Driver. A comprehensive discussion of the problems presented by the Hexateuch. the present edition being greatly improved. ed. . Hebraische GrammcUik. .in den Hexateuch. H.. or HWB. Ew. 1893. 1 (1863). 1894). Hand-worterbuch des Bibl. Hebr. on the basis of Knobel's Commentary [Knob. and critical. &c. with a survey of the prinThe cipal solutions that have been offered of them. Aug. edited by W. Davidson. Lehrbuch der Hebr. vollig umgearbcitet von Ed. An in excellent work. Sprache. ed. ed. JVumeri. Einleitung. Deuteronomiumundfosua. . 1886 (re-written. 1856). 1892). . 1884. . Kennedy. Dillm. DiUmann.. especially in the syntax. . Robinson.PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED. Smith. H. 1863. Archdologie. . Oxford. Dr.^ . or Kn. AT. that have been hitherto constructed. ed. A . . .. Edw. by Edw. be warmly comonly reached me DB.. Altertums. . Paris. J. .'lolzinger . . tabular synopses of the literary usages of the various sources are the most complete. . ^WB. BR. The Syntax has been G. .

1894. Nowack Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament. 1872. 1861. i. Konig-. Das Deuteronomiutn und der DeuteronO' miker.. 1886. Jiichter (in Strack and Zockler's " Kurzgefasster . inquiry into the origin of the Books of the OT. by F. Both these works are valuable aids to the study of the OT. reaching as far as ann. i. Sprache. i. the usage of ad vs. I have referred to them frequently. Nowack. . similar to that of Benzinger. 1886. . R. 2 of the Lehrbuch der . Kommentar ").. Kleinert Journal of Biblical Literature (Mass. and interjections). 2. Less elaborate and complete than the Commentary of Dillmann. ed. Lehrbuch der Hebr. Lex. Archaologie.. at present [April 1895] published). 1 891 ff. JBLit. L. ed. Oettli. noted above. E. but larger. by H. R. A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the OT. r PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED . Kuenen. C.. 1893.g.) A masterly work..). Sprache. Remarkably comprehensive and complete. Briggs. The Hexateuch (Engl. by W. 1890 (ed. vol. and offering more explanation and discussion of the subjects dealt with." and the " Formenlehre " of verbs vol. 207 ff.O. i. by S. 1881 ed.. The special value of the work consists in the careful discussion of all difficult or anomalous forms. vol. . and critical. An NHB.T. Justus. ii. Driver (Edin. A. or OTJC. des Jiid. and S. of the corresponding part of the author's Htst. W. die Bb. Vol. and the copious references to other authorities. OTJC. based on the Lexicon and Thesaurus of Gesenius. Zeitgeschichte). .. Kuen. comprises the "Lautlehre. P. the order of numerals. 1881 . Olshausen. S. Oxford. U. classified and tabulated p. preps. Natural History of the Bible. A manual. 1891 ed. Driver. 1895. F. Josita u. B. London. Hebr. 1894). both ancient and modern. but sensible. 234 ff. Kleinert. part i. i deals principally with the " Formenlehre" of nouns and contains. Gesch. (parts 1-4.. 2. The Old Testament in the Je-wish Church. 1868..-crit. . by Emil Schurer. Historisch-kritisches Lehrgebdude der Kon.). Ols.. Volkes ivi Zeitalter Jesu Christi. p. . Lehrbuch der Heb. Journal of Philology (Cambridge and London). Neutest. and from the time when they reached me. Das Deuteronominm u. trans.. 1892.S. an abundance of useful and interest. moderate. A. (No syntax. Brown.XXV JPh. ii.A. . both on that and on other subjects {e. ing information. Tristram. Oettli . . Robertson Smith. 5.

(1892) Le probleme historique. 3. PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED PEF.. 392 ff. the author often rising to real eloquence. ZKWL.) Very convenient and useful.1888.'^ PS. Valeton. XXVII PRE. 1877. Etude de critique et d'histoire. by S. ed. 1864. six articles on the contents and structure of Dt. © = Onkelos. ThT. S=the Syriac Version (Peshitto). Das Detiteronomium erkldrt. Quarterly Statement of do.Vereins.30'= Vulgate. 1890). i. . ZDPV. J. parts I. of the documents of which the Hexateuch is composed. fiir De7ttsche Theologie. (i88i). Studien Theologisch Tijdschrift (Leiden). Grammatik. literary and historical. 1877. by B. Cotnp... . Wellh. a comparative study. J. . Sam. 'ATW. Stade. = Massoretic Zeitschrift fiir Kirchliche liches Leben. parts 2-3. Z= Targum . (the LXX) l. Driver (Oxford. (1879). p. \ Westphal [ I k . u (No syntax.s. Al. . (1880). Palestine Exploration Fund. ed. Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenldndischen schaft. Thesaurus Syriacus. Wellhausen. vii. F. ZDMC. contains an historical account of the rise and progress of the critical study of the Hexateuch vol. in the Studien.. Valeton. W. Vol. Extremely well-written. & P.EncykJopddie fur Protestan tisch* Theologie und Kirche.= Lucian's recension of the LXX. .. i. text. 5. published in connexion with the Theol. 1889. ed. 4. Die Composition des Hexateuchs und der historischen Biicher des AT. 531 flF. Stade. Schultz. published by the author to the Jahrb. Wissenschaft und Kirch- (E=the Greek Version of the OT. A reprint of the important articles on the composition of the Hexateuch. . 1859.. . Bemhard. P. Payne Smith. TAT IV. Westphal. tributed by him to the 4th edition of Bleek's Einleitung in das AT. Gesell- Zeitschrift des Deutschen Paldstina.. parts 2. and of the matter conp. A'otes on the Hebrew Text of the Books of Samuel. MT. Herzog's Real . P.. Stanley. . J.") Stade . vi. v. 1879. with an Introduction on Hebrew Palceography and the Ancient Versions. 3-4. p. (1878). Zi'itschrift fiir die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaff. Schultz Samuel. and Facsimiles of Inscriptions. 407 flF. PEFQuSl. 1876. Sinai and Palestine in connection Toiih their History^ by A. R. and Kings. . Notes on (or "on Sam. Les Sources du Pentateuque. (1888) Le probleme litt^raire ii. ii. 2. Ti/dschrift (Leiden). on the composition of Jud. Lehrbuch der Hebr.

. xci f. passages are quoted according to the Hebrew enumeration of chapters and verses where this differs in the English (as in Dt. 1 3. and P denoting the other Pentateuchal sources are . indicates that the passages referred to arc the work of the Deuteronomic compilers of the books in question (see p. = Authorized Version RV. following a series of references. D = the Deuteronomist D-^ Deuteronomic sections of Joshua. 23^^ (^^) 28«9 (29I) i Ch.XXVIIl PRINCIPAL ABBREVIATIONS EMPLOYED . =. : ." attached to citations from Jud. the reference to the latter has been (usually) appended in a parenthesis as Dt. — — explained Biblical in the Introduction. 23. Ixxvif. Joel 4(3)'.) secondary parts of Deuteronomy. 6«3(8«) . iiif. . "Deut. have been quoted. ). The sign f. 29).. p. or Kings. Revised Version. indicates that all examples of the word or form in question. or sometimes (as p. occurring in the OT. H. The signs JE. . AV. .

By the Jews the * law. and exemplifying the providence which had brought them through the desert. R. specifying the place and time at which the following discourses were delivered. (=Heb. and the spirit in which they are to obey them. mai (Deharlm). more briefly. i^ The book consists chiefly of three discourses. and past the territory of envious or hostile neighbours to the The Heb. iii .— INTRODUCTION § I . Outline of Contents. 29^]) does embody the terms of a second includes (by the side of legislative "covenant. A . Smith. reviewing the principal incidents of the Israelites' journey from Horeb. when they are to settled in the land of promise. Introductory. the name . 9* LXX. copy) of this " this repetition of the law" (which would require njn for niiin. ever. discourse. 8'^). hSk.^ pp. More particularly the contents : of the i^"' Book may be exhibited as follows Introduction. LXX. 2022-2333. The same misbesides being inconsistent with the meaning of njBTs).* for Although.e. t Ex. from its opening words. not an inappropriate one Deuteronomy (see 28^^ [AV. 340 fF. rendering of mcD recurs Jos. onain p. or introductory. See W. fifth Deuteronomy. the (ungframmatical) derived from to Acin-cpovo/iiov touto. t it is The the last 348). comprising (a) a historical retrospect." not book is called. month of the wanderings of the Israelites (cf. 318. i«_^« Moses' j^rs/. howis based upon a grammatical error. rendering of HN^n minn naKSp in 17I8. the name of the is book of the Pentateuch. setting forth the laws which the Israelites are to obey. OTJC. or." and much fresh matter) a repetition of a large part of the laws contained in what is sometimes called period covered by the " First Legislation" of Exodus. purporting have been delivered by Moses in the "Steppes" (34^) of Moab. words can only mean "a repetition (i.

comprising the code of which it is the object of the legislator to "expound" (i''). 32^-34^2 Conclusion of the whole book. falling naturally into two parts (a) c.. 11 INTRODUCTION ^ border of the Promised Land (1^-3®). insisting afresh upon the fundamental duty of loyalty to Jehovah. and (5) the practical conclusion of the preceding retrospect. is to be governed {b) c. even after the abandonment threatened in c. 22<5-'7 Moses' final commendation of the Deuteronomic law to Israel. C. the author's aim ^ parenetic't he does not merely collect. properly so called. or repeat. Even here. of the nature of a supplement. and is still c.. viz. developing the first commandment of the Decalog^e. and inculcating the general theocratic principles by which Israel. according as it observes. 29^ (2)-30^ Moses' third discourse. : 1 J as a nation. 12-26.e. ^41-43 Account of the appointment by Moses of three Cities of refuge in ! the trans-Jordanic territory. connected closely with 26^'. 2j9-i3 Moses' delivery of the Deuteronomic law to the Levitical priests. forms the peroration of the central . 33). 5-26. and declaring impressively the blessings and curses which Israel may expect to follow. containing the Exposi- \ tion of the Law (c. other part of his discourses. with a renewed warning of the disastrous consequences of a lapse into idolatry ^2gi-28 (2-29)^ (2) a promisc of restoration. 5-1 1. 24-30 ^2^-43. is thus included in c. 2! Commission of Joshua by Jehovah. provided the nation then sincerely repents (30^'^") (3) the choice now set before Israel (30^'"^). u fjjg Song of Moscs. consisting of a hortatory introduction. 28. 28. 27 Instructions (interrupting the discourse of Moses. gjM-is. 28). 12-26. an appeal to the nation. ^44-49 Superscription to Moses' second discourse. 1 discourse (c. and the motives by which the Israelite should feel prompted to { " J . he develops them with reference to the moral purposes which they subserve. i. | ' C. not less than in every essentially . 28. the Deuteronomic law. he "expounds" them (i^). and encourage Israel to obey. 28 j a conclusion. reminding it of its obligations to its Benefactor. 28 The Exposition of the Law. 5-1 1 form an introduction. impressed upon it at ! Horeb (4I-*'). however. 31^"^ Moses' last words of encouragement to the people and Joshua. with instructions for it to be read publicly every seven years. 5-26. 5-26). and narrated in the 3rd person) relative to a symbolical acceptance by the nation of the Deuteronomic Code. j! j ' \ ] \ ' ' " ] i The legislation of Dt. and embracing (i) an appeal to Israel to accept the terms of the Deuteronomic covenant. the central and principal part of the book. and urging it not to forget the great truths of the spirituality and sole j ! Godhead of Jehovah. after its entrance into Canaan. a series of ' laws. special laws. and narrating the circumstances of his death. or neglects. 2ji6-22. 1 C. containing the Blessing of Moses (c. with accompanying notices. to which c. .

Relation of Deuteronomy to the preceding Books of the Pentateuch. pp. 12. one bears a prophetical character. — commonly known as the "Book of the — consisting chiefly of civil enact24'^) ments. which are often spoken of as inculcated to-day [see v. it is books of Genesis to its legislative and historical parts In conducting this comparison. and not to the from the wording. 109 ff. but are composed of distinct documents.19 273. upon which. while the other uses generally Elohim. of which it is the *' exposition " (i^. viz. it must be borne in mind that these books are not homogeneous. jli the expression this lata frequently occurs. Deuteronomy.. cf. In order to gain a right estimate of necessary to compare it carefully with the in Numbers. itself 11. with the note). 20II"). this hook of the law 2920(21) 30I0 3126.of i^ 48.ii] 155 199 26^^ 30^^)' § 2. or (more usually) the exposition 3i9. denoting either the Code of laws. 6-8. showing itself marks of being in turn composed of two sources. but partly also of rudimentary * See more fully the writer's Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament (cited afterwards as L.). these (7^2 judgments. In Dt. differing considerably from each other in character and scope. Ex. 24 (i5 48 (cf.8. 20-23.'*^) 17I8. v.61 2928(29) 32*«. and the laws in . That this expression refers to Dt. go Jos. alike. comprising the Decalogue (Ex.* Each of these documents consists in part of laws. appears (i) . in one of which the name fehovah is preferred. is commonly denoted by the symbol JE the other bears a priestly character. 11-12. and may be referred to accordingly by the letter P. which fall into three groups or Codes.O. peculiar to itself. these statutes.OUTLINE OF CONTENTS obey them.. each marked by definite literary and other features. designed for the use of a community living under simple conditions of society.. it is largely based.26 2858.^^^ which points to a law on the point of being set forth (2) from the 1^). 2022-2333 Covenant" (see Ex. parallel expressions this commandment . and. The first of these Codes is that contained in JE. iiSfE . Ex. entire Pent.T. Of these documents. itself.

and which are parallel to provisions there contained. 17I-9* i2^-28 J (place of sacrifice) ^not to imitate Canaanite rites) 229-31 Nu. Ex. Lev. and relating in particular to the sacrificial system.T. ii-io28. 19 (largely).O. 20''-" 20«* cf. 2310. 18. 15. 27." The third Code. P (including H). pp.20). 25^-'* • L.* 15^"" (year of Release) -. It will i be convenient to consider following synopsis will first the legislative parts I of Dt. 141-144. 25-31.. it. partly ceremonial —contained — in Lev. 18-19. Nu. 1-16. from the predominant character of its contents. 28-30(29-31) religious regulations (2022-26 22^7. Deuteronomy. also now incorporated in P. The show immediately which of the laws in Dt. • i i ' \ ! | j once distinct from its own. 19^** and unclean animals) 11 2-23 20= I42i» (food 14-^'' 2319b 3426b improperly killed) (kid in mother's milk) „ i7«ii« 27*>-» . 2310-19). 25^^-36. 17-26. . The second Code consists of the laws contained in P. \ 20). 35-40. 43-55. is and marked by many special features of the group of laws partly moral (c. often called i by modern scholars (from the principle which it strives mainly to enforce) the "Law of Holiness. and other ceremonial institutions of the Hebrews theseoccupy the greater part of Ex. now frequently termed. | SYNOPSIS OF LAWS IN DEUTERONOMY.IV INTRODUCTION 19 08. but ." and denoted for brevity by the symbol H..* . . JE. 13^-16. 23^=^ 34^215t- g6-i8 (21) The Decalog^ue Lev. and the Dedication of the Firstborn) in Ex.g21-32» 1422-29 (tithes) n Nu. and the kindred regulations (on the Feast of Unleavened Cakes. 33« C£ 22"(») c 13 (cases idolatry) of seduction to 14I-2 143-20 22»)(S1) (disfigurement in mourning-) (clean Lev. 34^°"2'^. to : which must be added the repetition of many of the latter enactments in Ex. the " Priests' Code. relate to subjects not dealt with in the other i Codes.

Lev. AND P JE.8-2U* !»•" 20^-° iq26b. 15^^) (worship of " other gods. 27* Nu. 31 2o''27 11 . 1 Ex. 12*^) igiob-u (different kinds of divina- f^* Nu. 2829* II 19" 26' II 17^ 22" W 20^23" 34" iy2-7 to be without blemish : cf. P (including Lev.21 Lev. 2l2-"» 2229(30) jgi2-i8 (Hebrew slaves) 13I234I9 15^9"^ (firstlings of ox and sheep Nu." or of the host of heaven) jy8-i3 iyi4-20 (supreme tribunal) „ 18^"^ (rights 2217(18) (sorceress (law of the king) and revenues of the tribe of Levi) 89-22 (law of the prophet) 1 igioa (Molech-worship : cf. Deuteronomy. 20 (military service and war tion 19I-13 cf. Lev. H.22 (Ash^rahs and "pillars" prohibited) (sacrifices Lev.1 alone) 23I and magic) (asylum for manslayer: murder) 19^* (the landmark) 1915-21 (law of witness) c. 20 22-24 enti.:: RELATION OF DT. 24«) Nu. 2ii»-" 2 1 18-21 (undutiful son) cf. 1 61'^^ (the three annual Pilgrim- 16^^ 23' ages) (appointment of judges) j519-2o (just judgment) 1621. 2o9 21 22-23 (body of malefactor) 234-5 22I"* (animals straying or fallen lost property) 22' (sexes not to interchange garments) 22*-' (bird's nest) 23^ (battlement) 229-11 (against non-natural mixtures) Lev. 25*'*'* H). I2«-17-I8i423) 3". 15=^-^ . 19^' : 2i^-9 (expiation of an untraced murder) 21 10-14 (treatment of female captives) 21 13-17 (primogeniture) cf. i8"'-* (cf. 359-" 2417. 8'7) cf. Ex. 23* Nu. 19" 22^2 (law of "tassels") Nu. 3" 2314-17 2^18. j81-7. TO CODES OF JE.Lev.

Nu.VI INTRODUCTION JE. Deuteronomy. widow. (humanity to escaped slave) 23I8 (i7)f. 2535-3? 30'' 2322-24(21-23) 2325(34)!. and orphan) I93*'- (gleanings) 2^-^ (moderation in infliction of the bastinado) 25* (threshing ox not to be muzzled) 25^10 (levirate-marriage) 25"'!- II ig*"- 23^ (modesty in women) 11 17" 23l9» Cf. 5I-** camp) 22i6(i5)f. P (including H). 20'^ 2215(16)1. i8i"- 34"* 23»-» ing of firstfruits) 2612-15 (thanksgiving at the payment of the triennial tithe) c 28 (peroration. 2228»(23») 25""^^ (just weights) 25"-i» ('Amalek !) ig"*- 26I"" (thanksgiving at the offer- cf.10-13 (pledges) 21I6 24^ (man-stealing) 24^ 2j^^- (leprosy) Lev. 13-14 II (wages of hired servant not to be detained) 19" 24!^ (the family of 2230-23 («-«) a criminal not II to suffer with him) 238 24"*" G"stice 24I9-22 towards stranger. 22I3-21 (slander against a newly- married maiden) Ex. crops) 24^"* (divorce) 2225 (26)t 246. 1 820 2010 22^' (seduction) 23^(22**) (incest with stepmother) 222-9(1-8) (conditions of admittance into the theocratic II 188 20" comthe munity) 2310-15(9-14) (cleanliness in Nu. (against religious prosti- tution) 222*P^ 2320(19)4. (usury) Lev. (vows) (regard for neighbour's Nu. 2222-27 (adultery) Lev. 26='-« . presenting motives for the observance of the Code) Lev.

(instruction to children) ^2-4. 16 (jjQ compact with Canaanites) u 19^ Nu. it On the principle. i9«'» 5"^ (philanthropic of Sabbath) cf. Lev. Ex. 23» 1. P (including 2& H). (against "other gods") 6^. 9^) 2318a 3425a 13"" 23''' 34^* 2318b 3428b to be eaten with Passover) j53b. 3I7 yJM. 33» •1 2324b 3^13 7®i2^(Canaanite altars. is most marked are indicated by an is for a discussion of the differences the reader referred to the * c. 17-26 prohibitions corresponding most of the imprecations in 2']'^'^''^ see the Table. II.* . p. 15f.nd Lev. 139. 23 j^23 (in different « Nu. so far as is systematic. 135 f.192 2o^- people ") nexions) 2220(21)239 10^9 (to .2i6.1« 6^ 11^8 (law of frontlets) 514 jji6 20' 23I' 34** .1 i7"-"i92«^cf. especially in the case of those cited from P. or even actually discrepant. AND P vii JE. 12^ i2"-w-20 Lev. Gn.12. 2o<-'»34" 2312b 4I6-18.2S ^25 (against images) object Lev. TO CODES OF JE. 8 (unleavened cakes for seven days afterwards) 16*^ (flesh of Passover not to 1 6^ (leavened bread not Ex.RELATION OF DT. 912 morning) i6"-"(feast of "booths". . The passages should for in all cases be examined individually sometimes. to be destroyed) 33°' I9«22»P0) f 142-21 2619 289 (Israel a "holy con- Lev. on which the laws in 12-26 are arranged. 35«> nesses ") 2123-28 1921 {lex talionis) (but in a differ- 2419*- ent application in each case) 20» 27'"' (altars of unhewn stones) to There are also in Ex.314 2^24a. 23*^-29-'"-" 1^6 jg]5 ("two or three wit- Nu. "seven days ") remain till Lev. Commentary. II*". Deuteronomy. the . The instances in which the divergence asterisk (*) . II 12WNU. parallelism extends only to the subject-matter. 20-23 ^.4a. "pillars" &c. -. 299. see p. i5« II love the "stranger") 198* (blood not to bc eaten) . 32f. the details being different.

g addition of regulations partly new. This is evident as well from the numerous verbal fact. 249). % " Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother's milk" (i4*"»=Ex. 23^''= t Ex. (i) is it makes it apparent.! In a few cases the entire law is repeated from the verbati?n. 13^" ^ and of parenetic comments. 20b.X or nearly so. 15^"^ a new institution is attached to the fallow seventh year of Ex. that the legislation | differently related to each of the three other Codes. E. 20*'. 22^^ f^ 19^"^* (asylum for manslaughter (sorceress alone) to analogous cases and murder) is a new and extended application of the principles laid down . 22-25^^ {jy ^j. isj j^is-ss (firstlings) specializes. 198. partly derived from Ex. . that nearly the whole ground covered by Ex. and 16^"'^ (the three Pilgrim34^^ at the same time modifies. or phraseology. i^.. \ The laws of JE/brw the foundation of the Deuteronomic | legislation. 196. 192. 13^"* 22^ ages) expands Ex. and with parenetic additions (v. II j 1 also 1512. 22^^(*'). 288). 2022-2333 is included in it.(just judgment) partly repeats. their obelisks ye shall break in pieces. and shall their Ash&rahs their ye shall hew and their Ashdrahs ye shall cut j down. 23*2) . or parenetic is comments j .'^ as which is plain from the lefthand column. | • * Specimens 22^~*.is..Vlll INTRODUCTION detailed study of these parallels leads at once to an im: 1 J I A ' portant result of Dt. Ex. \ ! .10 22I-* (pp. almost the only exception being the special compensations to be paid for various injuries (Ex. and graven images ye down.22» W. or the law virtually recast in the Deuteronomic Thus c. 16 ' The other exceptions are Ex. and and I their obelisks ye shall break in pieces. ' | W . principle extended. 192. 12'). . § elsewhere only particular clauses: || I | I \ < in other cases the older law its is expanded. . may be seen transcribed in the notes on 15^ ^*"^'' i6^~*" ^ '*'• 13. i coincidences. . ix. § 7^ But thus shall ye do to them : Ex.16-17 163. iS^"*" i6^^. their altars ye shall ptdl down. viz. See also i6^-8-i6-J9 25'9'> (pp. attached.g. of the law against idolatry in Ex. 15.«» (»)>». 13 and 17-"^ may be regarded as expansions. 21^^22i6(i5)j^ which would be less necessary in a manual intended for the people.i3-i5. partly expands. . for frontlets between thine eyes ") . . but with considerable modifications. bum with fire (cf. iSi f. and . 23^*'-. 3426t). Ex. 6*("forasign upon thine hand. 15^"-'^* (the law of slavery) is based upon Ex. 23^'*"^^ ^ _ ^^. 23®* ^ (against divination and sorcery) extends the principle of Ex. fresh definitions | being added. with reference to particular cases. 21-"^. 34^ But their altars ye shall pull do-wn. 7^* (" thou shalt not make a covenant with them " : see Ex.

inculcated in Ex. (222o»'-22-23b. "^ Justice. the form of an entire series of philanthropic regulations (i6"- same crime The rare style of the formulated in " 2^'^'^. Book of the Covenant is concise. ^ And a bribe thou shalt not take .. expressed briefly manner which a thought. and impresses with a new motive. xxxviii) that in Deuteronomic form springs from a considerably later. The following parallels will command. wise. : in Ex. determines in Dt.27b) 238). Ex. . and parenetic additions being . . in cattle. the law illustrate the and the considerable. where the substance parenetic element or is is the same. Ex. which I have I laid upon thou knowest. persons thou shalt not take a bribe . . is so modified in Dt. 21^^"".. 23* (a lost ox or ass to be restored to its owner). will lay upon thee. 15^ If thou hearkenest &c. the fatherless. 7" Blessed shalt thou be above all peoples there shalt not be in thee male or female barren. 23® Thou shall not wrest the ment : thou shalt not acknowledge judgment of thy poor in his cause. Ex. the 22'''. and the widow. 16*' Thou shalt not wrest JudgEx. the laws being usually as few words as possible. xxxiii. as to its necessitate the conclusion (p.^^ the principle of the older law to cases of other lost property .26b(!ab. 22^-^(-^"'^). 22^" P*'.— RELATION OF DT. ^^ And Jehovah all will from thee sickness . as 24** ^°'^^ (pledges) does similarly for Ex. 22'"' Ex. 22*'* f"'*) the general regard for the stranger. or in thy : Ex. state of society. is expanded hi Dt. lo^^). but he will put them upon all them that hate thee. while agreeing. which sicknesses. or barren. extends in v. TO LAWS OF JE in . In Dt.'^. ig^*"'^' (the law of witness) of those of Ex. (§ 5) is In some cases the law of Ex. remove and none of thy land. none of the .^.. the evil diseases of Egypt. In these additions. and adds provisions {v. 23" They shall not dwell in thy land. : be) a snare to thee. that thou mayest live. they make me . pursue .^». but these modifications do not affect the it . IX 23* 21**. and more developed. also p. the strongly-marked Deuteronomic style nearly always observable (on iG^^ cf. toill he lay upon thee. neither will for thou shalt thou serve their gods. and inherit the land which Jehovah thy God is giving thee. i« And thou shalt the Egyptians.. for a bribe blindeth the eyes of the for a bribe blindeth the open-eyed.('"•'.^-"") for two other cases of 23^* (interest) accentuates. 23^ There shall not be a female casting her young. eye shall not (will pity them . justice shalt thou Just.is zf^ cf. even usually expanded in . note). and subverteth the cause of the and subverteth the cause of the Just. 22^'^ (seduction) defines with greater precision (v.23-24b. for it be a snare to thee. is on the other hand. thee sin against lest devour all the peoples which Jehovah thine thy God is giving to thee . for that wilt (then) serve their gods.substantially with Ex.-^ 2612.***-) the law of Ex.

nor honour the person of the g^eat mjttstice shalt thou judge thy fellow- kinsman ("jn'o.. never extend bej-ond one or two common terms.T. and containing many new civil and social enactments. * \S*hich includes. thou shalt not wholly 19^ And when ye vest in the field. is^^-" 33'«-»'. justice shalt thou pursue that thou mayest live. and that in particular. essentially d/JTJC^/ upon that of JE of is in Exodus.— X . not only the greater part of Lev. Ye shall not do unrighteous- thou shalt not take a bribe . the First Decalogue Dt. the expression is nearly always different. 12-26 an enlarged Commandment of the edition of the "Book of the Covenant" (Ex. 24'' When thou reapest thine har(van) persons : ness in judgment. is often to verbatim in Exodus). and forgfettest a probably. 19^ And lacerations for a (dead) soul ye shall not jour flesh . that their occurrence in both could hardly be avoided : Dt. designed (like the modifications just noted) to provide for cases likely to arise in a more complex and highly- organized community than of JE in Exodus. * reap the harvest of j-our land. neither shall : make in ye make tattooing^ in you 19^' I am Jehovah. 54). (2) is contemplated in the legislation In the right-hand column. and the kindred laws in Ex. 23']. 14^ Sons are ye to Jehovah your God : ye shall not cut yourselves. ."* If the cases are examined individually. for the dead. ^Justice. ii»-«» Nu. The following are specimens : the resemblances. and inherit the land which Jehovah thy God is giving thee. even where the substance is similar. which so belong. 20^^23^). i(P Thou shalt not wrest JudgmetUi thou shalt not acknowledge Lev. 17-26. be found that they are less systematic and complete than those with JE. Lev. nor put baldness between your eyes. thou shalt not accept (t«rn) the person of the poor. 5-1 1 is a parenetic expansion . p.{L. it \snll be observed. j^3-i6 3410-26^ characterized by a considerable increase in the parenetic element.?). : INTRODUCTION is truth of the general position that the legislation of Dt. but also. the will great majority of parallels are with the "Law it of Holiness.to the subject-matter of the law. however much expanded in Dt. and is decidedly less marked than be found in the case of the parallels with JE (where the nucleus of the law. and subverteth the cause of the just [see Ex. Dt.O. for a bribe blindeth the eyes of the wise.

or the immediate source from an older collection of priestly 7or<7/A(pp. frequent. it is H. 252. thou sbalt not return to take it : it shall be for the stranger. pp. main (see ii*-** 157-159). discrepancies often display themselves : hence the legislation . 22*"" and Lev. " Priests' Code" (3) With the other parts of Ex. 15"]. the properly so called.-Nu. shalt thou pick the widow . and P much that is of central significance in the system of P is ignored in Dt. a remarkable verbal parallel with Lev. cannot be said to be it based upon this Code. Dt. thou shalt not glean (V^jm) it aft«r thee bless thee in all the may thy hands. the parallelism of Dt. thou gatherest thy vineyard. fatherless. therefore thee to do this thing am thou shalt leave them and y&r /A4? i/ra»^r Jehovah thy God. x^. i thou wast a bondman 16^* Egypt I 15" command cf. even than with the parallels "Law of Holiness. TO LAWS OF H sheaf in the field. while in the laws which touch common ground. rather than to P) the section. 275. neither up the pickings of thine harvest (BjjSn n^ irxp BpSi). thou shalt not do the boughs (again) after thee : it shall be for the stranger. 22 and for the widow. must have been derived directly either from H. and for the widow. and (where it is both much less is present) much less complete. shalt not : neither shalt thou pick it shall be fiir the stranger. and indeed irreconcilable. 401 f. that Jehovah thy God work of thou beatest thine olive-tree.". 208. xi and for reap the comer of ihy field . but they are formulated without reference to each other. great. There only one exception to what the has been stated.. as it with the code of JE: the laws of Dt. for the father^ When less." There are no verbal between Dt.. (in this case) of both H and Dt. opVn kV tdto) And thou shalt [5*^ remember that for the poor. . source. (if the law of clean and unclean animals in in 143-20^ which presents undoubtedly. " When w And thy vineyard thou glean (VViyn) . : this be referred rightly to plain. p. transcribed on It follows that the legislation of Dt. for the up the fallings of thy vineyard (tran .). and H are frequently parallel in substance. or connected with is organically. [v.: RELATION OF DT. for the fatherless. they must therefore be derived ultimately is from some common viz. See also Dt. in the land of 24"].

72 [JE] Jud." in persons (i 2^^' 22 1522. 6^) 248 njnin yjj . 1^3. io2*) toprofane \^n) or treat as common. 22®). 14^ 1410-19 — •SeeZ. Am. flesh). is right (pp.). but cf. . 10^. sanctity of Ex. or contradiction. 23^*). of first enjoying its fruit (20* 28^ so Jer. i6*-^ ("in the evening. things (122^ [see note]. 608 f. 2o2^). 2']^^-^^ but cf. 31^ . codified in are.) . mentioned in Dt. 25^^ ^iy ncy to do unrighteousness (an unusual phrase : see note): imaro tdp to keep his charge (11^). 14' (" abomination ").and peacego Ex. "fire-sacrifices" (18^: 14^^) . 425 f. however. 31^^ H). and of firstfruits (18* 262-": Ex. p. Several of the institutions. 21-23) free-will offerings (i2®-^'' 16^". 24'« [Lev. the distinction of "clean" and "unclean. though not of one prescribed (21^'' t : cf. : The following' are Aaron. ? 232* Am. 23" (i»)'. : . S. oflFerings (i2^*"'i3. i priestly rights of the tribe of Levi (i8^'^ a/.— Xll . " heave ". P ("cut yourselves.27 jgs 276. the opp. 32^ the subject of TB3 ("clear") is not (as in P) the priest (annulling the sin by means of an atoning rite) but Jehovah : hence a sacrificial rite is not here denoted by the term. presuppose the distinctive regulations of is true. a torah for leprosy (24*). in this application. . or observances. 20^ 24^ i S. also p. Notice also the expressions. a vineyard.). as we now have should be noted it. 14. Perhaps also Dillm. are less distinctive (see notes).ar. produced by particular causes (2i23 [Xu. in JE Jos. 3" Is. 14^-) . writers * they seldom. . is not in P . vows {12^ "• "• ^ : 23"4^) ." and "for the dead"). the 'asdreth or " solemn assembly " (16* cf. " : ? 2 S. : or H. observable in the instances which other cases. 15^** al. s^% 26" [Nu. or a feast (16^ [see note] ^'** ^*) to do (nrj. to become holy (22' : Lev. the the atoning efficacy of a sacrificial "avenger of blood" (19®* ^2. i^i) ... 19"-" Hos. I S. in food (i4*"2<' Gn. lit. if ever. 22^ iP))'. 4*). 8®* 2 K. INTRODUCTION cannot be considered in of P any degree to have been one of the sources employed by the author of Dt. to hold (nsyj?) the sabbath (5^^ : so Ex. 15"]. g'*]) . 9^). 192* H) to be forfeited. ("unclean"). in . I S. t In 21** (see note .). P. and constantlj' in the early historical books). 605. 22") ." P "between the two evenings "). 26'^) animals offered in sacrifice to be without blemish (15^ 17') . : 521 Is. nax'jo . and to eat nebelah. 13^ Hos.) in seeing in 122^ ("to eat the soul with the found. offerings (i2« [see note] "• 2 S. rite. 353^]. 22-24 (is. 2 S.7. the prohibition to eat blood (1223 i S. explanations of more technical priestly terms. holy in Lev. it P : but the allusions are of a kind resembling" those in JE and other early Heb.[Lev. firstlings (i2«-i^ 142s 1519: : : : . the flesh of an animal djing of itself (14-^) holy. 135 f. . tithes (i2^""'^^ 14—"^ 26^-: Am. i82« Nu. in a sacrificial sense (122^ I K. or dedicated. and see note). or. in the light of tJie silence.n»y to do work {16% and utterance of the lips {2^-*'^^). with a brief notice of the ritual accompanyingthem (12^: see note). the Tvord. the founder of a hereditary priesthood (lo®) burnt. are such as to establish the writer's use of P.

is alluded to once in Dt. which figures in the P (Ex. and the complete principles those relating. the meal-offering (nnjo). respecting some of the its which are of fundamental importance The "Tent of Meeting. but to JE (p. 3i^'"-. xii. the guilt- offering and especially the sin-offering (nxon) all these are never mentioned in Dt. is in Dt. see p. (That it is not included in the term zebah. system of (db^k). would not be expected but. and the year of Jubile. even there. Nor. there must be remembered the serious contradictions between many of these provisions (especially xxxix). passed by in silence.is mentioned in Dt. even if the document : — . The non-mention of the sinoffering beside the burnt. 337 f. P's very common. detailed references to such institutions. Had he so treated and especially if it had possessed in his eyes a recognized authority and importance. silence of Dt. and most general term for offering (including sacrifices). does it appear as the centre of a great sacrificial organization. but in a passage belonging not to D.to the position and privileges of the priestly tribe). t On 21** 32**. 1-15) culminates. on V. 35-40.and peace-offering in 12*"^^ is very remarkable." is clear from 12^^ cf. was written. — together . appurtenances. system of P. —a it. or a repetition of the directions for their observance." so often and the Levitical emphatically insisted on in the same source cities. on which such stress is laid in the sacrificial laws of P. 25-31. \ : describing them existed at the time when Dt. the elaborately developed sacrificial P . Of course.. in which the Levitical system of sacrifice and purification (Lev. clear that the writer did not attach any great importance to or treat it practically as one of his sources. . * the atcning efficacy of sacrifice. 16). never occurs in Dt.*. the sons of Aaron." with so largely in and institutions. question with which we are not here concerned. and representing the prophetical and spiritual. TO LAWS OF P xiii On the other side. rather than the priestly and ceremonial point of view. " sacrifice. RELATION OF DT. — it is it.) It is also singular that korban. and the regulations of P (p. (21^^!). note. in a discourse addressed to the people. . and the common "Levites. with many allusions elsewhere) the distinction between the priests. it is incredible that his references * The Tent of Meeting. and that in a law for which which there is in P no parallel the great Day of Atonement (Lev.).

) + The real explanation of this apparently anomalous peculiarity in the relation of Dt.f The dependence of Dt. but to the oral observed. H. was acquainted with priestly laws and institutions but the nature of his allusions shows that his knowledge of them was derived. the reference is not to any wfitten regulathough authorized (D'n'is nrx3 p. are There can be no doubt that the author of Dt. and P. them in the system of which they and many of P's most characteristic and fundaif mental institutions. and is z'wdependence of P. but from his practical acquaintance with the form in which they were operative in Israel in his own day and this in many particulars differed materially from the regulations laid down in P. Moab the other (98-10^1). and the it may be (Of course. 275) — : — — . was composed. indeed. while it ignores another is of course to be found in the fact that. to the ceremonial institutions and observances its codified in the rest of P. through the historical sections. in exactly same manner. thus stands to the three Codes of JE.. the ceremonial usages alluded to by D must not be imagined to be the only ones current in his "fey. may be described generally as follows it is an expansion of the laws in JE (Ex.* which Dt. the two sets of passages (JE and P) were not yet combined into a single -worh^ and the author only made use of JE. the is maintained. 2022-23^3 3410-26 133-16^ different relation in j The it is. on the other. in several features. the episode of the Golden Calf. tains two retrospects of the earlier stages of the (1^-3^^) wanderings. upon JE. parallel to the Law of Holiness the . not from the systematic exposition of them contained in P. on the one hand. — "direction" of the tions on leprosy. to the preceding books of the Pent. without displaying the smallest concern or regard for the system of P such institutions of P as he refers : to are mentioned almost incidentally. at the time when Dt. its dependence upon one set of passages. XIV to is. conIsraelites' the legislative sections of the book. they are not contradicted in Dt. : . it contains allusions to laws but — similar — not. one embracing the period from their departure from Horeb to their arrival in the land of * In 24^. simply ignored in it. it INTRODUCTION should not have been more systematic and exact. without any sense of the significance attaching to form part . As it he moves on.. always same as. priests. which thus established for Dt.

ii** 14^ \&^' ^' »>• ^ 222-242^ 12-^° 178-16 i^*"3'*^ &c. and the variations and additions in Dt. and clauses. In the retrospects. Ex. 10. Nu.) Red Sea) 1 1« (Dathan and Abiram) (Bala'am) 2351. if . belong to parts of Ex. even where (as is sometimes the case) JE and P cross each other repeatedly in the course of a few verses. assist the reader to appreciate the manner in which the retrospects of Dt. Nu. 20^-" (P) the term for " rock " is y^D. Ex. the narrative of Ex. Nu. the coincidences. 17' Ex. passed over in Dt. oz'^Hine) the words in common : he will then be able to see at a glance both the passages of Ex.1« Nu. which has been supposed to be an exception to the statement in the text.nd 83. '^ i^'^. 0/ Decalogue &c. Nu. 24* (Miriam's leprosy) 25^"'^^ (opposition ofAmalek) deliverance 26*'^ (affliction and from Nu. Nu. and the extracts printed on pp. follows uniformly the parts is belonging to JE. All the passages thus followed. which are referred (upon independent grounds) to JE. and avoids those belonging to P.) 6i« (MASsah) elsewhere (deliverance from Egypt) (the 6^"* r. 112). In order properly to realize the nature and extent of in the margin of his copy of Dt.*• 5* 98 i8'^ * The Tables in the notes (pp. or transcribed. Kibroth-hattd'^vah) . 117. 46. Ex. 17' 17* f 11^"^ Nu. 19^-20^ Ex. On a clause in i^^.— RELATION OF DT. will. 13" 14** Ex. Massah.'* i^. he should references. it is hoped. 29. 1 1* (passage of the (4f. 21' and Ex. not "ns. or sometimes entire verses. 113 f. Nu. there are also several incidental allusions to other occurrences narrated in Gn.. The case Of these i^ the principal are (and frequently) the oath to the patriarchs igi6 (delivery Gn. 32-34) . i6'»-'> manna) ^^ (fiery serpents and rock (nis) of flint) 9~ (Tab'erah. 33. placing beyond the possibility of doubt the use by the writer of the earlier narrative of the Pent.. 24. + In Nu.* similar with the other historical allusions in Dt. 15^^ 22^®'* 24^ 26^ 4^ (Ba'al Pe'or) ^loff. 25^"' Ex. see the note ad loc. the retrospect in Dt. goff. mark and underline (or.-Nu. Nu. are dependent upon JE in Ex. Egypt) 29^2 (23) (overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrha) Notice also the use of the name Horeh (not Gn. 42. Nu. are transcribed from it verbatim. 19. Ex. is followed step by step. TO NARRATIVE OF JE events immediately followingit XV (Ex. 19^* Sinai). 51. the he uses the Hebrew text.

are also regularly to be found (That 18. cf. the spies.). a comparison of Dt. 10^^ 17^^ 28*®. the mention of . journey only as far as 1321) .) occasionally to a passage not preserved in our existing On 33*'®. lo^"^ with Ex-r | the time makes it highly probable that the latter passage. 24I. however. And as regards . as in JE (Nu. 11^ the name Terebinths of Moreh (Gn. the . ' tioned at the where Joshua is menDathan and Abiram (without Korah) is in agreement with JE's narrative in Nu. i .^s). ' i i | i The reference : is Pent. INTRODUCTION I spies' reconnoitring (E) i^ the valley of Eshcol as the limit of the i^ the exemption of Caleb alone (without Joshua. known independently Dt. while the promise of 1 8 is found in both JE and P. terms of the allusion in Dt.XVI 28®* (29^). There are only three facts mentioned in Dt. 132-16 P). for which no parallel is to be found in against that of P (Nu. bcxxi). would naturally be .cannot refer to Nu. but would be elements of tradition. 16. and not P. still contained a notice of in P's itinerary. the oath is peculiar to JE the name Horeh is used by E. j the ark of acacia-wood (see p. 146- ^^. J while in the case of some which are narrated in P as well. . all 1 \ Of the incidents here enumerated. are not sufficient to establish the use of P: the three facts mentioned would not be invented by P. 2510 P). whereas as in P (Nu. in particular. are dependent upon JE. . . 46^7 Ex. 3^ 17^ ss'^ . 1 17 f. I Eshcol (near Hebron). which though they happen to be recorded (apart from Dt. lo^.* * lo"' the names are (substantially) the same as those ! ' \ . they g^o as far 1 Rehob (in the extreme north of Canaan) (i^^) the exemption of 1 Caleb alone 142*) agrees with the representation of JE (Nu.) only by P. 4 to the Writer of Dt. i^ P) and lo^ acacia. 2. 1022 I number of souls (seventy) with which Jacob came down into Egypt (Gn.wood as the material of the Ark (Ex. in JE. was composed. . are narrated in JE . ' j JE: the i23 the number (twelve) of the spies (Nu. \ Sinai) . in view of the constancy with which the historical parts of Dt. These coincidences. passages referred to by the words As Jehovah spake (p. at when Dt. i3^''). as Ex. not in P. ] ' . ' same time . where they are not earlier passages of Dt. which also names Dathan and Abiram only (the passages which speak of Korah belonging to P). but not by P (who always prefers . Thus. see the notes adloc. are such as to show that the i Writer followed JE. who is not mentioned as one of the spies) from the sentence passed on the The numerous spies. 12^). itself. 18^ is shown on 10^.

but they are mentioned in a different order. 29-33. 14 (see v. on 4**). * Notice and. 16^ trepidation (Ex. and ^^Jifoses (Moses' counsel to the judges) . 27. not noticed in the narrative of JE. In ii^-' host (S'n). 26« Nu.T. cited on p. 31.'*. the first illustrates Jehovah's goodness in bringing Israel safely from Egypt to the borders of the Promised Land the second exemplifies His forbearance and mercy in restoring it to favour after the sin of the Golden Calf. Ixxi : but it may be questioned whether these expressions are not too isolated. with amplificatory additions (in most cases) to it suggest to the reader the lessons which the author desired to teach. Jiorses and chariots.— RELATION OF DT. so 3^ 4-') 2-"^' "• ^^-^^ (Israel forbidden to make war with Edom. 30-37 ^sa.9. But in character.i8b. i^^'' . now.1"". 24-25. 4. .with the laws. or i^-s. 4-7)^ which havc the in effect in different attention to Jehovah's purposes. Thus two or three from other parts of Dt. 26* stretched out arm (Ex.O. shorter. longer or the history. summaries.nd pursued after them.is. 143). Of the two retrospects. other cases the additions are of a more substantial (including and mention incidents of some interest or importance. to be to thee for a God (26^^^ 29^. 45 2T. 33'^"^^ . Moab. zsb.) i9-)3 we find of the latter kind suggests the appointment of assistant judges) . His references to it have mostly a didactic aim hence they are accompanied usually by parenetic comments. also L. 18)^ and the words from c. . 6® : cf. and too little distinctive. with Israel.* Of this kind are the comments. as the case rule the may be. designed to bring : home to the Israelite reader the theocratic significance of and to arouse in him emotions of becoming gratitude towards the divine Leader and Benefactor of his nation. pp. short speeches (such as 33. 21. are points of contact with P's narrative of the passage of the Red Sea in Ex. B . lo^* (after g'-io"). as is a substance of the earlier narrative calculated reproduced freely. TO NARRATIVES OF JE AND P The author's XVll method in treating the history of JE is analogous to that followed by him in dealing. Accordingly. hard bondage (see note). and the Jbrm of from that of P (see the notes) hence the notice (from whatever source it may have been taken) will certainly not have been derived from P. are incorporated verbatim. a. 138. 4^ (after the retrospect. to the manner which Israel responded to ways of calling and them. 20. i" (the proposal to send out spies emanates from the people) i^ (Moses punished for the people's fault . . the itinerary differs : . or dealings. while numerous passages. 1-3). 28a) comp. sob. 43a.(^')) and to be to Jehovah for a people (27^ see on 2617.c. to establish dependence upon P (cf. 12").

INTRODUCTION . The bearing The general of the facts j'ust noted on the authorship of # ." borrowed. 610. after (the dust of the Golden Calf cast 10" (death of Aaron at into the stream that descended from the mount) Moserah) . borrowed from Nu. not from Ex. a^^-^'' (phrases in the message to Sihon.35 jjjg description of the encounter with 'Og in this case. Dt. 10^''). jsoa (from Ex.(statement that Jehovah is the " inheritance " of the tribe of Levi) . 18. the passages do not agree throughout verbatim but the resemblance is always sufficiently close to leave no doubt that the passage quoted is the source of the terms used in Dt. 27» 29b (from Ex.— XVlll the 'Ammonites) . 14^. one incident. . xlviii. 1^* The cases are Dt. 2^^ (from Nu. borrowed from Nu. 2x33. 34^^ his fasting on the occasion of his ihird ascent the fasting on the first occasion is not mentioned in Ex. while Nu. 3^'^ (Moses' entreaty . v. 3^^"^ (description of the region of Argob. &c. 13-1 Nu.* The graphic minor touches in 1^^ "murmured in your tents. Westphal." &c. Ex. originally used in the description of in Dt. 21^). 10' 18. : . — . . . In some instances. in which a phrase. l*6»(Nu. the book will be considered subsequently see p. but from Nu. • Cf. p. 17*'^^ cut off helpless stragglers in the rear). The number of cases is also remarkable. Dillm. . is applied in the Tables (pp. has f. 25^* (the fact to be permitted to enter his sin in . 34') 9^ (from Ex. 14'®) 10" (cf. 33^). Dt. taken from 'Og) . ." !" "and pursued you as bees do. 3^'— (Moses encouragement of Joshua) . (Moses' intercession for Aaron.. 32'^ Nu. sengers to Sihon sent out from the wilderness of Kedemoth) 2^ (how the 2'^'' Edomites and Moabites had furnished the Israelites with food) (slaughter of Sihon's sons) . mentions only the slaughter of 'Ogs sons. though the occasion is quite a different one) i^** (" I cannot bear you alone. 20^'^* ^^ the message to Edotn) 232. "'' (archseolog^ical notices) 2* (mes." i** "wept before Jehovah. ' I 2'""^" ^"^ 3^* ". . Canaan) 9^^ ." with Nu.) g2s. to the preceding books of the Pentateuch. the occasion which is being described. from Ex. . 10. .. that 'Amalek. to the description of another . 11" "/cannot bear all this people alone" cf. making the Golden Calf) 9^ . : . 24. when it met Israel at Rephidim." 1*^ "girded on every one his weapons. 20'). are presumably merely elements in the author's picturesque presentation of the historj'. x^ (from Ex. ijiTb). Ex. mentions only the slaughter of those of Sihon) 9"* (Moses' fasting on the occasion of his Jirst ascent of the mountain. 2)'^^^' ^^ though the occasion actually referred to is Ex. 1321 14"). 89 119." borrowed from Nu. pp. . I4"'>) v^ (from Nu. lo^'" (separation of the tribe of Levi for priestly functions) .) these are indicated by the passage quoted being enclosed in a parenthesis. result of the preceding examination of the relation of Dt.33b (description of Israel's encounter with Sihon. 17^ 28** (promise that Israel should no more return to Egypt) . ("turn you and take your journey.

5-11 being a parenetic introduction. the legislative kernel of the book (c. in both.''^ Why such a revision and enlargement of the Book of the Covenant was undertaken. an historical^ a legislative. § 3. a didactic aim) the legisthough naturally. as the condition of national well-being. when the date and origin of the book have been approximately determined. is here viewed primarily by the Writer as a vehicle for exemplifying the principles which it is the main object of his book to enforce. TO NARRATIVE OF JE been to establish this fact legislative sections : XIX nor its in neither its historical can Dt. possessing an independent value of its own. and a parenetic. its dominant Ideas. is a question which can only be fully answered in § 4. be shown to be dependent upon the source which has been termed P . His spirituality (c. 4). The historical matter being. is both the most characteristic it is directed to the inculcation of certain fundamental religious and moral principles upon which the historical element is all the Writer lays great stress entirely subservient to it : but (the references to the history. Of these the parenetic element and the most important . from which . 12-26. it is demonstrably dependent upon JE.. The author wrote.RELATION OF DT. and why the laws of Israel were thus embedded by the author in a homiletic comment. having nearly always lative element. His choice of Israel. under a keen sense of the perils of idolatry and to guard Israel against this by insisting earnestly on the debt of gratitude and obedience which it owes to its Sovereign Lord.of secondary importance in Dt. it is evident. Scope and Character of Deuteronomy . the truths on which he loves to dwell are the sole Godhead of Jehovah. is the fundamental teaching of the book. by redeeming it from its servitude in Egypt. as : said before. and by planting it in a land abundantly blessed by nature's bounty. . by leading it safely through the desert. The Deuteronomic discourses may be said to comprise three elements. and the love and faithfulness which He has shown towards it. 28) may be described broadly as a revised ^^ and enlarged edition of the Book of the Covenant. Accordingly. and c.

a warm-hearted and generous attitude towards man.). Jehovah is. 2925(26)). 712 gis a/. moreover. in fact.XX INTRODUCTION . "the God of gods and Lord of lords" (iqI^-I"). The central and principal and the discourse (c. 5-1 1 is eloquently and movingly expanded. . And He has done its \ numbers nor its righteousness would constitute any claim upon Him for His regard {"f <^^'^)\ but from His love for Israel (78 23'' ^^>). whether some representation of the human or animal form. which it is now on the point of crossing Jordan to take possession of (6iof. He would nevertheless be true to the promise sworn to its forefathers {78 cf. and from the faithfulness with which. 5-26. He all has reserved Israel for peoples of the earth to t^e unique this. \ \ j 1 j j \ . 1 Himself. j j ' . ii2-6^ and frequently). 87-10." may be said to be the text.). i2r. moon. He has given to other nations the sun. and forbear from destroying it (g^-ioii). and who governs all men with absolute impartiality and justice (7^° lo^''^-). 15-24)^ ^^d Jehovah has chosen Israel. al. . } i . 1 j ' ' stars to adore (4^^. which in the rest of c. who rewards both the righteous and the evildoer as he deserves. Jehovah has wonderfully delivered Israel from its bondage in Eg>pt (432-38 621-23 ^ist 82ff. dealt with Israel in not on account of Israel's merits. cf. . a cheerful .37. "Thou shalt have no other gods before me. Jehovah has. t i . for neither . be His He has chosen it out own peculiar possession of ] (4^^ 7^ lo^^ 142 26^^)^ ' recipient of His self-revealing grace. He has led it safeU through the great and terrible wilderness (i^^ 2^ 8^^). Jehovah alone is God He is the Almighty there is none beside Him (435.39) ruler of heaven and earth. an absolute and uncompromisingf repudia- j and ready obedience to His will. and tion of all false gods. : . In fulfilment of that promise. a spiritual Being. in spite of all its backslidings. or even the host of heaven (4^2. 28) opens with the Decalogue First Commandment. in all the various relations of life in which the Israelite is likely to be brought into contact with his neighbour. He has assigned it a home in a bounteous and fertile land. i^ 431. are deduced the g^reat practical duties of loyaJ and loving- devotion to Him. dissimilar in kind to any and every material form hence no sensible representation can be framed of Him still less should Israel worship any other material object.

20)^ on account of the affection and constancy with which He has condescended to deal with Israel. 13. an all-absorbing sense to confer upon it. . 16. 20f. even by the most specious representations. In return for all it is the Israelite's duty to fear and love Jehovah. serve voice 30^.20 135(4) 1423 i^io (of ^^)> as the great and mighty God (lo^^j^ whose awe-inspiring manifestations strike terror into all beand to love Him (65 1012 ui.SCOPE the AND CHARACTER OF DEUTERONOMY loving. 28^^ 31^^' . all the heart all the soul" (with love 26^®. and the privileges.22 holders (432-36 io2i ii2-7 268) 134(3) jg9 306. to the practice of idolatry (132-12(1-11)). This brings with it. listen to & I3*<') 30'. is propounded in Dt. peril of the (6i4-i5 consequences. on the other hand. of personal devotion to Him. cf. against even a nearest relative or a trusted friend (137-12(6-11)) — for any one who either do so it practises idolatry himself. 11(10) j^5^ cf. . 31 423f.28 30IM8. ge 1012. and of Israel's the king). the Israelite is to love Him with undivided affection.* to ''cleave" to Him (io20 1122 136(4) 3020)^ to re- loyalty to nounce everything that is in any degree inconsistent with Him. God discipline thee " (S^). or subjected it to privations. Again and again is follow after 2g24-27 (25-28) upon "other gods" i6f. is. which He has vouchsafed The love of God. "As a man disciplines his son. on the one hand. 24 —to fear Him (410526(29) 62. and. undeserved on its part. not to 7* gi^-so 11I6-17. as the primary spring of human action (6^) it is the duty which is the direct corollary of the character of God. so manner of a doth Jehovah thy these benefits. 25-28) ^ — without hesitation or compunction.father (S^3: XXI 16) if He has withheld aught from it. or seeks to induce others to (136(0). relation to Him . (1313-19(1218))^ * it not to be spared The heathen and populations of Canaan are to be "With 30^^. iS^o) . death is the penalty and it is to be enforced. a cheerful and willing acquiescence in the positive commandments which He has the Israelite warned. and of every rite or practice connected with idolatry. an earnest and emphatic repudiation of all false gods. not to be tempted. turn to iq12 jj13^ keep and do commandments His Him search after in true penitence 4^). it has been with a view to its ultimate welfare. laid down. even though be a whole city that is has sinned by serving strange gods.

will it will bring be the sure avenue to national prosperity with it Jehovah's blessing. . the information and counsel for which other nations resorted to augurs and soothsayers (iS^^-^^). xxxiii. assuring them that it will only end in national ruin and disgrace {&^'^^ 811-20 iii6f. liable to contamination.18.XXll laid INTRODUCTION under the "ban" (see on 72).continued possession of the land of Canaan. idols is not to be put to any use by Israel (7^*^-)." in the long .14. Obedience to Jehovah's commands. were Israelites. and be the unfailing guarantee of "life. conscious of the danger lest. 16 no truce is to be made with them no intermarriage. 3i29). . in are developed. The Writer is. Israel should be tempted to forget the Giver. to the seductions_of idolatry: to guard therefore against this danger.11." and "length of days. Local shrines and altars. in the enjoyment of the good things of Canaan. the all sacrifices three great annual feasts are to be observed. is to be permitted (y^f-) places of worship and religfious symbols are to be ruthlessly destroyed (7^ 1 2-^-) even the metal which formed part of their 20I6-18) : . on the other hand. be made (i6-^f). through thoughtlessness and neglect. with great rhetori- power. on the part of the unspiritual rites : by the admixture of heathen accordingly. "the place which Jehovah shall choose to set His name there" ^125. their or other intercourse with them. at a single central sanctuary. if it come from the heart and be sincere. and and other religious dues are to be rendered. He "earnestly and emphatically forewarns them of the suicidal consequences of disobedience. to resuscitate the abolished religious rites or to introduce features from them into the worship of Jehovah Canaanitish forms ^ magic are not to be tolerated (iS^-^^) is divination and an authorized order of of prophets to supply in Israel. besides being often . even though ostensibly dedicated to the worship of the true God. and exterminated (72-4. however.* The consequences c?' obedience and disobedience respectively. referred cal to elsewhere. and yield on this ground. Nor is any attempt to (i 229-31).21. .26^ and elsewhere). the fine peroration which forms a worthy ter* See the passages quoted on p. it is repeatedly and strongly insisted. so far as Jehovah permits it.

however. (c. and generosity and the laws paramount importJudges are to be appointed in every . and. XXlll ii28-28 28.12 1^9 2i2i 2221. ality (16I8-20. are both vividly realized by the Writer: two of his standing phrases in this part of his book are "So shalt thou exterminate the evil from thy midst (or from Israel)" (136(5) 1^7. same society. Grave moral offences are visited severely the malicious witness is to be punished according to the lex lalionis (ig^^-^^) and . particularly justice.25). It is to embrace also the Israelite's social and domestic practical life . where occasion arises. and "And all Israel {or the people. and it is the Israelite's duty to Love of God involves the love of one's neighbour. The and it is to determine his attitude towards the moral and civil ordinances prescribed for his observance. death is the penalty. embodying such ance city. principles are manifestly of in the Writer's eyes. the crimes of their fathets in all Just weights and measures are to be used commercial transactions : (2513-1C). effected by the punishment of wrong-doers. evil- between members of the The moral purification of the community. c. ii6f. to be confined to religious duties. as in every well- ordered community. Duties involving directly the application of a moral principle are especially insisted on. and the avoidance of any act which may be detrimental to a neighbour's welfare. comp. who are to administer justice with the strictest imparticf.24 247). 2719.22. various civil ordinances which. are necessary for protection against doers. not only for murder (19111^). Fathers are not to be connor children (24I6).SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF DEUTERONOMY mination of the Deuteronomic Code 3015-20). unchastity. also form which devotion to Jehovah is to take is not. strictly so called. incorrigible behaviour in a man- . in Israel. observe cheerfully the social welfare of the nation obey them accordingly. The Israelite must therefore accommodate himself to the constitution under which he lives. and its deterrent effect upon others. philanthropy. or those that remain) shall hear and fear" (1312(11) and for regulating intercourse 21). 1^13 ig20 2 1 integrity. adultery. demned judicially for for the crimes of their children. but also for son. The individual laws contained in 12-26 are designed for the moral and . equity.

promptitude. especially at (1212. a neighbour who has lost any of hisj property (22^-*).29 ^^\\. in hostile territory not to be cut down). the! benevolence. ruling- the author's^ motive. are frequently appealed^ to as the motives by which the Israelite should in such cases be actuated (10^^ "For ye were strangers in the land of 24IS. 1515 1 612 that thou wast a bondman And thou shalt remember in the land of Egypt ").XXIV INTRODUCTION But humanity is . evoked by? the recollection of Israel's own past. taken captive in war)." are repeatedly commended to the (1429 2417. A spirifc of forbearance.is 1^27 igii.)j a fugitive slave (24'^). the unprotected foreigner settled in Israel i6"-i4 is. a poor man obliged to borrow on pledge' (246i2J. 2i^*'-i* (regard for feelings of a 22^ (battlement woman roof). 22 «« Egypt. 21^ (moderation in infliction of corporal punishment) : humanity towards animals prompts those in 22^^. 2611. 21 —the father- less and the widow. on (regard for neigh^ hour's crops). the. stranger alone lo^^ 26^1). stealing (2ii8-2i 2220f-22 24"). a slave at the time of his! manumission (15^^"^^). 20^-9 and 24^ (cases in which tion exemp(offer of from military service is to be granted).\4. a hired servant (241*^-). annual pilgrimages u when he and hisj household partook together before God of the bounty of soil. wherever considerations of religion or morality^ do not force him to repress it. 20. as the indigent in need of a loan (i5'^'^^ 23-0^. 2419-22 (gleanings to be left for the poor). the time of the great! 26^^). 20^°'- peace to be formally 2oi9f.25^. i2f. 238(7). Accordingly great emphasis' is laid upon the exercise of philanthropy.(fruit-trees made before attacking a hostile city). 1427. Several of thesQj provisions are prompted in particular by the endeavour tc^ ameliorate the condition of dependents." cf. and' liberality towards those in difficulty or want. and regard for the feelings or welfare of others underlies the regulations of 5^^^ (the slave to enjoy the rest of the sabbath).e.(i^^-)). and to mitigate theJ . and might the more readily respond to an appeal fori Gratitude. 26i2f- Israelite's! charity or regard 2719. 232^f-(2-»f) 21^^-^'^ (firstborn not to be disinherited in favour of son of favourite^ wife). and a sense of sympathy. and : in! the law for the disposition of the triennial tithe landless Levite(i2i2-isf. equity.)^ (i4^^'^') thei — and the "stranger i.

we ask which are its fundamental ideas. a pure and spiritual Being. that all false follows as an immediate corollary all gods. are to be not merely reformed. p.11- i2jj and (as the Table. Nowhere OT.) absent from the older legislation (see e. 197 . are to 2.. p. 4. and of large-hearted benevolence towards man. do we breathe such atmosphere of generous devotion to God. or with more winning and persuasive eloquence and nowhere else is it shown with the same fulness of detail how high and noble principles may be applied so as to elevate and refine the entire "^ life of the community. : — Jehovah is the only God. Deuteronomy. and even material representa- tions of Jehovah. of Levi is confirmed is in its possession of priestly rights and it alone to supply ministers for the sanctuary. ' following 1. XXV Not indeed that similar considerations are 2220-23 (21-24). The he arif^ author speaks out of a kindle warm heart himself. who has loved from Israel. Theologie der Propheten (1875). whether towards God or man.(27f. Comp. will of the enactments that have been cited are even from it : but they are developed in have shown) some borrowed Dt. that they are the servants of a holy and loving God the determining principle of their and love is to be conduct. 3. There : is to be only one legitimate place of public worship the local shrines. is far more than a mere code ff. ivff. or of actually heathen worship. nowhere else are duties and motives set forth with greater depth and tenderness of feeling. Duhm. we shall find them to be the . and It is wrorthy to receive Israel's un- divided love in return. /If after this review of the general scope of Dt.* SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF DEUTERONOMY cruelties of war. * it is evident. which were seats of either un- spiritual. but abolished. in every action and moment (6^*^) of their lives. and he strives to a warm response in the heart of every one else in the whom addresses. this. o^e9.g. 26r.. with an emphasis and distinctness which gfive a character to the entire work. be unconditionally discarded. : Israel is to be a holy nation its members . The tribe . Ex. are to recol- lect.

may help Israel to realize its ideal. when it : recognized by Israel. and keep alive. But it is not enough for him that the law is obeyed: it must be obeyed also from the right motives. which. 4* . not less of the statutes embodied in Dt. ** .n"t 3ii2*)^ than of the exhortations with which the author accompanies them. and intended for popular use. in the author's judgment. 6^'. In so far. thus combines the spirit of the it is a prophetical and ceremonial statutes become the expression of a great spiritual and moral ideal. in Israel's heart the true religious 12-26. character in every part.XXvi of laws. &' cf. It does not embrace a complete corpus of either the in force civil or the ceremonial statutes that were was written it excerpts such as were. or the temper in which they should be obeyed. he develops and applies every motive which may touch Israel's heart or win its allegiance. To fear God is the Israelite's primary duty (6^^ 10^2. will bring with national prosperity wisely obeying a just and beneficently designed constitution (46-8) : this. in c. it may be described as a manual. as Dt. to observe upon the moral purposes w'hich they subserve. it {e. he dwells . entering into technical details. 28). would instruct the Israelite in the ordinary duties of life. and the frequency with is which. : prophet and the spirit of the legislator Law-book^ a law-book in which civil • Notice also the importance attached to the education of children. Hence the stress which he lays upon the theocratic premises oi Israel's national character. with the significance that they possess in the Writer's eyes. most generally necessary for the Israelite to know. 5-1 1. 20 2858) and to generate.. They are means which The author would fain see his people exhibit to the world the spectacle of a nation assured. addressed to the people. however. (4^'^ and of many particular usages prescribed in 14^). without as a rule spirit is the aim. the earnestness with which. Dt. and best adapted to exemplify the moral and spiritual principles which it was his main anxiety to see practically. he is it and greatness. It is INTRODUCTION I the expression of a profound ethical and reits it which determines and invests the laws contained in ligious spirit.^. while expounding the laws which Israel (c. is a law-book.

C. one after fulfilment of His moral demands . as to provide an effectual moral and spiritual agency. 19^) that it was Israel's vocation to be a "holy nation". national organization of Israel while at the stimulates the individual conscience by same time he so new and powerful motives. 4I-3 ^^^«- Hos. . be here assumed. The prophets had held up before their people high conceptions of life and duty they the foundation of the prophets. with fresh emphasis. deepen the spiritual life and to penetrate and transform the whole . become the informing principles of his teaching he absorbs them into his own spiritual nature he shows how they may be systematically applied so as not merely another. Hosea had traced back both the moral and material deterioration of the Northern Kingdom to its abandonment of Jehovah. was composed it during the reign of either Manasseh or Josiah. ^-^ Mic. iai-« I him in the emphatic acknowledging Jehovah Is. will may be seen that the author builds upon and that his primary aim is to an effectual moral stimulus for realizing the ideals which they had propounded. 2i^'ff- repudiation of nature-worship.. capable — if any agency were capable — of moulding the nation is into conformity with the prophetic ideal. but also to of individuals. 3'-^. to correct palpable abuses. These are the truths which. however. ii"- Am. of Hosea. some respects to anticipate the conclusions of in and to assume that Dt. cannot. If this necessary in § 4. and in * E. brought home to the author. Not only does he K.* that the claims of civil paramount in His eyes : Isaiah . B. had taught that Jehovah's favour was conditioned by the they had declared. and had forewarned it of the bitter consequences which devotion to idolatry would bring in its train. be properly it understood.SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF DEUTERONOMY which the is XXVll life designed to comprehend and govern the entire of community. with fresh vividness.g. and social justice were had reaffirmed. the spiritual heir join with In a special degree the author of Dt. create . 2 S. by the recent experiences of Manasseh's reign. the old truth (Ex. until forth : is viewed in the light in the following of the age which remarks therefore it will be the 7th cent. . The called it true significance of Dt.

With Hosea. : ' : \ . love. if in the hands of the older prophets (cf. bottom). and the same ungrudging affection. Jeremiah. almost. gof. I j I Jehovah and in Israel. "This truth is equally set forth in is infused with the I . Jehovah first ** loved" Israel and the true Israelite is he who . Dt. the presiding genius of his And thus Dt. upon Israel's part as the of which! and inj j human duties. monotheism: nevertheless.• 1 2^ («) {hesed demanded by God : see p. p. See Hos. is And . S'". and all human relationships within the Israelitish | i community are rooted in in | this.ii"ff. / this love. teaches the^ | great truth that religion intellect is concerned not merely with the it and the both will. both Jehovah and his fellow-Israelites. in his conduct towards his neigh- bour. and who loves. p. 9" ii'-* . his Life and Times.)^\ not quite. ' XXvill INTRODUCTION ] > as the true Giver of nature's bounty. . the Israelite justice or equity to be actuated not only by what Love is strict ' demands he is repeatedly exhorted to exercise to be towards him offices of affection and kindness.26'». mitigating the severity which ancient usage prescribed for dealing with the latter I i (p. sympathy are the | immediate. Deuteronomy. / Of course. 2""m«. Hosea. The primal love of Jehovah to Israel fills the foreground of each writer's discourse. t Cheync. | I same spirit. with the same spontaneity. and in the Deuteronomist's great spiritual predecessor. 3* 4» W • 4I 6*. < I teaching of the prophets.. is a moral love it where the necessity arises. however. 66.13*-«. The monotheistic creed of Dt. is another development of the The original monolatry " of Israel ' * became indeed. 102). xxiii.* he agrees with him also in the prominence which he assigns to the emotional side of j rehgion. affection. this truth is'« i 1 • Hos. life. fruits of the religious temper. but that involves equally the exercise ! /and right direction of the affections. by the demands of righteousness hence idolatry and immorality cannot be tolerated or condoned by it the author is conscious of no inconsistency in propounding the most rigorous repressive measures against the former and he finds no occasion for in i must be limited."t The passages have been already quoted culcates a responsive love of Jehovah first Deuteronomy emphasizes Jehovah's love of Israel. and most natural.

The unspiritual Israelites. Acts 6^". time. J But long before then. as Jews from appropriating the more spiritual teaching of Christ. * Note also 4^^ (where the heathen religions are ^tributed to the supreme providence of Israel's God) and (in the Song-) 32^. it its own nemesis. In the end. and in was one of the causes which incapacitated the a later age attachment to the Temple. of the warnings of the prophets (comp. and which looked up to the national Temple on Zion partly it arose as specially honoured by Jehovah's presence out of the circumstances of the age. may seem indeed and inconsistent with the author's (lo^*) but partly it was result of the national feeling of Israel. Jehovah to Jerusalem. a even in their most exalted moments.SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF DEUTERONOMY taught more formally and explicitly than by earlier writers . to which the prophets. The concentration of worship in a single spot was thus a necessary providential stage in the purification of conception of the Divine nature : . . t E. which made the local Under the sanctuaries centres of impure or unspiritual rites. 39 54 ^o iqIT) * and its vivid realization by the author finds expression in the insistence with which he urges Jehovah's claim to be the exclusive object of the Israelite's reverence.g. "j^-^^ brought with in spite 66^-*). the single sanctuary was a corollary of conditions of the Worship at different places would the monotheistic idea. The limitation of the public worship of (c. and might even lead to the syncretistic confusion of Jehovah with other deities. and many other ancient deities) tend (as to generate different conceptions of the god worshipped. &c. \ I and even the destruction of the Temple brought with danger of a lapse into the idolatries of the past.! were hardly ever wholly superior. (4^5. it is true. this exclusive- ness. + Comp. which Dt.). Jer. in the case of Ba'al. viewed the material sanctuary on Zion as the palladium of their security. XXIX in Dt. lofty 12. 3" Is. 2--* 25« Jer. inculcates so strongly to us to be a retrograde step. maintained with blind one-sidedness and exaggeration. the victory over polytheism had been won it . 56'' 6620-23. Is. . ethical qualities of He is Jehovah are frequently dwelt upon y emphatically a righteous God a hater of siqr . . the popular idea of God. Is. operating irrespectively of their own moral worthiness such. no / The in Dt.

if properly observed.281 i^wfi-j) jy4 jo^s 27I5) (18'^). xxi. cf. own free choice. and cherished Israel. mag-ic and divination immoral customs (22' 23*^ P*) 24*) . A right heart. and Israel to obedience. though he does not emphasize it in the manner of the Priests' Code. with the tenderness and affection of a father . may exercise and keep alive a religious spirit (14^^). and the motives [especially gra^ziude and love) which should prompt Israel to respond accordingly. More particularly.26 . The offerings on which he lays the greatest . commercial injustice (25''). have been indicated above (pp. The nature of the duties devolving hence upon Israel. binding Jehovah to faithfulness.12 2316(14)). and earnestly commends its i^^27. if He has also disciplined it. the priestly tribe. he takes for granted. members to the Israelite's benevolence (i2i8. may guard Israel's "holiness" from profanation. 68) involving mutual duties and obligations.19 The ceremonial observances current at the time . the oath sworn to the patriarchs He will never break even towards a heathen nation (2^). * yet He is ready to forg-ive the penitent. and shows mercy : and compassion towards those who deserve it He has watched over. and upon occasion regulates. He does not rescind / what He has once decreed becomes in Jehovah's relation to Israel originated in His xx) and inheritance. 29 gjc.). fidelity to Especially does the author emphasize Jehovah's . — — than the prophets generally. is indeed the only religion which has value in his eyes but he is aware that external forms. With priestly institutions the author has greater sympathy regard. * Idolatrous rites (723. he has no desire to see abolished the custom of sacrifice. His promises . and of the Deuteronomic school (p. 6^ ii^s 14^'^M also 225. xxiv). . Israel / (p. instinct with true affections towards God and man. it has been for its ultimate good. / ^ consequence His special possession and the constant object of His His relation to it is represented under the figure of a covenant one of the characteristic ideas both of Dt. he guards He its evinces a warm regard for privileges (18^-^). demands obedience for its decisions (24^. 171012). and preserve it from contamination with heathen influences (cf.: XXX and wrong-. ignoble INTRODUCTION practices are an "abomination" to Him.

Dt. 32*3). indirectly. is indeed-^ I treated naturally with consideration: but the "foreigner. p. shows consider-^' able exclusiveness and ** particularism. a and more is for the injunction friendly attitude. does not find expression in Dt. In and of the display of generous 1»- hospitality towards the destitute (la^its w j^Kt. and (p. ZKWL. in the duties of life ally led the and the circumstances of the age natur- author to discourage. probable that shows to be the case with that relating to 'Amalek. he desires to be occasions of gladness before Jehovah. the Edomite and the Egyptian all (238'- inculcated towards It is (^'•>). in Not only does he repeatedly p.17 26>o): and the religious feasts. 7«. designed to provide Israel with instruction . based upon the recollections of the past. 23'2'-). u 2511). and the motives with which he has enforced them. ." Jehovah owns indeed ( the entire world but His favourable regard is limited to the ." as is excluded from I pecuniary advantages permitted to the Israelite (15^23*^^*^). but only an anti- quarian reason to exterminate is assigned for the antipathy displayed towards (23*-^<3-6)j^ the 'Ammonites and Moabites 'Amalek (25^7-19). in the Song. . 126). 1880. 605. 561 • See D^ Jos. perhaps. (once. Delitzsch. rest upon an ancient traditional basis.610.20I8 (cf. and will one day receive them into His fold. rather than to promote. as Ex. j^n. every means in his power. The prophetic truth that Jehovah has also a care for other nations. who has placed himself under the protection of Israel such. The encroachments of heathenism formed the pressing danger of the age and these the author strove to resist by form . attitude towards other nations. t Comp. The Ger. 1714-16 in which they are cast. people of His choice. a friendly attitude towards the heathen. is a law-book. Dillm. stands upon a different level. t and that the author's part in them is limited to the these regulations.15. The reason is not far to seek Dt.: SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF DEUTERONOMY XXXi Stress are those expressive of gratitude to God as the Giver of the good things of Canaan (1422-27 1519-23 . especially those held in connexion with the great annual pilgrimages. Religious motives* sufficiently explain the strongly hostile attitude adopted towards the Canaanites .

185. 164). the notes on \2^^ iV'^'Cp. Hibbert Lectures. and were ascribed traditionally to Moses. § The truth that virtue is rewarded with temporal blessings. § Comp. Jeremiah. as the Books of Kings and the prophets show. that if allowed to prevail. 67 . or against the immoralities of Phoenician nature- worship. the time when they could be enforced had long passed away they had consequently only an ideal value they bear witness by their severity to the intensity of the author's convictions on the subject. p. p. and vice punished with temporal misfortunes. no doubt. Montefiore. Ch^yne. because they formed an element in the older legislation (Ex. they were a significant protest against the fashions of the age. =i'' i6"-= \f'^ iS^"" 22* z-^^^: t Cf. than appears on the surface.! . which. . 365. it must. and to the reality of the dangers which he felt threatened Israel's religion from this quarter.. (171^-20) is to guard against admixture with and participation in foreign policy. la^i). or the assimilation of undesirable foreign customs. which usually rule supreme in the author's mind. injunctions. partly.* Foremost among these provisions stand the injunctions for These are included in Dt. they will .XXXll declare. of course. "The essential object of the short law of the kingdom foreigners. ultimately involve Israel in national ruin but a larg-e number of provisions —are aimed directly against them the extirpation of the Canaanites. was written. a truth — • See especially c. had deeply tainted the worship of Jehovah. are directed against the encroachments of heathenism. It is probable also that many more prohibitive ordinances of Dt. —much larger than in the Book of the . be remembered that in the age when Dt. but chiefly because by the drastic completeness with which they sought to secure Israel against pernicious religious influences." \ And other precepts are directed either against popular heathen superstitions. and afforded the author a means of expressing indirectly his profound abhorrence of practices which he knew In estimating these to be subversive of holiness (cf. . : OTJC" p. in INTRODUCTION solemn terms. Covenant and the need of enforcing these overrides even those considerations of forbearance and humanity. 2331-33). 13.

30 (33) 62. but not less forcibly.3. and the widow")." "that Jehovah may bless thee. the fatherless." with the limitations incident to age and place stamped upon it. which show how assured he was of the general validity of the truth which they express. i6«« (impartiality in judgment). The doctrine — that "righteousness exalteth a nation.9 26i8f. . it must all in pieces. Comp. 12^-^ (prohibition to eat blood). is^"-" (liberality in lending to needy. 4*' 526 (28). 25" honesty). The other aspect of the same doctrine is taught less frequently. in the event of obedience. 19" (justice on murderer). 31®." The power which gave Israel its cohesion and strength was its religion .3'".18. IW. Retribution." or similar phrases. 17" (king's obedience of bird). True.SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF DEUTERONOMY XXxiii tenaciously held by the ancient Hebrews. • The promise is annexed both to the general observance of the Dcut -jqIS. are the recurring formulae. as such.* The same conviction finds hyperbolical expression in the promise that. "it is a book of national religion. it . i"*. 5'* Is. glSf. as its prophets unanimously saw.3 28"^' 29" (")^- X Job »• • c ." "that it may be well for thee. if it was untrue fall to this. 28^). ^26 2ol7f. to Deut. is an important paedagogic principle.sS"-" I &c. has been said truly to form the essence of his ** philosophy of history.24 jqIS . The religious value of Deuteronomy is very great. jlSf. 5" triennial parents). law). and to particular commands. Religion becomes thus the real .j. . ^2" (cf." as it is also one of the motives to obedience on which he most frequently insists: "that thou mayest live. Israel will be "set high" above all nations [26^^ and enjoy material superiority over them (is^** 28'2b.! (7^^). 1^^^ (application of and in tithe to relief of the poor). viz. 22^ (humane treatment sheaf 2321 Po) (not demanding interest of Israelite). 24" (leaving forgotten (commercial for the "stranger. . ground of moral and social order and the aim of Dt. 614f. is frequently emphasized by the author. Am. alsO 7"-" X !"-"•»«•» law. and so of universal religion. and (as the book of Job shows) even treated by them as a universal law of God's providence. isj. is to establish for religion a deeper basis than that of public ritual." "that thou mayest prolong thy days. 281-" 29* P) (hoooar to 308). . " but it is withal a book of personal religion. treatment of slave). and. is it is said emphatically overtakes the evil-doer in person not reserved (as was sometimes thought |) for his descendants." while wickedness is the sure prelude to national disaster.

life i . Date. could only be comprehended and expressed by the community. Carpenter. and to proclaim its highest word as the first law. Deuteronomy accepted this truth. I E. to quicken and intensify powerful "Hosea had already the religious life of the individual. Einlettung in den Hexateuch (1893). no 6*-5). correct.. Authorship. Deuteronomy was therefore. in order to make our ground is secure. himself." 281. 313 ff. INTRODUCTION The author addresses . . " p. when they had first been deeply felt by each single soul and in enunciating its principles for the government of the cerned that that . April 1883. perceived that in our religious find life. The Book of Deuteronomy. it took the first steps towards transferring the stress of religion from national observance to individual consciousness. parts of the precedingindebted to Holzinger. 1 - | . ! longer for Judah but for the world (Mark i22S-30. by appealing to the most the individual soul and generous emotions. enunciIt ating them for the whole human race in every age. j < traditional Israel. Review. It dis- \ must be a life of loyal obedience and of inasmuch as these are not outward acts holy affection and but inward states. and Structure. and proposed as its ultimate ideal a community which should collectively realize a relationship of reverence These great sentiments and love to its heavenly Lord. to start i with the assumption that the traditional view of the authorship of the * J. it is | 1 not so much we who ' God. indicated in § gives rise to two questions.. will be proper. 1 first four books of the Pent. as God who finds us. the consideration of which will conveniently open this part of our subject. \ The relation of Dt. books of the Pent. in fact. — In Modem pagijs I am the \ \ . XXXIV or legal rules." * \ ( ( 3 §4. And so the teaching of Deuteronomy leads direct to the supreme thought of Christ. p. to the preceding 2. The in questions. more directly and effectively than any previous teacher of Israel had done. to he labours. was j reserved for the greatest of Israel's sons to discern this completely. Dt. and sought to show what forms the religious life thus quickened would assume among Yahveh's people. as It .

a notice of which in the history. ever assume the character of discrepancies which cannot be reconciled ? (2) Is the relation between them such as to be incompatible with the traditional view that the author of both is Moses ? That the author of Dt. 3. some other which deserve closer consideration.31 cause no difficulty. 23-28 1O-8. but which might well have been passed over character. however. 20I2 (cf. of course. in the abstract. Here the mission of the spies is represented as due entirely to a suggestion made by the people in Nu. No doubt the two representaMoses. 9^-10") or allusively elsewhere. and of the manner in which the people responded to them. if not in the former as well. I-'-'. incidents not recorded by him in his previous narrative. variations. 2.. and Moses selects the judges accordingly. 1^) that the proposal had his not mention that it had Jehovah's also. no allusion is takes action without at by Moses and Moses might be replied that the two accounts are mutually supplementary what is narrated in Dt. that they should be so worded as to suggest to the reader iwo different ideas of what had taken place and (especially) that Moses. i*"" would fall very naturally between Ex. they relate to details of a personal would be conformable to the plan of the retrospect. There are. complaining to the people of the difficulty that he found in dealing personally with the number of cases that arose the people assent to the proposal. i8'^'^ the plan is referred entirely to the advice of . In the 39th year of the Exodus : here the ground of the prohibition is Jcbovah'» Canaan on account anger with him on account of the people (so 3=«4*')t "pon *« occasion whkb . . made all consulting the people. But in this case. accordingly additions such as those in 22if. 1-3 . it might tions are capable.j9.-Nu. i^^"* is really the answer to his inquiry. the it remains remarkable.AUTHORSHIP OF DEUTERONOMY XXXV then which suggest themselves are: (i) Do the variations between the narratives of Dt. would. of being harmonized to the difficulty felt .. : : be supposed. In Ex. while mentioning (Dt. approving personally of the proposal (Dt. though unnecessary in the narrm> five. 18^ the narrative and the retrospect are written from different points of view and some notice of the motives by which Moses was inwardly influenced. and Gn. would be in harmony with the general plan of the retrospect.20f. desired to know if it had Jehovah's sanction and the command in Nu. shoold i"-=». 13'"* it is referred to a command received directly by Moses from Jehovah. own is approval.i8f. 27"'- Dt. not in itself excite surprise. if the two accounts were written by one and same person. 1. supposing him to be identical with the author of Ex. In Nu.-Nu. either in the retrospects (c. should mention. 18^ and Ex. In i^"^^ the plan of appointing judges to assist Moses is represented as originating' with Moses himself. Jethro . . : It : . i*). 32*"-) Moses prohibited to enter of his presumption in striking the rock at Kadesh.

returningf in v. it seems. must refer either to Ex. there ceases to be a contradiction with Ex. | the source from which the notice is derived. and executed by him. ' 9.. j j . from the 2nd to the 39th year. 5. four stations beydnd Jotbathah. as here reproduced. The discrepancy in two narratives. but the reference seems to bei (see p. speaking i. and bear witness to the existence of divergent traditions in our present Pentateuch. : I .. Cf. to a large extent verbally 7.. 6. it seems impossible to harmonize the representation contained in these passages with that of Numbers according to Nu. iigf. : < ] . will be relieved of the contradiction with Nu. at the close of his first forty days upon the mountain. All . after Moses' return from the mountain (36-'" 37^). i 1 | .XXXVl (see the note INTRODUCTION | ! ad loc. if both are the work of one and the same writer. Obviously. 34^* ^ (his third visit to it). and actually does make. 31-33. the stations Beeroth and Bene-ja'akan are mentioned in the inverse order and (v. Nu. not from either of these passages. likely (p. 3*-^°. in this case. 9^"^.^ to the 2nd year. natural enough but in the . should have passed. 10®"'. ii7f. &c. 10^"*.(Moses' second visit to the mountain). no doubt. though the contradiction will still attach to . so circumstantial as each of these is. the 38 years in the wilderness were spent at Kadesh according to Dt.^) the death of Aaron is stated to have taken place. (as it now stands) the command is both given to Bezal'el. 120) that 10®"^ is not part of the original text of Dt. but at Mount Hor. however. lo*"' be not original in Dt. but from 32' 1"^^. is highly improbable. Dt. : . Moses is directed to make. 32^". as at that time can in that case refer only to the period indicated in those verses. moreover. or (more probably) to Ex. in the very words of Ex. 8 Nu. This passage (see p. 4.j 28-29 Lev. ] i . 121) to some incident not mentioned in the existing text of Ex. an ark of acacia-wood before ascending . there is a possible formal reconciliation. I • things considered. 33^"^ (in P's itinerary of the joume)'ings in the wilderness).) agrees with Ex.. not at Moserah. . they were spent a-way from Kadesh (2").. In Nu. but the variation is remarkable. 14. at that] tiTne will refer to the period of the sojourn at Horeb. now. If lo*'^ be an integral part of Dt. however. 8. describes him as doing so on the^r^^ occasion. . The supposition that Moses. to receive the Ten Commandments. that the terms of Moses own intercession. relating. 34^"*'^. . If. 32-34 Moses was three times in the mount (32^*^" 32'' but it is only on the third occasion that he is recorded 34^) to have fasted (34^) Dt. it is plain. 33^^"^.i the 40th year. 37 years previously. may relate what is passed by in silence in Ex. the mount the third time. with the difference that in Dt. acting on his behalf. j I narrative of Ex. 9®.. As shown in the notes on p. is. 10^"' . . in v. As shown in the notes on pp. are borrowed. i — — • . That Moses should describe as made by himself what was in fact made by Bezalel. is difficult to explain. 10^"" will assign the consecration of the tribe of Levi to a much later date than is done in Ex. describing incidents in which he was personally concerned. 10^'. if this be the case. i^ 2^"^*..) is plainly fixed by the context for the 2nd year of the Exodus. According to Ex. to a period long subsequent to the episode of the Golden Calf. in wandering about Edom (2^).. though not one that can be called probable. This. It is singular. however. Dt.^.

were given in the wilderness for a time of future settlement in Canaan. 4. receive his freedom in the seventh year (v. be said to be not i and 2. fairly explained upon the hypothesis of Mosaic to the consideration of the laws in Dt. though they cannot favourable to Moses' authorship. 5 and 6 awaken graver doubts should afford so — it is surprising that the retrospects cases (see p. In Dt." 2. however. 15'* the law of Ex.^) . from the intercession of Moses to the slaughter of the sons of Si^ion (or 'Og). Even the greater detail and development tion. and regulates usage for an age in which the father's power over his daughter was less absolute than it had been in more primitive times. originated in a later stage of society than the laws of Ex. and to a bondwoman who comes into servitude with her husband is to receive her freedom at the same time (v. at once explicable upon the supposition that the law of Dt. We may pass now in their relation to those of Ex. 15" and Ex. appears to show) is Jehovah's altar (cf. In Ex. If both laws. by the addition of "or an Hebrewess. Contrast also Dt.^). 21-23 (JE)." is pointedly extended so as and in v. ai^-s) for a Hebrew girl to be bought to be the wife of bcr master or his son.) points in this direc- though not. But a daughter sold by her father as a bondwoman is on a different footing she is not to go free as the bondmen do (v. the variation just noted appears arbitrary. In Ex. are neverabsolutely incompatible with it. . Let us first compare the laws in Ex. It is. i*" 2») .. viiif.. cases of pecuniary compensations for injury to property the offence » consequently treated as one of pecuniary loss to the father. with v. 21* (p.AUTHORSHIP OF DEUTERONOMY Of theless XXXVii these discrepancies. as appears from the reference to the door and doorpost.*). i K. many 3. . in which the reconciliation can only be effected by a duplication of the event recorded in the earlier narrative .) the law of seduction stands at the close of a list 3. of course. xviii)..^^ it is expressly prescribed that the to include bondwomen bondwoman (without any limitation) is to be subject to the same law of manumission as bondmen. 21I2 the asylum for manslaughter (as the connexion 1. (c 19) definite cities are set apart for the purpose. In Ex. in Dt. of 22'"-(i6«. 184). however. 21^" a Hebrew bondman is to serve for six years. Here we observe in certain cases modifications which cannot be reasonably accounted for. and when it was no longer the custom (see Ex. who muat : M . (p. except upon the supposition that the laws of Dt. and 7 cannot be authorship. so decisively as the cases of modification.-Nu. Both laws are designed for the land of Canaan. springs from a more advanced stage of society than the law of Ex.

23^*"' the provisions of the sabbatical year have a purely agricultural reference in Dt..."^ p. W.. a fixed fine takes the place of the variable mohar. are equally designed for the use of* the people in when settled in Canaan. for which the provisions of Ex. : Lev. it is implied (18^*) that all members of the tribe of Levi are In — — i \ qualified to exercise priestly functions . or matters of no concern to the Writer they are sometimes contradicted. Answer Libel (Edin. as shown above (p. 368 f. were no longer | adequate. . and JE (Ex. In Ex. xiii . 1878). it is altogether' impossible to do this in the case of the laws of P for not only are the variations which the regulations of Dt. a sharp distinction is drawn and enforced under stringent penalties (Nu. 1 separate holdings of land. the following are instances of contraj j diction I. Smith. ' Modifications such as these cannot reasonably be attributed to the altered circumstances or prospects of the nation at the close of the 40 years' wanderings: the provisions of Ex.— XXXVlll INTRODUCTION i compensated by the seducer purchasing the damsel as wife for the full In Dt. ] | cited above. 56 f. i ^ j j . the sabbatical year was to receive price (77iohar) of a virgin. If. as if they were either non-existent. Had both laws been framed by Moses. ! ' | : | | | . ( . sometimes ignored. «) between the priests and the common Levites: in Dt.). and the possession of] plain both from the tenor of z-^^-. it is thus difficult to attribute the laws of Dt. p. it is difficult not to think that in formulating Dt. lei**. 21-23) to the same legislator. Those of Dt. p. and regulations are to the laid down j I * Comp. < also this new application. however. it cannot be supposed that P was one of the sources employed by the author of Dt. laws and institutions of fundamental importance in P are treated in Dt. 15^'^ the institution is applied so as to form a check on the power of the creditor. OTJC. in addition to the provisions there laid down.the existence of houses. 15^"^ he would have made some allusion to the law of Ex. 4.^s. Instances of their being ignored were . differ just . Nu. being adapted to meet the needs of a more developed state of society. . and mentioned that. the corresponding law (22^'*) appears not among laws of property. . R. as is i and from the various laws implying. present much graver. but among laws of moral purity and though it is still provided that the offender shall marry the damsel and make com* pensation to the father. but. Addit. xiiif. 23^'"*.

in Dt. in two years out his household at a sacred feast of three. 2. and the widow" (12^-^*-^ i^^-^ i6"-" 26". The explanations offered by Principal Douglas whose name I mention with all respect in Lex Mosaica (pp. 2^'^ enjoins the release of the Hebrew slave in the year of jubile. Dt. is inconsistent with the institution of Levitical cities (Nu. 3. the fatherless. and those of P are greater than could arise. : These differences between the laws of Dt.AUTHORSHIP OF DEUTERONOMY (iS*"*) to XXXIX meet the case of any member coming' from the country to the and claiming to officiate there as priest. 15'-'^ the legislator. ^32-34 ^the breast and the right thigh to be the priest's due in a peacecentral sanctuary. assigned entirely to the Levites. it is. priest. and the maw to be the tribe. the provision of Dt. 7." in Dt. priest's perquisite in a peace-offering) is in direct contradiction with Lev. they are not limited to any such future contingency as this. In Lev. 18^' they are assigned absolutely and expressly to the 4. In P particular provision is made for the maintenance of both priests and Levites. 17" the flesh of an animal dying of itself (nebeldh) is not to be eaten either by the Israelite or by the "stranger": in Dt. 6. I2''* ^^ 15^^^ the firstlings of oxen and sheep are to be ea/en by the oToner himself at a sacred feast to be held at the central sanctuary : in Nu. but its terms are quite general. in which the country Levite is represented as destitute of adequate maintenance. offering). — — .*^^) pay a tenth to the priests be consumed by the offerer and — . In Nu. . prescribes the release of the Hebrew slave in the seventh year of his service. the regulations are very different. but "sojourner" in one of the cities ("gates. 12^* the paschal sacrifice is limited to a lamb may be either a sheep or an ox (see also the note on 1^). In Dt. without brining his new law into relation with the different one of Lev. it a As remarked on p. 16^ it 8. 14-' it is prohibited for the Israelite. were the legislator the * same in see the notes on the passages quoted. in both cases the members of the priestly tribe sharing. the cheeks. For attempts that have been made to harmonize these discrepancies. 21) 48 cities are appointed for their In Dt.only together with other destitute persons in the offerer's bounty." see p. 18* is not incompatible with such an institution.). residence. While Lev. but permitted to the " stranger. In Ex. and allow considerably less ample provision for the maintenance of the Thus Dt. and (what is especially noticeable) they harmonize with other passages of Dt. 18® . under both heads. 18^"** the tithe is their turn (v. is 35*"^ implies that the Levite has no settled residence. lit. Jos. 35^"* (cf.* 5. Ixxix) of Israel. 18^ (the shoulder. and is placed in the same category with the "stranger. supposing it to have been imperfectly put in force . to (14^^). and in the third year to be applied to the relief of the poor (14^**'). who in : in Dt. 80-96) must be regretfully pronounced to be not less strained and unsuccessful than those of his predecessors. and in Nu. 218.

but — — ' ^ ' > ' him to have a great ceremonial system. . or of defining the place which ceremonial institutions should hold in a spiritual • See p. . t Not only does Dt. even in general terms. t The rights and revenues of the tribe of Levi do fall within the scope of DL (see 18^"*). if P were written by Moses. for the purpose of summarizing its leading principles. The Day of Atonement. he should have thus held himself aloof from a body of law. refer to the system which (ex hyp. not less than within that of P. undoubtedly true that the aim of Dt. and at the same time of the utmost value to future generations of Israelites he does not. ignoring institutions which he had represented as of central significance in his system. the other is addressed to the people . it is enjoined in P (Lev. is the author does not even do what.) been so intimately concerned. : . the one j represents the priestly point of view. supposing . • ' I that of P : the one is intended (chiefly) for the guidance of j the priests. in the compilation of which he had {ex hyp. supposing" that Moses may have foreseen the neglect of his own and provided for it accordingly but not one of the regulations that have been referred to betrays any indication whatever that this was the intention of the legislator in framing it in every case the terms of the provision are It is also as unqualified and absolute as are those of P. the other that of the ! prophets other. xiii. the one lays down a complete code fall of ritual observj ances.* and contradicting regulations which he had declared to be invested with the highest sanctions.) he had prescribed. by another hand under his direction.xl INTRODUCTION j 1 both : they can only be explained by the supposition that the reflect the two systems of law usage of two distinct periods i Of course there is no difficulty in of the national life. which certainly does not within the scope of the I or even compiled Still. 23^*). and yet the provisions are to be observed I i I altogether different. it is inconceivable that in recapitulating at the close of his life the laws which he desired the Israelites to observe. is very different from institutions : . been interested in . j ] by all under penalty of death. not contain (in any sense of the word) a resume or "recapitulation" of the laws of P. would have been consonant with the general plan of his work.

—Comp. cannot be sustained. and are an indication that we have before us the work of another hand. 122-128. were the writer in both cases the same the discourses of Dt. The literary styles of Dt. Westphal. while each has a strongly individual character. the Mosaic authorship of the first four books of the Pent. the other books P's style. Rev. the style. even if (as work of the same author. but not for 172 ff..f ^ In point of fact. 231 ff. in face of own individuality as to be also the author of the Nor can the Mosaic authorship of Dt. as P's style less differs is. which are absent from JE (comp.. from it : — — * He does this. to some extent. p.. If cannot claim his authorship. the work .O. be maintained a comparison with JE. AUTHORSHIP OF DEUTERONOMY religion.. Ixxvii). and P. 241 fF. though of the not so different from the style of Dt. leads thus to the same conclusion which resulted from the study of the historical sections each. 1888. and must be sought in the Commentaries on the books in question. though the proof cannot be stated here. are cast in if two entirely different moulds Moses was the author of the one. for the laws of those of P. his attitude towards it most characteristic ideas are alien to his mind. It is confirmed by the independent evidence of style. also. is Jan. presents inconsistencies incompatible with the supposition of both being the This conclusion follows.T. and that Moses himself should have drawn upon it in Dt. shows that and have no place in his scheme of religion. cannot be considered probable. L. has up to this point been assumed) Moses be the author of the preceding books of the Pentateuch. But waiving this point. pp. however. he cannot have so far his disowned other. " The book style quite unlike the other books of the Hexateuch : stands absolutely alone. The study of the legal sections of Dt." On of Moses.. t Similarly 144) it : Dean (now Bishop) Perowne (Contemp. when compared with the corresponding : sections of Ex.* its 'xli On the contrary. That a composite narrative Exodus should have arisen in the lifetime of Moses. neverthe- more than would be consonant with the tenacious literary habits of Hebrew authors.-Nu. is in it JE (i6^"^').. are pervaded throughout by a uniform colouring and tone. JE and P were composed at two widely different periods of Israelitish history. and treating JE as the work of a single hand. pp. of. p.

. for. for those who admit this. but testifies to the writer of a later age. 46bj^ could not have been used but also in naturally by Moses. "when ye came forth out of Egypt. 5^ and ii2-7 3^*. (i) The use of the phrase " beyond Jordan " (i^")'n "I3y2) for the country East of Jordan. 251^^.). 22^ 34^*). in the style of antiquarian notices Dt. 5^^ . Jud. ("fifth if i^ for instance. which fixes the date of Nu. Nu. consequently later than. is different lines of argument supported by other indications. to which independently converge. speaking less than six months afterwards. The writer. such a situation. There are passages. 20^2-28^ jt appears that the whole of the events reviewed in 2^-329 had taken place during the six months preceding the time when. there are the strongest reasons for supposing". follows at once was shown above (pp. i^. if Moses In be the author. as the post-Mosaic authorship of Dt. appears inappropriate. 12. ^4.^' *7. is of later origin than the age of Moses may be inferred. exactly as in Jos.: xHi INTRODUCTION and both. though suitable had elapsed. 33^ "). 21. and identifies those whom in he addresses with the generation that came out of Egypt a manner which betrays that he In 2^2b (<< is not speaking as a contemporary.. "^ That Dt. of an incident quite at the end of the 40 years' wanderings (cf. showing that the author lived at a distance from the period which he describes. in Dt. month ("eleventh month") be compared with Nu. xvf. viiif. JE. 7^ 9^° &c. it is dependent upon.^ 38 4". long Of course. does not appear fully to realize the length of the interval. 445b. in Dt. Thus. further. which Jehovah gave him : there is an however. evident anachronism as Israel did unto the ") land of his possession. 18. the repeated at that time (2^ 23j^ as also v7ito this day in interval when a longer C. the discourse must have been delivered. in which the 40 years had dwindled to a point. some writers have treated the (though otherwise as glosses." not merely in 24^ 235(*). from two other considerations. 2^** comp. and subsequent to Moses. howevei*. This conclusion. and similar to tS^-^^' 20-23 3^- "• ^^b j jso) The expression. point in the same direction. 8. . though aware as a fact (S^*) of the 40 years' wanderings. 49 ^as elsewhere in the Pent.

&c. xliii shows that the author was a resident in Western Valest'mc.®. insists with great emphasis that are to be offered only at a single sanctuary. From the use of the term in Nu. must have arisen at a much later age than that of Moses. nxSm ynh nayo. Rev. Contemp. and was used as a standing designation of the trans-Jordanic territory. 2^° &c.! written The law respecting the place of sacrifice. on the contrary. 32^" nmiD pT. indeed sometimes alleged that the expression had a fixed geographical sense (like Gallia Transalpina. p. 1888..*of . two sides of Jordan as * and this of itself implies residence course. . 32'" nothing can consequently be inferred as to its force. 136-138). Palestine. its whether show that this assumption is incorrect.T nayo . It is. 5^ 9^ 12^. has no bearingf on the present question the usage here falls into the category of passages in which. . In Dt. 12 (pp. . the same expression repeated : acquires a contrasted meaning in virtue of the juxtaposition 2o2i. 2o2* permits altars to in be built. (as in the Pent. as formulated in Dt. though it has been referred to. creates a very strong in question were (2) all presumption that the passages under similar local conditions. Nu.. as in Jos. i'*' &c. or W. conceivable that this it was a habit Israelites. Palestine). and experienced the conditions adapted to naturalize it among them. . meaning was not thus fixed." the law of Ex. written (presumably) in W.). 320. the point of view of the a. is difficult to understand. and sacrifice to be offered upon any part of the land without distinction and with .r»V^r unconsciously betrays itself. unless the habit had arisen of viewing the regions on the contrasted with each othe? in Palestine. Hence its use in Jos. the spot chosen by Jehovah "out of them. as in Dt. 3^' ^ the (assumed) position of the speaker is naturally maintained. DATE OF DEUTERONOMY lo^. generally) exactly as in Jos. in accordance with Heb. As shown in the notes on c. In v. idiom. when used absolutely. i^**^'. of the Canaanites but can hardly be considered likely that passed from them to the the usage suggested by it before the latter had set foot in the land. Jan. It is irrespectively of the actual position of the speaker or writer but Dt. i S. where the expression is used oi both sides of Jordan. of the side on which he himself stood. 14* 2^). now. 143 f. t So Dean (now Bishop) Perowne. The use of the expression in Dt.22 (cf. Palestine. while all sacrifices Dt. its employment by a in E. 2*" 9'"). in a phrase of common occurrence (4*^ Jos. * all the tribes to set His name there.25 so J I and Jos. writer. 5^ 9I 12^ (where it is used of Western If.

in face of the evidence of the historical books. in Dt. in a special sense. by its splendour. not only make no attempt : . 18'"'). and the Temple of Solomon. 621). the year in which Hilkiah made his memorable discovery of the " book of the law " in the Temple to fix. that critics have sometimes unduly minimized the importance of the sanctuary at which the Ark was stationed whether at Shiloh or elsewhere. — — . as against all other sanctuaries. such an inference cannot be deemed an extravagant one. of course. 9^2-14 io3-5j I K. so that the law of Dt. 21-23 recogfnise only one legitimate public sanctuary. The law of Dt. or pre-eminence. remains an innovation . 12 is not the innovation that it is commonly sup- posed to be. It is. Ex. true that the nonI S. it is difficult to think that sacrifice at other spots was regarded as actually illegitimate. and that in such a manner as to secure for it at the same lime exclusive rights. 1894) interprets Ex. which the Temple had long enjoyed de facto is confirmed to it de jure. when men who might fairly be existence presumed to know of it. to put it in force. and the associations of veneration and regard with which time naturally invested it. The truth seems rather to be that centralizing tendencies had manifested themselves long boCore the age of either Manasseh or Josiah . at places other than that at which the Ark was stationed. must have tended more and more to throw into the shade the minor local sanctuaries . • A. but disregard it without explanation or excuse. must thus be placed at a period long Is it possible to subsequent to the age of Moses. they are brought to a head.* The composition its of Dt.xliv INTRODUCTION the principle thus laid down the practice of the age from during this Joshua to Solomon (and even later) conforms period mention is frequently made of altars being built. van Hoonacker (Z> lieu HAreux. du culte dans la legislation rituelle des 20^ oi private altars. still. 23^') . that an irregularity is being committed (see esp. was Jehovah's dwelling-place must always have had the preeminence (cf. if it existed.c. and seeks to show that the laws of Ex. observance of a law does not of necessity imply its nonnevertheless. but it is an innovation for which the soil had long been preparing. the preference. date more precisely it determine difficult ? The teitnimis ad quern is not must have been written previously to the i8th year of King Josiah (b. It is true. the sanctuary which. on the part of either the actors or the narrator. or afterwards at Jerusalem before the Deuteronomic legislation : de facto. or sacrifice offered. without any indication (and this is the important point). no doubt.

and the fact that in the reformation based upon it. The title book of the law (2 K. Dillm. OTJC?^. ]9^jhg high-places. i9) might K. 613 . The expression "confirm the words. Ixv). How much earlier than B. 26 equally with Dt. DATE OF DEUTERONOMY (2 xlv For the narrative of 2 K. and the centralization of Jehovah's worship at Jerusalem : comp. The law of Dt. p. 238-") recalls Dt." &c. The following considerations. 5-26. but that is immaterial to the present argument.20. or whether they were felt to be disqualified for such sacred duties by the part they had taken in idolatrous rites. 18 8** (all of the Deut. Cheyne. § 2066. but it more than Dt. at least. he will have an idea of the passages which may have principally impressed Josiah.. t Viz. v. (see Schrader. and allowed a share in the Temple dues. 28«i 292«(2i) 20I0 31-6 Whether any weight is to be Jos. 28. step by step. though they were received by their "brethren" at Jerusalem. Nos." and Ash^rim) with Dt..t leave no doubt upon the matter. (2 K. and of . 23*' ''•^*' 15. 6^-5. that the . 23*. so that the reminiscence may be due to him rather than to Huldah herself. 24(9. and his statutes. whether Josiah was not able to enforce this provision on account . 25))^ * Or. The covenant which the king and nation solemnly enter into.of the opposition of Hilkiah and the other Zadokite priests. 22^'^-). suit Lev. with their altars.. may be. yet the allusions to the it which refer evidently to Dt. 51). Westphal. Einl. 21. : . 21^^ cf. 28 (p. 17'. 23^^ P^) . with all the heart and with all the soul " see p. 50 f. 6^ If the reader will peruse consecutively (cf."-16 122-7 1621-22 iS^-^^ 28. 37. code). p.C. is : — . 23-'' (consulters of ghosts and familiar spirits) with Dt. 6" n^ 17' &c.the effect produced by it upon those who heard it (22^1. Ixxxi f. 23** "''• '^ (worship of the host of heaven put down) with Dt. to observe the newly discovered code. 22-23 makes it plain book so found must have embraced Deuteronomy * for although the bare description of its contents. I2-'* . c. the fundamental principles of Dt. his Life and Times. is more difficult to determine. (2 K. 258 289 ft'. 2 K. c . 16^ .) Dt. 23' "to keep his commandments. Jeremiah. 23^^* (Molech-worship) with Dt. (p. It cannot be shown to have included . p. 23"'' ^provision made for the support of the disestablished priests out of the Temple dues) with Dt. &C').^^ (priests and sanctuaries of various "other gods") with Dt. is also described in terms which point unmistakably to Dt. i6^'*. and his testimonies. the abolition of all heathen rites and superstitions. "pillars. 18^ . however. 23® (the Ash^rah in the Temple) with Dt. 18^^ . 28'^ is less certain for though in substance Huldah's prophecy is no doubt authentic. 298. 23^^*^ (the passover in Jerusalem) with Dt. 22'-2'«). Josiah carries out. were not permitted to minister at the altar (2 K. 272^. attached to the reminiscence in 22^^ of Dt. recalls Dt. 18^8 was not.1^. 23^ (the Kedeshim) with Dt. 23^). 18^°*. 621 Dt. fully carried out the disestablished priests of the high-places. doubtful whether this verse is part of the original Dt. 300)..^ (Josiah's piety) with Dt. howcovenant contained in (2869 (29I) : (232- 8. it is pretty clear that it owes its form to the Deuteronomic compiler of Kings.

point to a date not earlier than the 2nd half of the 8th cent. 2 K. tend to fix its date and to show that it belongs. 3. in which the constitution of the supreme tribunal is not prescribed. cannot be accounted for by the altered circumstances of the nation at the close of the 40 years' wanderings. especially the worship of the " Host of heaven" (4^^ 17^). had ceased to be adequate to the nation's needs. . xxxviii. 5. but only to be reformed. cf. 8'* refer to a later period. it is alluded to frequently. * Cf. . The influence of Dt. the worship of the sun and moon is ancient. 2i»-». ever. p. both in Dt. . It was introduced. in all probability.) the reference is vague : Zeph. ." Why the new features in the legislation of Dt. either to the reign of Manasseh. and those of Ex. 178-13 ^^f. upon subsequent writers is clear to Kings. instituted 198-11) (according to 2 Ch. in the course of which the social and political organization of the community had materially developed. The nomad tribes have grown into a settled and wealthy community (notice the phrase 'the elders of the city. i* Jer. if^ (Deut.). t2 K. Jeremiah. 19^'^). is shown on p. 23" (Ahaz).C. 71 : "The Israel of Dt. or to the early years of the reign of Josiah.* 2. as is attested even by the names of Judges places in Canaan : but in the notices (which are frequent) of idolatrous practices in the historical books from no mention of the " Host of heaven " occurs until the reign of Ahaz and in the 7th cent. Cheyne. but affirms that the form in which the provision is here cast bears the stamp of a later age. 2 K. p. It is true. and the Code of Ex. 207). whose organisation needs no longer to the Israel of the be constituted. by Jehoshaphat. The law of the kingdom (17^^-20) is coloured by reminiscences of the monarchy of Solomon. 4.xlvi INTRODUCTION more closely. The argument does not deny that Moses may have made provision for the establishment of a monarchy in Israel. from Babylonia. The differences between the laws of Dt. appear to presuppose the existence of the judicature. but represented as already known (cf.' 19'^ &c. 1. and in Jeremiah. 23«-«-"-i2 (Manasseh). 8* 19^* 7^^ 44'^ Ez. most probably.! The temptation to worship "other gods" is the pressing danger of the age. The terms of Dt. is separated from Exodus by a complete social revolution. B. 21-23 tend to show that the two Codes are separated from each other by a considerable interval of time. The forms of idolatry alluded to.

611) remarks justly The language and that the style of Dt. intended merely to indicate to the traveller entering Eg^pt. : popular usage. that the early and indisputable. the use of these has. i622 we read. below. presuppose a ideas. might drop out of notice . "Thou shalt not set thee up a mazzehah (obelisk). 16^. free from archaisms (see § 5). implies a long development of the art of public oratory. 24* obelisks are erected beside an altar by Moses. supposition that obelisks connected with heathen places of worship are meant in Dt.^*") . as they also is found in Jeremiah and Ezekiel. if he had known of such a law. literature. Jeremiah exhibits marks of it on nearly every page Ezekiel and Deutero-Isaiah are also evidently influenced by it. and the undisputed portions of Isaiah. * Cf. 16^ is not favoured by the context (v. the principles by which conduct is estimated. The older leg^islation enjoins the destruction of heathen altars and obelisks . moreover." At the same time. isolated law. 56 : and comp. the dominant theological view under which the laws are presented. especially in its rhetorical fulness and first breadth of diction." Would Isaiah. have adopted the ma^sebah (19^^) as a symbol of the future conversion of Egypt to the true faith ? * Or. the argument does not possess the cogency of those of a broader and more general character for a single. The argument sometimes met by the answer that the obelisk spoken of by Isaiah was a commemorative one. . but contains no prohibition corresponding to Dt. 7' 12' (repeated from Ex. prophets. 204. 3SS . and the prophet's figure would in that case have been merely suggested to him by prevalent in . clear and flowing. show no certain traces of this influence. but purer than that of Jeremiah. Canon of the OT. Amos. that it was a country sacred to Jehovah. without possessing some religious associations and these. were of a character which Jehovah "hated. the points of approximate to what advanced stage of theological reflexion. But it could not have served this purpose.DATE OF DEUTERONOMY xlvii It is remarkable. Ryle. The prophetic teaching of Dt. In Dt. p. 16^: p. according to Dt. would suit the same period.. (p. If Dt. 8. 23^ 34'^). OTJCThe is Ex.. accounted 6. for. been proscribed before. Hosea. Dillm. now. and is not of a character to belong to the age of Hebrew 7. these facts would be exactly . style of Dt. . which Jehovah thy God hateth. in the face of opposing custom. if he had known of relatively p. were composed between Isaiah and Jeremiah. it is asked.

his source JE and more probably JE itself. are explained at once. the period from the 8th cent. 331. it was dependent (in the main) upon JE that was the : ] j popular narrative of the origines of Israel (if : the narrative of P ! indeed it already existed) had not yet been combined with \ JE. j 1 derived by him : in some cases from an independent for others. upon the hypothesis of its Mosaic authorship. B. The incidents mentioned by him without the authority of JE (p. was written. The sparseness of references to priestly institutions. however. would he have said {22^^) that Jehovah "called "to a practice which 9. 16) remarks. in which the numerous and ! J and it became necessary to supply means of distinguishing them. and that the author. are at once readily explicable. at the time when Dt. while free from any desire to depreciate ceremonial far was 1 I i | ] ' . both the religious and the national experiences presupposed by Dt. the modifications and additions which the legislation of Dt. xviii).e. 14I. but which. is recognized as a work of the 7th cent.) may have been interweaving reminiscences from . onwards (Dillm. pp. | j . 612). sometimes perhaps 1 j memory hence he now and then inadvertently places a clause in a new setting (p. were still read by the author in their integrity. is there prohibited 1820-22 ? j The law of Dt. and was little known. i oral or written earlier notably those narrated in the | books at points of juncture between the narratives of P. or is guilty of a slight inconsistency. are simply a consequence of the more varied needs of the society for which it was designed. when it is remembered that many of these institutions had not yet reached the form in which they are systematized in the Priests' Code. So soon as Dt.C. follows it freely. For history.xlvlii INTRODUCTION ^ | Dt. are much wider than those of the Mosaic age can have been. i. In the legal parts of his work. the phenomena which were so perplexing. source. : . presents. xviif. xxxix). Israel with the 10. in parts which the last compiler of the Hexateuch sacrificed when he combined JE with P. The author. presupposes an age true prophets found themselves in conflict with influential false prophets.. when compared with that of JE. not being the author of JE as well. as Oettli (p. and the discrepancies with P (p. j 1 In general.

22. pp. § Cf. appears have seen that any serious religious reform must begin at • Is. B. DATE OF DEUTERONOMY observances (p. t 28. 62. 26. Isaiah. and the motives. Ixxviii). and the national character was to be radically transfo rmed.. 20 j^8 302a 3i7. under which Dt. this reiterated : was the teaching which Isaiah minded Israelites. D . her citizens. i». however.. his Life and Times.42-6 29^-2* 3020-22 gi? ^2^-8. + Cf.. notwithstanding the patronage of distinctively heathen influences Ahaz to to (2 K. and Judah was able again to breathe freely. in his writings than the denunciation of As yet. were not apparently so aggressive in Judah as they were destined become shortly afterwards.t does not (in his extant prophecies) wage_war against the local sanctuaries as such. la-n 338-6. 2312). and noble ideas. of an ideal state of pur ity and blessedness.. 58.C. from the king downwards. See the writer's Isaiah. was nevertheless a man whose were chiefly centred in the prophetical aspects of religion. Judah was then to realize i ts ideal character of a " holy nati on. though he speaks of image s w ith reprobation and disparagement. l7^<'^ This term. more readily than was possible except under a distinctly idolatrous king at the Temple of Jerusalem. 16'*. is to be assigned to the reign of Manasseh or Josiah is a more difficult one. however. may have been composed. so soon as Syrian or Assyrian troubles were over. and even contaminated with heathen rites. Throughout his long prophetic career. Hezekiah. one of the chief obstacles to purity of religion appears to have been the local shrines. and a more prominent place heathen rites. is common in Dt. J and hardly even alludes and upon all spiritually : — — to the worship of ''other gods." § It is the moral shortcomings fill of his contemporaries which stir him most deeply. Let us consider the historical conditions of the 7th cent. and other Deutero- nomic writers not found in Isaiah.* Publicly and privately. made a profound impression. here the worship of Jehovah could or " high-places " (p. his powerful personality.J8. we may be sure. 139) be despiritualized. or influences. were to exhibit ideal excellences a gceat^noral and spiritual regeneration was to be effected. so (p. 1^'. Isaiah had proclaimed the advent. cf. At the time. however. The question whether Dt. Jer. ". iiof. xHx interests xxx).

+ 2 K. Led. Jer. and of the "host of heaven. the odious rites of Molech were revived. the high-places. 164. however costly.c. 357 . but distinctively heathen cults were so patronized by the king that they threatened to supersede altogether the service of Jehovah. : corruption of the age {6^^-^^ T^"*)* and of the infatuated eagerand. who resisted his innovations. it supplies evidence that the voice of the prophets still was not silenced. 2ii« 24* .^ pp. and the terms in Cf. 2» . The worship of Ba'al. 639). cf. it presents a vivid picture of the moral : . and to love mercy. This. various other superstitious or (p.) immoral practices also became fashionable. there came no doubt a change. is a standing charge against his memory. t 2 K. who occupied the throne for nearly 50 years. p. the local sanctuaries attribute to (thoug-h the description may men actually accomplished *) he removed. but that they could proclaim. on the ness with which the people pressed forward to propitiate the deity even with the sacrifice of their dearest (6^) . OTJC. by this measure. a violent and determined Not only were the reaction in favour of heathenism set in. that what Jehovah demanded of His worshippers was not material offerings. i8*-22 218). on the one hand. 355. Under his successor. was the practical form in which Isaiah's teaching took shape in Hezekiah's mind. J The prophecy Mic. 2i2-7 ." which he shed in Jerusalem. and commanded all to worship before the altar in Jerusalem (2 K. The readiness with which Josiah yielded With himself to the principles of Deuteronomy. and in which he soug"ht to give effect to Isaiah's ideals. 222 f. cf. but **to do justly. and to walk humbly with thy God" (68). in accents of calm resignation and trust. other hand. of the Ash6rah. it is said. Montefiore. 6^-7^ is an interesting and instructive monument of this reign for. the accession of Josiah (b. 23*-7-"-".1 INTRODUCTION and hence him more than he . Hibb." in was carried on the courts of the Temple itself. was very Manasseh.! Nor would Manasseh brook opposition the loyal servants of Jehovah. were relentlessly persecuted and slain the "innocent blood. But whatever Hezekiah effected soon undone. high-places re-established . we may conclude.

that the needful stimulus . when the character of the young Or it may King Josiah afforded promise of speedier success. Deuteronomy represents the first : . The prophetical party. a^ a matter of fact. the more critical must the times have seemed to the true worshippers of Jehovah nor.DATE OF DEUTERONOMY which Jeremiah alludes to him that his character prince. could now therefore and active persecution ceased. (Jer. or imagine the steps which they may have taken for the purpose of arresting. is fragmentary: it is only by conjecture that we can either picture to ourselves the condition to which the prophetical party was reduced by the persecuting measures of Manasseh. But a child of eight could not be expected to inaugurate at once a new policy nor. nevertheless refused to be suppressed. after its discovery in the Temple. amiable who would be the last to follow in the footsteps of Manasseh. marked a crisis in the religious history of Judah the longer Manasseh's reign continued. : : serious attempt It made may have been in its to counteract the tendencies of the age. even after Josiah's accession. Our information respecting the 46 years of Manasseh's reign. no longer able. round which the disorganized forces of the national religion might under happier auspices one day range themselves again. pro- vided in anticipation a spiritual rallying-point. or willingly be disloyal to Israel's creed. But the 7th century. and. 22-23). the downward movement of the nation. have been later. . spiritual the dark days of Manasseh. in his i8th year (2 K. and the first 17 of Josiah's. 22^5b-i6j^ H combine to show was that of a religiously-minded. to voice heard openly make among the people. hopeful of better times. as of yore. and their adherents. when the energy of prophecy. for some 18 years was any material alteration effected the syncretistic and idolatrous worship continued even the Temple was not purged of its heathen disfigurements. lift up their heads in peace . so long as the heathen practices sanctioned by his grandfather maintained their hold upon the nation. if possible. could the crisis have been considered to be past. These and other reforms were only carried out in consequence of the effect wrought upon Josiah by Deuteronomy. it is evident.

though he asserted with noble eloquence the claims of a spiritual religion and a pure morality. and the repudiation of every practice and observance inconsistent with them. at any rate. .Hi INTRODUCTION the brighter was found. with the spirit of Moses. if circumstances favoured. as the foundation of national well-being. in a shape which. he presented them in a popular dress. nor solely as a legalist. the old laws must (where necessary) be so adjusted to creed. on a smaller scale. was apt to be too abstract and ideal in his teaching and the mere to influence the masses of his countrymen promulgation of a collection of laws would obviously be valueless as a stimulus to moral action. he saw. . The means which he adopted for giving it practical effect were His object was to quicken the national conand at the same time to bring it into touch with the Accordingly he principles which regulated the national life. science. was the aim which the prophetic author of Dt. comes forward neither solely as a prophet. set himself. viewed in the light of the . This was the aim of Deuteronomy. might serve more immediately as a basis of reform. resolved upon putting forward the spiritual require- ments of the age. in the more complex form which it had now assumed. The author adopted accordingly a method for which. there was already a precedent in the "Book of the Covenant". The prophet. as such. Such. and that the prophets. encouraged by prospect. as to constitute an efficient safeguard against the dangers which threatened the religion of Israel. he selected such laws as he deemed most important for his people to observe. whichever the age to which it belongs. there was need. interests of spiritual religion. must be again insisted on an effort must be made to reinfuse the national life. . and he so combined them with homiletic introductions and comments as to make them the vehicle of a powerful appeal in the well chosen. logically . the needs of the times. If the religious life of the nation was to be successfully reformed. must be reasserted the exclusive claims of Jehovah upon the Israelite's loyalty. of a reaffirmation in emphatic terms of the old national and of the practical consequences which followed from it. the principles which Moses had long ago proclaimed.

to evoke corresponding emotions in Israel's breast. Answer. Canon. 22a . p. § 126. 57-59 Ryle. W. the calm the author displays. during some for. der Hebr. such as the fate of the Northern kingdom brought only too conspicuously " Thus were the old laws presented in a popular before him. pp. and hopeful spirit which and the absence even of any covert allusion * Ryle. Introd. Gesch. . Bleek. 127. Hist. It was an endeavour to realize in practice the ideals of the prophets. its is discovery. 56. xxviif. 54 f. forth. as impressively as possible. it might be the means of upholding overthrow of national hopes. even in the were written under Manasseh.' in the guise of prophecy. t So Ewald. Canon of the OT. It was a great manifesto against the dominant tendencies of the time. become a spiritual rallying-point for Judah and Jerusalem spiritual life . \. t it is easy to under- stand how.. as the 'people's book.. Smith. It was a prophet's formulation of 'the law of Moses. p. and to awaken in it that devotion to God. to transform the Judah demoralized by Manasseh into the "holy nation " pictured in Isaiah's vision. by the high priest Hilkiah. iv. i. after having been deposited for safety in the Temple. I DATE OF DEUTERONOMY liii age which gave it birth. and the claims which He has in consequence upon Israel's allegiance warm-hearted and generous himself. 'The law. this might Israel to lay to heart : in noble . in works aglow with fervour and affection. Letterkunde des Ouden Verbonds (1893). 78 Kittel. p. 60. have been mislaid and lost and the surprise occasioned by repairs. form.' adapted to the requirements of that later time. he points ominously to the dark background of warning. or taken there by some priest. exhortation and denunciation. especially of Hosea and Isaiah. adopting a graver mood. . he strives. R. and love for man. VVildeboer.). thus readily accounted By others. it might. Add. while now and again. 221 ." * If Dt. 60.' combining creed and law. which Hosea had declared to be the first of human duties The author exhausts all his eloquence in setting (p. on the contrary. in the neglect and disorder into which during that reign the arrangements of the Temple were suffered to fall. the truths which he desires and melodious periods he dilates upon the goodness of Jehovah.

Einl. iS*-^). moreover. Hex. Schr. Einl. 75 fF. The king. 217. 650 fF. . whose friendly co-operation was Hilkiah undertook the it is said by those have so acted as to give the appearance of accident to a long preconcerted design. 509) treats Dt. Montefiore. Dillni. ] to this date sometimes suppose. p. &c. having been sent to the Temple with a message from Josiah. is better | understood as the direct outcome of the reforming tendencies which the early years of Josiah must have called forth. and as designed from the first { with the view of promoting the ends which its author labours to attain.. . I t ' 22-23). Jeremiah.. | should be brought \ under the notice of the king. was amazed to find how its fundamental principles had been disregarded he hastened to secure the co-operation of the people of the land. Gesch. that the party of reform not only designed Dt. AT. and at once took active steps to give them practical effect (2 K. 214. 19 f. Hilkiah declared that he had "found" it in the Temple. . relating to some repairs that were being executed there. Konig. to the special troubles of Manasseh's time.s. The sequel is well known. 177 fF. Traduction nouvelle. Einl. as anterior to Isaiah: Westphal (p. Comill.. this view. The grounds decisive in : for referring the_ composition of Dt. it is argued. p. 1880. to it in view. 613 f. the view that the book which and the narrative of the discovery certainly supports was found was one which had ' * So Reuss. 327 f. (less con. f p. He seems. &c.liv INTRODUCTION .) and Oettli > (p. La Bible. when he heard it read. the "scribe." or chancellor. with this practical aim but also devised the means by which essential to the success of their plans.i fidently) p. Kuenen. p. p. 267 fF. Gesch. . Cheyne.* Those who assign Dt. . who adopt ] i . an exhortation placed J i Moses' mouth could not be expected to contain allusions to the special circumstances either of Manasseh's or of Josiah's reign . §§ 286-288. ." . p. he handed it to Shaphan. . Crit. | der Heil. (1879) i. Shaphan. 269 fF. § 9. \ p. places it "shortly after 722. responsibility of doing this. i. Stade. are considered to be objections to that date : the book. \ Holzinger.) both argue that it must have given the impulse to Hezekiah's reform (2 K. to the j reign of Josiah in preference to that of Manasseh are not 1 from the nature of the case. Hibb. who in his turn laid it before the king. Founders of OT.. 3 Delitzsch {ZKWL. Led. 156 fF.

. if Dt. to be the work of Moses if Josiah had To either : not believed the ancient law-book of Israel to have been discovered. in other words. it is objected that the book plainly produced its effect on account of the authority which it was believed to possess. it is replied. OTJC. That Hilkiah had a hand for Dt. was written in the age of Manasseh or Josiah. coming to officiate at the central sanctuary. even been lost for some time. were composed under Josiah. and placed at once in the Temple — perhaps by the side of other legal documents —in hopes that the time might of it : come when some practical use could be it . 614). then not only in the composition of Dt. Dillm. and co-operated readily with Josiah in carrying out the reformation upon the lines which it laid down. and being supposed. that Dt. which bore must have been due principally and if the prophets were . on account of its claiming. upon the same footing. would he have attached any weight to its An attempt is indeed made. The book.as the priests already resident there. case. even though intended to promote a reform.^ p. might well have been written while Josiah was yet a child. (as . why was upon not the appeal made directly to the Divine teaching their lips ? Why should the mere fact of this teaching being presented in the form of a Code give had ever possessed ? to the it a force which no prophetic utterances Its force it name of Moses. 363 . p.* this conclusion. it is said. made Hilkiah need have it known nothing about (as it his dis- covery of would then have been purports to be) purely accidental. aware that * it did not really possess his authority. not one which had just been written. is not probable : has been often remarked) does not emphasize the interests of the Jerusalem priesthood (cf. but tends (i8*"8) to place the country Levites.. to parry this objection words ? by was the power of the prophetic teaching.DATE OF DEUTERONOMY Iv Nor. seeing that the prophets themselves were the accredited ministers of Jehovah. and that the effect which it produced was due to its throwing into a more practical form the ends aimed at by Hezekiah and Isaiah but if this be the the allegation that the authority which lay behind Dt. is there sufficient reason for supposing that Hilkiah acted as the agent of the reformers in the manner suggested. It was Hilkiah's merit that he perceived at once the importance of Dt.

17.. c'^tait la defense absolue du culte hors de J(5rusalem.! " is anything. p. H of worship. t Pref. Hebrew and ceremonial. the ancient pre-eminence of "Jehovah's house" (Ex. it it Even the law (p.* it In estimating these objections. &c. Oettli. at the same time.) : : cf. xi) the presumption of being based upon some common older source the priestly usages alluded to are evidently not innovations the laws peculiar to Dt. is not the matter^ but \y\&form. . says Dillmann truly. focalizing. " La seiile innovation veritable. as soon as it was discovered. with unessential modifications of form. p. however. was (as a fact) derived ultimately from Moses. que nous sachions. to Ex. Feb. II As i. 1888. p. Lev. La Bible. Dt. II expressed in Deuteronomic phraseology. tendencies which had long been operative. also Reuss. 604). the is probable xliv). 16 . what is essentially new in Dt. with limitations demanded by the dangers of the age.but an orig-inal law-book. firstly. the appearance either of being taken directly. 255 fF. (cf. but the course taken by them of their is a confession of moral impotence and failure they resort to an external name to accomplish what centuries own that teaching- had failed to effect. though a comparison of the both civil • Dean (now Bishop) Perowne. p. 160 : ..: Ivi INTRODUCTION are they gfuilty of an act questionable morally. 23^^)." The laws which agree with those of the Book of the Covenant can be demonstrated to be old those which agree with H have (p. : older law-books. only an innovation : accentuated. with very few exceptions. in Dt. 244). are And such for is laws as are really new centralization relatively but the logical and consistent development of Mosaic principles. legislation. must be remembered. § or the formulation of ancient customs. p. 21I-9 2213-21 255-10 (Dillm. and which the All prophets themselves had adopted and approved. have. though in particular cases they might have fallen into neglect. IT Oettli. Contemp. X Especially many of those in 2i'"-25^^ § As 178-" i9'6-2i (Dillm. by tlie king and nation it was not sprungupon the people as a code of laws unheard of before it was felt. Rev. J or else of being accepted applications of long established principles." It is this fact which explains the ready acceptance of Dt. from : . p. viii. to be (in the main) merely the reaffirmation of laws and usages which had been long familiar to the nation.

which differ from one another partly in the age at which they were made. also p. name it : It is is no simply another application of an established custom. and to con- nect old laws. may otherwise present. being afterwards enforced by the priestly or civil authority as the case might be. partly in the purposes for which they were designed. in many cases. H. a ceremdnial. and a civil element: the new laws. in Dt. must show conclusively that Moses was not the writer of them in the form in which they have come down to us. Ryle. only reached their final literary form by development through gradual stages. If was the habit thus to identify the stream with the source. The similarity. 3i®--*. then the attribution of the laws in Dt.a moral.. 31 : " The fact. lished. of the speeches to the narrative in the • OT. But just as.* difficulties Those who which the it concede the existence of such a practice. on the part of Hebrew critical legislators. extended or modified. that the become expanded into the complex system of laws included in the Pentateuch" (cf. . a fact which shows that there was a continuous Mosaic tradition^ embracing. Never- Hebrew laws are formulated under Moses' name. Nor. will find it remove view of Dt. Dt. should it be forgotten in that ancient writers permitted themselves much freedom ascribing to historical characters speeches which they could not have actually delivered in the shape in which they are now assigned to them. are codifications of the legislative material thus expanded from a Mosaic nucleus.. to Moses ceases to be a proceeding out of harmony with the ideas and practice of the fraudulent invocation of the legislator's Hebrew nation. now so clearly establaws of Israel. The laws of JE. and theless. so we understand the legislation which was initiated by Moses to have Comp. and in which they were certainly known after the exile. in judging of the yij^TW of Dt. as of other nations.). 22 fF. which as time went on were seen to be desirable. which formed the nucleus of the Deuteronomic legislation. or extensions of old laws. is an indication that p. Moses himself is said to have committed to writing the law.— DATE OF DEUTERONOMY different Ivii Pentateuch shows that the laws cannot form be Mosaic the Mosaic nucleus was expanded and developed in various directions. as national life in the all in Codes their present : became more complex. all religious ideas matured. with the name of the original lawgiver. or even new laws. and P. and incorporated into it. were accommodated to this tradition. Canoti ofthe OT.

admirable precedents in the literature of the world. April. has been abundantly exemplified the educational influence. which they . p. In doing this. * See. having a message to — — deliver. of the same practice. his case with the degenerate Israel and exhibits him pleading of Josiah's day. 241 . 1895. may have had information as may merely have re-cast own words but very often this was certainly not the and the speeches simply give imaginative expression to thoughts or feelings appropriate to the character and occasion Deuteronomy. Kings. view of its authorship. David. conversations. examples of speeches either entirely composed. which has many and in their case. would give it force. is merely an example. the tragedies of Shakespeare. have never been condemned £is immoral frauds. the procedure of the Deuteronomist was : single character No elaborate literary machinery was needed by him a would suffice. afford particularly clear enlarged.Iviii INTRODUCTION same practice : the Biblical writers followed the the books of Joshua. the Expositor. or by the respective compilers. and Chronicles. for instance. of such creations of human art have been universally allowed the dialogues of Plato. and various early prophets even express ideas and use idioms which are distinctively late. Tfiutandis. in the Chronicles. attributed dramatically to characters who have figured upon the stage of in literature : history. and so presented Mutatis similar. for illustrations. He places Moses on the stage.* events which they describe they to In cases where the narrators are nearly contemporary with the what was actually said. or a lesson to teach. and are — mostly peculiar to the compiler of the Chronicles himself. in each case. to name but a few^ of the great imaginative creations of genius. and moral value. upon an extended scale. or it mouth of the whose perto the world. But the author. placed it it in the person to whose character sonality was appropriate. the Paradise Lost. he assumes no unjustifiable ff. and even the poem of Job. because the characters introduced in them did not always or ever use the actual words attributed to them. Solomon. The imaginative revivification of the past. the : epic of Dante. upon the critical to which they are referred. and even of actions. by means of discourses.

is the rhetorical form in which they are the In yielding therefore to the effect which denunciations of Dt. and in a form adapted to the age m which he lived himself. when he heard them. deemed his people to be already involved. 25 f. all that belongs to the post- Mosaic author. . Josiah was not being won to the cause of truth by false pretences : he was obeying principles and motives v/hich. strictly if there one thing which (even upon the most is critical premises) stress certain about Moses. produced upon him. it is that he laid the greatest upon Jehovah's being Israel's only God. They are expanded and emphasized in it with great eloquence and power but in : substance they are Mosaic. aim was to purify the worship of Der Israelitische Prophetismus (1894). Secondly. and who claimed to be the sole object of the Israelite's allegiance. was he led to act as he did act.DATE OF DEUTERONOMY liberty. unless he had believed Dt. : Josiah's reformation was essen- tially a religious one its Jehovah from heathen elements. who tolerated no other god beside Him. were those of Moses. is the attitude of the nation to Jehovah loyalty to Him invest . in principle. as regards the motives which induced Josiah to carry out his reformation if Josiah would not have instituted his reforms.* But these are just the fundamental principles of Deuteronomy. with great moral energy and rhetorical power. : : is the basis of the promises. presented. Moses had altogether condemned. in the strictest sense of the words. propounded {i-:^^-) for the purpose of * Cornill. p. disloyalty to Him brings in its train the terrible consequences in which Josiah. it is but a means. to be written by Moses. under false pretences ? Here it must be observed that the point of capital importance in Dt. is Now. principles which (as will appear immediately) Moses had beyond all question advocated. which. . and arguments which he would have cordially accepted as his own. though he had not (probably) reprobated in words the precise forms which they assumed in the age of Josiah. The law of the single sanctuary is not an end in itself. : Hx and makes no unfair use of Moses' name he docs not him with a fictitious character he does not claim his authority for ends which he would have disavowed he merely develops.

then the legal form was the natural one to Already in the legislation be adopted. it be asked why. if the prophets were thus influential. and especially to the neglect of its primary principle. as if that might not be sufficient. then. though not. of course. so copiously as Dt. The denunciations in Dt. thus did possess Mosaic authority nor was the legislator's name invoked in support of principles which he had not sanctioned. of JE. The fundamental teaching of Dt. but had been promulgated by Moses himself. are not attached to the neglect either of this or of any other particular enactment: they are attached to the neglect of the Deuteronomic law generally. The prophets. 30^"''-). and the prophetic teaching was cast into the form of a legislative discourse of Moses. loyalty to Jehovah (425-23 6^3-15 8i9f. civil justice . But the considerations advanced above show that Moses' name was not resorted to in any improper or unfair way : it was invoked in accordance with a custom sanctioned in by precedent. but when it became necessary to bring these principles into relation with the statutes of the civil and cere- monial law. they were not content to appeal directly to the Divine word upon their lips. especially that which exerted the greatest influence over Josiah. and would not have approved.. . and to show how they should supply motives for their observance. were preachers. its claims are approved by the prophetess Huldah.28 zS^bS. that the . and It will in defence of principles which were no recent innovation. Undoubtedly prophetic sanction underlay Deuteronomy. not practical reformers : they strove by their words to win the people to the broad principles of morality and . is if now be apparent how is little foundation there for the objection. If. moral and religious motives are suggested for the observance of the laws. instead of having recourse to Moses' name.Ix securing' the INTRODUCTION same end. which not unfrequently heard. as such.iii6f. the answer must be that it was because they were desirous of effecting a systematic reform in the observance and administration of the law. The prophetic teaching of the preceding centuries : was the dominant influence under which it was written its own prophetic authority it bears upon its face and.

pp. but expounds essentially subordinate anew old principles. p. if it worked upon a * traditional basis. the substance certainly earlier the law of military service implies a simpler state of society than the age of the later kings cast into his . the bulk of the laws contained in Dt. the author of Dt. he is not an originator. itself. is thus not the laws. of a final legislative address delivered by / Moses in the Steppes of Moab: the plan followed by the creation : his : author would rest upon a more obvious motive.: DATE OF DEUTERONOMY critical Ixi view of Dt." the author of which sought to shelter himself under a great name. are unquestionably derived from pre-existent usage. is The idea that the laws are the author's "inventions" not only would the ately discovered. if older legislation. supplied by Dt. not a written record.* But be that as is he thus may. the book is a "forgery. entirely out of the fact. for instance. and which. fraudulent use of a great name. So Delitzsch. as towards the Code. 1880. Westphal. undoubtedly far more . if true. but is inconsistent with the evidence particular cases. The new element in Dt. in author to may have taken upon himself to give a : new application an old established principle but upon the whole the laws of Dt. be correct. Ivi) it fatal to their the nation . is thus gotten. but The author did not seek. ZKWL. p. 505 . by the their pareneiic setting. and adaptation to new needs. 17. . being in harmony with his philanthropic nature. 278-281 Oettli. either to gain reputation for himself. Certainly. and to secure by a fiction recognition or authority for a number of laws question : ** invented" Joy himself. but were in danger of being forHis own position. has merely old usages which had own phraseology some fall perhaps been allowed to into neglect. Even what has been deemed the Utopian character of some of the laws cannot be regarded as sufficient evidence that they are the author's own creation : in c. or to obtain recognition for enactments of his own aim was to win obedience to laws. which were already known. have been immediacceptance by the and have proved (p. or truths. 20. he desired to see revived. is though the form is Deuteronomic. of an It is probable that there was a tradition. Deuteronomy may be described as the prophetic reformulation.

is referred to (2 K. which the monarchy in Israel should maintain (cf. xxxii) have indirectly a great value as a protest. 10= 292' (unjust judgment) Ex. he cannot. Am. as the quarter to the inhabitants of Canaan (7^'^ 20^^"^^). dealing with them as he has done. it is repeated from Ex. it would be naturally included .C. 28»(i8"). creation of that age. 24^2*. it would (as remarked above. 5" Is. and bringing them into close relation with moral and religious principle. . in combining them into a manual adapted for popular use. 14* : Dt 24^^). 23^^''"^. 2^ Ex. acquaintance with Dt. Dt. The injunction against against the idolatrous tendencies of the age. 3' 4^ oppress (Dt. 33" (i*) Dt 18^"— naturally prove — . 'Amalek (20^^"^*) is also not original in Dt. 2221(22) Dt 24". Passages in the early prophets and historical books have been pointed to. p. it is said. it is in no degree inappropriate to the 7th cent. or may be presupposed. As pointed out above.. p. 238 Dt. 2. telligible in repeated from Ex. Hos. be held guilty of dishonesty or literary fraud. it is alleged. Ixii INTRODUCTION and in ancient than the time of the author himself..C. the Deuteronomic expansion of an older nucleus : as a reaffirmation of the fundamental theocratic principles. its moral and spiritual greatness remains unimpaired its inspired authority is in no respect less than that of any other part of the Old Testament Scriptures which happens to be anonymous. in the light of the considerations that have been adduced. implying an interested or dishonest motive on the part of the (postMosaic) author: and this being so. and would be suitable in Moses' mouth at the time when the discourses of Dt. are represented as having been delivered. as well as in Dt. 3* (sorceries) Ex. . 510 (igU) . exhibiting. 8'" (25") . such an injunction would be absurd : but it is 1. These resolve themselves into three cases. 122523 (bribery) Ex. I S. Is. addressed ex hypothesi to the people when they were about to enter Canaan.22»(26) Dt. Nah. as Am. 17^^. however. provisions that would be nugatory and uninthe 7th cent. 241*). i6". and so far from being nugatory in the age of Manasseh or Josiah. 2I (i") (23=2(21)). Dt. 210). in a recapitulation of Mosaic principles. g* (26"). contains. i"-» io2 (fatherless and widow) Ex. is therefore no evidence of the existence of Deuteronomy itself. It may be worth while here to notice briefly some other objections to the critical date of Dt. and contains nothing that would have sounded "absurd " to an Israelite reading it then for the first time. in all probability. 21" (19"). I K. B. (i) Passages in which a law codified in Dt. B. 23* Dt i6» Is.. as Am.— . 4" (23^8 P?)) . Nah. The law of the kingdom ^jyi4-20j jg also.* (2) Passages in which the expression : • Censures on practices forbidden in Ex. There is nothing in Dt. embodies laws of much greater antiquity than itself: a statement harmonizing with a law of Dt. the injunction to give no Of course. in the name of the Founder. for instance.

Hosea. pp.O. Kings. Isaiah.. as many indicahouses. and there is nothing in the parallels quoted from Amos. dfc. where. which is the original and which is the imitation. turn the captivity (30') . In some cases. 4^ blasting and mildew (Dt.. of the other . These are not sufficient to establish an J. the mention of a custom by a particular author is obviously no proof that he was a contemporary of its introduction. Is. that these passages do not belong to the original sources of which the books are composed. as —more or . Jeremiah is the earliest prophet who can be demonstrated to have been acquainted with Deuteronomy. with which the author of Dt. 17s. * Wormwood. depends upon them. — — .. undoubtedly presuppose it. Even though it be true as. and which. (28-" 31^*). iL. nothing is more difficult than to determine. or reminiscence. 97 ff. with Egyptian customs is said But the references are far to be an indication that the author is Moses. DATE OF DEUTERONOMY Ixiii or sometimes only the thoug-ht Dt. 4^ (cf. (as Am. * and if now and then the case should seem to be otherwise. there is no reason (apart from the assumption that Dt. 22"). 14^ 32'^''^ children). The acquaintance displayed in Dt. 3^ 4I 8^ Hos. and to require a fundamental passage on which the others are based. 7'^ ransom (7* &c. in Am.— ' . . 28") 4^" (28^) 4" overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrha (29^ P^)) 5^ 6^" wormwood (29" W) 5^^ have built . it is far from clear that a particular law is either alluded to or presupposed at all. may be reasonably assumed to make it more probable that they depend upon Dt. least in some of the instances. even where dependence. 154-158. oppress and crush {pvy and {"sn) are coupled together in i S. The allusions to Egyptian peculiarities in 1 1^* and 7^^ 28^* ^ are not more marked than the one in Amos 8^ and not so minute as those in Is. occurs also Jer. crushed in judgment (28^) . despised {2^^) acquaintance with Dt. Hos. 190-193. but are found elsewhere few. nothing as to the existence of Dt. the prophet's words could be reasonably accounted for by his own moral enlightenment. will be found to be so distinctive that they might not readily occur to different writers independently . there is no evidence that they were introduced in Moses' time and if they were. (28^* ^) . . 180 f. who cannot be shown to have lived before the age in which Dt.T.. 1^(32^. 9'* . i : : — — — . also.. Jud. 5* turn the captivity repeatedly (see note ad loc. 4^^).) . 9'* 23'* Lam. at too insignificant and slight to prove this. (3) There are numerous passages in Jos.) 81 eagle (28^) 8" they shall return to Egypt {zS^) 9I2 (28*' 31") 11^ Admah and Zeboim{2g''^l^)). however. Given merely two similar passages. in which the phraseology is palpably moulded upon that of Dt. i* forsaken &c. 7^" returned. (if he lived subsequently) would naturally be familiar. it probably is true that the customs alluded to in 6^ 25^ * 26^* 27'^*' (see the notes) are derived from Egypt. 12'** Am. viz. sought (4^* ^) . than that Dt. for instance. . is the earlier) why this should not be the passage in the prophet. was promulgated. 3. on the part of the author quoted most of the expressions are not peculiar to the passages cited. on one side or the other.. . less resembles one occurring . on internal g-rounds only. therefore.f The literary analysis of the books in question shows. if examined. 19 : intercourse with Egypt. but are additions made by the compilers. &c. 3"* ^^ Pr. Jer. 5" oppressed.

. Jerem. Deuteronomy did not complete the habits of the people. and determining the public standard of belief and practice. of which the priests soon became the natural guardians and * Comp. Highly as Dt. accessible to all. ranked the prophet ( 1820-22) J the step had been taken which in time would supersede the need of his living voice: a sacred book." In this book the rights of the sanctuary and of the priesthood were defined the conditions which members of the "holy people" must satisfy were prescribed the foundations of a church were thus outlined. 2o''. It was the intention of Dt. in consequences which were not foreseen by those who had initiated it. sealing as it did the prophetical verdict on Israel's history. p. regulating the life of the community.Ixiv tions INTRODUCTION show. bears testimony to its influence * the compilers of Judges and Kings (who wrote at about the same time} show that by the contemporary prophets it was accepted .g. where he undertakes a mission "in the cities of Judah and in the streets of Jerusalem. under the subsequent kings. written document now existed. e. 56). xxix) of centralizing religious rites tended to formalize them. Sacrifices. From the day when Dt. as the religious standard of the age. the But on all the spiritually: minded Israelites Deuteronomy had laid its hold Jeremiah. and other religious offices. 7" 12^'' 2 K. still An official. ii^-'. did not cease immediately after the Exodus (comp. were ferred to the central sanctuary : now its all trans- the Temple and priesthood rose accordingly in importance. 3^ lo^^ 11^''. at the village Bdnidh. The movement of which Dt." with the object of securing obedience to a "covenant. confirmed further the authority of Deuteronomy. hitherto often performed. {Cheyne. to deepen and — — . as Jeremiah witnesses. as occasion required. and the many allusions in Isaiah to friendly relations between Judah and Egypt. however. . pilgrim- ages.soi-s-s-T 31I-3 36« &c. The reformation of Josiah. Hos. spiritualize the religious life : but the necessity (p. Israel became to borrow Mohammed's expression the "people of a book. was accepted by king and people. on nearly every page. was the outcome ended." which is evidently that of Dt. duringf i K. the period of the monarchy. The exile. 17^.). and to substitute a fixed routine for spontaneity. could not change old idolatries again prevailed. its work at once.

but upon grounds which cannot be deemed cogent. Gesch. Prophetismus. 5-1 1. 76 fF. consists.). t The rest of c. pp. for There all is no sufficient doubting that the whole of these chapters formed part of : the law-book found by Hilkiah style.* The question arises. was now there. See also Ryle. further Wellh. the contents if of which are not stated. 28 forming reason the peroration and conclusion.. 244-246. 12-26. the only material differ- ence being that. in c. does not show that c. which is to follow. 193 f. ii). 28 (with perhaps 27^-^" as a connecting link).DATE OF DEUTERONOMY exponents. 5-n of statutes. i. thus promoted indirectly IxV life. pp. 12-26 already lay before the author in a written form it is suffi. of c. and was one of the steps by which the religion of the prophets was transformed gradually into Judaism. 5-1 being a parenetic introduction. 63 fF. 28 in c. Einl. comp.. c. ciently accounted for by the fact that the author ex hypothesi has throughout in mind the second part of his discourse. Wellh. 12-26 containing the exposition of the law. Is the existing book of Dt. Hist. Canon. 1 5-26. that development of priestly aims and principles which ended in the legislation of P. 402 fF. pp. 27 is admittedly misplaced (see p. Rel.: so Cornill. explained above (p. {Comp. 294 f. from the nature of the case. Stade. in the manner of Or has it undergone many other ancient Hebrew latter to writings ? And if there are reasons to suppose the is it possible to determine how much the "original Deuteronomy" may have comprised? The central and principal discourse of Dt. Cornill. p. 12-26. 661-670. The frequent It is true. 157 f.t c. are written in the same and all breathe the same spirit. 2 etid. and bring with it the requisite explanations. 84-91.. 2%\-2<)z. 487 f. § 9. Der Isr. — c. Smend. * On the historical significance of Deuteronomy. 32 if. to c. E . Alttest. would limit the original Dt. 6) inculcation..^ 303 5 Westphal. as have been the case. p. to become the rule of Israel's The promulgation of Dt. for instance.-gesch.. the parenetic phraseology as it is is not so exclusively predominant in c. pp. identical with the law-book found by Hilkiah? subsequent expansion. but which are referred to as they were familiar to the reader.

p. while imitation.1 : Ixvi INTRODUCTION it J is Nor can be said that c. can be naturally accounted for by the special character of the contents. 1 2-26 the . cf. v. 9-10.! * The common origin of c. cf. in c. 105 ff. Kuenen. on account of the delicate literary feeling which it " Especially noteworthy. p. Dillm. Hex. and never touches upon the thesis of the latter passage about prophecy as a substitute for Yahwi's immediate revelation. It is the same author who describes the assembly at Horeb in c 5. but in other respects. this great fire." though he allows the contents to be of a nature inviting expansion. the two groups of chapters " present just that degree of agreement and difference which we should be justified in expecting. 9). 18. though strong. on the : .). run iwD 5*. (p. or that the promise of 5^ 6^ its separated by an undue interval from as has been pointed out before redemption in c. p. displays. 5-1 1 but the deviations from the normal Deuteronomic style may be safely said to be not greater than demonstrate that 28 is . who observes that he "cannot discover a single indication of diverse authorship in the chap. One of Kuenen's notes (n. and nearly the distinctive expressions occurring in the latter are found It is more difficult to by the same author as c. as the argument from phraseology. 263. mc^ k^i. 5-1 it shows no traces of all servile tone and style resembles entirely the parenetic parts of in it likewise (see the list. is not so cogent as in the case of c. cf. . s^^P") rpn »V. on the hypothesis of a common origin " naturally. (p. 12-26 he constantly reverts to them and hence in it is not more than consistent with his sense of he should develop them systematically a special introduction.23 (26) gio j^i. mna as 5" 9^ ^npn cva as 9^" 10*. c. s^f^^) . mentions it incidentally in c. it is the grounds and in motives of obedience which are of paramount value Writer's eye. Westphal. 12-26 is strongly defended by Kuenen. and makes an independent use of it in c. 12-26. is worthy of transcription In v. xix). 21 (2). cf. 5-1 1 is disproportionately long" as an introduction to 12-26. § 7. In language and style there is nothing in c. § 7. I think.' as 5=2 (^). 5-1 1 to suggest a different author from 12-26: as Kuenen has remarked. for he moves quite freely. Dillm. 1 2-26 their importance that : does not occur in c. the legislative terminology of c. c. Ixxviiiff.* c.^* is the resemblance between 18^®"-** and the hortatory introduction. 5-1 1 and c." t Comp. even in c.^'' TD'n as ^25(08)^ Yet it cannot be said that the author of c. 370). • . 5-11. 5^2 P). 5-1 1 is simply borrowing from iS'*'^-. 5-11 . 12-26..

(c. Revue de THist. §11. Horst's). Einl. as an introduction. (cf. % 7. xxix. Lorigine des quatre premiers chapitres du Deut^ronome. (i) c. Westphal (1892). 28^8). See more fully Holzinger. (1889) pp. Cornill. considers that this has certainly taken place . 29-34. which have been deemed by some scholars. 28 may be included withdifficult out serious misgivings. the work of a single author and c. i. 5-26. i23fF. character (repetitions. t Published since separately under the title. 66-68. Comp. Comp.. But the grounds cannot be considered cogent and the passages demurred to (esp. 253 fF. . 5 Wildeboer.361. . des Religions. 178-" (the priests) ""^^ (v. supposing them to have been prefixed. Einl. and the unity of treatment.>»-!» . make it difficult to think that the additions. completeness and force. 17^*''^). . 12-26. 141-2. Lev. 1-4. legislation and at the same time of inculcating fresh motives for (41-^0).3. . A.'s. to be later additions (cf. Wellh. with the single exception of 14'*"*'. Kuen.20) j814-22 20 21" 23*'' (*"^. (1894) p. viii. . (1888) pp. to be . Hex. and in the custody of the priests. presupposes Dt. school. C. these 5-26. 12»-7. vii. but he admits that it The rhetorical is not possible to distinguish now what the additions are. 292-295 . which mark the chap. 228 ff. . Kuenen. 225. 303 f. 191. and points of contact with Jer.). below. * Klostermann. Louvain. Wellh. also Piepenbring.UNITY OF DEUTERONOMY Ixvii The following are passages of c.). vii. 141149. p.1 subjected the arguments of Reuss and Kuenen to a searching criticism. Konig. ii. Cornill. a few years ago. 2) :— enumeration not in the general style of D) "^^ (" for . 353. 212 f. God ") 15*'^ 16'"* (in conflict with v. 262-265. {-Der Pent. 5-26 may thus be concluded. 464-482. vi. § 9. La Bible (1879). Kr. it is said. § 9. the subject of a rather interesting discussion. u. pp. 3i*. 1-4. for the purpose of providing the reader with an account of the historical antecedents of the Deut. . 11. p. 195 Reuss.^ and a correction of it introduced on the basis of Ex. obedience . to be already written. p. . p. without hesitation. pp. Stiidien. Stud. 80-90 . 207 Valeton. van Hoonacker (Professor at Louvain) in three articles in Le Musdon. 1871. 28 and his articles were in 1-3). 28). with the view of showing that c. (a criticism of an allied theory of L.* The question was made. The question becomes more when we proceed to consider c. 67-85. 1889. 12-17. harmonize entirely in style and character with the rest of Dt. by a writer belonging to the same (c. pp. The majority of recent critics attribute chaps.4-20 (the detailed 194 f. as a whole. 303 f. §§7. 1-4 were by the same author as c. and c.).210-20 .. if any. can extend ground of its literary beyond two or three isolated verses (cf.. 23« Nu. shortly after that was completed. to a different hand from the body of Dt. on various grounds. i). 14. which explains itself. 193.

19 the Writer confines himself to the three cities of refuge to be instituted in Canaan. promised in i^. contends (c. those appointed on the E. either The two superscriptions i^"^ *" * circumstantiality the place : have cancelled inserting his it. this title was considerably briefer than it now is.There is nothing unreasonable in the supposition that. as opposed to the introductory matter contained in 1^-4**. Van Hoonacker argues that in c. 7). the opening words of 5I. As the two headings stand. . longer than was sufficient to mark the commencement of the actual " exposition " of the law. but it remains strange. " And Moses called unto all Israel. and cannot both be the work of the same author would the author of \^---*-^ have repeated substantially the same particulars in 4**"^? or does 4**"^ read like the words of one who had already written the previous title i^-'^-*-^. ^41-43 (cities of refuge) . as formulated by the original author (whether preceded by 4*^'^^ or not). 26. and said unto them. which forms (see note) part of an insertion in the original text of c. 4*^"*^. they cannot well be both the work of the same writer but a heading lends itself readily to expansion and if. must be of later origin than c i-^. the following is an out- and 4*^"^^. in spite of what van Hoonacker urges.» belongs to P (p. that when contemt plating their possible future augmentation by three more (v. of Jordan having been already noticed by him In 4*i-" . 78. he should make no allusion to those which he had mentioned in 4'"'^." would be a sufficient introduction to what follows. in reply.— INTRODUCTION from the opposite point of view by L. is or (preferably) have preserved it. 5-26: {a) In 2^^"^' it is said that all the generation which rebelled at Kadesh had perished that those in the wilderness is whom Moses but in 5^. as seems to be the case. 1-3. and just related at length Van Hoonacker. its circumstantiality is (especially on the conquest of the trans-Jordanic territory) terizes the author of Dt. 4'"-^. V. 2-3) the details summarized in it ? that. p. 4*^ is based upon 3^^. . in its present form. if 1^-4*^ were the work of a later author than 4*'-c. Revue de VHistoire des Religions. Inconsistencies alleged to exist between c 1-4 and c. introduction (i®-4'") after it and urges that the new rendered necessary by the interruption occasioned by . own heading. 1. 4*^"*^ is due to the love of repetition which charac- Horst replies that it is more than doubtful if an original part of Dt. after the interruption. he would. and .1 1^"^ stress is laid on the fact addressing are witnesses of the Exodus. 2. t and that if it were. Ixviii their turn criticized Horst p. — . if he had felt 4*"-^ to be injurious to the unity of the entire book. as Horst remarks. xxiii. (1891) The fairness and good temper of both writers are not : more conspicuous than their ability line of the arguments alleged. It does not seem that any definite conclusion as to the authorship of 1^-4*" can be drawn from the occurrence of the double title. as the original title. each stating with some and occasion of the delivery of the following discourse. and not .***). in the 184 if. are mutually exclusive. See below.

dans la partie historique [c. made with " our fathers. not upon Edom's treatment of Israel in the wilderness. Van Hoonacker replies that 2^^*^ refers only to the Ammonites (v.e. 3 : " rien. (2) It is admittedly the practice of Dt. cannot therefore (on this ground) argue logically that c 1-3 is by a different (d) hand from c. 22«. and the future generations of Israel in an ideal unity. who are placed on a different footing in 23'"* ***• 2^.11 to distinguish the two generations : in 2^*"^®. which must have been at the time of Nu. 4*"* g22 gi7 2gi (2)) . and in 11^ the allusion to "your children who have not known." &c. speaking' historically. had actually witnessed them. The Moabites and Edomites. 5^ C^) 7^^ 9'"" ^^* 25^''' : comp. before your eyes. and so to treat.: UNITY OF DEUTERONOMY belong' to the IxiX at Horeb. "The author of c. 1-3].) cannot have been the one alluded to in 2^ : the unfriendly action of the Moabites in hiring Balaam (Nu. an interpretation which Horst (p. the point of 5^ is to insist on the fact that the covenant concluded at Horeb is not an ancient covenant. Is it not clear that he cannot be also the author of c. for the purpose of emphasizing the appeal to those who stood nearer to the events described. 5. to comprehend the past. for instance. One who assigns (as Kuenen does) c. same generation with which Jehovah had made a covenant Kuenen argues. 1-3 is loose 4"'' is in no way the sequel of c. 5-11. to the adult males .("•' are based. 1-4. and the younger of whom. and ti fortiori after the friendliness alluded to in Dt. but nevertheless he wishes to identify them with them. with the patriarchs. but elsewhere he expresses himself in terms similar to those of 5* 1 1'^ : so." i." a relationship not subsisting in the case of Moab.** ' ('• ®)) are expressly excluded from it. not only in the appeal of 4^'^^" you") ^'•^•^•^•*'. in 23^* P'-' the Moabites are said not to have met the Israelites with bread and water. 2i"-^. The author of c. 5-1 1 is aware that the recipients of the Deut. 38 years afterwards. is particularly anxious to distinguish them. 21^^).(3f. 2'^*'. when they were the P'* ^'-l : in — — — . for ^'''' ^^* ^''j but also in 1' ("unto instance. 5-1 1 ? " It is replied : (i) the terms of 2""'* are limited to the "men of war.e. the present. 2^ : Nu. but is one binding on the Israel of to-day. is merely intended rhetorically. 22-24) must have been after the message to Sihon (Dt. on the other hand. 3.*P)) y_5b-6 (4b-5) referring to the Moabites.g. He points out further that the occasion of 197) allows may be right.. the Israel whose separate national existence. r-4 is not more anxious than the author of c. but upon its being Israel's "brother.). 1-4 to a single author." i. he states that the generation which rebelled at Kadesh had perished .si' (7t)j are commended to the Israelites' favourable regard. and a fair proportion of those under twenty in the 2nd year of the Exodus. The author of c. in the conception of the writer. it is urged that the connexion with c. are placed on praised for having sold the Israelites journeying past their territory . As regards 4^'^*. or rebelled in the wilderness {e. and while the Edomites (v. the Moabites (v. same footing in 2^ they are both bread and water. would be alive still. began at the Exodus. the Israelites addressed by Moses as morally identical with those who came out of Egypt. legislation are not in fact identical with the witnesses of the theophany at Horeb (see S'^^* ii"^ &c. And the injunctions in 23®'. and national consciousness.

Westphal. and setting. and not and the motives appealed to. less formal and systematic announcements of the Deut. s^** . The main theme of c. laws. He thus wrote with c. : . are derived. ("Hear. exhorts the people to lay to heart the practical duties devolving in consequence upon them ("And now. r) that Dt. 13. C. qui rappelle la partie Celui-ci tire bien plfitot ses d^veloppements des portions du historique. are intended only to come into force in Canaan (4'. ii.) indeed objects (cf.).."* C. which he develops in the form of an introduction to it. lay before him in a written form the Decalogue he would of course be acquainted with independently. 5^) : the author thus takes a special point in c. 2. * v. and warnings which the history suggested c. 5 ff. Einl. Oettli. 4^ with 3^) parenetic is exagg-erated indirectly. No doubt this is an expansion of 5^'^° but it does not show that c. the Deut. as is probable." &c. who cites. alluding to \f{\2^*).'® ("with all thy heart. O Israel").'^ cf. §§3. 5.^'." 528(31) gi jj^) and 5-8 P') 6^ imply that they are now. 10^^). and so far as is consistent with the character of a retrospect.before the people parenetic . — . 10). 67. before him (as is shown also by the expression have taught in v. v. (cf. which (in the conception of the writer) Moses had made from time to time to the people Dt. alluding to c.. as illustrations (amongst other passages). cf. p. rien. xvii). 9' &c. v. 5 if. 3 breaks off (cf. 6^'^** 11'^. never mentions or implies that 289 «. 165 f. v. these laws. with 4^-"^. in view of having been led safely by Jehovah to the borders of the Promised Land." 4^: cf. in so far as : c."*. recapitulating^ the events which brought Israel to the spot (3^) at which its promulgation by Moses is located. 1-3. : the lessons It is ^^1-40 . As regards have taught in 4*. If. cf. does begin just where and the statement that c. p. 5-26. and imperfect conceptions of the spiritual nature of God being the obstacle most likely to impede Israel in doing this. Horst (p. i. it is parenetic (p. 187 f.-'• ^•'^•). leg-islation was published originally as a separate manual.i . & 10" &c. van Hoonacker adopts the same view that is taken in the present commentary (p. he dwells upon such incidents of the history notably the theophany at Horeb as seemed to him best adapted to correct them.). : : . however. Reuss. 4.®). 5I 6* &c. . not from the retrospect of c.^. 11 anything beyond the Decalogue had been previously communicated by Moses to the people the aim of 5^* (~)^' is to show that the laws received by Israel through Moses came with the same authority as those spoken by God Himself. . dans le discours. it would not be more than natural for it to be provided with an historical introduction. true that the historical incidents noticed in tjyj 1-3 are not utilized in Israel's js jj necessary that they should be ? The writer. Kuen. however (as van Hoonacker points out). being the final and comprehensive summary of them. but from incidents not there noticed.— IXX INTRODUCTION qui prepare au discours [V***] . 213 ». 4 is an expansion of the second commandment of the Decalogue (with 4^"^. 32." &c. 1-3 are historical. and the fact that it follows immediately afterwards may be taken as an indication that it was already in his mind as he wrote. v. Deut^ronome qui viennent apr^s lui.).. 4 is parenetic they are drawn from the history (v. cf. 64 so Kon. 1-3 is not c. v.. cf. p. that the reference is to prior." ("/ have taught you.

^• be used in a different application from 7^ 20". 21^'' Jer. c. The literary features thus noted as distinguishing c.* reasonably said of some that there was no occasion for their use in c. 46^ . 2^ hi-\ p. IxxviiifF. 4) Nos. (for c... 28. t In the 55 .(17^2 1 82°).>*. p. 17. may. 1-4 (esp. Dt. can hardly be said to be excluded by the language of Dt. but also minuter features notice. v. which is not unreasonable in itself. 53. (721 for example :— i" tij (18^2) i3i'«rf even unto (ij?) this place (9' 1 1° 20' 31') cf. 25. 29.^.) . 8.3 ynn (cf. it is said. 4^2.^^ "• ^^ 3* (hence Jos. 65. 22... Ixxxvii). is not denied. 4) and — — c. . cn^K vra. 13. list. iif. i^'' d'cp3 nni« (9^) . and P {ib. t On the other hand. 9. 24^ supports it. greatly t With n'?n) cj. 5-26. 11. or 3^3 the context) : . And 33^ occurs Dt. 2" to: changed to mo. Ixix) of the separate authorship of these chapters. 22. 684. 21. n3p:i nsi 4^^. 40. 1-4 not occurring elsewhere in Dt. p. The word occurs also Jos. there are expressions in c.. 12 a). six of these are found together. Ixxxvii). * ntrv D'O' Ez.. 6i' 2 Ch. 23^* 30^'. 37. 38. 60. prefers 33*? to 3*? : but 3^ is generally used by preference in the metaph. . 2*). 15* Pr. 4. 4. 42. 46. relatively slight. 3d. n'33n 41'. : . 5-26 (p.97. nSm DJ? people of inheritance 4^ . ib. word: p. 1-4 from c 5-26. 32' Ps. 2^4*-^''^. 41. the Deut 133 4". 2o"t) 'Tunn to provoke a'-^-^^-^^ (not elsewhere in the Hex.'^' ^. as the verb ct is particularly frequent in In the case of the rest. Nos. certainly ny-j^. possession 2^' ^. § 16. 1". 49. 8^-*^-^ [Deut. 23. 46). tnvn the heir). }:nnn to supplicate 3^ (also i Ki. 69.UNITY OF DEUTERONOMY when Ixxi for the first time. 62. and of others (notably those in i^''-^^^ that they occur in connexion with the subject-matter : while others again are not more indicative of the separate authorship of c. is inconsistent with its use in the rhetorical enumerations 7^ 20^^ : see pp. -na ^jnan iron-furnace 4^ . it is true. 15. placed before them It may be doubted whether this interpretation does not unduly strain the terms of 5^1'*) 6^ : the alternative view. Ixxxvii) 4": there are also some points of contact with the phraseology of Ez.t 423. 27*. viz. the more so. 4^"*° — In In also the sustained oratorical style — notice esp. jcnj 4^5. cf. D'D' 33'?3 only Jon. 15) instances rtf n. 30. sense of 4^^ (2 S. 1-3) Nos. najmn to be enraged 3'*. 18" and in the phrase d' 3V3 Ex. Kuen. lend themselves readily to adoption by different writers). not merely the broader features of the Deuteronomic style J (which. 5-1 1 (as \yo &. it must be owned. 5-26. it may be c. 58. i** Ti. It is not clear that the use oi Amorite in i' &c. 45. itt 6^ 9*) are as Kuen. 10. 14. 5-26 and it includes. tibs . Sdd 4'®. 4. 3^ for 33"? (the usual Deut. 44 ^9 is said also to — — — . confirm the view that it is the work of a different hand. 32* cf. The most remarkable one is are. i^ pj.. 52.^. 47.] al. Tn^nai Toy g^. Amorite in i'. see (for c.^ 28" 8 Ps. 12*''^ Jud. however. It is true (p. . 19. 12.) . Ixxviii ff. e-DT 4^8^ tIji. have been chosen as suggesting (agreeably with more distinctly than rhm (which is rather an inheritance as held) the idea of an inheritance as succeeded to (Jer. (§ 7.27. 16. the general style of 4^"** is indistinguishable from that of c. while 5--*(2')b (cf. which. also allows (above. the people are on the point of entering Canaan. ps3 8*. (for both) Nos. 4*". with "jk to 26^ 29^) . 28. 1-4 than those found only in c. forming almost the entire verse. 51. i"^ hkjc (9*) . i^^) to say nothing of Ex.'"^ ^^'^^ ''^'^ — is thoroughly Deuteronomic (comp. p. While the general similarity of style between c. ii^'*).

Horeb so (p. first phenomena presented by these and original suggestion that 1^-3^ was in the instance written as an historical introduction to c. No. alone 2J 4** ^' ^' "• ^. 59) 2837b) . 24 3j27^ 9I8 but see 2 K. 28. p. is the is work of Moses. . instead of inserting it between c. 28 by the makes the clever author himself (in the third person) : this introduction the redactor who incorporated Dt in the Pent.21 488 e". with the inf.23.w. 432 (cf. 2^) 4=^ niDD and D'NniD u goH and cf. any weight for doubting whether /^-^^ seems to him to be one which after all may not be conclusive either. . either alone or . 21 .43 923 (but Jos. 12^") . for rhetorical effect . 23 g29 1 .. 1-3 and the body of his discourse (c. xv bottom) Jjjn. g7. viz.1".8. with his other similar exhortations. i S. 5-26.12b (from Ex. 426 >]*• ^ 93. as characteristic of the style. and found also in c.). 28 itself. 1888. iqI. that the author of c. 23"- 18 D2). 1. can it have been written more than a few years after the body of Dt. 3^ ^iJ 11. si i8. Nor. 5-26.2. {^ 9^ 11 2) .„ guch phrascs as great and tall (or man."). 1-4 nax perish (esp.*). 17I'). 27 3412. And. the conclusion does not rest upon a multitude of convergent indications. word (p. ^19 ^j (136. . 173) 427b (cf. to have incorporated it. 156 ff. Ixxxiii. '' . &c.) adds. 22 ^21 gw gi. with other attributives. 48 n>yy ikt itk minuter and broader features constitutes an argument of some weight. D'V^nn ni 1 ''^ 1 17 (Jos. 12" Deut.).) 'fl m ^ cf. abs..* in Except for those who if it hold that Dt.21 224- i" D2 . might have been expected. 5-26. 53) 4i«»' . K'nn nya at that time i».y. favour of the unity of authorship.). in the latter. 70 8' 9'-8 .12a. 2820 . 138 (cf. i'*.— . . Ex. chapters.TiDn i26. Mitchell {JBLit. Dnjn'i ir^ (Jos." 5^^ (-)• 22 (26) yi9. Some other expressions cited ibid. j i26 30I5 (but also in D= Jos. . f al. . 1-3 should not be by the same hand as c.'i introducing a solemn declaration. . of subordinate the question of the authorship of 11-4*^ importance. (p.^8 2** 3*. To the present writer there appears to be no conclusive reason why c.. Dillm. G. 2 iqIT. (719 268). 2^ aa"? fDn (15') . 23 ^u gS ^20 . 21. such as give cogency to all the broader and important results of the critical study of the Old Testament.7 jg" 26* 292. 4^ 23" D2) inn adv. The combination of .8 so v. desiring to say what now forms 4^"**'. sff. Even be rightly assigned to a different hand from c. Ixxii INTRODUCTION Ixxxii. are too little distinctive to be really evidence of a single author. for the purpose of explaining the and the only reason of is by the same hand also. : nK-i see I as an excl. was unable to retain in that shape (for it * Deut H.28 z^o. (y- 8^ . as nnx iVn 4'. in any case. jSS 26' 28'9 . 2820-22 30I8* mo 328 2^ 82. No. sq. expressions used by other Detiteronomic -writers have not the full cogency of those confined to Dt. in general. 5-26.* . cion (42* Qj.1". 5 fF. : 426* 720 8"-*20 "jnj great. . .

which will be considered The proper position of 4^"* with its allusions to Horeb.— UNITY OF DEUTERONOMY would then have read too much it — Ixxiii a repetition of parts of Ex.unwilling to sacrifice (for : . like it being. who composed a separate.). transferred the first part of this narrative (changing at the same time the 3rd person into the first) to its proper chronological position. itself.*"' and 4*^-*^) that the author of i'3^ in its original form was not the author of c. 5-26. : the tone on the whole (except in 30^^'^) is not quite that of Dt. is criticized by van Hoonacker in Le Mus^on. . 1-3.). and the differences original author is the same . sacrificing the individuality of his sources to chronological order. Both. he altered its form. but especially between 30'"^" and 30^'*^. rather than after it. Westphal (pp..(the entire nation). and 29^^")^. describing briefly the Exodus and the conquest of Canaan the final redactor of the Hexateuch. 28. independent narrative. viz.(see p. introduced by the redactor. before c. 29-30 : p. Nu. treatment of a /undamental principle of Dt. in the process of transforming the narrative into a discourse. and the Book of Joshua (the Deuteronomic sections). 31I-13. and was transferred here. the differences are due to additions. not only between 29^*-^ P'-'> (an individual). p. chiefly to be considered are 29-30. 87-103) adopts a similar view but he thinks (on the ground of the double introduction i^'^. Nu. Ixxiv) part of a closing hortatory discourse (following c. but z somewhat later Deuteronomic writer.* * See the citations from these chapters. 24-30 ^^^-^"^ —the rest being admittedly derived from other sources. or changes. are connected with viii. which are not found elsewhere in Dt. theories of the original arrangement of c. 2. . Ixxviii i£ . This hjpothesis accounts for both the resemblances between i'-3^ and the resemblances are due to the fact that the c. : . and its directly. but that it formed originally (with portions of c. 331).'). (1889) p. 28. but contained many notices not to be found in the existing Ex. — (2) c. 34. The follow- ing are the principal grounds upon which it is questioned whether these passages formed part of the original Deuter- onomy 1. or second. as a conclusion to c. It may be doubted whether such complicated hypotheses are required by the facts that of Dillm. the spirituality of God seems certainly to be before c. changing the third person into the first. 5-26. The connexion is sometimes imperfect. 141 ff. 29-34. and so preserved it as a discourse of Moses. 5-26 too closely to be the work of a different hand he conjectures therefore that it is the work of D. 31. Though Deuteronomic words and phrases abound. 320). and several expressions occur. 5-26. 5-26. considers that this resembles (in style and tone) c. and worked up the second part into c. in the view taken of 4^'*'. 29-31. As regards 4^"*' Dillm. in the Pent. making it next to impossible that 30^"" can have stood originall)' in its present place. The parts of these chapters which have c. 27. by the same redactor who incorporated Dt. (see p. 28 hence have taught in v. 5-26.

— of course. and delivering it to the priests (31®'^^).g writing of Dt. if Dt." at least in 32**. parts of c. pp.si^ a^^j y 25. is hardly cogent. This discourse Dillm. after this by the final hortatory address. The additions introduced by the redactor into Moses' final discourse were especially 30*"^**. 28) was followed originally.^^-^^. This is the which distingoxishes c. 29-30. announced in 31**. the conditions upon which it might be again received into God's favour ? " + 5." anticipating 3. 's view. the Writer. 29-30 different from what it is in the body of Dt. must refer to some commendation of the Deut.. with Dillm. 28. and the expression "(all) these words.— Ixxiv INTRODUCTION (^' 27) 30^" speak of Dt. with JE and the Song (32^"**). 5-26. then. contained in parts of c. would it be to the people. 69-73) . a final hortatory discourse. In the body of Dt. 5-26. and parts of 4^"**. "which I have spoken" should have been said. one is not represented as more likely to follow than the other (cf. law). (c. 29^"' * thereby 31^* 4. developing this theory in greater detail. 387. it is asked. The standpoint is in parts of c. then by the directions contained in 27^"* and i i^s-so . the two alternatives obedience. § Cf.^^^•) . resulting in national prosperity. the main discourse of Dt. having before him both this final discourse and the Song. p. 4 and c. and by the notices 221-28 311-8^ ending with D's account of Moses' death. Cf. t Westphal. the redactor. from the first. forgetful of his role (cf. addressed to the people. the Song 32^"*' is ignored.:J: and 32*'-*'^ (as a conclusion) . 230 f. X 30'' being the appeal to heaven and earth. comprising 3128-29 ^^g ^n introduction). 3o^''2*'. 379. 28'*' *^.24-268 ^jj. taken in conjunction with 31^'^ (in both of which. after the account of Moses' writing the Deuteronomic law. What encouragement. it is argued by Dillm. with such changes and additions as to transform " (3i^*'") against Israel in the event of its future apostasy. in 29-^ (-)-3o^*' the latter is tacitly assumed to have been realized. Wellh. which harmonize imperfectly with D's usual style (as expressions in y. si^ g Westphal. it into a " witness Upon Dillm. 2s. 29. p. easily . before even it has deserved the punishment. 4 (which has several points of contact with c. 28^^. pp. which there is thus no need. : cf. it is said. 390. to consider altered by the redactor. (c. and to announce to it. or inducement to obedience. and c. Dillm. 191 . and its delivery to the priests). But the argument have used the expression. was. who combined Dt. 2^^ 38 |^p^ xliii]). resulting.. From the terms of 32**"^. and disobedience. 71 f. Kuen. 600 f.. considers is to be found in parts of c. first by 318-13. as already "written. reconstructs the supposed final discourse as follows : 29^"" P-i*) 4I-2 2ci^^'-^ P^"^^) 4S-3o» 2^'^ : .in are balanced one against the other . 28). 29-30 Westphal. a "written book. 34. that there followed originally in Dt. 386. § 7. might * Strictly. to hold out to it beforehand the picture of its ruin. conceived the idea of treating the two as parallel hence he remodelled the discourse. " to assure it thus distinctly that its apostasy was inevitable. Comp. 251. and the fulfilment of the curse (29-^"^ (~"^>) is made the point of departure for the hopes of national disaster — penitence and promise of restoration afterwards capital difference (30^'^°). for. and commending it to their observance. 22 (4). 29-30 from c.

it is in . but to to the a follower. 472-506). 27i-»-"-" 319-13. (with observance of Israel (pp. 28. may be imitated and possibly most. hc attributes it it. it is observable (Hollenberg. Cf. Sfud. The follows * : structure of Dt. 28. postulated by the and Westphal. that no doubt either written by D) misplaced. 29-34. such as 30^^ would be specially to the announced by the words 3128 and a reference in 3128 32^-*3 is after all more probable." promised in i^ (cf. As — is any case of the nature of a supplement for the *' Exposition of the Law.* Moses. 24-29 ji^ ^Mb-si 30I-10 ^32-40 go"'!* 32*^-^^ . 28. 28. IxxV however. surely easier: is hardly likely that a prose passage. 1-4. together with the excerpts from the narrative of JE. with such additions as seemed to him to be needful. m. thinks attached 69).. law . are intrinsically improbable impossible to think that sufficient cause has been shown for having recourse to them. 11-12) thinks that the original arrangement may have been :— c. or even all. 5I 12^) v. c. in the The explanation is of 3128 it suggested Commentary. affinities with Dt. 1874. 5-26. and the Deut. of the Deut. 29-34 cannot be fixed with con23 show how closely the style of Dt.^-*). 60 f. This writer. 21-28 (22-29) appear to go with is completed in c. on 29'* 8-"> 31 «••. parts of c. parts of c. partly for the purpose of combined into a whole. who he introduction) to Oettli (pp. or regards is to be attributed to a different hand. ^^ for the purpose of commending' the Deut. i«-29 aSSS-zg^? (29I-28) so'"'" 29»(») 3o"-»» 32«-47 31I-8. A>»V. 29. is and alterations. from JE.4*."-23 (the parallel. whatever concluding notices the author himself had attached to c. it transpositions theories of Dillm. to v. may be exhibited in a tabular form as and D^ in c. partly with the view of insisting afresh upon the duty of observing the Deuteronomic completing the history of law. pp. but 30I-10 (the passage which Song speaks of Israel's penitence after apostasy) it is connects (if so imperfectly with 30^^*''-. 29-34 should be assigned to D^ The Deuteronomic sections of Joshua. . 30^1-20 has the genuine Deuteronomic ring. 5-26. The and 32^^. which belonged here. 30I-10 and as even in the rest of the chapter the phraseology c. and 3116-23 321-43. not to ^i^-ia. . 5-26. display specially close line dividing I.— UNITY OF DEUTERONOMY (23-29) . not altogether the same as in the body of Dt. D himself. The : D fidence Jos. it may be conjectured. it is it is not impossible that the work of a later Deuteronomic writer. with 31".. 5-26.

34. X On the analysis of this chapter. II D . v. but also as a prophet.29-31 -^n(j repentance and restoration of Israel a/ier its apostasy and exile are contemplated. announcing like other prophets {e. not on account of the incompatibility of such a prospect with the general point of view of Dt. the rest {\o Jericho) is inserted from P. — — — — : . and that 3o^-^*'. INTRODUCTION 27»- D P 1^-2 i*-3" 3I4-I-* l» 3'*-428 429-311 4'"-*' 441-J3. but on account of their imperfect connexion with the context in each case. The style of 29^"' 31^"* is rather that of D' in Jos. Incorporated into Dt. 213. see p. 338. than of Dt itself. 44-49 si-26^» [d2 37 Jl"* 7b-8 rJE 31'*-'' D 279-" C 28(28^-29") 29^-8(2-9) 30"-20 31I-" f I JE 31^ 3124-27 (3ll6-22§) 3128-30 (32I-43. § Incorporated from an independent source. 29^*'-") Jehovah's counsels for His people's welfare . Unless therefore it may be supposed that the For of 4^2 introduces the motive." which accordingly must assign the ground. . not for Jehovah's mercy in a distant future (4*^ 3o'-9). v. 347. see p. 3o"-20) introduces the motive for a present duty (see ^-^ 3^14.. 33il) 1134^ D D2 I 32* fJE Id2 P1I34' 34''>-»" * On the grounds for assigning' this to D^. 54 ff. conceals the difficulty.29-'^. though written by D. 16b. introduced by a later Deuteronomic hand (cf. Konig. for the author writes not merely as a legislator. See pp. at an uncertain stage in the history of the text. 294 flF. In IT On the grounds for the analysis of c. in which the ultimate f 4. p. has been misplaced. but for listening in general to the preceding exhortations and warnings.g: Jer. it seems that the promises contained in these two passages must be insertions in the original text of Dt. note. *• On the distinction of and D2 in c. not for v. see the notes ad loc. Ixxv. see p. 44§) 3245-47 (c. Ixxvi rJE J. parallel in thought to Jer. 30I-10 are the only two passages of Dt. but for His claims upon Israel's obedience in the present.^ the part belonging to JE is "And Moses went up to the top of Pisgah " . 20^ .. 29-34."'2'*. and the promise of ultimate restoration would not neutralize the motive to obedience which the prospect of such a disaster as antecedent exile would bring with it. and is not satisfactory). attempted in the Commentary.jj each case also it is introduced by " For.. Einl. the paragraph which follows (432-40 .. 29^''-" 336-13 &c. They are assigfned here not without hesitation to D^. The explanation of For in 4'^.

is strongly original. 26^ Ex. completing the narrative. . was enlarged by a second Deuteronomic writer (or writers). D^. which have now been superseded by. consists undoubtedly of c. with additions of his (or their) own. and where his style displays style what may be termed an approximation to the of Dt. and this. entirely unlike that of P. (c. who (i) supplemented the work of D by adding the passages indicated (2) incorporated. 133-I8 certain sections of 193-6. The literary style of Dt. and phrases. recur with extraordinary frequency.). There in are. giving a distinctive colouring to every part of In its predominant features. at a whole thus constituted was brought formally into relation with the literary framework of the Hexateuch as a whole by the addition of the extracts from P. the work. was composed. 1-4 noted though most recent critics are of opinion that . the Song 22^. The kernel of Dt. Dt. written were the Blessing 33). presents comparatively few exceptional words (p. . assumed its : present form will thus have been (approximately) as follows excerpts from — Chronologically. probably from a separate later date. 28. and the JE (of course. 2320-33 3410-20)^ which the author (or compiler) adopts a parenetic tone. and (taking source) the to it. these chapters were prefixed to it afterwards. indeed. with intermediate passages. 5-26. constituted the law-book of It Josiah. Language and Style. Ixxxiv) but particular words. (viz. JE (in particular. consisting sometimes of entire clauses. with short historical notices at the beginning ^44-49 in a briefer form) and end. STRUCTURE OF DEUTERONOMY The stages by which the parts first IxxviJ Dt. 1520 parts of 2o2-i7. Gn. is very it In vocabulary. and very dissimilar to the normal style of JE. the it excerpts from JE. in the Table was probably preceded by the parts of c.. it Some little time after the kernel of Dt. or absorbed in. in the original form of this document. marked and individual. the style of Dt. however. and these sections appear to have been the . 32^-^3^ with the historical notices belonging still 31I6-22 Finally. § 5.

13 236(5). 6. 5!^ and (with !?»< njs) Hos.O.9. t On Nos. H) . Comp. S'^ . viz. 1. 8. D. or to prolong. so strikingly Deuteronomic as to suggest another explanation. as well as. comp. U 2 Ch. attached • Some of the expressions in Ex. 3^. 10" I 34" (inK hn). or go after) (*?»< 31I8. 6. xxxiii) (a) to be long 5'^ ( = Ex. s'l (Deborah). suggested to the author by these sections of JE t those which follow are original in Dt. &c). (not 5'). with either serve.. anx to love:—{a) with jos^ 22* 23". 24^= Which Jehovah thy {pur. pp. however.. S. 20^-).* In the following" list of the most noticeable words or first phrases characteristic of Dt. the note on 7*). of Solomon Ne. il6y6. 20 K. and differenUy (nnw is d«c' inxn) Jos. Ps.) God giving thee {tis. The occurrences in the Deuteronomic sections of Joshtia are also noted (for the purpose of illustrating. 2'. n:s) .^3 igso 28"-36. note. 719-' 22). p.. ZL. 21*) . 4. Otherwise first in Hos. .« y8. 3. the i6 may have been . and 33n 33^ 2. onnx D'n'?i« other gods: 6" 7* 8« 11I6. 34=5). promise upon obedience. So Ex. Kings (but not usually with the same verbs as in Dt. Jud. up. 1* Dan. and compilers of Jud. that the text of the Decalogue was originally briefer than it now is.38 22" ( = 2 Ch. (3^ 9" 11^** X4'**')» i'^ whose theology it is a fundamental and (apparently) original element (of.18 ijlO . itself): Jud. 3^ God as obj.T. 9«-9 ( = 2 Ch. (DeuL).40 ^30 (33) ji9 1^20 22? 30^8 32^ Elscwhcre. 6^ 25". : — (Deut. 31^ 9710 i45=«. So Ex. 3" 23". the last note. Jos.28 . I. 5. f) . . of daj's (the Deut.their affinity with Dt. pvn in the same connexion. see p. p. 156 f. and in later Cf. {b) Of God's love to His people : ^ 10^^ (the patriarchs). 24-' ^^ and perh. and using the Deuteronomic style.).37.310 i6"-13 194-13 229 256 32» 3^15 443. 9* (both from Dt. 167 f. 28'« Eccl. (6) to prolong 426. f 51"). lo^ once in Jer. 2'^^^"'-^^ i K.. Ixxxvi. (especially those written under the influence of Dt. 1 16.). 23^®.Ixxviii INTRODUCTION source from which the author of Dt.) Jud. 2o« ( = Dt. 3. the syn. TTK. 4. 6. 28*5t. 20' ( = Dt. where necessary. except 18*. 337) with turn to cf. lo" iii-"-22 134(8) . 6' 306. 20 . Is. 7. that there is no ground for supposing them to have been borrowed thence. ii*-i» 149 2 K. 53^0 Pr. . 'f 10^' (otherwise writers.^9 Also Jud. Very frequent in Jer. Also i K. 2g25(26) 3q17 (always.38. Not so elsewhere in the Hex. 20^"" are. and that it has been amplified with explanatory additions by an author dependent upon Dt. Jer.. (31'). &c. ifJ5. however. adopted some of the expressions currently used by him. only (5) i K. cf. 2619 2 K. 8»t). or occur so rarely in JE. lo^^ (the nj). Dt.T to be long. those in other parts of the OT. I S. Otherwise first in E (Jos.

Sam.20 .411. 'jb. T. 3" 5' 8«-2a-23 io25'» {our). U. 45. 31" 138 23'* '"^^ Jud.19 To hearken 1^5 26"17 His {Jehovah's) 2.). either with the patriarchs. 342* Nu.22 . : 7^ 142- 21 26^9 28^1. 12. 21. pjh might of hand v.28). * Budde. : .^3. 221. iG^ 178 2i2 (mostly. 15 302. Hence Ps.s6)t. : 155 199 27'" 28J-'i3. of Jehovah's oath to the patriarchs : 18.) A Jer. 14. thy {our. Hence Jer. 5I6) of. JE Ex. hence 2o33-3^ g^. 107 f. p.g7. So Ex. 6* Jer.J8. (esp.e. sometimes to the ground {Tia'\\K:^.24 I K.i4. 7a.^"^'^ (and without to-day 6^ 12".812 Jqs.20.27. to I3»- " 32" 33^ Nu.). Gn.18 98 iqU 1.^9. 2 K. E*) Mic. 34".10.i6)^ 32". 16 With you for thee 11^^. 14. So Ex. 3221. 1888.6»-i8. an inheritance 4^^ 19'" 20^® of as an inheritance to possess as 5. 502* Ex. = 5"). 9° 2710 281- 62 302. %^ (Deut.72.2" 10. 20'<' ( Dt. lest &c. 19' 2-f-^ Nu. 12. Jos. 6® (P or H).9. 19" a holy nation 8..65. si ^2.21 &o. 632). 2o2«. but without anj ii2 268. i^" Dan.28. S8 ^^si 610-18. onay n'a 24" ( (E). 142. Varied from Ex. 31" 34*.15. sq^ ^KD !»£!] TDCi. with thy). 34^2^ (Also Gn. very freq. tmp cy a holy people (cf.28. 67 3. i. Hence Neh. of slaves): 6" 78 8" 13'*" ('•'<•) Jos. 8 . and absolutely Ex. 1« S« 2.«• 19-20.9. and (of Edom) Nu. 34". 78-12.. 27" 32^^ Ps. 3i2"-2i(p.8.). cmn to cause (others) to possess. mighty hand and a stretched out arm: 4^* 51^ 7I* i K. rhiD Dy a people of special possession: 7' 14^ 26*8+. i-u-w With the addition of 2f-'^ 288.9.» 2A^'>' ""• ^ also Dt. Mighty hand alone Dt. 23". and without to-day ^''^ Ii22 .a8 6. 18 .* 1. 142* 2i28 2 K. 68 (prob. in see on 4^'): 413. 19" Hence i rhio '*? Dn". ig^ 2^^. (perhaps) Jer. 14. Deut. g^Jgjj 33* (with Levi). The combination occurs Jos. 1 1" i4'«- ' 32" Dt. Thy {your) gates (of the cities of Israel): . 443(2). So in JE."o iii'-" i2» 13" (^2) 15' .17. 232 {=Sichteru.86 23" (l^) 24" 26^2 28«2.. Jehovah. i73«t. So Jud. ZATW. of to possess it 5* W 19'' " 21* it 15* 25^®. (43f. 25\ ». 30 . to dispossess (Jehovah the Canaanites from before Israel): 43894. 15 jq8 i>j2 2869 (29!) 298' "• l'. So Ex.3 28. the gates. 11.23 . Cf. 13'-" 202 = Dt.13 81. 24* 312*. : 42^ 6'2 8" ii^** 12I3.39 251a 26= So Ex.15. 337).aj 14n.23. altogether more than 300 times (. So Ex.» (p. if not all. 2i5 (in inverted order). 181 «. 22'°). 19. 3i'«. So Ex. 13I 2f-* 28^* . Cf. The covenant (nna). 4^ : cf. 2* (9.12 glS q9. house of bondage (lit. Cf. 21*^' 24* 26^ . voice (i^V^ ^^) '• 4** (see note) 8*" 152* (S). 2o'2 ( = Dt.)=2 Ch. So Ex.35. 324 621 78 g26 3412 (cf.). 319 61 13I9 (cf. 11.14 .20. 8. 14M 15. pp. K. 4"). -2. the &c. So Ex. io28. yairj to swear. first in Dt. Which I am commanding thee this day 4^ 6' 7^^ 8^' ^^ 10" 1 18 i3i»(i8) . alsoDt. STYLE OF DEUTERONOMY Ixxix cities. 6^8+.23 13. 8*2 ( = 2 Ch. 9.3. v^-"^ 2^ 3«» 41. 91=. or with Israel (ex: pressing- a fundamental theological idea of Dt.23 1. 11. iS TDE'n (oa"? MDvn) take heed to thyself {yourselves).21 . 337). special force.318(17) ig8 263-15 28" 29^2(13) 3o2» 31? Jos. . Ex. iKD DrnDcji 2* 4" Jos. 26. So Ex. your) God. 12i2. From Ex. (^. .12. 05. 3221 (ymx). Stretched out arm alone Dt. mostly to the land (pK-i)."n. 136^2.

17^ (both Deut. the individualized nation.6. 143).i5.!. 22' . \h) 13^ jge^ 18.) 4^^ 9I ii^i Jos. &c. 2320 and 'i njK? Jer. ii** Nu. Very characteristic of Dt.T. 42^ 49^)» Twice in P (of the priests. : . of the future esp. 22. with because. also. In the formula " I {'3K. your. in JE. : . Jehovah. 432" 454.)t. 54. pp. g^ -. 2o24 ones. 12' 1424 154. (without a rel. So in E. but "and we will exterminate evil (^in) from Israel" occurs Jud. 9 43I0 441. compiler of Kings. once. 25. 4" i K. 142^ 2 K. often used by the Deut. laid on Jehovah's blessing. 9. "ii'3 to exterminate occurs also Dt. and esp. 33^4. my chosen . and the widow {nxhwn 2417. 19*. iii3-32. 6. ") 4'. 3^1. 16. 15 f^^ ^jjg emph. In order that Jehovah may bless thee since. with "the place 31" Jos. n3'N how? i^. cf.) i^* 2^ 10^" 23® 25'' 29^^ . i K. king 17^ . 2^*] . 17 2325 Also in other books. Hence Jer..) 9"^ I229.21 271*. II. The land whither thou goest in to possess it: 4" {ye). This phrasc is peculiar to Dt. Ex. 56. 21. 24 24?. 2321 Similarly the land whither thou passest {ye pass) over {Jordan) to possess it: /^^*'^ 6^ ii*-" 30^^ 31^ 32^'' : cf. types of the needy and unprotected: lo'^ Levite. at the end of the description of a judicial procedure 138(5) 177. their) fathers : i"* -^ 4^ 6^ 12^ 26^ 273 2924(25). also Dt. with the (2i'.W. io^° iS'^^'*^.18-26 the latter phrase.) (in two different sentences). cf.i«). 12^" ^^ 1423*^ 15™. 23*4 2 Ch. 23^^ W. 11- "• 16) 23I9 32^-8 3424. of his {thy) soul: 12^5. Also charact. 2 Qf God's cf. [ijiiTSJ inf. 14^ .11 252. Ex." occasionally also in P. Ixxxvii]) am Jehovah your pp. 7* 22' Ez. (sq. of Israel. 2^\. 3 p3T to cleave to. : not applied before to God's choice of Israel . : 17. of devotion to God: io2o 1122 135(4) 3020 Jqs.22. 10. 11'' 2 K.20. 6^ i6'. of II Isaiah (418. comp.12 INTRODUCTION (=Dt. i" . 191* 21^ 26'3. i4 jgio.12 30^^ . 65^' ^5* 22. constr. nna to choose (with God as subj. my chosen one.O. And applied to of the true Israelites of the future. the God of thy {our. ". ^^l greatness (of God): 3*4 521 g26 nS^ go elsewhere only 32' Ps. to the exclusion of the common Levites). v. also of Israel. and rare in 19. 6.. 22'. 16'* '. 1429 2321 (20) 24!* .7'' 12^ 18^^ other books.24 jg20 J52. 14^" 16* (tjod) 2121.^ [thy father].21 So with ? for 3 S.Lev. 24. the fatherless. again favouring Israel by restoring it to Palestine. Ex. 2220'- dw. God. 7" 15" 288. a human subj. not '338* [p. Is. TK being generally preferred. To eat before Jehovah 21. Jehovah's ideal servant. and in the pregn. §24 iqS. . (without a rel.ie j^s. : cf.7 jq15 j^^2. . in Lev. Ex.20. Nu. of Jerusalem. 28. also i" 2' (see note). 2615.36 84»-48 (cf. v. 17-26 (see L. as and. 26. nnx nya i K. or 1^25 i(. (your). and frequently in H viz. and Qf jjje Levitical priests 18' 21^ [i S.19. 14^° 224' 2 K. 20". 7^ iiio. though far less frequently than in Dt. 23. n\H I h2'2 ivith all the desire . n3K to be willing: (sq. in Jer.28 (^^^) . 27. i4 2 S.ti n:n). in a theocratic sense): of Israel m ^37^6. 16 Iwithout Jehovah.IxXX 15=6 202-»-7. Not elsewhere in the Hex. The stranger.12 1919 2i2i 2221. Cf.29 : 2821. in the phrase " the place which Jehovah shall choose to place (or set) His name there" {i2^'^^-^ 1423.«3 30I8 . (^KTf'D) impD yin myyi so thou shalt exterminate the evil from thy midst {from Israel). Cf. 1429 i6"-" 26^2.io i8« which Jehovah shall choose" 12". 20. 21' 232^. 45. 3^5. r^iHm to be angered: i^ ^^ g^-^ i K.

Ex.^). 10* (of Levi: so 23».7. . 9"(i6) : in Jer. : 42. 278. (5" courageous and strong: 3i8-7. |"DNi pjn 9. used adverbially = /'Aoro//^A/y. 7I' 139(8) 19I3. 8" 40.22 i Cf. To walk in Jehovah's ways : 8* lo^^ n^a Jos. cf.i3) 28'" 292* (28) {c) of a foreign people also. 98 1 1" Jos. cf. Elsewhere. only 2 K.=» 12' i4«> 2 K. 38 (JE) 39. i^ 8^ io25). naiB. 14I8 {RV. 22' .^ . 3" 8^ statutes alone 48 6^ 1612. Thy com. : . 3^612 11'' 2 K. cf.Ti 36. 23 jQg^ j6. commandments and statutes 10I8 28i''*^ 301° 1 K. 18^ (of Hezekiah) of devotion to in this false gods i K. cf. i82 . 37. K. So 2 K. s^'^'^ Ex. cf. the corresponding. And with nipn. The same idiom Gn.6. commandments and statutes 6" {-{-testimonies). 3'o''n inf. 1820 (E). 22^. and {c) Jer. 1 1^* 1 2«> I5« 26^8 2f 29^2 (is). 4*. 38. 11^. and frequently in Ez. Statutes and judgments (c'EErDi D'pn) 9* 2 K. f 15" l613 I7'» 2228. 41. 20*t> : And remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt glS i^is i612 24l8-22. Lev. : 32. 29. 2512. 14' (P) : Dt." ^ ii32 12I 26^* i K. in the opp. So also Nu. &c. 23I8 (v. i K..38 (all Deut. 424.). 1528.).T \-\Hn the good land.^ a/. STYLE OF DEUTERONOMY 23* . and thy new wine. A character17* 43. i822. 12 22* Comp. reading kS for vh\). 133 1737 (nearly "i"? all Deut. iii*t. abs. D^o^rrh^= continually (lit. 452" Is. xvi. H . +/o me. Not elsewhere application. 32^ (reminis(li'DKi iptn) ie (_ye) cences from Dt.adj. j^fl 26" 28' 30^' 31. all the days) 4* 528(28) 6^ 11^ i42» i8» 19" 2829. 22^* 28^ 2 Ch.T. and thine oil : 7" 1 1" 12" \i^ 18*.' a good Ch. xxxiii). i25. 2122 with 7wt. 13I8 . 8" ioi» 29" (28).* 1^ 6^ 10". above. S8 524 ^Jnn ovna). 8*8. : promised) : i^^ 6" 26" v^ 6' 9'. 17I8. p. 13".^2. g" gio (v. : notice the following nnn hm NTn h«. and P the phrase used is to bear sin. (6) 2833. (in the threat of exile). 2» I K. you. Ixxxi . Jud. all : i^^ 325 421. 526 (12) 820. Vy T3'y Dinn k^ thine eye shall not pity him {them) : 7^. ii^ to sin 2 K. DV3 as at this day: the note on 2^. of Canaan land). Who shall be in those days Cf. 4i-5-8. on 4« and add i K. 35. 11 28 {b) i^. Dt.410.). 33. . 8'* i* of strange gods. r\^ry 2*' 420.). Cf. with Dt. Jer. 5" (i) 8« 9* 1 1^^. 98 11^ 2 K.). 328 inssKi inf«n. 28 3" 8*8 I1S3. ordinary one 318. The expression may seem to be an but it occurs besides only i Ch. See where the other occurrences of the phrase are quoted.T nan 31^. '"? not D3''?k.\iifi. in . istic that it may be well for thee Similarly (dsS) "^ 3im ^1?^) (u"?) iV aia*? . Deuteronomic principle (p. and it is shown that it gives expression to a favourite Deuteronomic thought. 17^ 19I' 26^ Jos.i. cf^ Jqs. 288 (a reminiscence). .. 30. 17^ + commandment{s) 528(81) 6I 7" 26" i K. a good and broad land Which thou {ye) knowest (or knewest) not . so 223 I Jud.«« (all Deut. '"jk) : (I.10 D^ Jos. 17** 23^ The passages from Kings jn : . . (a) of the . 2^ {-{testimonies) cf. 3' (all Deut. : are Deuteronomic. c^^ i2^^(^*) 19" .i^* i' a good ground).. 271" Ex. Ken 13 2323 and it be sin in thee : 15^ 2322(21) 241". -{-judgments 8" 11^ 30!' 1 K. -{-testimonies 62". ttjo as Jehovah hath spoken (cd"?. at3" (irx) jyn^ 4*' 5i8' » (») fi*- " 1 2*. order <f> 1 K. m.e. 19" 22" Nu. manna. in this application.18 io25. i^ : and (22)-j-_ in D2 Jos.33 Jos. of a land 19^ 44=* . also 32" (the Song). statutes and commandments 6^ i K.36. comp. 1719. ni. 21 34.

4^" Tintrh to possess : ^ it. involved K. sometimes even pleonastically 231 see above Nos. 43^. 5* (*) . 8*]. and are rare. K ' 32«t. : ' . as Mic.v. I4S ( = 2 Ch. priests the Levites {i. also in the is || of Levi Dt. i62 due to the compiler). hnt!?. 158 (= (=2 Ch. n® 1422 1^) Jer. 48. All Israel: i^ (see note). in the sense ofmayestnot: 16® 17^^ 21^* 22'' ^' ^^ 24*. IqS" M (=2 Ch. 11^ into the 53. 8'" (Deut. . 638) Jos. which also occurs several times in Dt. 3' 4" . esp." ' j .u ga^ 3412 Jos. 4. fig. 32. 20". 12^ Is. in the inf. yp). 1 : j I j ^ ' i : ' * +iD»VDn^ to vex idolatry). Gn. 2«. ':b^ \n to give {deliver) up before (of a conquered land or foe) : i^* 21 231. and (in the first person. 6*). 52. 6^ 8® 10" .10 Only besides (in the third person) i K. and 123(2) in the 22«( = 2 Ch.. 7b £fo that -which is 21* + 3it3m and that which isgood6^^ estimates of the kings 2032). 3". in a bad sense. 222 (=2 Ch. n^s-ss j^8 1^6. with the devotion of the whole being (cf.6. elsewhere. the Levitical priests): 17^ 18^ 24^27' j Jos. 90I'' Job i" Eccl. 2* 8^ ( = 2 Ch. Followed by a. 214. 5I 1312 2121 27^ 29^ gii.) The usual syn. and add gis g6 j2^. (all right (ne"n) in the eyes 0/ Jehovah : 12^ 1319(18) 12^. of God) Jer. as Dt. 2 K. Metaph. 3129. Not elsewhere in prose. 2 of Aaron. So Nu. n. 3431)25 2 Ch. p.e. esp. Jer. personal obj. (see pp. i^. 1 \ j I influence.'^' 12 4I 6^ 10^ 13I) and Kings [e..83. \G 2 K. which has nuj to incline) so iS. To do that -which is evil {vvi) in the eyes of Jehovah 3i29*. except in passages written under its . To turn (mo) neither to the right hand nor to the left 2^ lit. at the end of a sentence. With all thy {your) heart and -with all thy {yoicr) soul. : | I 42^* 9I8* 172 49. 6512 66*). 1' 23« so 2 K. A 45. 7^ (with from 56. as 1 him (viz. 28^2 30?. by the undeserved dishonour. 272). "sons i K. 242). 2 Ch. 33I* Ez.ii. i K. i K. in (^s) ' the inf. 48 gained currency through Dt. 1 never used in Dt. So Ex.-h. 32I3 often in the Deut. of the deliverance from Egypt Not so elsewhere the house of bondage. often with that they may learn prefixed. 43I* P's expression. w to possess. 2i** ^ Ps. (Vav) ^3in h'? thou (he) canst not. 25*-' 323» (also + /o vex with). Hag. 47. 50. The duty 31W oi fearing God inculcated: 6^-^ 10^ 13''^* 31^^. (peoples).11 (^2 Ch. 612 (of the kine). framework of Judges (2" r^. 33«). i. 28I). xxi) : 42^ 6» 10^2 „i3 j^^p) 26I6 302. see on : give 1 ' hand of.g. 20 28" Jos. 1423 17I9 2858 46. 529 (32) i7ii. 222 (^2 Ch. 1012 is 116. Both this and No. 23^^20271. 232 al.Ixxxii INTRODUCTION 7^ 12*^ 44. 92* i3«(') 151" 21^ 24^*. Ps. 292). not very common in a bad sense.). Elsewhere.23 2318(14) gjS^ and (with i r^i smitten) 28^Is. ']^ i8i° 32*" and occasionally elsewhere (as i S. i The Ch. So : Jos. 1 K. see 9^ (phil. in .86^2. 252). 22I7 (both Deut. 22' 23". 28'' La. i^^ 2 S. 3* 833. 17" 2i« (=2 Ch. py to he affrighted'. 21^ 31^ So Jer. and in both + ^ vex with. 1512. i83 (=2 Ch. 26*). r\v. 152^ (JE) Jer. 51. i29 721 2o3 31^ Jos. K. ma to ransom. 54. 412. 219). 22. very uncommon use : cf. 16' 2 K. 233 (=2 Ch. 342). 341" . 55.e. (altered from Nu. the priests the sons 4415 2 5" [prob. . only Jud. DT nryo the work of the hands { = enterprise) J \i^ 16" 241* In the neutral sense of enterprise.

The cv caution not ]'2V to forget TDB* \3xih. 24 gS.t. 17 1*3 (Nu. 34«' (J) Jos. 59. 7^2 E2r. 71SD '3:k p hy therefore I command thee . 332? (the 5^ 6* 9^ 20' cf. in various connexions. . 68 33* (varied from : in Dt. though with nothing like the same frequency as in midst: 231a. to 49.g. 63."^ 5*. 3^2 ^2. 728 (an idol.23 9" . but it occurs elsewhere in the Hex. K. With I Dib^ {to set) 12' (see note) ii36 1421 2 K.337)- 62. : To observe and do 48 712 1612 232* (2S) 248» 26i« 28" (cf. s. in the : . O Israel : . formula) : 61. Jer. 3"ii3 midst. chiefly cf. 27^. 69 (cf. This occurs also in Kings.31 (^a^a) 158 28i-«-M 31I2 32*6 Jos. 1 : viz. and naturally occurs in JE (as also elsewhere). Dt.as : 68a. 12. 426 728 I2«) 28^0. 7*). 24* hibition of heathen or idolatrous customs. cf. 2i<-'' ( =2 Ch. 4 Jog. Blessing). esp.). 20.) Ez. 32" Ex.is.^ (as 2 S. 18*" 12'' 20" So 32I8. 14."• "^ 9' 2^^^^ cf. and (esp. Only besides 21 142*. or idolatrous relic) 13" 14* (forbidden kinds of food). PK.t shall be. por Hear. 15" (the Song of Moses) uses h»i reclaim : sec the note on 57. esp. i63 2i2-"). Thy {your) eyes are those that have seen (another emph.STYLE OF DEUTERONOMY in the Ixxxiii {to Hex. and in 3^* 11' 19'. 65.63 3i3. if. . uses the syn.32 ^^\ 1737 218 ( .". but only in the phrase noted below. I K. . Dt. P. ^os'3 to he destroyed : r" 2^228«. 23 ^^s gia ^4. =2 Ch. 52").. 21^). 829^Aa//*^)i2"t64. g24 j jW.^'. 33*. and Dt.18 &c. and often in Jer.* viz. To eat and be satisfied: 6" (see note). 21* set) . : : . which are not 8" (=2 Ch. 20 23I5 . only Lev. 25 : 12'- ^ i5"> 2321 288-20+. 258 29** Nu. . 142* 2 K.M ji* ^ P^* ^^l 2^*. 16) 26" 28^ 29^"- . 17* of customs of the Canaanites. mpv!? ice to observe to do 1710 199 2i«^ ^u gi n 22. 232^ so 2 Ch. (a) 725 1231 17I i8i2» 22* 23I8 25I8 2715 {b) nayw alone. in the combination Tin Sk into the midst 13" 21I2 222 23".29 68. i7-8 22' so 2 K. also 4^ And . 69. with not less frequency.. iii? {e. The word is a common one. as the final ground of a pro70. w {!•"•") 16" 172-20 iff" igW. 33'') . 22. 51. for the normal thou hast seen) : 4»7"l02l292(3)(cf. 238. 2^^ Nu.^. (cf.o«. 60. 21. 58. Which thine eyes have seen (emph. 3^7 al.T i Ch. also 31" (P. shall hear and fear : (of the deterrent effects of punish(32) ment) 1312(11)171319202121.«• 61. . : . 66. 93 K. hence also 685. 620 (varied from i K. 6^)29 2 K.«. The word Gn. 9* 2 K. 298 «) Jos. TWO out of the midst of the fire 412. also 2 Ch. is not an uncommon one . : Ex. . '' nzvv\ Jehovah' s abominatio7i. Together with Twrh to be. . 22i3). 26"^ make His name dwell there (viz. in or /rom thy (or IsraeTs) 6« 'j^ ii^ 132. 3352 (H) . (c3T) Ti' n^B'D that to which thou puttest thine {ye put your) hand <=enterprise) 1». .w. -vryon to destroy. 2o^ . of Israel. which occurs also : in Dt. 8i»-" 11" 14® 26". in Gn.^ 6^ 8". anp "?« is not generally said. 14*2) 4' (14. 6^2 Neh.2<.^^ 4'. central sanctuary): 12^^ 142^ le^-^-^i 262. . No.** 13*' " ('• ^^ 15^1 I'f' ^ iS"" " 19I* 21^-21 222''** 24'. : i^"-" i9''24^*-". '^Kir' 67. i K. 712 (JE) 248 (E) . ^1°^ anp denoting specially the interior of an animal).

ig^t. 20»-« . 28^8. on i" 3" II* 12* 24*.pn 25". are following expressions.^8. from tjks) . nnnr 29^^ P"' to . m: ^o impel (of an axe. . mn 282^. DE? v.: •nj i" i822 (cf. \vm 425 . 20* as well) Wj (=Arab. . . or hand wielding one) 19' 20^ . D'ysn to vex (esp. 389) 28^.. . ^^ 2921 . |13KT 7^' 28*. 0^34''. ^vith b i — The following" is (c. nmD : jm 23". '3 pen 7^ 10^' 21". ccx 28^ Pr. nasala) 19' 28** (see on 7'). are noted in the Commentary. i3^t].j i those of the Deuteronomic school (see notes) D'ViVj \ and D'sipp 3129 32^^ (cf. . to be in dread (sq. 'JSa). with the fewest possible exceptions. 21" (not elsewhere in this sense). lo^t. B"3j'n 15*. Ps. expel (from Canaan) 30^. 19^ . 14 excluded. niEoiB 6^ 11^* Ex. 7^^ 28-*' ^^' ^ ysljs 28^ (as name of insect) 'rp 92s n-\ 2^ . be called over 28^" . 'Vaai njn 4*2 19* Jos. ntOD 23*. . Toynn 21" 24^ p'jyn 15" (cf. 1 1"). nor. mn basket 2&-* iS^-^T n^?2832.* the name to\ ctu 292'.30 20" (but only of sins ofl Other expressions.22 . 1721 Qre. i3^*t. Svi (=Arab. Tin i« 17" 18=0 . 348. slopes (of Pisgah) 3" 4^. nyxr 28" . found only in Dt. t3i i6»« 2o1» . 2325t ••nxD 2820 . 33) . Vnan -113 420 .: niK^D 28'* " . in H Lev. nph 2822. ^'sn 28*."nyi 28®. a list of noticeable words or expressions . Bi3y 24^0-^ (cf. 32.26.. nsa le^" D'na vy 2^ 3® (but read so in Jud. . TDNH 26". jjoyr 22" Lev.). . T^B' 28".! occurring in Dt. iv!?3 28® .* the diction • Comp.t 1" 16^^. of being driven into idolatry 4^ 30" so nnn x3^-"-i* 2 K. }TRJ? 282^ . -vrin 2822.29. and nxT (but read nxi. t. 23= . occurring mostly once only in! more or less frequent in subsequent writers.T 6^9 9* Jos. Ez. "WJ Dan2"3i2*-». -m i» 278 Hab. Vrn (D''?rm)j . cpj 118 . 3^"+ . . p. o-o^V' Hab. recurring less frequently.824^°. Snj KTiD (d'^j d'ktid) 4** 2& 34^2 (jer.i nashala) 7^. j^8. I'VH'O jn 282" . . Jl?' 6^.26). 8^ (cited Neh. also ipK. . p». »]'sn 1 1* . also^ fuller particulars respecting : most of them imPK will bei found in the notes 3'3Kn nn the month of Abib \G .27. .) 6' 2 K. nDD (nspri) 27^.. . The general literary style of Dt. . O'l^nj 22". {bn. (creatures 32. nio defection 13" 19^' . isi beautiful. 25". 3227). jru i". cf. nmp 282* p. rh^hn 23^. Cf. named in c. unchastity). by idolatry) 42" 9". 2*) Dn3T ml^'Vy 22"-".Dp 2328 (Job. 921)!. 1822. as Lev. v. nsjnr 28". mpD 282". i4'*' ". I The c. 3221) . pnn i4i. 3itl 25^^ Jos. tsay. 73^) npyoi -at niiK 23^ 24^ ^><9 242" (denom. 9^^ 28«o.9. 2 Ch.2^) 29" 01" (^^ . fji. DOS ts. ^do 4" . and li. pmn i69 2326. nkD (as subst. : esp. \ I The Dt. tsVk "ur 7I' 28^ ^** " [. n»DCD &. Ixxi f. pjj. tdi. d'h!?3! 22^ Lev.— Ixxxiv a is — INTRODUCTION — ' an expression that occurs often in the Proverbs (as ii'*™ 12** comp. is singularly pure and. following is a list of unusual words or expressions. 22t . . 22^ 13KS nnncj. TOO^ release is^-''-* 31". . 33 excluded D'P13D see pp. no: 28*^."ona -ur' Ex. 3"U 282^.

themselves. occur seldom or never besides point of view. Triple Tradition). and hardly pJK. p. Dt. presenting" while affinities with Jeremiah. numerous differences at once reveal for instance. Nu. xii) they are not recurrent in Dt. with classical . which defies tabulation. ub. s'* 9^'"*^ lo^'''^ 12***" 2220b-3. examples for the construction. and which can only be properly appreciated by repeated perusal of the work in question. 15^ D would say "jipa for Sip"?. By some scholars (e. 12b 2213). STYLE OF DEUTERONOMY classical. that of Dt. large parts of these sections. With P. H or P) identical terms occur (as . and would not use 'JK. The point of contact in the style of Dt. and do not therefore constitute any real phraseological similarity between the two writings. in different connexions. and by the structure and rhythm of sentences. of the perfect with JVaw consecutive. bears a superficial resemblance but when the two styles are to that of H {e. Those who have by this course familiarized themselves with the style of the Deuteronomic discourses.g: Lev.. or are technical expressions (cf.T (i'^). IxXXV and the syntax idiomatic and regular. as also various other passages in Ex. 26 (2ib-iM. effect produced by the manner in — tendency to approach it. Bacon.. could not • Thus in Gn.* The style of Dt. they are largely didactic in tone. It is true. (p. even the parenetic sections of JE (p. The parenetic tone of Dt. nor would vmsD and vpn be distributed into two clauses. with In the laws touching common ground c. only noticeable H displays affinities with Ezekiel.. 14) form part of a quotation. will be conscious how greatly it differs from that of any other part of the Pent. abounds. which show a adequately characterize the style of an author. 22^ D"'sf'3. 26" the rhythm is not that of Dt. 14 po .) The majority of the expressions noted above . shows no phraseological resemblance (whether 22^^ whatever. not exhibiting the complete Deutero- nomic rhythm or expression.. 27) 230. or even description. and . Dt.. Ixxviiiff. ^re thought to be additions due to a Deuteronomic band. and representing the same Of course a tabulated list of idioms cannot there is an which phrases are combined. 26) compared more closely. others occur only in passages modelled upon the style of Dt. Ixxvii). In Ex. with that of H is the use of the term thy brother (see the passages quoted in the note on 152).g. ViCiWt 248 nyivn VJJ) but these either (as those in c. (as Ex. nor the plural nrnn.

sections of E.T. i^" lo'^ c. 2 S. . : comp. ' for instance. the sustained rhythm.^ with v.) to a pre- | . 29. 97 n. assumes by the new setting in which it is placed a fresh character. as Wellh. or the compiler of JE Cf. Comp. The strong . similar) was * 1 \ that the original features of his style preponderate decidedly - above those that are derived. Nu. in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament) as prc-Deuteronomic affinity in . 7-8 io"-27» 12 {ib. 208). 1 have. j I j | . 32 116). | who takes an ^ intermediate view. individuality of the . 2"-»'. p. if not more so . g'-io^^. and below. the fine effect of aiS in 28^.it. have a similar effect (observe esp. I This may often be observed in the retrospects. §§ 9 n. he assimilated. 180 ff.®' *^ (in v. is a reason for referring them except perhaps parts of Ex. 24^"^ (Z. /Tej:. The varia- 1 compared with Ex. p. 22^" lions in i^. 31. Samuel. 1890. 81. 128. L. pp. have been formed without precedents these parts of and it is probable that JE (and perhaps other writings not now extant. p. Kuen. 156. \ » In Deuteronomy. | — — | I Deuteronomic hand (either J. of Jud.Ixxxvi INTRODUCTION . 244 f. and how by addition | D'crn '3:i33 of Gn. 108. 13" iHD mVni nmsa onym pna apTn ci'n ty 'a cbn is ordinary prose Dt i^ op . and impresses the reader differently. the style of which formed the basis upon which the Deuteronomist developed his own literary style.. i3n. 2"-*. 213). Another of his literary models may have been the hortatory. author colours everything that he writes and even a sentence. 20^"" (p. but the later Deuteronomic writers usually display the Deut. and a few isolated phrases in the other passages) are characterized rightly by Budde {Richter u. I DTsra nmsai mVna ony udd »• *o^ a-n hni is oratory. O. 76.) of a document (or documents) allied to E. In I** notice the force of the addition of lon'^n xSi (as in 9^ of "in'?n:i and irK l^ii ma). T. * Compare the /r^-Deuteronomic parts of Jos.. in moulding.^ by i^inn). I4*'"'*" with Dt i^-^.. 167 f. 13^.O. p. 7. Ixxviii n. a new style of flowing and impressive . recognized {Comp. produced by connecting v. 2. pp.. 1-3. i S. phraseologfy as decidedly as Dt. itself. its Notice. and all (except i S. 20** (. and the fact that in these passages of JE it is less marked than in Dt.m -"cs cni r^hvi n^rca). or prophetic. . 106).« notice na rn for ncv Na). pp. (5). 88. however. 6^-" 108-1" {ib. points of contact with Dt. i borrowed from elsewhere. and in The Books of Samuel. as is adapted to the oratorical style of Dt. or (in Judges and Sam. parts of i S. similarly Nu. 158) . — — j \ i j .* It is evident. and supplied elements which. 21. 4.ToyK "hi-a nsT pit pn man 'nnai 'jpm ':k nr. All these passages show some j I thought and expression to Dt. and in i** of nnann nj'ryn -wkd c^m isnm in 2^ ('jTasri rpjz ^2h 'Vjna m3PN pn 'niien -h jnn fjoaa d'ci -rhDKt) the superior rhythm to Nu. which ought probably to be included.

^' ^ in the Song. . as also his preference for 337 (47 times) above 37.^ CT) 72b. Sb. which adds a measured dignity Deuteronomic style. . and the copiousness of its diction. and holding their oratorical power. § Cf. to the as one mode of expansion. i and as a reminiscence i Ch. 24b_ E. 17". by 28*9''"^ 1J also 4'"*' 32b-34 gUb-ie 2^-^' ^"^.. (9" 28«). Ixxi n. the clauses attached kautliruiy 426b. : . not found in ordinary prose. 1^ 14": in 2l purely literal sense.10-" is'-" 2^«: Comp. 178 i8^ Which occurs only 4^^ (see p. •* E. that not unfrequently uses rare or choice words. nu i" 18^ nnn in the phrase nnn Svc\ kth S\h (i** 31^ : hence in — — .19b j«15b jg^b. tnsf (28*2 30^) .** rhetorical breadth The and fulness of the Deuteronomic style. i S. 32^. otherwise only Ch. 28^^ 2 Ixxxii) .* but all his The beauty and due to the skill with thoughts.g..^ in P are not from the pen of the author of the discourses. li. }. and in the prophets) pv (p. which have the bearing the reader with them. on **. nm. : STYLE OF DEUTERONOMY oratory IxXXVii was introduced into Hebrew literature. are indeed chiefly which the author amplifies form. . Hence (quite apart from the matter of his discourse) he differs from the most classical writers of historical narrative. and casts them into well-balanced clauses. It is it another char- acteristic of the elevated prose of Dt. by means of which the author strove to move and influence his readers. 24b. 22" S.g. see the notes). i S. . by pK 8'"'"*. !?in be in anguish (2* IJKnn (p.. . nm (28*") .^0-" I2«-'. by effect of developing his /thought into long and rolling periods. t the series of clauses introduced ifuiViTm by n'jan ^^•'^.f The author's fondness for the pathetic reflexive dative J may mark his sympathy with the people whom he is addressing but his love of asyndeta. varied individually in expression and bound together by a sustained rhythmical flow. and yP. The other occurrences of ':k in Dt. 36 (after . The practical aims of the author. 5' Jud. ODi (1919).T (8») . lOb. 4^-19. notes on i^- '^. 9": otherwise poet).in the and and 3rd persons plural of the impf. oblige him * Notice. Ixxx) piKH (i*5) «]N (2" : see note) 31' lit. 1^ 8^ \cP.).32-3« (P-^ 7"-^ 8"-" 1 1^-'. Jos. yunn (28«).^' ^.|| and for ''^j^|t (56 times) above V*?>f are probably due to his sense of what harmonized best with the oratorical rhythm of his discourse. which as a rule his subject demands.) a:e' be lofty {2^) laynn {f^) . and the parenetic treatment. 12b j . . 28® 29'- IT Only 12** 29^ (for the reason of these exceptions. 20"* " 32' 1*** T\^ (1^ 1 " cf. y 35\ • t See the II phil. are manifest even in a translation.\ and of the emphatic form p. 26b gTb j jUb.?T {2P) . him enthralled by effectiveness of Dt. D* Jos. 22b.30 (33) (afler V.

forms were used more f. 42 f. tains its freshness. Heb. KH pns i^D. and old Aramaic Inscriptions ally. Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION more than is naturally to expand and reiterate usually the case with Hebrew writers . p. nevertheless. Dt. ZKWJL 1880. and is never monotonous or prolix. 50. shows that in the older G plena was not generally introduced and in the light of the facts just adduced. In its broader literary features (p. (except possibly in the very latest). ZDMG. hf* In Phoen. : — — the pron.. The epicene kw will thus not have been introduced into the Pent. p. i» 1866. or otherwise suggestive of antiquity. when they lived together in a common home. ZA'fFZ. 458 1878. p. on Gen. 594. the the Pent. K. 3^ nn naSco. the author of Deuteronomy stands unique among the writers of the Old Testament. will have been pronounced hu or ht... 6) : on the one hand. and that Hebrew consequently. and the 1 and ' of mn and K"n in other parts of the OT. that in the older — language fem. Compar. oratory of the prophets : is frequently The linguistic character of Dt.. line 6 «n DJ tdk'i. always main- The more ornate and diversified in his command of a chaste. p. Comm. is written regfularly Kn. is proof that the distinction between the two genders must have existed already in the original language spoken by the Semitic nations.t D-jn] avt '3 and frequently and . of the 3rd pers.. xcii f. Miiller. Delitzsch.)." either in Dt. Gramnt. (i) The epicene Kin is not an archaism for the fact that Arab. as the evidence of the cognate languages just referred to shows. 395 f. is entirely consistent with it the date assigned to by critics (cf. •Noldeke. Die allsem. with yod. Wright. p. it may be safely inferred that the 1 of Kin in scriptio . line 11 Vya ita »)D3 (D. 6. his discourse. pp. MSS. even in its earliest stage.e. near Antioch in Syria (8 cent. 18. p. . which is partly borne out by facts (Del. Notes on Samuel. Eth.f which. 1893. Mesha"s k.i. 99) inscriptions of Zinjirli. it contains nothing rugged. yet warm and persuasive eloquence. H. Comp. Inschriften von Sendschirli. xlvii. 1880.). No. line 27 in the recently discovered Aramaic (Nold.. p. or in the Pentateuch generof a character to establish its antiquity. i. Inscription. 396 f. B. must have possessed a fern. tr.C. sing. to say nothing of Assyrian all have a fern. it exhibits none of those marks of a deteriorated style which begin to show themselves in Hebrew shortly afterwards. 44). while never (in the bad sense of the term) rhetorical.). Moab. as the sense required.T (Engl. formed no part of the original autographs. resembles closely the prose parts of Jeremiah There are no "archaisms. as Panammu. [i. on the other hand. until a com- paratively late epoch in the transmission of the text perhaps in connexion with the assumption. 103-105. pp. Aram. + in As CIS. 1893. and I. xxxiii. i" nznho. ZDMG.) i.

of which the explanation is doubtful. pp. that the supposed older pronunciation {Yerecho) recurs 2 K. came into use and it is unreasonable to allow a single phenomenon. the epicene np cannot be used in proof of the antiquity of the Pentateuch. 24^2 46" Ps. Konig. fruaj occurs independently in 20^'. . 18^1 2 S. Petersburg. jv. iiS**. as in Gn. The peculiarity is not. i. now at St. and stood (in some respects) upon a different footing from them but nothing obliges us to suppose that this separation was effected until considerably after the return of the Jews from Babylon. No doubt.. and superlinear punctuation.—none of which can be said exactly to be early passages. of the impf. (some 260 times) are n^Kn and nVx. pi. in fact. to outweigh the evidence of a multitude of indications pointing convergently in an opposite direction. ii.). irn. (8) "Jericho" is spelt in Dt. 7" Jer. ad loc. (*' Yer^cho"): it is spelt in Jos. 5^* Lev. 8 in the Pent. 2** Neh. the Pent. 1 19) thinks that the variation is only naturally to be explained by the supposition that " Israel picked up a new pronunciation. this is the but we possess no independent knowledge how long it continued. omits to mention what surely is an element in judging of these 8 exceptional passages that the usual forms in the Pent. when they arose. 39" 528! . — — — suffix ("OT never occurs with a suffix). G. comp. 25^^ 26**. . nhn^ 1 K. . of the " Later Prophets. 3 fem. 3* i* i Ch. 9" Kt. I imply that. . 152 f. 225 can be shown to be an improbable one. and Sk i Ch. 2^"'=^^. 20^ see Dr. Kuen.. 32*^ 34'"' as uniformly (12 times) in the Pent. 2*-*-'* »5-i8 ^rn^ (Baer) Jos. Hex. Both this distinction and No." exhibiting. — — — context). pjn' (twice).d. see (5) on 8^ see the note On 'WB' Dt.) 33^^ Is. Girdlestonc {Lex Mas. has its original form (preserved also in with n Dt. 32^ (the only case with the strong vevh).-K. in the 2nd and 3rd pers. 5 (who are inclined to regard the distinction as merely ortho- however. after they came to the place. 30" in the Adnoiationes : Criticce prefixed to Strack's facsimile edition. 19) and on the same form very anomalously in the graphical : see. p. i6»t) and Mr. 916 see the passages cited on Ez. 25'' Ezr. (56 times).. 245). or when the distinctive form for the fem. (2) On "jXH the note on 4*^. exactly as in other books. Lehrgeb. 31®. in his note on this form {Lex Mosaica. — — per/. 472).) nji is always used : why T3i occurs these four times we do not know it may be an isolated collective form corresponding to the Arabic " broken plural " dhukur"" (Konig." How comes it.SUPPOSED ARCHAISMS IN DEUTERONOMY Ixxxix sparingly than subsequently. the sex being indicated by the (3) On the epicene ly: {young person. . . had been formally separated from Joshua (in spite of the fact that the same documents are continued in it) and the following historical books. for rh^n (3 times in Dt. 13" 4423 Ez. see the note on i^'' (p. then. (4) On the term.. Sinker. p. 342. But the same form is found also 2 K. (7) iniDT in 16^^ is derived from the older law of Ex. confined to the Pent It is found in the MS. older usage . 321 f. see on 22^' (p. Elsewhere (including more than 50 times in the Pent. § 2. 436) preserved before a . Hence until the supposition made on p. (6) The Aram. 318 f.the Oriental text. sing. 33I'. Ex. (28 times) inn^ (so 2 K. perf. io» Jer. p. and dated a. Einl.

7\^'^'^^ 1 122 3020 (so Jos. which is Hebrew. nxi^ and nans 4^'* 7^ lo^^ ^nd frequently.C. and i Ch. esp." no argument could be founded upon it for the antiquity of the Pent. 235 f. ed.. except their occurrence in books reputed to be ancient : the argument founded upon them is consequently circular.. would display a perceptibly archaic flavour. in the same phrase. ppT 28^2. the word is spelt with i (comp. and it would be as reasonable to collect those occurring in Sam. the Aramaism riDO i6^° n«3DD 8^ (derived not found in classical from an adj. to be any evidence of the superior antiquity of the latter. p. has words and expressions peculiar to itself.. 5. rmjO 12T928. Eccl. Every book of the OT.— XC 563(78) . and 4^3 gis. 28^'t? Were these books also written by Moses? The writer's statement {Foundations of the Bible. 29^3 Qn. icj . and it is true that most belong to the later language {Journal of Philol. 4 (in the impf. as evidence of its antiquity.O. Appendix. 39^ 52*. p. this j examples of 2920 2 S. hence note).T. 5. (9) Other words peculiar to Dt (or the Pent. 3^^ Is. fem. 129 f. psnB'. 19^ is from 2 S. ^^1J?. ii.). prion 28^8 p>^3 28^5^ is not very common in early writings The (though instances occur: see Konig. — — . by Keil and 473 f. 6 are no doubt genuine examples of older forms hut (i) they are too isolated. collected p.. Lehrgeh. Nos. 21^. Even if the distinction were original. i. 10^. words or forms (apart from more general literary harmonizing with a date in the 7th cent. 6^(^' corresponds to Jos. and the general literary style of the Pent.: INTRODUCTION igS 2 Ch. where it is also spelt with i. are "133? the Nithp. conj. form of the inf. . viz. and (2) they occur too frequently in books other than the Pent.. and to argue from them that they belong to the Mosaic age. 177). but in point of fact comp. xi. are altogether inconclusive : there is nothing connected with the words themselves suggestive of antiquity. Were the occurrence of these and of two or three similar forms (see L. — — date.): but nsn^ and nanK can both be shown independently to have been in use early (2 S. instead of being (as it is) virtually indistinguishable from that of books written confessedly under the monarchy. B. where the clause with Jericho has fallen out . 20^) . in late Heb.) really due to antiquity. liNSy 8^5 (go ptsn 16^.). though common in Aram. where in one and the same sentence it is pointed differently in the two books it can scarcely be doubted that it is one which grew up arbitrarily at a very late fore. 2 K. perhaps also yow 10^ (see pyrkJ*. the form 218 (see note). 527 f.). Jos. or Isaiah. The form . 228)—has also — been cited in the same connexion . but throughout Jos. \2p^ poor. 18^ 19^ 20^7) J so that only two are added by Dt. that "the Chronicler gives an extract from a document which retains the oldest same is incorrect r i Ch. 25' with Jer. others recently in —most Lex Mosaica. — — Particular features). it would be more uniform. there- spelling.

I K. 30^8 nw). z^'* f-^. and the generalizing summaries lo*"** „ 10-15 131-12 &c.)—hsiS nDH^. when once it had been formed. cf. 21-24 gi 31-2 ^jn parts). . * Insertions in. lent itself readily to adoption and thus a school of writers. 28 and comp. . p. also Jos. — the The influence of Dt. viz. and moulded the phraseology in which it was expressed. and reflecting Deuteronomic point of view. and 7^ nvon : Is. . i88-" 2i« 23" 2 K. the OT. : see i K. who have stamped their mark upon . 97-10* 1^7-23." S^^-si gi-" 1 1'-" (in its present form). many parts of (p. 2^ 8» (Dt. the compiler or editor. Ixxxi. passages constantly occur. p. the original narrative as 2^""^^ 3' 4"* ^'^ &c.06-18 t Asjud.g: c.O. by a distinct writer. No. for instance. they consist mostly either of speeches (or additions to speeches).«(«•«) 23" in D^) 148 (Dt. 2l20b-26. 31^"^) have chiefly the aim of illustrating the zeal shown by Joshua in fulfilling Mosaic the compiler : mouths of prominent various ways the of comments passed by in expansions of. placed in the historical characters. Wellh. quickly arose. 34b-40 . 37. imbued with its spirit. and evidently either entirely composed. 52 xci if the text be sound (of. the Deuteronomic additions (in harmony with the spirit of Dt. Even the original Deuteronomy appears Ixxv) in places to have received expansion at the (or editors). 2 K. distinguished from the general current of the narrative by their strongly marked Deuteronomic style. is very perceptible in the literature of OT. 37-11. specifically to Dt. the passages cited p. T. entirely of Deuteronomic phrases : in the (in some cases) expanded from a narrative originally briefer. Die Klemen Propheteriy adloc.815-19 &c. {Z. it speedily became the book which both gave the religious ideal of the age. 8» (4=" f). and (in their present form) {L.21-24 1^3-5 &c.! The Deuteronomic passages in the historical books do not usually contain or much incident .) . 8«(i2«' 25"*.O. 2"-23 34-e.T. The references in Kings to the "law" (with or without the 190-193). 24") . ='--=«' .* are constructed but books of Judges and Kings. loS' 2321.12-isa ^1-3 (.— LITERARY INFLUENCE OF DEUTERONOMY (Hos. (ib. Upon its promulgation. i hands of a Deuteronomic editor In the historical 22^-^ books. lysfF.. pp. 154 flF. name of Moses) are all. .1 . as either the context or the phraseology shows. or else upon the religious aspects of the history in the book of Joshua. io« 29^) . The style of Deuteronomy.). e.419-20. 21^.. . long sections of Joshua 23 —besides all many shorter passages elsewhere. or . 97 ff.

X Comp.* Differences should. 6" i S. 17^ 23^ Jer. J well known. prose passages. Jer. p. Ez. 8" 2 K. Judges. or reflexions on the national history. is The Chronicler. No. 13'' 2 K. 21" (also Is. p. * In the —are frequently marked character. as can well be imagined.^^. I K. . peculiar to Jer. 23-). 9' 2 K. and Jer. especially Among in his : the prophets.) evil way {ways) 1 K. and waJi before me in faithfulness (of. Jud. consisting often of whole clauses. Ixxxi. 35. instead of rounding off his sentences at the right point. 21^1 Jer. 1718-23 23=" 24' (also in Jer. 29^^ 2 . is apt to throw into them more than the rhythm will properly bear. 20*) a "whole {or perfect) heart. 20* to dismiss (nW). laboured and uncouth) becomes fluent. prominently the influence of Dt. be noted. ordinances in the books of Kings. 12*^ (=Ps. . as well as : resemblances note what many of these passages. 2« Jer. 9® 14'" 2i2i-2» 2 K. shows most reminiscences from Dt. noie. for instance. . from before my {his) face. 8®^ 11* is'*" 2 K. himself. sometimes lets his thoughts run in as is Deuteronomic phrases. see p. the thought. as a rule. 13'°). . 18" 25^ 2& 35" 36'' ' (cf. 2* observe their way. especially. 3* CKD to reject (Jehovah.17" Jer. The prayers in Neh. i^-^^ 9^^. 3' K. t As I K. f and it is interesting to on the whole an increasing accumulation of deviations from the original Deuteronomic type. itself. Jeremiah. Nos. Zech. i K.— .. and the oratorical and even where the words are not form the copious diction. 7» 12' zf^-'^). 2 K. . It is but seldom. I* Jon. 94»). also. to bring evil upon. that the writers who thus fell under the Deuteronomic spell ?tew phrases not is found show the same delicate sense of symmetry and balance. till in (e. 13^° 17" 24*'. though his general style as unlike that of Dt. His people) 2 K. 32*) rnj of Jehovah's forsaking His people. they are largely estimates of the character of the kings.).Dan. 17 it is mingled with phrases derived from the Book of Kings itself. Ixxxvi. 2" 3^ 4^ 10^ (so only in the Song. . . are interwoven with phrases actually the same.. 38. cast away (T^p^)! or remove (Ton). 7* 14" 31" nao to sell (fig.) Jud. 33" (cf. Ixxxiii. Dt. XCll INTRODUCTION . books of Samuel there are no parts with the same strongly On passages in these books which display a partial affinity to Dt. moreover. however. 1 K. 22i^''" (and often in to turn from one's I K. and sustained periods similar.) 2 K. contain in Dt. g^-^^ are likewise largely moulded in the under its influence even the author of Daniel (whose is Deuteronomic phraseology Hebrew. 1 Ch. 68a.

. 348-22 44. 15^" 12" lor |3P^ (34"-").— LITERARY INFLUENCE OF DEUTERONOMY Comp. 136 '' Vy . 3o3- (29" 30' 2Z^) 30" (218). .t:3 ni?3 nn o'n'?3Kni n3'1K 1^ p'S' TB'N piSD31 11X03 nn'3i« arh 32*^ ip'x' ipk pisD3i mxD3 .-n nnno Tm3Ki . (Jer. 219-222) has transcribed in parallel columns 66 passages of Dt. A Deuteronomy 410 Jeremiah 32'' D'D'n ^3 'niK nKT*? urh yxh D'D'n Va 'mx nwvh tidd onsDD Vnan mao oanx 429 -3 ksti ii* 29J 1^* d'imd pno '3 oniK 'K'Sia DV3 HNSDi TnVie '' nK dcd onrpai 133^ ^33 D'nsiD3i ^33 'oiPTin DflKsm »iiK Dne'p3i 1«?B3 ^331 Mtmn mnK3 32 723 . 6'ji-6']z=GesatnmeUe Schri/ten.T 5^ oanx 528 D3'n'?K '' ms ncK Tnn ^33 31B1 p'nn jyoV isSn Da"? ^33 cnD^m 03^ D3^ 3D" jyoS 25- 3»" lyD"? 8" omsyi 18* vn'is onnn kV ncN dtiVn nnit ns'jm m3yS DnnM D'n'w Ki"? o'n^K nnx Dn"? laVn Vki on^ ninntsrn njt (cf. 161" I .-no 122 pyn py nai (28I8 nnn (2» 3»-") 1318(42")..^^- ^ with . of which Zunz {ZDMG. 3237) .133 bb rK3 '' n'm DfliK 3'B'n^ Da'i>y 'nt-fc-i 29^3 nxtn pK^ ne-y D3nK no ^y* 22^ nttin rhnin TyS (cf. . Jer. 3222) ii28 (^9) D8'(7i2). number of which might be readily They are to be explained. .. . . also v.TTI'm 15* 248 29^8 pun (similarly 34") 2^ D'DBTI 2858 "jS^ ^3ND^ pt«i Tn!?33 783 f]iy^ ^^»rh pt«i mn oyn nS33 nn'. (21" . . there are echoes in not less than 86 of Jen. pmoo -iptt 'u oa'Vy n3T no yopn 28^2 nB3 kSi 'ny nnK ttk nnis3m mn33n Tmoin 5" njn3 nB3 nriK Tns3D I" 28** . i6". xciii for instance. (322"-). 98) Such • parallels (the increased f) are remarkable. ^^'^ ii^'^ i6i-" 21'-" 26 27'-" 29»» 32"" 1873. '?3 98. 2927 (12") 29" nonai 1*3 ^n.Twa n»3 nKi d. »)sp3i 2918(23" » 1310 118). 13^" 29'' 16") ninneri^ 'DB'3 -m myiV 131'? n^K npc 'Dr3 nan )n3Ti ni3^DD S3V nyij^ o-nnji n3i^ 28* pKn fjiy ni3'?DD ^3^ n"m .133 '' rwy no ^y K. TTU31 T33 -\V1 13B3 '"Ifl nS3K1 198 D. .t (similarly 16* r)n' «^ '« ^« D3'ni3Ki DrK nnyr k"? nt^K pien hy pm 28«* (cf. j 2^). 26^9 (13" 33«). how" 228 i Comp. Jer.iKT ncKS pxn nspD pmo 'u T^y 5I' ur'? yin tt!? .T1B3 yni»«3i 0333^ 4** nptn T31 nDnVD3i npm t31 TTM D'nsiD3i mnj«3 D'^nj D'«niD31 D'lBJ imi3i Vn: K-nD3i D3rK nisK Tn. K. and he certainly has not few specimens are here given : exhausted all that could be found.T is'sni t\Vt\ cdv D'nnK cn^K nx dc Dfliayi non lyr k"? nsK d'133 D'ms'aai cni3Mi 1J 28^ . i2«(73i). cf. 28^3 3'B'a^ D3'^y mn' . + E.g. pp. py D"inn dmVk db. 10" 268f. .in3yi ^^) D'oyn ^33 ni. j.TTiK x^nn rans^i ib-x nnno 16^ 9^'' p»»n 19'') nDrt3Si d'dc.

to choose (Jer.— XCIV ever. Konig's Alttest. characteristic epithets of God. 81 and esp. only 16" 35^^. shows a fondness "ipS lo visit upon Jehovah of Hosts. the .. *3X more frequent than ^33X (37 times). was the author oi Dt. * The Pentateuch. 85-110 (where a large number of parallels are transcribed). of days).'s authorship of Dt.. &c. theological and literary. occur rarely in Jer. e.* rests upon a superficial comparison of style. prefers :h p- (57 times +Jer.O. he also frequently adopts a which is never the case in Dt. never found in Dt. an^ is greatly preferred to 33^' (7 is (p. Jeremiah. as "j^xn {prolong or be to possess (of long. &c. not maintained by the subject further illustrations of the difference of his style will be superfluous the reader who is interested in .. incline the ear {L. which more than outweigh the similarities. iii. (Israel Jehovah) only Jer. in Dt. Ixxxvii). repre- senting cities (possibly once. 185-190. Canaan). many expressions not found in Dt. refer to Kleinert. and has been rightly rejected by all subsequent critics. which (as has been remarked above) Dt. Jer. however. Jer. 2^ only) . gates. much that is irrelevant. as hv {punish). Studien (ii). or never. . K'N 42* . the pestilence. only 302 32^3 to observe ("IDK') the law. once only. p. 225-227.. in Jer.. INTRODUCTION by the influence. For when the style of the prophet is compared closely with that of Dt. which are characteristic of Dt. very frequent (56 times). the term. differences disclose themselves. As : Jer. Ixxxvii) Jer. of the 2nd and 3rd rare (5 times) : pi. critics.g. 28). 1839 (whose painstaking collection of materials contains. Jer. for On the other hand. it is in Dt. &c. (in a fig. vii. is than that of Dt. to observe to do. 618.) . in Jer. 258). though advocated formerly by Colenso. sword. and place identity of authorship On the one hand. as K3p 4-^ 5^ gs. L.. y9^ {^-i^j ^2\ nbx in Dt.T. Q-in-i 48!^ pj^j 14^) Dt. Jeremiah's style : moreover less chaste and correct lyric strain. and the famine is {ib. moreover has Further. and App. The opinion that Jer. (54 times) is clusion of *JS (p. may f. 615. and needs careful sifting). to J. 332* . 51^) to times).. to observe and : do.. speedily acquired. 235 . p. after its promulgation. pp. which loU^ 'ih Jer. terms and expressions out of the question. avoids. Cheyne. not so even in Dt. ojn preponderates almost to the eximpf. 31^. pp. to love (Jehovah His people).

and presents none of the problems which arise. or Ezekiel. in connexion with the books of Samuel. however. has been preserved in remarkable purity. It admits. occasionally of correction by the aid of the Ancient Versions the passages in which this is the case will be found noted in the Commentary. except in a few passages of C' 32. Jeremiah. 33. for instance. : .LITERARY INFLUENCE OF DEUTERONOMY The text of XCV Deuteronomy.


Hebrew idiom. 49. 24. but not by 1 pa. 3'^ 4I* . rather differently (with It is from or in the in the midst of) Dt. — and time at which 1. 34.. . 16^'* Jordan] Beyond "lEJ'x) on the E. In the •wilderness^ in the 'Ardbahf in front of Suph. 1 above is the only one which accords with Hebrew usage. Historical Introduction. 1.e. . specifying the place the discourses following were in Dt. .— — COMMENTARY. as here. 38. pose that they are intended to define more particularly the exact spot "beyond Jordan" where Moses .. and " being expressed regularly by pai . repeats the preposition. Ex. See more fully on this expression in the Introduction. . delivered the dis- courses which follow 1. All Israel] an expression much used and the Deuteronomic sections of Joshua. the names are other- ^?D. . 1-5. . § 4. . on the other hand. 21. 29. g-iven from the following fjiD. I. . I . between Paran (on the one hand) and Tophel and Laban and Hazeroth and Di-zahab (on the other)] these words occasion difficulty.46. 1-5. in such cases.. . So i^ 38 441. Introduction. "between . perhaps for the sake of dissimilai 1 !?2n pai jnxB j'a] the rend. not so used besides (followed by the Hex. for the normal tion — . . and understood before ant-m mnsm ja"? is not probable . 36. ii^ i8^. 31. The supposition that a in is to be carried on in thought from aa^l•3. pa (or ^ pa). 33 iqIS. from the standpoint of W. 25 815. ^to] only here. 317 y24. . 43 . with before the eyes of (or before^ ^jT. Palestine. as subject of a verb 13^^ 2121 31I1 Jqs. 5^ 27^ 29^ 31I 32^5 Jqs_ 232. side of Jordan. It occurs. 1. On the one hand. . . n 2412 Jos. from the position which they occupy. delivered. . 47. being both different. . . iS^s (with /nw?) Nu.. it seems natural to suplimiting clause Dn^n3''2D i. after a verb of addressing.

as a whole {ib. treating likewise the names as those of places passed by the Israelites in the earlier stages of their wanderings. and in view also of the fact that none of the places mentioned are named in the preceding narrative in connexion with the promulgation of laws to the people. so far as the usage of nS« these is concerned (which may point indifferently backwards. to the discourses of Moses. Di.) the deep depression through which the Jordan flows. which the Israelites entered after crossing the Red Sea (Ex. RV. the OT. if it be applied to a locality in the **'Aribah" (see the next note) on the West The 'Arddah] this geographical term occurs here in of Moab. Nu.to the various communications made by Moses to the people. in which the Dead . abbreviated by the omission of what was already known from the narrative of Ex. prefixed by the compiler of Dt. But it does not seem probable that the description of a route would be so altered as to become (what v. conceived as a kind of ideal unity. It denotes (cf. p. Hazdroth Nu. and recorded in Ex. as part of the same great wilderness. 131) that Knobel's view of n'?K is the only one consistent with the context . between the Sinaitic peninsula and the South of Canaan. It is indeed insisted by Klost.^''"^ is a fragment of D's itinerary of the Israelites." Paran Nu. in view of the position which the verse occupies at the beginning of a new book. "Sea of Suph.-Nu. as further changes were introduced into the text.*** manifestly is) the description of a locality. n^^ 33^^')' Accordingly many efforts have been made by commentators to refer the names to the earlier period of the forty years' journeyings. 12^). supposed that the words were meant to describe the country on the opposite side of Jordan. conjectures that v. lo^-aL. p. Nor was Hengstenberg's : explanation {Bileam. 130). in contrast to the land of promise. for the first time. {Pent. Knobel supposed that the verse was retrospective. 4«). But the term must be used somewhat inexactly. which may denote either the wilderness of the wanderings. Schultz and Keil. 221 fF. but improbable. p. if such a thought had been in his mind. 2iii-i3 Dt. and afterwards. or forwards. name of the Red Sea. or the wilderness on the East of Moab (Nu. but this opinion depends upon a very questionable explanation of the v. 15--) . referring.) more probable. This interpretation is possible.— 2 DEUTERONOMY unknown as those of places situated in that locality. marg. None of these explanations can therefore be said to be satisfactory. Dt. In the wilderness] an indeterminate expression. a^" cf. but this explanation is very forced and artificial it is not credible that the writer.-Nu. wise while at least three of them occur in connexion with the earlier period of the Israelites' wanderings (Suph in the Heb. would have so expressed himself as to identify localities altogether distinct. 36".

. from 4 to 15 miles across. ii3flF." but from . and on the W..v. of the lower end of the Dead Sea. be here meant (as is but the term may denote with equal propriety the Jordan-valley North of the (as i7 ii30 I Dead Sea 333-5. Land of Israel (ed. chap. Thes. 20) plateau. that during the glacial period it formed a great inland sea. which can only have been deposited by the agency of water they are thus an indication that the Jordan was once a much larger and deeper stream than it is at present. s.v. Society).. Expl." not found elsewhere. descending by stages to the Jordan. ... Robinson.e. 1886. by the sterile cliffs of sandstone and limestone. 21^*. iii.. consists of a series of plateaux. by ranges of porphyry and granite (in the midst of which are nestled the fertile glens and valleys which formed the ancient Edom). in the plain of Jericho.. bounded on the E. J. 4). . 320-4. 183 fF. of the Dead Sea (but not communicating with the Red Sea). See further on the 'Ardbah. DB. 2324 a/. S.e. and Geography of Palestine (Pal. and esp. and varying in breadth from 2-3 to 14 miles across (Conder. 108 fF. nor. Tent Work in Palestine. 100 f. s. 178 fF. to the ridge of Samrat Fiddan (Hull. 180-3). the floor of which consists largely of alluvial deposit. Hull's Geology 4. The Gh6r is a valley. Edw. chap. which crosses the present Wady-el-'Arabah about 30 miles S.. Red Sea.. i.487f. as the appears to be derived. Ges. the Holloto or Depression . and W. 234.'*' see on el- Arahah (Jtj Those who to to the earlier stages of the Israelites' wanderings. of 'Akabah. 217 f. & P.»i]l). from a line of chalk which sweep across still : it about 6 miles the ancient 2\^) S. 104 fF. BR. The floor of the Gh6r. but the cliffs southern part. Egypt and Syria. Palestine (1889). s. 84f. suppose naturally this southern part of the 'Ardbah certainly the case in 2^) . ysflF.. pp. but this abbreviation name "Sea of Suph" not from a locality "Suph. CttU© treat Suph as abbreviated the " the Sea of Suph. Prof. retains name of the whole. Smai. which form the abrupt margin of the Tih (pp. pp. Dawson.I- « 3 Sea is situate. rain Smith. Tristram. which must have been in the neighbourhood of Moab. . though the exact site for is is unknown. pp. the •!!)• Wady refer (or Valley v. 2000 feet or more in elevation. In front of Suph\ perhaps the same as Suphah Nu. ii. See the excellent geological map in Prof. The general character of the Wady-el-'Arabah is that of a desolate and arid valley. extending from Lake Huleh on the N. flanked on each side by ranges of hills. i. in fact. called el-Ghdr and which is prolonged S. W. 446. xiv.). v. and. Hull's Mount Seir. of this to the Gulf At present the northern part of this valle)* is ( .). pp. rising to a height of some 1500 feet above the floor of the depression.

p. i. of the Dead Sea (Rob. 177 f. unknown Wady Feiran. nor does the corresponds to S. p. &' P. on the E. 25I [MT. these may be identical with Libnah and Haz^roth. pXD in Dt. Otherwise the names mentioned. 332 Hab. a large village situated in a well-watered valley on the route from Kerak to Petra. by the mountains of the Sinaitic peninsula. of the Dead Sea. with which the Red Sea abounded.). 2i2i Nu. will. about half-way between Sinai and 'Akabah (Rob. however. From i K..— 4 — DEUTERONOMY — Hebrews siiph. Ew. by the wilderness of Zin (iV) and the south of Judah Gulf of 'Akabah. not elsewhere Moab.]t). can it be said to be a probable one. on the {S. Di-zahab\ the name suggests some place productive of gold (hence (5 . not othersvise Tophel^ this has been known. Bad. be intended. bounded on the S. 151 . ii^"*^ it may be inferred that Paran lay between Midian and Egypt. about 15 miles SSE. 7). Xhe site of Libnah is not known. is unsuitably situated. by the 'Arabah and the north end of the W. called by the suggested by Knob. Hazdroth (also Nu. If.26 I s. i. near Jebel Serbal. from which the this wilderness derives its name. BR. the bare and elevated table-land of limestone. Nu. 33). ii. li^^: cf. is. the reedy growth. But the fication referred to. Lahan and Hasdrot1i\ if places in the Israelites' wanderings are meant. and on the N. 167. corresponds generally with what is now called the wilderness of et-Tih. &c. Rob. Nakb-es-Safa. by the wilderness of Shur. 191). not to d). The : site of Paran Palmer. so far as can be judged. of course.). a different Paran altogether. name agree phonetically (for Between Paran a7id Tophel. 1012 12^6 133. &cJ\ the "wilderness of Paran" ^ — (Gn. in will denote localities. BR. The pass.. generally identified with et-Taftle. the present verse describes the scene of Moses' discourse in the territory of Moab. 284 ff. ii^s) is usually identified with 'Ain-elHudra. ii. which has been suggested. Exodus. some 25 miles WSW. Desert of the (i K. t (t) does not correspond phonetically and the identidepends upon the assumption that some halting-place belonging to the period of the forty years' wanderings is . however. 3320-17. seems to be too much secluded by intervening mountains from the great plateau itself to have given it its name. 191 .

and hence across the desert to the neighbourhood of 'Ain Kadis. name will. p. li is eleven days. of a place. border of the Promised Land. of Jebel M(isa. apparent how an Arabic L_^ii "li should be expressed in . tives of in The time travellers : specified agrees with the narra- modern Robinson.] or other. of course. But in the position in which the clause now stands reference be adopted. in the desert of the wanderings. the words define (otherwise than done in 32^ 4*6) the locality East of Jordan It is in which the following discourses were delivered. is preted in their obvious sense. have been transplanted from their original context. 3nJ n. as a whole. the words convey an approxim- ate idea of the distance from Horeb. occupied exactly 2. otherwise unknown. Hebrew by the name. for instance. if the latter it. has been identified by Burckhardt.i'' — It results from what has been said that Inter- presents difficulties which. it to interpret seems impossible. while at least some of them do occur as those of places passed by the Israelites during their wanderings. on the S. the names are not otherwise known as belonging to this neighbourhood. do not admit of a satisfactory solution. in any It is satisfactory or intelligible sense. the third of seven and 'Akaba " (W. Muhammad due E. Syria and others with Mina-ed-Dhahab. as has been said. v. Vollers tells me from boat-harbours between the Ras R. The '^ (if correct) sug-gests at once the j possessor of {piien in names of both persons and places). MS. in the present state of our knowledge. Knobel. to Kadesh-barnea'. travelling 1838 from Jebel MCisa to 'Akabah. am n] the oblique case of but it is not name is curious. this some objection to view that. '*as local information. the Upon the view that the verse is descriptive of a locality in Moab. nearly .''^ KaTttxpvo-ea). the j being represented differently in the two parts of . It 5 (1822). be that of an undetermined site in that neighbourhood. 523. not improbable that the words. Smith. It is objected by Keil that Mina-ed-Dhahab is too inaccessible on the side of Sinai for the Israelites to have made it one of their halting--places he consequently considers the name to be that note). 2. the scene of the delivery of the Law. from some cause (Sr'c.

The expression Mount Seir a —or rather (collectively) (2^-5 Mountains of Seir — is Gn. — Kadesh-bamed\ fuller v. particular route from Horeb to Kadesh intended by the writer.). About the stream fig-trees. Holy City. passage) I comp. i. 272-5).. Kadesh-barnea' was on the W. Rob. and flowers flourish in profusion and a carpet of grass covers the ground (Trumbull. and placed by Rob. 20") lies in a recess of a low limestone hill-range. of Mount Hor. in which Edom proper lay common one s. they are "different names of the same the locality. (ii. identified it with 'Ain-Kadis. ii. {DB. 10 Dt. No topographical distinction is traceable between Horeb and Sinai. and 22-3 miles NW. 3I). years.15 52 be about 160-70 miles. the Rev. c. 10^^ \^-f \^\\ the name 175.). 106^91. 565-7). of 'Ain-el-Weibeh. 32^ 36' a/. might (Dillm. shrubs. edge of the 'Ardbah.. DEUTERONOMY days on the journey [BR. 3^2 Ps. in a Deuteronomic elsewhere only Ex. of the place elsewhere called simply 1*'^^- Kadesh (v. The spring (cf. in 1842 (Williams. 8^ = 2 Ch. flows an abundant stream. interchanging only according to different writers. . as in Sir. ff. and approaching the mountains of Se'ir. 464 ff. "Mount BR.^. until after running 300-400 yards it loses itself in the sand.— 6 1 1 — .): it denotes the mountainous region. i K. 510. : Horeh] the name g-iven uniformly i2. 35 miles S. i. pp. Se'ir Road" 601 tfie (Trumbull. of the 'Ardbah. 32^ 34^ Jos. 194) at 'Ain-el-Wcibeh. of Beer-sheba'. and forming a veritable oasis in the desert. or. . 98 igie 28<'9. Kadesh- 198 f. of the Dead Sea. There are three main roads leading from Sinai to Palestine and the easternmost of these. The distance would in ^10. and the identification now generally accepted. J. about 45 miles W. 198 Mai.^ 32^1 Nu.). Rowlands. however. (except in the Blessing 332) to Sinai (Dt.^^ 2^^ 9^3 Nu. 3I 17^ 33^ (all apparently E) K. 238-275). 76 ff. 48". passing by el-'Ain and the well el-Themed. E. by way of Mount Seir\ The words define the or. in the midst of the arid stone-covered waste. 1326 20^- 22 a/. by the Mount Seir Road. perhaps. same verse " well be called the baniea.v. At the foot of a large mass of rock standing out from this range. 50 miles S. in the parallel members of on Ex. Nu. till it The site was lost for many was rediscovered by Trumbull in 1881 {Kadeshis barnea. fertilising the soil around.

3^"^^.. As the text stands.). 2^0 9^0 122-6 1310-12 (all D2). i^' 2»» 3" 8»-2» &c.->lS31 nnnC'ya 3En^n. The phrase n^pn^D Heshbon. *Og in Nu. 32*8-52 (notice of the Deut. — 4. being designed as be doubted. redactor of the Pent." as Ex. 2\^ is styled simply the "king of Bashan". "who dwelt 'Ashtaroth and'xn Edre'i" 13^^).^) for "eleven. not only 2^'^^. or uses the expression "itj^ ''Vfi?^ [see below]). and in E.e. was about 14 miles E. . reading "who dwelt in 'A. 'niPV is a word used chiefly in the later Hebrew 2 K. Hist.^s i. and often with nro nu for mx. 528(31)51. legislation to Jehovah. For the general reference to the people. as Nu. i' i Ch.• ( = 36'**") Nu. (all P). reckons by formed part of the narrative of P (who alone.—4. an introduction to the summary account which that narrative appears once to have contained of Moses' final communications and being followed. 384 f. 6" 25^2 (both P). but in Jos. in view of Jos. 13^"). : he in is described further as '>j. See further on 22^. 9^°.40'®. by the final specified in i^). 2121-22I (JE). iSr'c.. jS 392 Ez. z'^-*". as Nu. on the day It will have been adapted here. 26^. 7"2 29** (all P). Originally. as can hardly of the Pentateuchal writers." have been the second royal city of Bashan 'Ashtaroth is named also as the residence of 'Og in Jos._inK '' ms ns-x ^zz\ as Ex. 12*.". smitten Sihon. and without '?3 Nu. (cf. and the sense thus obtained would be in agreement with the fact (Nu. dr'c] this verse it when the following discourses were delivered. 26^ 40^ Zech.'. 3. almost immediately. The victories of Israel over Sihon and 'Og are a favourite subject of reference with the Deuteronomic writers cf. for the purpose of adjusting Dt. '"i nnx] of v. In tlie fortieth year. as v.* it is best to understand a colon at the end with V. but also 4^*': 29'f 31* Jos. "ipy 'nry (not nry nnx. 252 (=Jer." v. by "on this self-same day. in it is very possible that (5iJ are right Edre'i appears to . months and days. 525) jg^. cf.: I- 3-4 fixes the 7 date 3.'.] cf. 2123'' = Dt. of the north end of the Dead Sea it was afterwards one of the cities assigned to Reuben (Jos. and E. 12* (D2) of Sihon (now Hesban). to the scheme of P (Wellh. 21 3*. Ex. After he had Nu. and to construe v. the capital patrna 3ttn' iK'N ^iioxn (so 32 4*6). 3*" 17* 27-2. Dt. 13^2 << who reigned in 'A. in Edre i mxasX. be construed with smote (iman). 3^''): at the same time. 12" 24" 25" 27"-»f. For the addition Dn'?K unto them.

A. Lagarde. as a rule. The rend. Merrill. Schumacher. stated with abstract.. to internal reluctance cr diffidence (Gn. Reisebericht uber Hauran und die TracJwnen. the plural of 'Ashtoreth. 2^ Ew.e. Set himself to expound (1N3 7Sin)] on both these words see below.v. beneath them. In the land of Moah\ so zS^^ 32^9 345. 213) its distance from Edre'i was not more than 6 miles. to make clear. "began" (AV. p says always (see on 34I). Across the Jordan. in any sense. i^'**). Dillm. not only cannot the greater part of the laws contained in these books be said. but the legislation of Dt. pp. see Wetzstein. The constr. l. and regularly denotes the code of law embodied in Dt. exactly as Hos. ^'xinj they are accompanied with is to resolve. stands on the same footing with the false idea that Dt. not found in these books at 8.) is weak and inadequate. naked brevity. 329flF. tx3 is common in the sense explain." of writing). § 120.. or to external opposition (Jud. Wright. i«). RV. It is generally identified with Tell 'Ashtere. form.-Nu.!» 273- 26 aS^s- " 2928(29) 319.. —whether as opposed by the word take upon oneself. a mound or hill about 15 miles NW. 2^. TX3 S'Kin.— 8 The modem name Tiberias. s. p.(to "make plain.. HWB.) is used in the old and etymological sense of the word. and of the remarkable underground dwellings (3'' ^"). this The laws of which code consists are not. of the Sea of and 30 miles W.. "The title of Pilking-ton's Commentary on Haggai (1560) is *Aggeus the Prophete. Bible Word-Book. declared by a large Commentarye '" (W. though according to Eusebius {Onom.24 (cf. &c. "iiK'3 being an exposition.c. 2. of the Hauran range (the Jebel Hauran). 5. ed. to be "declared" or "expounded" includes in Dt.. to explain or expound (© 8Laxra<}>rj<Tai. : DEUTERONOMY of Edre'i is Edre'dt —on the Southern border of Bashan — abbreviated to Derdt and Derd about 30 miles E. built of massive unhewn stones (Schumacher. 14'. East of Jordan. — . p.). the name of the Canaanitish goddess) was no doubt an ancient and prominent seat of 'Ashtoreth worship. RV. of Der'at. i. i8^-''). § 285^ or the Writer's note on i S. 209f.. the idea expressed set oneself. This law] the supposition that this expression refers to the laws contained in Ex. in?] cf. is a "recapitulation" of the three preceding books of the Penta5. 3S1D nmy — teuch. 'Ashtaroth (in i860. 47 f. all.). Riehm. In post-Biblical Hebrew. with remains of walls. of the law 2920(21) 30^0 3126 jos.6. on Gn. or commentary. 5^^ see G-K. "B explanare). In point of fact. **) 1718. For a description of the ruins. 27' Hab. many provisions (cf. 121-147."^ 148. the exposition this book is 32« of which the primary object of the discourses which follow. The n- expression recurs 48 12. Declare (AV.

Kadesh-barnea' (i^^) and how. In this retrospect the narrative is throughout it . impressed is upon it at Horeb. how ." I. the narrative recounts the Israelites' circuit of the lands of 'Og-. and the confirmais tion of Joshua's nomination (i^s) as Moses' successor in the (3^^"^^). 28). the nation crossed the desert and arrived at . urging as the condition of prosperity. 6-1 V. not to forget the great truths of the spirituality of Jehovah. (i. — been divinely commanded to break up from Horeb. see the Introduction. the prising" first (i^-s^^) coma review of the principal incidents which had taken place between the Israelites' departure from arrival at Moab its . while the territory of Sihon and 'Ogf was occupied by them. 9 they are "ex- pounded" or "explained. appeal addressed to the nation. the Israelites were condemned to wander for an entire generation in the wilderness (i^o-^oj. 40. (c. Edom and Moab and the division of {2^'^^).of an eloquent practical it. remodelled improved (i*"'^^). brethren in the conquest of Canaan leadership of the people to explain. and of His sole and exclusive Godhead. at Moses' suggestion. 29.) I. Moses' First Discourse.5 hortatory introductions and comments. in consequence of the events which there took place. 5-26. Introductory Retrospect. and the 'Ammonites remained as neighbours of the Israelites. — § 4. The narrative so told as happened (i) that Israel did not effect an entrance into Canaan from the South (2) that Edom. in particular. Moab. and advance to take possession of the Promised Land having been first how and thereupon. 6-III. This discourse consist of two parts." in the land of and the second (4^"^^) consisting.1. the arrangements for the administration of justice of all. their conquest of Sihon and their territory among" the 2^ tribes (226-317)^ the obligation laid upon these tribes to assist their (s^^'^^). After this. begins by recalling to the Israelites' The retrospect memory how they had (i^"^). i. On the question whether this discourse by the same hand as the body of Dt.e. Horeb and their "the ravine in front of Beth-Pe'or.

19*.in this mountain is much for you. Ez. 14^ Dd"? U'DI 132. 29) . Ex. — . prefixed. 03"? lyoi «b] v. Anwrite is of the Amorites] v.. cf. 11^'^ Ti^*? nnx Hsn n'^i cyn Ncsa tbk iktii. Ex. and forming is the ground on which the claim to Israel's obedience rested. narrative of JE. . were commanded to advance and take possession of the land promised to their fathers. . The following tables will. * '2 i»» . .'** Nu. 243-7. *^ 18 ." enough " so 2*. . Ex. 2c (all {t/iy. however. . is . .) (Nu. . . px'D' r\vp:\ . iS^' ^ nsD Sk Cf. . specially "tin. (on i2i). 44* (in both these cases. . and re-enter the wilderness.— lO DEUTERONOMY dependent upon that of JE in Exodus and Numbers. is still pression with other pronouns your) The same exmore frequent relationship Dt. the correspondence Dt. ^ . 1-6. only Ex. here used as the general designation in D (as in E) of the pre-Israelitish population of 6. 3IS 53 8<^in (c. Pent. . 7. and of the "the dwelling. for " is much.) (Nu. in the command The to turn back from Kadesh. — 6. Ex. the passage quoted while there is a does not describe the same event.. It is intended to emphasize the close relationits ship subsisting between Israel and sealed by the covenant concluded at God. ... 2' s^'' 03"? I3ir. assist the reader to understand the which the retrospect of Dt.i*-20 (comp. -mn nu." is is parenthesis. JE). idiom. . oaV 3T (absolutely) 3^ Nu. elsewhere in the 22. having completed the purpose of their sojourn at Horeb.) Cf. 24^^ (=i Ch. it is hoped. but is borrowed yn?w another relation in part of tJie narrative . i6''' Ez. 132^). and c. 142^. The reflexive vad oaS m] too lit. . 9^. v. Comp.. . — 7. i82i«. stands to the earlier The number of cases is remarkable in which.23 io25. (Nu. 45^. How the Israelites. nin nna Canaan. Elsewhere an inf. Turn you. —a Horeb (52).*" ij'2i 03"? us. and phrases are frequently borrowed verbatim from it. ii"nin Dvn !?3 nx nxB-'? naV 'aax ^3ix k"?. not verbal. our God] 23 times in Dt. these are indicated in the tables by a In the passages to which "Cf.") i K. the a after caS is possibly due to dittography) Ex.country a different connexion. .. nci. 12^8. . coincidence in lang^uage. 6-8. and take yourjourtiey]eyiSici[ydLS in though there hill. Jeliovah. . with ja follows {"than that ye should . 21") I K. l"* . 18^^ D'csn nz' niKD np d'bSk ns? cyn ^y d^b-ni cnK jm nnpy . viz. and 3t alone 2 S.

33 38. and occasionally besides: as thus applied. 12^ 22.. ^7 ('Ai) io» (Jerusalem. in the imper. Nu.) 11^ (in the 'Aribah) Jos. Hittite.a6 (unless 'TDK be here an error for 'Dnn) 6^" i S. 15I8 482^ Dt. is the general designation of the preIsraelitish population of the territory W. I. Bibl. 13I1 Nu. Kallirrhoe. i^ i K. Lex." i. may naturally be used with reference to the inhabitants of a particular district Gn. show a tendency to limit "Canaanite" to the inhabitants of the sea-coast and of the Jordan-valley (1) Gn. of Jordan. but also with trans. 5^ 11' ("on the east. G-K.. &c. general designation of the pre-Israelitish population of the territory* W. to the pleasure or option of the agent. using "Amorite" in the wider sense noticed above. verbs (see on v. 13 f. Dillm. and to Lesha' i. by the side of the Canaanite. Hittite. 344-8. E. The "hillcountry " meant (as v. 121 flF. Canaanite. 27f. 17. of the Gibe'onites) i K. in v. Meyer. of the kings W. of the Dead Sea on the SE. : . i:f> 14^ (near Kadesh) *^'*^ 2ii'3 (=33^0. (2) it occurs.^'-^^) 12" 24''-3'' 50'^ Ex. 341 f. in the 'Ardbah "on the west. but is found also with the 3rd pers. it is believed. \^^^ Jos. of Ephraim so Jud. 'Eglon) "''^^ 24^ (read with t-welve for two. Wellh. v:3B' '?3] all his neighbours. E. The idiom is most common with the ist or 2nd person It is used not (esp. to tradition. 21^ {-naKn in'.. conquered by the Israelites (2) as the . 139 flF. &c. 5^ 13* (text dub. part of the high ground of Canaan. — — "? — . § 1 19.e. viz..27**). 48^2). on Gn.). in passages where the latter term seems used specially of the inhabitants of the sea-coast. 617 f. Am. lo'^ Dt. 6-7 II territory E. only with verbs of motion (Gn. on the Medit. 1881. 9^6) 1712^. 29. E. the term.. though possessing a general connotation.^o shows) is more particularly the S. Amorite. p. 21^' .i^: cf. Urgesch. i34r. Gn. or the Jordan-valley. they will be found. 32. Comp.„ Gezer. 7'* 2 S. 9^* .e. about Beth-Shean and Jezreel) ^^ Jud. Hebron. of Jordan occupied by the Israelites.). i^ (see p. i' and pp. Sea) i3»-'» 161" (. of the peoples ruled by Sihon and 'Og. 3c-). 2^-'^^) Jud. hence io journey by stages : cf. of Jordan) ^"-^^ (cf. or the the satisfaction. to support the distinction laid down above.e. ZATW. in enumerations of the nations of Canaan (on 7^). 21^ 2 K. VDJ is properly to pluck up (the pegs of a tent).. 10^' (extending from ijidon on the N. 44' jog. 24? Nch. see Di. cf. : : — : . E and D. If the passages here cited be examined in detail. of naxn. Amorite is used (i) Nu. ji-s-o10. 20«. perhaps also here (3) in enumerations of the nations of Canaan (W. comp. in the Negeb) Dt.. as it were. Budde. 2i^'* -'. Lachish.— : . and it. Gn. on the other hand. 30. VP? stage (of a journey). pp. 626 Delitzsch on Gn. of Jordan. (see on 7^). G . gives more or less pathetic expression to the personal feelings interest. or the promptitude with which the action in question is (or is to be) accomplished. 17^ al. '6. 27. to Gaza on the SW. especially in the Pent. i^' (* nna) is*. S. of Jordan) dispossessed by the Israelites. of Jordan preferred by J D and D.). ij* Ex. ace. the tribes named as "sons" of Canaan. which is accepted generally by modern writers (cf. 5 h ." i. and frequently. i^' '* and beside the Canaanites. 2 S. writers. together with ^f. referring throwing back the action denoted by the verb upon the subject.(in the "land of the vale" pcyn pK3.(in Jos. Jarmuth.

Hist.e. is. that in the 15th cent. 55 f." is destitute of philological support. relates to a period long anterior to that at which the Biblical records were composed and in the interval. must have been occupied principally by two tribes. loi f. and Judah (cf. further. of Jordan.^. p. denotes the region between Gebal on the N.C. B. while Kinahhkhi. . that "Canaan. and the Philistines on the S.. I.: of. especially not conquered by the Israelites. pp. F. 325). especially Ephraim. must have extended themselves Southwards. of ?S*^ loia). 1891. American Or. 346 f. Benjamin.* From a sur\^ey of the passages appears. see G. the depression containing the Jordan and the Dead Sea." before it came into the possession of the Israelites. which is often put forward. however. of course..^ vi. The loivland\ the part. it may even perhaps be inferred (Budde. 1890. Moore. This. however. so far as can be judged from the and other data at present at our disposal. while the Canaanites are often alluded to as still quoted. the Amorites and the Canaanites. as also on the E. each sufficiently numerous and prominent to supply a designation of the entire country It Biblical the former. would thus seem. Proc.) that in the 14th cent. of Eg. it seems. and secured a footing in " Canaan " beside the Canaanites. and described as giants (cf. as Wellh. in the territory ruled by Sihon and 'Og. Tel-el-Amama tablets show. 341) remarks. Ixvii-lxx. The northern modern Ghor.. the Amorites are usually referred to as the past population of Canaan. 14 f. it may perhaps be inferred. and as such are invested in the cities of the plains with semi-mythical attributes.ii. A. 148) the names land of Amur and land of Kajiana were already used interchangeably as designations of Palestine. that. the Shephclah (fem. resident chiefly in the high central ground of Palestine. which is said to correspond to (J?J3. the Amorites.e. 110-117). The hill-couniry\ the elevated ground in the centre of Palestine. pp. Am. Amurra {i. According to Sayce {Races of the OT. 2^ Dt. Amorite) denotes exclusively the inhabitants on the North of Canaan (including Kadesh on the Orontes).— 12 — — DEUTERONOMY . in either Hebrew or Arabic. (see on the date RP. i28). and E. here meant. the technical designation of the low hills and flat valley land (G. and Ramses III. Smith. (Brugsch. the latter chiefly in the lower districts on the it W. expelled by the Israelites. B. 154). Sac. {Comp.C. Historical Geography * The idea. From the Inscriptions of Seti I. the . p. that " Canaan " means etymolog^cally " lowlander. resident in the land in the age of the Biblical writers. The 'Ardbah] see on v.

13^^.. therefore. 7 13 of the Holy Land. 326) the general sense of "south" (Gn. 201 ff. illustrating the general aridity of the region). The sites of many of these but it is difficult not to think that cities are uncertain. which the term always denotes when printed in RV. denoting the "the undulating pasture country. . and the district so named. sloping. is disposed unduly to extend the Southern limits of the Negeb. is iSQf. Gn. this is another technical geographical designation. Judah). no doubt. and the deserts which encompass the lower part of Palestine" {S. the part of the coast specially intended is that extending from the N. The " negeb " or " dry land " of Palestine being on the South. Desert of the Exodus. marg. 5I ii3 134 appear to show that D and D^ limited the term ** Canaanite " to the inhabitants of the 'Ardbah. portion of Judah. Heb. —And in 1726 3244 al. in descriptive summaries of Palestine (or Judah). or unknown Palmer. lo*" 1 1" 15'^ ('Achsah's request . has. 359 ff." Jer. . DB. the "Negeb. Xhe soil is fertile.e. Smith. Cf. R. cities of Judah enumerated as belonging to Jos. The extent of the Sheph^lah may be inferred from the it."^ p. s. But.— I. that character. S. which intervened between hills i^\}y}). which formed the W. belonging to the Negeb are enumerated in Jos. part of the Mediterranean coast it seems probable. The land of the Canaanite] ii^" Jos. & P. the South] . end of the Shephdlah towards 'Acco and the Ladder of Tyre. & P.^). derived from a root preserved in Aram.. and SW.v.) 128 Jer. 20^ 24*^ Nu. The term in its geographical sense occurs frequently. as here. p. 15"^'^ (comp. p. the southern tract of Judah. 485 f. the expression " cities of the South. pp. and is it has been called "the corn-field of Palestine. 12^ RV. 13^* 32" 33'^ Ob. 9^. speaking generally. 1523-44.down towards the Mediterranean Sea. word Negeh (comp. of Caleb. &c. Judah.v. DB. it always (except Dan. i3^^* ^* ^ Jos.. the term acquired The Heb. though not entirely unprovided with water. e. and extending from Ajalon and Gimzo (near Lydda) on the N. The term is added for the purpose of embracing in the description the whole of the country between the Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea. W. Jos.).) but when provided with the art.g. and of the N. Jos. with a capital S (see Gn. s. OTJC. 255 f. S' The cities reckoned as 1 1'^") denotes the special locality just described. and signifying to he dry ." 9I io40 The term found. to Lachish (Tell-el-Hesy) on the S. And on the sea-shore] cf. : that the * ' land of the Canaanite " is intended here not to be ." i.

the is great river. 13*). 40*. who should relieve him as far as possible of this burden. 23 3^4)^ and with particular frequency by D (i^^ 510. 2I). 10. i-** ^ " 41^ Ez. 712 (= Ch. but to be (cf. connexion.. 17"). 9-18. In instituting these men to their office. S. . . 131^^- i5isff"- (Abraham) 263^. 12^ (Jacob) . forefathers is referred to often in JE ^c. 22i''f-. cf. Ex. The promise (Isaac) . Gn. 11" Is. 30" Jos. Which Jehovah sware. 2^^ D3'Jb'?) : indeclinable (in spite of so 4' 11-* (the pi. See. the river Euphrates^ the same Is. it is here treated as also Gn. 1112 14K3. 3i2of. 8^' (Dcut. 62 8' (D2) came to more emphatic than the more common mn: cf.g.— 'w"? : jn:] so 1-1 2»i.23 23I5 28^-25 3i«.2i igs 263-15 28I1 3020 3i7: cf. . however. As the imper. 9. 'JB*? alone in Gn. epexegetical of the preceding "sea-shore" Jos. they consented to the selection of competent men out of all their tribes. is recorded Gn. synonymous with the "land of Canaan" Lebation\ included similarly. being used often of the (see below). e. Israelites The numbers to adjudicate personally were so great as to render it impossible for upon all the differences arising among Moses them : hence.. or The addition emphasizes the perpetuity of a promise injunction.33-36 ^2. he had impressed upon them the duty of equity in the and impartiality 8.23 3211 c. I is Ex. 263^- (both JE). 2331 (both JE) I K. i* (D-). 2422 2 S. Moses' action in the see/ slightly . in this . .2* 28i3f- the oath is specitJieir 19 fied expressly only Gn.23^13 gi q5 iqU ii9. up of foes before any one The land is and they are bidden free for the occupation of the Israelites to enter and take possession of it. at his suggestion. means delivering to place at the disposal of to give over to it a favourite expression in Dt. DEUTERONOMY generally.] the oath to the (Gn. cf. 4" al. ?«"]. occurs similarly.) sense of delivering up before) only Jos. 39"). The appointment of officers to assist Moses in the of the labour of judging the people (see Ex. i^ 56 2i4i(43)f. ("lisb irii). by long be employed as a mere exclamation. have set the land before you] to set before 15I8 2712. 18).-8. limit assigned to the territory of Israel in ii^^ Jos. else- where I (in the K. also Jud. 41" cf. 2513) . j^r. ii^* Jos. usage. 10^' 11" (D-) Jud. 135-11 32I3 33I Nu. i s. 28^3 Nu.18. in D2 Jos.. n X-)] discharge of it. 5o2i Ex. : Even unto ideal i*. in And to 9*^ seed after them] so 3512 48* 43^ iqIs^ and often also I P (Gn. 13" 20^' 34^° 47® also 24" Jer. as also Gn. 5I (421).—— 14 — .

therefore. I amnot able to bear you alone] the reference which. lo^^j had so dwindled that both could be included in the expression "at that time. as is not improbable even on independent grounds (cf. 23434-8. either.18.33^^).23 same expression occurs frequently in ^u ^20 iqI-s (rather — in c. 8-10 15 in appointment of these the stress lies less officers is attributed is Ex. 2-3. 3T(J "«« respect o/" multitude " : Anglic^. so often. but the expression Moses' complaint in the narrative (mn Dyn ba ns ns::6 nab ^D3N remarked. p^^)) suggests rather strongly a date subsequent to the at least command described a date at the close of the sojourn at Horeb —or — instead of v. and do not afford a precedent for the interpretation of the present passage." The h defines the tcrtium — comparationis . 3^ njn^ in respect of knowing. from the point of view of Had the the speaker. if the discourse is to the appointment of judicial assessors to assist Moses.\T\ nya 'max '3:ki. differently 5^). JBLit. § 76 Obs. And I spake] the tense in the Heb.io^s-se. yet something either really or. Klost. Bsicon.^'^ by the existing narrative of Ex. (iS^^-ssj to the advice of Jethro. who.— — I. are different {ib. 18 stood once JE beside Nu. if not the sequel to (Dr. 76). § 75. § 67). and was still read there by the author of Dt. At that time] the iie.*'8 'HTDK or «''. not in time (Keil). as on the originator of the suggestion than on the fact of the organization having been established by Moses. . and to say K'nn nya v. 143 in . Pent. xii. on Ex. not referred to here. 9. 2o22'^. substantially contemporaneous with it {ib.). "ybr multitude. Nu. i824. must have happened less than six months previously (i^ compared with Nu. 18) and the departure from Horeb (Nu. § 75). is Ex. (as required it. the retrospect was written at a time when the interval between Jethro's visit (Ex.12. As the stars of heaven\ 10^ 15 ki can only be interpreted naturally as stating. Ex. 18. however. 10. 7'- Gn.is the retrospects.21. the same rather peculiar phenomenon frequently in the retrospects. so as to leave scope for its being anterior.) a date prior to and indeed prior to the arrival at Horeb (Ex. 19^'^). was delivered by Moses. 138. borrowed from the terms of of the 70 elders. as Jud." or. and on the need for it in the numbers of the people. even with reference to occasions. 24). 9. author intended to disconnect the incident here narrated from what precedes. we should have expected him to avoid the construction with ! (see ib. Dillm. ii^* As has already been bait? N^)- may be noticed — 10. The cases in which \ expresses a sequence in thought. 18: cf.

Your cumbrance (D^niC)] cf. (1314. Jos. Gn. Moses adds that it was not the increase of the people which prompted it (for this his only desire was to see continued indefinitely). largeness of heart TJie Nu. 11. Is. 23* Ps. the 7 has a distributive force. Similarly nij?. D3^ 139 Ex. Notice the fine rhythmical close produced here by the addition of m^ (which is not in itself necessary. and in a sentence such as Gn. according to your tribes. spake) to you] a standing formula j in Dt. esp. The ence to Gn. 18^.lJ. io9 1 125 220 156 i82 26^8 27^ 2912 . 10'^ &c.9 30" 22*2 C3'a3ff^'] if'. 15^. 1^ ns'lt. 03^ ID'S?. and often. cf. explained on v. get you so Jos. Nu. The expression in v. The ^ is the reflexive or "ethical" \." "will Jos.16 Y>t. i^* n^b? h"^ ^^n. So Ex. . LeX. : in other tenses. verbs. 32" (each time with " multiply") : of. Jehovah.6?. 32'. and known] 41" h't^. 3 I. D3'FKT3] the 3 is the " Beth essentiae. 7. add to you the like of you a thousand times^ which is — Moses' wish 2 S. 03*7 Tn] to — promise is the general sense of la'n with 7 comp. Nu. their 29^^ Jos. n"-i7 "««the burden of this (the) people.!e and in injunctions 1^16. 11. 24!** ^^B^. and see Lex. 2i2_ jIs lie promised 28) (lit. 7^ Jos. 313. For the phrase employed. ns'j. II070 can I bear alone ?\ the v. give for yourselves. Ex. Gn. Your burden (D3XBP)] cf. withrefer- out ^ 619 2619313). 24^ 28I' Ex. ^ 19** Jer.18.7.e.6 — DEUTERONOMV — 1 28*'-: so in the promise (JE) Gn. 32" a/. i2i 6^ 12I 27^. and used also (as there mentioned) with trans. 2" 3^ 7^ 9^^ (from Ex. ii^^). — 12. &c. tribe by tribe : cf."—13. 243. i. Ds"? un] lit.17. God ofyourfathers] the gives expression to the continuity of the relationship subsisting between Jehovah and His people: the God who now takes Israel under His care is the same who formerly showed His faithfulness to their ancestors. 1^ np. 12^ 2217 263-24. Jud. 22^7 26* Ex. cf. — Get you men (that are) "voisey and understanding. provide for yourselves. 20". comp. title cf."^). 7"-^* 18* I S. our 26^. besides the passages quoted above.. appoint them as your heads " : cf. 22P would have been heavy and inelegant).rhniz jno to give as an inherit- — — — ance. 78". Dt.18 1^2. the God ofyour fathers. for verse repeats more emphatically the thought of the pur- pose of stating more distinctly the ground of Moses' proposal. in the imp. '? 5 h. &*--^ Ex." is . In order to remove any — misapprehension as to the motive of his protestation (v. 5'^ Jud. 36. i K. 11—12.'. .3. as is of D2 in Jos..^. and was known of them.M. (i2i 6^93 (cf. difficulties but simply his inability to cope with the practical their numbers occasioned. expressed with characteristic generosity and (cf. 32*: often also elsewhere with .»• » Gn. S^*.33 22^ 235-10). D3^ inp.)" lo^** 15^.—13. 4^ iS^: and with thy Dt.

it thus seems. 18^^ (IT quorum is sit the choice to be determined by the moral qualities of the men to be selected ("men of worth. organizer {ci np^'O Job 38^t» ordered arrangemetit. Shoterim are named immediately after the "elders" of the people in Nu. . 2 nmn aio] the same formula of approval (though without a . 16'^. in (5 (which has in place of them simply indifferently with v. Gesch. captains of their tribes. Otherwise it must be supposed that the men who approved themselves to Moses' choice were also those who were already distinguished as the leading representatives of And made them heads over you. were subordinate officials. In Arab. i'" 3") Egfypt the officials appointed by Pharaoh's taskmasters for the purpose of superintending the labour of the Israelites bear the same name (Ex. 19" 26" 34" S«the term appears likewise to be used of subordinate military or judicial officials. In the late passages 1 Ch. 8^ 23^^ 24^ by the side of the "judges" in Jos. fearers of God. 13) Shoter vi'iW have denoted properly a/raw^^r. Pr. \&^. men of were to be chosen). may be right in supposing them to be a gloss. satr is a row (of buildings. : : — The Shoterim. partly in the maintenance of civil order different. 15."^ Dt. 19). nde). to write . The words are. 6' (the ant has no hm> nnb' J'sp) the duty of making proclamations or conveying orders in to the people in time of war is assigned to them (Dt. hating unjust g-ain"): here. of proved character and ability probata). Qorans. 20'* ^'^ Jos.e. safara trees. omitted . who once (2 Ch.— — I. In Ex.). though the terms used (esp. however. not heads of the tribes. i. but discretion selected from each tribe indiscriminately. "known") in- imply moral qualifications. and of military discipline. 10). —11. a line (of writing). p. men of faithfulness.e. 8^^ 23^ 24^ Dt. cf. who and were employed partly in the administration of justice. 29^1^*') 31^ Jos. 34''^) took part in superintending the repairs of the Temple. (& in Ex. the emphasis rests rather on their tellectual fitness for the post to — which they are to be appointed. thousands. The primary sense of the root seems thus and to have been to range in order (Noldeke. p. !«• "• 15. The heads ofyour tribes\ 5^0. ^^' ^-^ ii v/Awv) and as they agree (accord- ing to which. as such. iS^s (see the Table.fi%Tou(rayuyivs." conversatio i. Dillm. &c. and selected men suitable for the purpose. dye] exactly as Ex. — — 1 11-15 7 "known. And officers according to your tribes\ the duties and position of the "officers" {Shoterim) are not distinctly indicated. is to nde (a book). 1" 16^8 29^ dO) 3128 renders by the curious term perhaps the title of some law-officer at Alexandria ypafi. ii^" Dt. Moses took action accordingly. d. 23* 26-9 27I 2 Ch.

but only that chiefs commanding these numbers were appointed. I S. 100. " ye shall hear is (implicitly) : . on Ex. 17. clause following-) i K. § 118. 33^^ though not elsewhere as concerned with the administration of justice. iT2n Kh] d'j^ T?n. G-K. defining the circumstances under which the hearing is to take place lit. and tens. 18. viz.: the captains of 50. i6^^-20. hundreds. {sc. of the occasion for the duties of their fearlessly.e. 5). 18^6 (cf. The arrangements 16. in later days seem to have been out of relation See more fully with this institution. or foreigner settled in and 14-^). Ve shall not respect persoiis in judgment] cf. in such matters. and you must accordingly be superior to worldly considerations. 16^' is d':b ncj. of manner (G-K. where see you are . and entrusted for the time with a share in the administration of justice. For the judgment is Gods] it belongs to Ch. And the matter which is too hard for you ye shall bring unto me] Ex.— — 15 — DEUTERONOMY — was to put in force the mandates issued by their Except here and Ex. ^—Hear between your brethren'] i. with the native Israelite (24^7 27^^. Moses availed himself the purpose of impressing upon the judges 6^c. 24^ 28^+. or which were in some 2 rel. And I charged your judges. as Pr. note. who exercised judicial authority. The passage it whose duty superiors. abs. i9-ii-i3 Is. jij-as-n jepD] an accus. 2*^*^ i824_ —17. Israel (see The "stranger" on lo^^ (Ger). and as His representatives 21*5 Ex. not necessarily over those only who were under their immediate command. iS^^ the "captain of ten" is not mentioned in the OT. 18^5. the stranger who has to deal with him. § 113. does not state that the whole people was divided systematically into thousands.16 19^). and 1000 are mentioned frequently in connexion with the army {e.] to hear all impartially. is to have equal rights. and elsewhere). 16^^. recognise the presence or person of any one unjustly). The more usual expression ^nJ3 ^nja jopa — of the imperative: see io —jg^ yfa.g.e. with the force d'JS lit. Him (cf. The reference is probably to cases which were not provided for by existing regulations or precedents.22) nCTD bs PN''3'' ^t^'pn "I3nn flK. listen patiently to all that is And judge righteously (or Hghteo2iS7iess)\ said on both sides. office. Men were appointed with military rank. Aiidhis stranger] i. acting in His name. but over the people at large.^] the inf. fifties. to decide and to refer cases too hard for themselves to him. cf. 8^2 1^18 22'^ 2 K. 4'' (a).

v. also 1820). or ap. Nu. 13^ C8' i:'Kn pjyn t"?' dji tkd ij. 64f. Nu. s. 40-66.. as opposed to such as could be decided readily by existing laws. p. " For the — judgment. ni:n] 18--*. preserved in classical Arabic (in the indicative mood). ^n: Nu. the like of the small (being) the like of the great " = " ye shall hear (them). . Nu. 13™ \ynr\ 'TED cnnp'?!. 1-39. And I commanded you (cf. 15 times in 1-2 K. Alttest. but in Hebrew only occurring sporadically (altogether 305 times in the OT. as an archaism (for those books in which it is most frequent are not.. (them). 16 times in Is.. in English idiom. time all the things which ye should do] the reference 523(31)) 4^^ appears to be to Ex. L. more briefly G-K. and Phoenician. it is Dr. It is peculiarly frequent in Dt. |. Konig. 13^ T31 cnx u'c'i. niViJ nrflsn onj^m. : God's "=(Anglic^) " For the judgment is God's. 6 . DL i» ." On ? (properly. Cf. the passages are enumerated by J." See is used (very exceptionally) with cf. (9 times in the Laws. Disappointment of the people upon receiving their report. Kleinere Schrtften. Nu. Ethiopic. vm 3 b. Spr. 13^^ (•"'^y)* — . 8 times each in — Jud.t '3] lit. Bottcher. i. 28 times in Ex. 20-23). 132^. had done all that was in his power to provide for their civic welfare. That great and terrible toildemess] so 8^^^ further described as the abode of fiery serpents where it is and scorpions. The (cf. p. 19. upon any view of their authorship. not. § 1 18.g.) see more fully the luminous explanation of Fleischer. Nu. in Aramaic (usually). 19-28. 53 times in the Psalms (of which 15 are in Ps. 21 times in Is. and i S. however. Mission of the spies. occurring in it 56 times. Departure of the Israelites from Horeb.. 7 times in Nu. ik31. § 930). and Bottcher.. and Lex... "Ye shall hear the small and the great alike.1^) seems intended to emphasize Moses. Tannn-nx] nu iVn to denote the space traversed so 2' . In other books it occurs {e. an undeveloped subst. but as a more emphatic form than that in ordinary use. 376 fF. — 18. I. Lehrbuch der Hehr. 1421>-3a.. occurring besides in prose only Nu. impf. Nu. the most ancient). never in Lev.— Kin d'h'jk'? bscd.^^). 13'' "nn "jN nn'Vp. ^0 /Aa/ the small he as the great". The word is rare. § 198 Lex. i8".") 12 times in On. adapted to round off a sentence. v. . 19. (1839) P* 165 fF. c.. 104). Cf. 23 times in Job... 243 2ii .. ii. v. and journey to Eadesh-barnea'..^^-S" at that (cf. 16-19 19 respect complicated. ^. Studien.. ^3 Szv^*. at the beginning. before the departure of the people from the fact that repeated at that time Horeb (v. and accordingly sometimes preferred in an elevated or rhetorical style. 22^ (JE) i S. and mostly poetical. and 3. pyoBr] the more original form of the termination of the 2nd and 3rd pi. 9 times in Jos. i.

writes: " The desert of et-Ti'h is a limestone plateau of irregfular surface. border of Palestine. and even here and there permitting cultivation. and the remains of dams and other devices for irrigation are discernible in the wadys (Palmer.. and affords excellent fuel for the camp-fire. 4). monotony relieved only by a few isolated mountain groups. "Waterless" (8^^). the water is mostly scanty and poor. amongst which and Heidi. — Which ye saw\ and so gained . draining as they do so extensive an area. &c. the southern portion of which projects wedge-wise into the Sinaitic peninsula. . but it bursts into most part hard and unyielding. 182. water becomes more abundant. 179. its 170 miles. until wilderness gives place to the finally the "Negeb" (see p. pp. &c. pp. and terraces are covered with corn and vines.. with the exception of a few springs wadys . which takes its rise in the highest the most conspicuous are Jebels Yeleg. The wilderness meant between the Peninsula of Modern travellers Sinai and the its S. portion of the southern the Sinaitic peninsula]. 184. a very considerable amount of moisture infiltrates through the soil. Desert of the Exodus (1871). of 'Ain Kadi's.). but even here water can onlj' be obtained by scraping small holes or pits (called themdlT) in the ground. In spite of the utterly arid nature of the soil.. 13) of Judah. . as the Negeb is approached. 304. All that is obtained by the process is a yellowish solution which baffles all attempts at filtering. . about " The surface of the plateau is an arid featureless waste. and life with the spring and winter rains. The ground is for the . 2*'). pp. 189. i. DEUTERONOMY also 32^*' Jer. It is drained for the most part by the Wddy-el-'arish. 354. Robinson. producing much more vegetation than sudden in the plains. ** describe barrenness and blanched desolation. the char- acter of the country changes. Palmer. . pp.. 350." Thus E. . 326. the soil becomes more fertile. except after rain (cf. cliflF [where the plateau approaches the mountains of and flows northwards towards the Mediterranean." As the Northern the fields part of the plateau is reached. 319. 345) : in the Wady Lussdn. 180. In the larger wadys... H. . and especially to the N. Ikhrimm. for substantially accurate though wells and springs (as stated above) are met with. and baling it out with the hand. 342. nearly waterless. The country is situated in the larger is covered in many places with a carpet of small flints." The distance across from Suez to 'Akabah is about 150 miles. During the greater part of the year this remains to all appearance burnt up and dead. provided the expression be not is interpreted with prosaic literalness. 284-288. . a quantity of brown parched herbage is scattered over the surface. p. the desert of et-Tih (cf. and from the southernmost part of the wedge just mentioned to Beersheba'. 20 and as waterless is (cf. however. Palmer. 347.

in upwards of 200 times in Dt. Jehovah .8. of 'Akabah. books and the prophets. AV. also 6cf.12. and circling round the base of Jebel 'Araif off en-Nakah (Trumbull. in Jos. of Palestine (on perhaps one branchinglittle v. &c.24 in earlier books of the Pent. only Ex. from the Mount Se'ir Road (v. 20. 29. 24 a.ii. sometimes taking place even within in the limits of a single sentence 6U. and the higher prose style 21. in Dt. 1' (|1 pj/n Sk).— — I. our God"). 34 dismayed (:nnn fjs^)] . 51' D and D» . is to be understood as (2) or (3) but there seem to be clear instances . at the present moment). By the way to the i.. and D2.10 22iff-6 ^ may which it is intended as an appeal to the individual Israelite..— 21. The change (as here) from the plural to the singular (or vice versa) is very frequent. ( So Jehovah your God{y.— nnn Ski] so 318 Jos. Kadesh. but very much less frequently than in Dt. 80-3). Commanded us\ v. 1526 2o2. § 5). used only by (=46^) Ez. Both expressions occur occasionally in the other hist.^^ 2"'^^ . 157ff.g. as here. (i) in the 2nd pers. 30^" (in all. Which Jehovah our God is giving to us\ i. and 28 times in Jos. 8^ ia» Jer. Intr. 2^f(yh) Is. collectively. . giveth obscures their arrival at Upon the true force of the original. plur. Jos. laTid or ( The phrase (attached mostly to ground) is extremely common . on v. in passages belonging to D2 (^e.. by the route leading across the : desert to the S. j : . II see below. 20^2j.* Thy t/iee] Israel is addressed in Dt. 23b.1^.. mostly.: \^ 2"^^ 320 440 5I6 = Ex.9 8ic. Cf. ("thy children") 36 9 (10) &c. 20—21 its a practical acquaintance with hill-country of the Atnorites] character. singular.^^) occurs nearly 50 times in Dt. ("J. (i)KTn (k'?)'?k) . .'') if a definite road be meant. (D^) i^.).e. 20-21.-B. 8". — 21 .5. 23). sing. (7).—Neither he (i3i 27-24 ^s-ii.nd frequently . (3) in the persons of 4^^ its individual members. nun] V. 10.9^.^. In particular cases it 1 sometimes be uncertain whether the 2nd pers. sing. in the 2nd pers. in the 2nd pers. is in course of giving us (viz. K. 20I6 2i23 244 2519 and followed by n^nj 4^^ 15* D2 Jos. v. 25.7. pp. In Hex. if not entirely. i8f. (some 25 times) thy God\ so 26^ Comp. 20. 2) a NW.e. 12 2319 = 34'*') 34^^ (^1 parts of JE showing affinity with Dt.125-7. Moses bade the people proceed to take possession of their promised inheritance. a word confined mostly to poetry. (as in the preceding verses) (2) as a whole. 10. i^. 13 times in c.

] Nu. Cf. i. is attached loosely to nai i:nN u'8"i. the people refused to move. who then gives it His sanction.)t the same idiom. And ye came : appears to be taken wholly by the people. instance proposed that spies should be sent out to reconnoitre the land. people. DEUTERONOMY The people. i2^« i K. &c. and that this._26_28. S6 Lam. in Qal. in prose. which — went up hito the mountain] or hill-country. only 282» 2 in their tents.— 22. 26b. i323f. But in spite of the favourable report of the spies. when complete. and. 20-* (P) 2. p. but it is probable that JE. 131^. however.22f) is Dt. on'SN n^i) a favourite word in Dt. and to the proposal. 132 L. Nu.e. had based upon the narrative of JE. which the writer of still before him intact. not by P's characteristic term HtSO (Nu.23). is the source of the representation in Dt. G-K.— 22 . i322. i Ch. way of approaching it — 22. f^' 2* 3i"t- The word sig^nifies to resist . as reminiscences of Dt. 24. and Moses agreed near unto me and said] in Nu.O.— 26. 13. 13^"^^ (P). And is . 3 a. oy Dn"rT D'TDD Dt. 2o"-*^ 32^ (in all. one man — for.every tribe] Nu. 17^^. it i3i-i7a belongs is highly probable that it follows here also. § 117. states) preferred their request. accus. at which point the narrative in Numbers opens. 139(1"? nann n"?). Moses refers it to God. I rn 1 c. In the existing narrative of is Nu.'' Lex. Unto the torrent-valley ofEshcol] near Hebron (Nu.f^ (P) i S. in the first —22—25. But ye would i S._25. (Jos. Tribe is denoted in Dt. — : 26. And they took of the fruit of the land. xara av^iati cf. the appointment of one spy from each of the tribes recorded only in P . : 2*" 10^" 23"* nnni) i^g^sjos. as in other cases. described the selection similarly.T. 27. and that the representation referring the proposal to the people (v.^-^^). || m . 13^''. having (as Dt. beginning of the episode of the spies to P). which is defective in Numbers for the . i^t '' . Nu. 23.Moses sends out the spies in consequence of a command received by him from God here the initiative report upon the best . The two repre: sentatives are capable of at least a formal reconciliation it the might be supposed. ^^^'^ rix] most probably the Ch.. and murmured discontentedly elsewhere.— " 's 12" (Deut. Twelve men. i^^ijfi) \ S. 1321. ^'^^. 22" (i)xTn "^ki). the variation is a remarkable one and in view of the fact that the retrospect follows consistently the narrative of JE. the high ground (2^^) of Judah (v. 24^»)2s7 29'». by used also by JE. it (for Nu. At the same time. 127). i R.

elsewhere in the Hex only Gn. . 1^9-*. 288 (Lachish). supposed that Da^irisa was an intentional alteration of D3M^N3 against your God. Urschrift {x^i^j). Sheshai. . and Ashdod (cf.V'7 '^TT. 33=2 (both H) Dt. g^^ pjJ'. (Da^fjnsa)] hence Ps. with (27 times) .) is changed into D'pjy (so 92a). with reference to the same incident. Ahiman. for instance. and left only in the Philistine cities of Gaza. but it is possible that in both passages derived from a part of JE's original narrative of the spies. Jos. f^ g'» i !»*•«• 23'5 (mostly D») 248(E). Jos. Nu. 29^. 47*'' (G (see Graf) also the Philistine nsnn t"?' 2 S. not of '' — D — any far distant region. 78 9^ Gn. is'*'(=:Jud. ni^nj ments. Debir. 210-21 43s 7I and fenced into heaven] so g^^.e.^"-^--). the 'Atiakim there] as nmV3 D^ynv Cf. 14'' (JE or D-) Arba' (whence the old name of ru«2C3] G-K..T (collect. IV/iit/ier are we going &'€. i^*") a'piy ':3 in Dt. where it is stated that they were cut off by Joshua out of Hebron. — . And ye mummred in — your tents p. Dt. The tS'. 3327 (the Blessing). except that P3. the giant of Gath). and were expelled by Caleb. 1062^. Gn. ^c] cf. 28. and Jos. cf. the more general designation U'piVi. 13. end 9i-2a the phrasing Cities great is that of D rhetorically varied (cf. to defy or (intrans. but of the heights of the air. In Jos." and suggests at the same time the reproach that the people refused and advance to the conquest of Canaan. in which. 26^ Nu. and all the hill-country of Judah and Israel. 27. sion in Jos. ''J3 "children of the 'Anak" three p:y. 11-^"— (D-). made for the : purpose of removing is a statement disparaging to Israel but the supposition unnecessary.T '33 ("sons of the 'Anak") in Jos. The expres- — Through JehovaKs Jiating 7'''. — — — 22-28 23 not go up. 27. a^"*^**^^ (in a comparison). The Amorite] vJ. Sayce. contumaciously. 13" Jos.—— —— I. Geiger. 28. "among yourselves. c'cra] in heaven: so 9'. and Talmai. Jer. in your tents means to bestir themselves. is"*" .] Jos.) be defiant. 14S may be borrowed from here it is . 1328 nxo Nu. A people greater and taller than we i32Sa. we have seen sons of 1328. p3V 'J3 are mentioned in Nu. ijhk i^tdbtiS] tdct naco is a favourite word § 1 15.^ : cf. p. us.^) occurs Dt. 290 f. moreover. d^p. . g^^b. God] cf. not retained in Nu. 13^ ("of the Nephilim"). Gath. to a land full of what unknown perils? Our brethren have caused our heart to melt\ the idiom as 20^ Jos. MonuAnd. Varied from Nu. ii23j_ (i30JD D"i1 ^13 DJ?)] from Nu. 2^1 5I 7^ (all D2) also. v. 11* D'Dr3 wk-v. and defied tJie mouth (commandnieni) of Jehovah your 143-*. 2ii6-i8 (cf. are named in JE. 2 R. and see below. 'Anak. 34** (J) Lev.3i. . and Goliath. Nu. To deliver us. upp] i. 14^ (Caleb speaks) Dyn a^-DK vppn '»y hv IB'X ^HKI. who dwelt in Hebron.

. as 721 20^ 31*'* Jos. Lex. 13^ 11DV3 nV'^i inn onh^^ py mcjra ddv urh TNn"? ex. Moses' successor. f^y_ jS6-38 _ _ _ VK niDvai ddv ctjeS -jSin nnn py nisyai. as (Ex. implied that there were more " giants " in Hebron 97. I — 31. 322 Jos. . . Jehovah's that none that generation.. Designation of Joshua. 1012 2417 (both D2) I S.22ff. 1321 Dn'js!? -^^n mm . Jud. (The expression is also charact.T. mm Nu. denoting' place. and Talmai and perhaps indeed these three names are meant as those. Ahiman. Jos. : than the three. i^"* . but of families or clans. and indeed through the entire discourse. (Nu. or manner. Who goeth before you] 141* (JE) . — Will fight for you] Ex.). crnoK ttk ddsoi nanon C3^ iyai . 42 233.. save Caleb. 12^. present generation is conceived by the speaker as identical with the past" (Dillm.. 10 (all — 30. 316b. 14-^ fjiD D' xn ub nna. .T. "xr: nrx] ^^ -where J. 1321 (JE). . — 30. Moses encouraged the people by reminding' them Who them (D^).9 2831 29I 3i7 3412: cf. 29-33. Nu. .) 1^23-24 -^^y 31. was that went before them. cf. Kin 2 a. it Nu. Which thou sawest]y. Jos. . Cf. or adv. the pron. loi). .. 29-40." After a word net* (ia. D2). Dt. time. (Ex. also Ex. 11-^ — 31. Sj see Ex. and what He had done for 29. i'*' . Sheshai. iQi4b. .. . Kiriath (city of) ArbcC) is described as D'pjya I?n3n Dnxn and in 15" 21'^ (P) he is called the father of the 'Anak. Moses' oath vain endeavour of to reassure the people. Most of these passages (including the oldest) connect the 'Anakim only with Hebron that they were spread generally over the hill-country of Judah and Israel 1-"'. § 123 Obs. pp. and may be one of the is stated only in Jos. and not frequent even in — poetry..T. 1 generalizations to which this Deuteronomic author is prone {L.T 13"? i^** (om.. cdrk for "to do with" cf.O. not of individuals. 14" usoi u'w I** . Before your eyes] a point which the Writer loves to emphasize (in different connexions) 4*5. Kirt.—As a kw] on the emphatic resumptive nte]:] 30'^). 14"'' rh-h .) i^ r^ . which belongs to D-. (Hf) Nu. the birds fly (4'^ Pr. Dread not] py. bare thee. 1425 Dt. in the past. however. 141-* dd"? en"?' m.^^.34 522 gi7 2-3. should enter the Promised Land. It is. 12I6. i^ Not elsewhere in prose. Hebron.3 ^^^ cm3NV 'nyac: nrx \^Kn t\h int cn nDc N3 TCK I'nNn "?« vnx'am nnx N^a'i icy mnx mn wn 10^'' _ _ ^ r''-«8 .) " Omitted here by evidently because Moses is addressing the new generation but in v. i4t^\ Dn'js"? -^Vin . of Ezek.. complement of . Nu. na*? cn^' see Dr. the (&. . 10"^ S.— 34 — DEUTERONOMY .) nmiD nn'? mnV. * • « 14^^ .

Jehovah's wrath . But in spite of this word of encouragement the Israelites remained disbelieving (cf. (Even) this evil generation] these words correspond to is or D^) often dispensed with. Nu. . — KB" ncKs] the impf.10. have been strangely supposed to be a the book. 470 5710. 14I1 ninisn ^^2 for (i. however. 402 Ex. ^lOp &c. {^^) 26^ 29'5. c.e. Was wroth 97. v. Dt. The use of similes is not unfrequent in the style of Hebrew prose {e.—32-33.: of Nu. 29-35 for the simile :'' 8'^ 25 (iD''"' vian doth hear his 132 soii\ comp. —Even unto this place] 9^ ii^.—— — — I. 2^). see. &c. 298 658 &c. — 34. 32" (the Song).] resumed from v.23a). Ps. i62o i S. or on i S.22 jg. 1321 and Nu. the unbelief. being perhaps suggested by Onhip (Ex. Ex. also Hos.8. 34-36. Ex. unusual . (Dr. § 33&. WJiich went before you. In this thing (RV. "IK'S3 ns more picturesque tr\s) 2829. ii^ Is. 33^1 Nu. Ye continued not believing {^''V"0\f. in spite of) all the signs. denoting custom or habit. § 53.7 . ii^^ 1417. 294^/. DDrnx-i^] contracted for D^niNnnV (G-K. V. just ended) the 3 as Lev.g. 14^* (quoted in the Table). . how {Lex. of lo^^ (of the ark) nniiO Uih The rest of the verse consists of reminiscences." Is. to exclu- sion from the Promised Land. all the men of that generation. § 107. Tc/ieti. 2627 Nu.'0 Da^s)] the ptcp. Daninp 132^). and further developed ("to spy out for you a place. Surely there shall not one of these meuy (even) S^c] a terse and forcible condensation 1422'- of the terms of the oath contained in Nu. —35. (comp. is the tense regularly used in comparisons cf.11. G-K. 19* ("on eagles' wings"). tions. this evil generation. 1422-24. For the thought "bearing" His people. Gr'c. To spy outforyo7i. 26).4^.) for the purpose of marking more emphatically the gravity of ^^Vn 9^^)- — 33.e. 46'"-.)] rather in spite of this word [i. ('31 D3^ "iri?)] apparently "iinb- a reminiscence of Nu. and perhaps DsniK"]^ thai ye might look was meant by the writer. with mark of the Mosaic authorship of of Jehovah's : px indicates the endurance of the state of unbelief (cf.): those occurring in Dt. esp. God. The contraction is. 273.^oa. and His oath sentencing Cf. with slight varia- Ex. 3 R. (ciVp)] Gn. of Moses' speech. or on i S." &c. so that ncK alone becomes equivalent to •where. 14^^). comp.20 178. 24'). 65 712 140 1514 i69 2 S. nrw 4 b.—33. with the exception of Caleb. and T)J}'^ "^^O^^"?? ("to cause you to look upon the way ") being seemingly a paraphrase of ^\b TSn^ ("to give them light")..13 22* 27^7 Jud.17^/.19.

they impede the flow of the sentence .® carries on the thread of v. gio 96 cf. that the object of the retrospect is not to teach the people chronology and history. 2oi<>-ii (P).^^ : niT. The reference is generally supposed to be to Moses' act of presumption in striking the rock.^"*. 103). 142*. this Two independent grounds. is named together with Caleb he hath trodden upon (cf. i3 149).^'** are in no way marked. pregn. T. pp. and with ground (nonx). 325of. as Keil obserx'es. uses the choicer and more expressive word The reference is specially to Hebron ^ii24. O. 32"* " Jos. 25 Jos. 'nViT) 4^^ Jos. 14. Repeated from Nu. 142*. 14*' •• ". (i) Theposition of the two verses. they are not expressed in and. however. Nu. each confirming the other. see Samtiel. was the occasion of his exclusion from Canaan. ib.13.. narrated in Nu. i K. — representation. and on i S. (as Dillm. 8'' Ex. agrees with that of JE (Nu. tJie son of Jephunneh] only Caleb was an exception made: see Nu. nnx ttVa] lit.— 26 — DEUTERONOMY ffir. and was included consequently another leader. which. Only once besides.). Moses' act of presumption. either by —36. here and Nu.^. Dt. a good land. 58.and 27i3f. v. still the order followed in it is chronological. and though it is true. added purpose of precluding the misreferred solely to the spies. — nothing" in Nu. according to P (both ib. 22 e^s 23!^ (D2). v. 292. in the midst of a continuous narrative of what happened at Kadesh in the second year of the Exodus. took place in the 39th year of the Exodus. should bring in the same sentence simply "whither he came". 6". and v. for to go ftilly after. to Jill up after. Hath gone fully after JehovaK\ so '^\x. according to which Caleb alone is directly mentioned as exempted from the sentence. Joshua. Also with me toas Jehovah angered on your account. by the somewhat awkward apposition which they form. to ftjllow with undivided allegiance. vaaSi] on the position of this word. Jqs. in harmony with : Israel into its promised inheritance. — — . IVJiich (T?'^)] Nu. \?^. 14-^ its has more elevated style. Dt. 20. combine to render view improbable. according to The which Joshua 77. 3^ (JE). 14^). 11* V3K "ma '« 'thk k^d kS. 14123. Z. saying. c. in favour of 36. 1 1^^ Not elsewhere in the Hex. 14)^ 37-38. Save Caleb. some 37 years after the incident of the spies . 14^*). (Jos.: 325 421. Thou also shall twt go in thither\ Moses also (as well as the rest) incurred God's anger. as against that of P (Nu. p. suggests) for the conception that "these men" The good land] so often in Dt. 14" (JE). hence they are perhaps a gloss.

This hypothesis meets the first of the two difficulties mentioned above. it should be emphatically said that Moses incurred Jehovah's displeasure on account of the But this expression would be exactly explained if it could be people. (2) The expression "was angry with me on your account" (comp. observing that v. that Moses' own fault should be unnoticed. as they stand. By those who suppose this to be the case. 32^0^) it was on account of his presumption at the same spot. supposed to describe how Moses had been implicated in the consequences . not that it only resulted from it.^ (rather than of v.). supposes the verses to be an insertion in the original text of Dt.^ is the natural sequel of v. through the intervening cause of Moses' own sin : it is singular. on the basis of S""'^. accounted for by the fact that the sin of Moses was occasioned by the unbelief of the people but the terms used imply naturally that God's anger with Moses was an immediate consequence of the people's misbehaviour. neither the position of these two verses. nor their contents. contains of a double tradition according to Dt. — (DDpp33)] the force of ^^33 cf.. —for instance. 3^® 4^^ as well as here. was forbidden to enter — On your account Gn.. 37 years afterwards. 12^3 gS. according to Dt. and that each time. but on a different occasion. accidentally and indirectly. Was angered (^3Nnn)] 421 11^ 2 K. the synonyms in the parallel notices 3* 4-') is very insufficiently explained. Moses Canaan in consequence of the people's disobedience at Kadesh in the second year of the Exodus according to P (Nu. in 3-®. the expression is . Thou nlso\ synonyms in 320 (23^VP^) 4-^ (^V mcluding Moses in the same sentence with the . 36-37 27 their fonn or by their contents. 20^2 271^^ Dt. 20 j k. which seemed to be here desiderated. to what occurred immediately after the return of the spies. made by the Redactor. in the terms of the sentence passed upon the disobedient Israelites. Dillm. thus appears that. may be learnt from 3027 3C)5: Mn3"n).^'') be the case of the : many examples which the Pent. through his being included formally. in spite of the fact that he was personally innocent.^). as parenthetical. or as referring to an occasion that took place 37 years subsequently hence a strong presumption arises that they allude. of the people's disobedience after the return of the spies. for the purpose of supplying a notice. can be properly explained unless they are held to refer to some incident which took place If that immediately after the return of the spies.— !• . 17^8 (both Deut. if Nu. ao'"'^*. 37. they will present another (cf. and considering that the direction for Joshua's appointment is first given.t An uncommon and forcible word. of Joshua's exemption from the sentence of exclusion from Canaan. but leaves the second as It it was. if the allusion be to the incident narrated in Nu.. like the context. 20IO-12 |jg jjjg occasion referred to. v.

40. So v." with the omission (from the nature of the "our wives. which in its turn is based upon Nu. the nomination of in his successor is assigned to the same time P this referred consistently to an occasion (Nu. the Road" with Trumbull identifies the "Red Sea modern pilgrim track across the Tih from Suez to 'Akabah [Kadesh-Bamea.). 19** 40.. &c. ii^s Jos. 14' i S. (i K. lo^. pp. 39-40. 81. p»n \nk] notice the emph. v. WTio stan(kth before thee ^'33^ "^PVn)] to stand Heb. and take your not expressed by — — journey into meant. p. who are morally irresponsible. Dillm. it is very possible that it is a comparatively late insertion from Nu. 15' 18^.**. 188) are referred most probably to JE case) of . 1425 (see the Table). Here the meaning is. 38a." The clause cannot be cited as an example of the retrospect presupposing the narrative of P for the verses Nu. is to inait or attend upon.— : 28 DEUTERONOMY the rest. remarkable and as "little ones" is almost tautologous by the side of "children" following. 14^^ Who this day know (so Kuen. B. moreover. The Triple Tradition of the Exodus.] in accordance with the representa- which connected Moses' exclusion from Canaan with the Joshua as is people's disobedience after the return of the spies. i^t). tJie wilderness by the exactly as Nu. — — — . 14^ (JE) "our wives and our little ones 2712-14). and similarly with preps. 15' 30" 43'^ Ex. cf. 360 f. 41^. as Gn. The phrase employed courtier. Bacon. niE'p HE'D "Moses' minister" (Ex. i^^^-^^ (cf. Theol. dd*? us] v. 24^2 23I1 Nu. and consequently no parties in the guilt of their fathers.—38.^ 2 K. 21^ i S. 2-*) Cr. xi. here is a synonym of the term used elsewhere of Joshua. And your little ones. 27^5-23^ arising. encourage: 3^.. But as for you. (attaching originally to that it is v. PI13] strengtiien.). T. cf. Is. 5". 37* 42*^ Jud. Only the next generation of Israelites shall enter the Promised Land. in He sliall go tion in thither. 37-38 years afterwards. — the pron. position of 10^ yapn i3i lavn mx Jos. before. which ye said sJiould be a prey] in verbal agreement with Nu. 134. Kin) as .^ n^n. 39. 557 f. is is way to the Red Sea] almost Whether a definite road uncertain. 1421. 6^c. iwt good or evil] cf. — shall be a prey. idiom. W.directly out of Moses' presumption at the waters of Meribah (Nu. cf. : it is. as a servant. 715-16. turn you. Is. on lo^). 5' Gn.

Their subsequent sojourn at Eadesh. &c. <SrY. who accordingly merely conjectured from the context .^^-so. of going up (constr. went up heedlessly. 14^2 (see the Table). 17" Ex.^^. Go up] as V. nonnn oms'i didt Kinn nna arrn 'jyjDni •'p^oyn 3b"1. Ex. — . Even unto Hormah] the former name of 41. as pertinaciously. hana.e.] Nu. \^^^-^. bees do\ Ps. though it is not there expressly described as proceeding from God. S incited ^yourselves (iin3i:nx). as though it meant to say Lot (cf. 14*^. 5^ 16^ — —As mouth ofJehovah. 353*. came forth and heat you down in Se'ir even unto HormaK\ the italicised words. Among you Jos. as Nu. to be light hence in Hif.) Cf. 44. '^ inn sf»-i Vk m"?!?*? i!?"!!^!. the foe is termed "the 'Amalekite and the Canaanite": the change is probably to be attributed to D's use of "Amorite " in v. Pf^ have sinticd against Jehovah (ijnJN) will : we (emph. Ineffectual attempt of the people to force a the mountains of the Amorites. who dwelt in that hill-country. J .\ we and perform Notice all go up —not our descendants 1425 to that Jehovah requires of us. Go not up. the Amorite. Nu. Lev. iiS^^j jg.i . Xiy. Deemed it a light thing to go up\ i. ffuya6foi(r6iyTi{. . 31^7 The same thought "|in2 also in 29'*5 P. 14'""* i:KBn '3 '' TCN niTK Dipa. — 38-44 — 49 way into 41-46. G-K. without any reference to to P. which belongs. Aq. Dt.) irt^. Nu. and as numerously as bees. . Nu. of the word was unknown to the ancient translators. . but always there ex26^^. 43. But ye defied the And .*). I4*'*' ^i^n = here we arc). . attempted it as something to be lightly undertaken. (H) Nu. i/iovoK(rayrtf. ii^o yo^^^-^"- Dt.\ the terms of the prohibition — are taken nearly verbally from Nu. 14*01'. 20^ Bnpa Dyn 41. 34*^ Nu. i«» 43b . to be explained from the Arab. Nu. . 42. 2 R. and Rashi paraphrases accordingly DB^g^ij. ST began (iin'Tr"). (Nu. 's riK D'lay ij? cnx ni na*?.. in the main. The Amorite] in Nu. how the retrospect passes from Nu.T hn ir^vi '' 133•^. ^is^ An effective comparison: swarming about you. &c. v.21. The meaning © . Nu.— — — I. to deal lightly or heed. 14^^." 114. 14** DD'anx ':s^ isj:n kSi oaanpa 14*^ 14** '' ptt '3 iSyn Vk. conj. (DD3">p3)] cf. iv to slight (Qor. 14" mhyh i'?'£j. 'B instructi armis. Nu.^o. 13'niji] a or easy. whence AV. exactly as Nu. "were ready.^2 pressed by the syn.44 Nu. 22^®) lessly in respect § ar. 3!'^.''. will go up and fight.27. Commentators derived it fancifully from jn. as ferociously. The Rabb.

and which would bring them towards es-Seer. probably.-B. of the Dead Sea. in fulfilment of a vow. in a plain in the Wady-el-Abyad. and terraces of vineyards. i^") Hormah is related ib. 30^0 Jos. of the Wady Fekreh. As Dillm. .— 30 . the Edomite not have been confined to the region E. remarks. DEUTERONOMY : According to one tradition it was so called because the Israelites under Moses. where "mount Halak [or the bare mountain]. of {ysz*Q for for Judah. the origin of the name received its name somewhat it when the tribes of Judah and Simeon devoted similarly in the course of their conquests. 91-102) has made it probable that this is the elevated plain of es-Seer.). In Seir\ cf. be suitable. and SE. if the locality just suggested "Se'ir" . is described (Nu. devoted it to the Jiereyn or ban (on 72) according to another tradition.. 2\^. reckoned to Simeon. Trumbull {K. Jos. The existing ruins The town lay in the and the hills around show If this of escentre traces of former orchards. cf. iii. Es-Sebaita (Seetzen. on the border of i Edom) I The site S. about 25 miles NNE. N. of 'Ain-Kadis (Kadesh). site be the will of Hormah. which runs in a South-Westerly direction SW. later. Sebaita date from Christian times." is mentioned as part of the Southern limit of Canaan. Hormah c^^ it is is mentioned besides Jos. the Israelites. of Kadesh. the Wady Murreh. 512 f. of a well-cultivated district . and forms the natural boundary line between Canaan and the mountains W.^ and Nu. the situation would uncertain. Desert of the Exodus. to NE. — which runs from SW. it if territory will 20^^) as on the border of Edom be rightly placed at *Ain-Kadis. 12* \^^ is (a city of : Judah. pp. that goeth up to Se'ir. have attempted to force their way into Canaan by one of the passes about 30 miles N. As Kadesh (Se'ir). it Hormah was Zephath (Jud. but will have embraced more or less of the mountainous district on the other side. ii^^ 12". Tyca). has been suggested. €r<SF express "/wm Se'ir to Hormah" which. 19* Ch. if the view of Se'ir taken below be the true one. 374-380. 44 Palmer. though Sebaita does not correspond phonetically to Zephath (nsv). on the occasion in question. of the 'Ardbah. as it should do. to the S. in the Negeb. of the Wady-el-'Arabah (the Jebel Mukrah).

JD. ny . . Gesch. alphabet passed through a stage in which the two letters resembled each other far more closely than they do either in the archaic or in the modern square character. lo^. 38 years subsequently. (cf.. Oettli. In tS (see note) it must denote a period of 37-38 years. . . 20^ (JE) it is used of the period just before the message sent by Israel to the Edomites.— I- — — 45-46 . 53). 8^ Zech. . applied here to the sojourn at Kadesh. Ixviii. to be 44.. unless the present passage be inconsistent (Wellh. P' iS^f. 2^15 (10) <<how we passed through the midst of the nations through which ye passed. 2 Ch. 231^ "and they went about where they went about. especially from Arabic. Comp. 200) with 2i-^*. common (|| in poetry but late prose it occurs besides only Ex. is when a writer no occasion to speak explicitly. and need not necessarily in both passages designate a period of similar length.-BeschouTuing van den Deut.s i. Comp. Dillm. is Is probably the true though the sense . often employed in the Semitic languages. 23". Tyro is accepted by Kn. and 46. so that. According *' days that ye abode there] an example of the either unable or has idem per idem " idiom. p. The expression is. be right. And ye abode in Kadesk] the phrase refers here to the period immediately following the defeat at Hormah . "from to" common and in natural (see —45. . two different representations of the course taken by Kadesh are . in Nor gave ear in (ptxn)] the word 241^). the Israelites after the incident of the spies at In point of fact. Kohler {Bibl. ^^ al. Hieronymi (1874). however. . in order to reach the E. it cannot here embrace more than a few months. Kosters (De Hist. but in Nu. not materially different." 2 S. 11^ 2 S. a vague one.. 305). is applied in 2I to the wanderings about Edom. p. by Lagarde in a note at the end of the Psalterium. 1520 2 K. 20^3 is K. 2i2) And 2 •wept before 22^^. and the versions supply many instances of their being confused Samuel. however. The idiom is copiously illustrated. from whose examples some specimens are cited in the writer's note on i S. as Jud. Tj'rn] the substitution of 3 for D is palaeographically easy for the Heb. side of the Dead to the Sea. craving permission to cross their territory. AT. — ^ jnot^). 31 reading-: for. is the combination below). See further the next note but one. 1526 9^° authors (Ne. Many days\ the same expression." i S. JehovaK\ penitence: Jud. no.

2'*". in the fortieth year of the Exodus hence they send to crave permission to pass through the Edomite territory. the Israelites. . and so to reach the wilderness on the E. p. Whether they did this." in order to "compass" the land of Edom on the south (20^*"-^ 21^). in obedience to the injunction of i*** (Xu. they " turn back to the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea. 21*) will have taken place at the close of this period. afterwards wandered southwards. after the repulse at Hormah (i*"'"*®). to denote in the two narratives different periods of the 38 years (cf. &c. on the border of Moab (2^* '^ ^*). 14^. two alternatives have to be considered. 14**"**) we next read of them that they "abode in Kadesh " on the [western] border of Edom (Nu. 20'* ^®). Numbers. after the wanderings in the wilderness had been completed. ^as seems clear. which it seems impossible in some respects to harmonize. it is said. The supposition that JE's narrative in Numbers has been preserved incompletely is not in the abstract an unreasonable one and the assumption that Nu. related by JE in Nu. border of Edom." and "compass Mount Se'ir many days" (2^). "abode in Kadesh " many days (i^) after this. 20 is incomplete. in obedience to the command. of Moab (21''). a literary peculiarity. : . 20' speaks of a second visit of the Israelites to Kadesh has been generally made by commentators but even so the two narratives do not harmonize for although the silence of Dt. 38 years after leaving Kadesh-bamea*. is not stated after the defeat at Hormah (Nu. they arrive. 15.. These two narratives imply two different conceptions of Israel's wanderings. some 38 years after the first. In estimating it. The rather remarkable use of the same phrases " abode in Kadesh. such a visit appears to be inconsistent with 3'*. according to which the 38 years of the the present narrative in the : . is indeed. which alludes to the Israelites' departure from irreconcilable with JE. then the sojourn at Kadesh. which being refused. in itself. at the torrent Zered. 20^. side of Jordan. the Israelites.. will be (2) If it could be assumed that the narrative of JE between Nu. 14^). after the incident of the "turn back into the wilderness by the way to the Red Sea " (Nu. which is based evidently upon JE. and on 2'). Nu. the 38 years wilderness will have been spent at Kadesh nothing is said of the Israelites moving elsewhere and the circuit round Edom (Nu. which may be explained as before (pp. — — . and are to " turn northward " accordingly. wanderings are occupied entirely with circling about Mount Se'ir." and "compassing" the land of Edom. 11'®"^*. (Similarly Jud. until at length they are told (2') that they have done this long enough. 10. merely in order to enable the Israelites to reach the E.) but in the present case the difference is more than a merely literary one. and that it once told how the Israelites. they turn aside. are commanded to : — . 32" DEUTERONOMY in the found OT. In this case the representation in Dt. (in 2') would not in itself be conclusive against a second visit to Kadesh. : : of JE in Numbers be complete. 14 and Nu. 31. and proceed "by the way to the Red Sea. proceeding in this direction along the E.) In Dt. after remaining perhaps a few months at Kadesh. would be a second visit of the Israelites to the same place. 14^').. (i) If According to JE in spies.

though not removed. is inconsistent with the text of Dt. Dt. so as to skirt the Eastern border of Edom. Nu. and is attributed by him. How the Israelites. they were spent away from Kadesh {2^*). Sea. solve it by the hypothesis that part of the Israelites remained in Kadesh. 29i5(i6)b^ quoted on p. 31). As Jehovah spake unto me] 1^0 Nu. having turned back into the wilderness. 21* cnx pn nx * i^ 330'? fjia q' tti-) * 28b 29-J2 . Nu. Nu. 1425. and that Nu. . 20 relate. 38 years previously..7-1* Edom . observes. According to JE the 38 years in the wilderness were spent at Kadesh. (Resumption of 1^.. no doubt rightly. 21I2.. Cf. . 21^ (JE) *' by the way to the Red Mount Se'ir. while the rest wandered in the wilderness with Moses (Schultz and others). (the Arnon). to the fact that no fixed or distinct tradition existed respecting the journeyings of the Israelites in the wilderness. in terms implying that Ihcy had it since. in the Hebrew the pronouns are unexpressed. to compass the land of Edom " its (viz. by the consideration that Kadesh was The endeavour to situated on the border of Edom (Nu. respectively. And we compassed the Tnountains of Seir (i2) many days] cf. 21". 13-14 and Nu. the expression is There it is applied in natural sense to the final passage of the Israelites round the S. — . as Dillm. II. The discrepancy is acknowledged by Dillm. Dt. 2'* " thus supports the view that the Israelites visited Kadesh once only. so that there is no antithesis between jj/e of i*^ and we of 2I (cf. the beginning and the close of one and the same sojourn not visited there. ~18.) (Nu. Nu. 1-8*. after permission to pass through the Edomite territory had been refused). Cf. in wandering about Edom (2^). 20^^). and having spent much time in circling about were at length directed to turn Northwards. . of for v.— "• ' — 33 Kadesh-Barnea'. Nu. 2^ 22-8a . not less than by Wellh. The discrepancy is lessened. according to Dt. 24a 32^*^ Cf. applied differently to their wanderings during 37-38 years show that this is what the "many days" must 3 . in Dt. 21" nnn hz on ij?.

20". '-'*•" nf"i. 9* &c. but it had failed to evoke a favourable response on the part of Edom. v.) "many — 3.). instans). while the few end would each be characterized beginning and be passed by without any hint of months as at its — Turn yon northwards\ the Israeltime to have made their way ites must be imagined by border of Edom. as frequently. 2^^. esp. 200). Which dwell in Seir\ take good heed {^^'Q i^. 14'*' fig. Your cf. were not to molest them in any way. 17^ Jos. The days. is the same final stage that is referred to in 21*. 1" 12'''): only besides Jud. The usual synon. and S. ^Jt 5)3 *]"no] cf. — — Will he afraid of known DmOK^l)]on4^ — yori\ the intentions cf. borders of Edom (cf. brethren^ i^.***350 Jos. (The supposition that the journey into the wilderness. marg. 7. 21^ 1 S. not by {hy. 238(7) Am. (Dr. mostly confined to D and D* (v. with verbs of buying Gn. 3). m] —DD^ 13B] i'. and SW. i^o-^s 229 gW 4'-* 5" &c.—4. "] used as an indeclin. or (in P) njn{«. this no connexion with Nu. 1" Ob. already. engage in strife -with. in this book: cf.0^^-^. d^kd] idiom. with ]\ts. 32^ Ps. — — — . : i". 20^ '3 "njii nh thou shalt not pass through me {i. D3 iiain hn] n-ia (Piel). of the Israelites being imperfectly Ye sJmll purchase food. for permission to pass through the Edomite passage stands in territory. Nu. 7. ii^^Jos. for then the longer period would its duration. forty II. so that a turn northwards would at once lead them along the E. Vuja] through. and even in the wilderness 6. Se'ir. —So 5.] an uncommon word. fi^c] the same spirit had been shown by the Israelites previously (Nu. inasmuch as Grod has abundantly blessed them.— 5. The ptcp. Comp. provoke: cf.. The Israelites. D3^ 1*. of the 'Ardbah. 61^ 2 Ch. to excite oneself against. § 135. 20^*"2i. 4-7. which was refused. or nx v. (see RV. p. in crossing the Eastern frontier of the Edomites.12 Mai. adv. are on the point to imminent future (the so-called fut. 2^*. are passing. expresses the — : . includes the 37-38 years. is hardly probable.e. is •T^'n^. 6. on the Western border of Edom. through my territory). That incident belongs to an is earlier stage of the Israelites' wanderings. Wellh.— 2. jpi is giving-. 3. which narrates the application made by Israel from Kadesh. \^. — i. and that the circuit of — Mount Nu. and not noticed in Dt. 21" Jer." i^ 2^. is to excite strife (Pr.'^) 3 "uj? as Nu. " now. border of Edom in the direction of Moab. with 3. D'Tay] — pass.^*^*'-** 2 K. They are able to treat Edom on these terms. 15^') hence in the Hithp. end along the SW. 20^^-1*). as far as the SE. 24^* &c.— : 34 DEUTERONOMY embrace about the W.

. 9. frequently emphasized in Dt. So v. some 15 miles . and even in a bad sense (see on 428 3129). is ing of God. 22^ Jer. the Israelites passed by from. not improbably.10. Hath blessed f/iee] the blessit. r\Hi$\ from beside." as here. 6. years": so 8--'* Gn. {Lex. of the works of God. of course. 79. 39^ Ps. The precise site of 'EzionGeber is uncertain but it must have lain on the Red Sea. The Israelites." as well as Elath and 'Ezion-Geber. —a work of thy hand\ Deut. would naturally leave this "way of the 'Ardbah. where. i^ 31" Pr. § 1 18. cf. is is 610. nonte] ace. 192 28^ «/. also 309). 2615) 1 it here affirmed. 12^ 1424. 854a). as resting upon His people. behind them. hath taken notice of ity concerned Himself about in Gn. 22^9j upon the supposition that the "mud flats. the modern Wady-el-'Arabah (p. . 5). 198. were formerly covered by the sea. and from Ezion-Geber.). Is. end. the vicinity of brethren the children of *Esau^ away from the "way of the 'Ardbahf the wilderness of Moab. 1429 \&^ 24" 28^2. t\\ 4h). 75. i.12 30I6. 27^ &c. S. or promised to (i^i yi^ . Elath ' . the (nsiD) their Accordingly. &c. expression Usually. 90^"^). 15 2321 24I9 288. 2^^ Job but also used more generally (Hag. T/te thy undertakings. 2723.=«. is Hull. cf." which now appear to constitute the lower end of the Wady-el-'Arabah {DB. from proximity to. starting from 'Akabah on the Red Sea. 9^. Ps.— 8. in a North-easterly direction. it: cf. defining the manner in wliich — the action of n^nn takes place : "excite not thyself against them as regards (or in) battle" (G-K.29 1^4.—— — "• 3-8 35 permitted them to lack nothing-.14. with 'Ain-el-Ghudyan. 6522 Hag. towards The 'Ardbah is here. Mount Seir. as the context of the passages quoted shows. common (with "bless. it was identified by Robinson (i. enterprises. away "way it of the 'Ardbah " — still no doubt the road leading through the route from 'Akabah to Hebron {BR. turning off from the neighbourhood of 'Akabah.] i. Jos. to the i^9)j it has reference operations of agriculture it is (cf. (Differently. of the Dead Sea and the from. even for the years spent in the wilderness.e. same verb 8*.). 169 f. 2^* Ps.^ i. pp. 3). cf. 92''. the part here particularly meant being its S.) Hath kncwn thy "walkings (SrT. it would (probably) pass shortly afterwards by 'Ezion-Geber. very near (ns) to Elath (i K.

Aelana. v. and how they reached the torrent of Zered. — 10. 8^. 10-12. Desert of the Exodus. after leaving Elath. direction. 325 If. and so would be on the way to their destination in the steppes of Moab. 19^' Ps. relating to the previous occupants of the lands of dwelt tJierein aforetime] Moab and Edom. Elath. (probably) the plain of Kiriathaim. i. to the great rolling plains of grass or scrub (Tristram. i. some 10 miles S. "wilderness. at Ma'an. on Nu. 523). on v.^^ where the i. V. Ar\ 9. 169).). for a conjecture. border (cf. 2236) jg. or NE. of the Arnon (Nu. Land of Moab. Delitzsch on Is. stretching out "before"— z. corresponding to the route of the modern Syrian Haj (pilgrimage) from Damascus to Mecca. were warned not to encroach upon it. 29 Nu_ 21^5. Rabbah." s. does not ' answer to the Biblical description of 'Ar as situate on the "border" of Moab. 'Ar is perhaps specified here. 174. 14^1.e. 83^. p. The cf. 21^^ and HWB. and (cf. of the present extremity of the Gulf. pp.. p.e. in the valley of the Arnon. 1869. fhc Capital city of Moab. denotes often an expanse of uncultivated pasture-ground. Palmer. a little E. v.I8. the name given by Jerome to 'Ar. upon approaching the Moabite territory.— 36 DEUTERONOMY N. The Israelites. and forms the main passage from 'Akabah to the Eastern desert they would then join the road. is given to Rabbah by Eusebius). a city 5-O miles N.) comp. larg^e . 2s (cf. which lies almost in the centre of Moab. The children of Lot\ Gn. as being the point at which the Israelites would approach most closely the Moabite territory on their left (Dillm. 148.^^). How the Israelites. i. Emim Emim are mentioned as dwelling in Shaveh-Kiriathaim. however. situate on its N. Gn. which runs through the mountains in a NE. . 15S Dillm. 22*^) on the Arnon (see Dietrich. not necessarily a desert. 21I1) Midbar. see on Its exact site is uncertain v. : may have ascended by the and steep Wady-el-Ithm (Rob.e. to the East of— "Moab" (Nu. called by the Greeks and Romans AtXava. Nu. in Merx' ArcJiiv. i-i. The way to the wilderness of Moab] i. 171). An antiquarian notice. of the Arnon. ^8.v." properly a driving-place (for cattle).36. 8^-15. of Petra. — — — — ' : : It is sometimes wrongly identified with Rabbah (probably through a confusion arising from the fact that KfiitoXts. is frequently mentioned by classical writers it is the modern 'Akabah (Rob.

(Dr.e.). like the 'Anakim. The}' also. 15^ i K. 15^ iS'" 2 S. a frequentative force. though traces of their former presence were also to be found Jos. have been the prehistoric population of this region. 2).— en r. Canaan as well. reputed to have been a powerful race. of Jordan. cicn"] the cf. 15-* Jos. here and there in 12. They are named cise region Is. larn'] are counted : the impf. as the Horites were expelled from Edom and the Canaanites from Palestine. 14*' 3620-30. From these notices. territory of Moab once extended N. mentioned Jos. and (poet. &'c.\ the Horites were the primitive population of the hill-country of Se'ir. here 2 S.28^ Except in the sense of ho-w much more (or less\ »]»< is very rare in ordinary prose (d3 being the usual syn.) 2^:i. 12* 13'. § 107. or as "bom to the Rapha" ("the Rapha" being meant collectively = " the Rephaim") here and v. Rephaim " ('N2-in . it would seem that the Rephaim were specially associated with the region E. The Horites are mentioned besides v. ^^) 17'. 13^^). 15".20." The names of certain Rephaim were a giant Palestine. ^^ proceeded to possess them.^o (n'h r^x) cf. but were dispossessed by the descendants of 'Esau. it is commonly said).*" Gn. cited as the most familiar example of a giant race — 11. § 33a G-K. beside the Perizzjtes. 8-12 37 of 32^7 Jos. of a custom said (i.'Og. . v. Gn. of giant stature. 2 1 '"• '*•-"•" king of Bashan. and the Emim must by the immigrant Moabites. inhabiting parts of from whom (presumably) the were derived. 22 Gn.-'*. uncertain): the "vale (pjy) of Rephaim. As the 'Atiaktm] (i-^). Ex. who were afterwards expelled the Arnon (Nu. 10" 22" nox: it is . are counted as Rephaini\ i. but hardly (Dillm. 13" 18'* &c. is unusual. the Emim were popularly spoken of as Moabites gave them the special name of "Rephaim". 85 n. is described as "of the remnant of the tti'd) and Gn. 12. 1320 (Dr. The though attached to the similar remark about the Moabites. : . localities aboriginal race. §§ 27 y. note. is -teally intended as an antiquarian illustration of v. 3^) : v. occupied afterwards by the Moabites and the 'Ammonites : 3'* (cf. 5'^*^^ various doughty warriors of Gath are described as "children of the Rapha" (xsjin n'"?'). and whose descendants —or reputed descendants — are alluded to meant is in historical times.^ they are said to have dwelt once in the territory E. 14' the Rephaim in 'Ashteroth-Karnaim are stated to have been smitten by Chedorla'omer.— II. And in Seir dwelt the Horites aforetime. 17" (the preis.) "impossible" cf. 7* 20*^ 2 K. however." 11. with : cf. of the Dead Sea.j{] so v.e. — : . Lit. Lex. 2 S." 23''* near Jerusalem. but the "Emim. impf. The 2i2'J) .

the form and arrangements of which show that in most cases they were originally intended for habitations {DB. No-w verse connects directly with and get you over the torrent Zered\ the The torrent Zered is named v. into the S. Moiiu7nents. cave : for another view.*'^). . so sugfgested 13. 32). 567 f. 183 fF. the principal confluent of the Arnon from the SE. was suited no doubt to the physical character and climate ("propter nimios calores soils. cross the Wady— with the that . al. The custom. Israelites immediately before their It has been often identified with the Wady-el-Ahsa. Nu. for the subject of the verb "Israel. The name 'ih means probablj' cave-diveller. the Israelites are directed to implication. p. border p. For a description of the remarkable situa- tion and antiquities of Petra.). & P. 21^^ as being in the wilderness on the E. p. end of the Dead Sea (Wetzstein in Del. Jud.) to They cannot be referred (Keil the occupation of the trans. the ancient capital of . 147 Is. Ob. 2ii2ff.'^ p. —either the Sail Sa'ideh (Kn. Hitz. Di. 87 BSd. ii. of Moab on the side of Edom. the station prior to the torrent Zered. which runs from the SE. v.^.*) attests the habit of living in caves as prevalent in Edom in his day.^ s. Sela'. p." Jerome) of the country. appears to be denoted by it. also in the fragment of E's itinerary preserved in as marking the station of the passage of the Arnon. 65-69) — — Dead Sea- Arrived at this spot. Mount Seir. . 204) and high up in the rocks (of. 429 fF. Edom (the Heb. Tristram. probably (cf. . 49 f. i3« 2 K. hawr. both those forming. the Wady Kerak (Ges. . direction into the pp. Edomites). S.the amphitheatre in which Petra lies. rise tip. perhaps.) . Desert of the Ex. p." without qualification or restriction. 128 ff. see Rob.38 DEUTERONOMY "ifiPt . Jerome [Comm. Gen.isf). BR. Keil. and is 'lye-'abarim. 16I). and those lining the defiles by which it is approached. Troglodyte (from Arab. hole. but inasmuch as this must have formed the S.v. ff.Jordanic territory by the is 2| tribes (Nu. (Fischer and Guthe's Map). p. or more probably. hewn in the soft sandstone strata. 85 the land of his possession^ the words could been penned until after the Israelites had clearly not have As Israel did unto taken possession of Canaan.) in the upper part of its course called the Wady-el-Franji a deep and narrow gorge (Tristram. Palmer. and was accordingly adhered to by those who succeeded them. or Hull. see Sayce. on Ob. described in Nu. originated by the primitive inhabitants of Edom. is that the limitation not admissible. there are still to be seen innumerable caves and grottoes. of Moab. some Wady further to the N. Moab. if. running past Kerak in a NW..

"lanny lit.— — II. 723 16-25. English equivalent. MoreoverJeJwvah's hand was against them. How the — and pass on to the territory of Sihon. that 'Ar lay in the 15. Torrent but Pn? has. were consumed\ cf."i424 2327 Dt. 18. Nahal denotes indifferently the "torrent" or the "torrent-valley": thus i K. corner of Moab. were commanded not to molest them. (even) *Ar\ it would seem. The term which really corresponds the Arabic Wddy. while in rainy seasons whole width of the depression. 1421-23 to the adult males comp. iG^i^.21^ 25^-5 in JE). & P. . r8i5(i-*).) : in respect o/" dyings " = had finislied dying cf. To pass by the border of Moah. upon finding themselves in front of the 'Ammonites.valley " of Kerith. 58 713 1215.16. or thread of water. Ex. in the same application). 32" (JE) Jos. App. . § 38). ion] "had ended 3" a/. not an adequate rendering left. 3-1 (cf. To discomfit them {^^\P)/rom the midst of the camp] or rout them in confusion: — Ex. near the i . travel in Palestine. which. and in is often entirely dry " [S. Nu. the still more precise limitation of P. without trespassing on the Moabite territory is upon their . but Israelites. as v. 6^c.— 18. and v. lo^ojer. I S. 142* 32II (middle clause) "from 20 years old and upwards.. Nu. as i«. ijy] the 4"-22 6i &c. . 24". 173 Elijah hides "in" the " torrent. 9*-'. Until all the generation. 1421-23 (JE). 710 Ps. ." 15. brook. 9^ Jud.^ —16. in (^DP)] "brook" no proper is fact. Not natural causes only. Nu.] cf. The journey from Kadesh-barnea' to the torrent Zered had been protracted for — 38 years. — : I3-I8 39 they are to advance straight forwards. V. 14. By the addition "the oath. but the special action of God's hand as well. 2^^ I S. can-nr] NE. The men of war " the terms of the sentence are limited somewhat more distinctly than in 1^5 Nu.* drinks of the "torrent" (the word in both verses being the same). until all the generation which had rebelled at Nu. K. ly^s Jos. niD^ . ptcp. as i^s Kadesh had passed away. 14" (not all . so frequently occurring in descriptions of ^ru "signifies the hollow or valley of a it may fill the summer is reduced to a mere mountain-torrent. 56 (D2). constr. co-operated to accomplish their destruction (cf. route 31^-^ Jos.35NU. to cross the Arnon.. (even) the men of "war. To these verses nothing corresponds in the narrative of Numbers. — then. 8" .

had their home in a correFor the expressions in v. I. at the time of the Exodus. on the East of the district which was allotted afterwards to Reuben and Gad.) and Phcenician {CIS. but which. and D'KBT extinct giants. p. . like Moab who were called. known beyond what is here stated.] Jud.— 40 : DEUTERONOMY '\^. Zofifxciv) nothing is that they were reputed : to have been a giant race. 1248-49). niurmurers and the name might have been illustrated by him from the Arabic 'aztf. heard by night in the deserts (Lane. Arab. The giant-legends no doubt arose in part from the contemplation of ancient ruins of great works and supposed gigantic tombs but I think that Schwally. the eerie sound of the Jinn in the wilderness (Wellh. 20-23. Heste Arab.^°i2. along which the Israelites would pass. word meaning' terror. v. (v. all somewhat and provoke speculation as to their possible origin and significance. note): "Antioch and the country about it also claimed to have been inhabited of old by giants (Malalas. leaving it on their right. would thus have the land of the 'Ammonites immediately in front of them they were not. 202). to trespass upon it. however. king of Heshbon. ed. the Arab. Heidentumes. tvhisperers. and the "Emim in Shaveh-Kiriathaim. 14^) between the " ** Rephaim in 'Ashteroth-Karnaim locality.^^). respecting the former occupants of the 'Ammonite territory. (Is. The names Rephaim. Nu. Das Leben nach dem 7b^(p (1892). formed the dominion of Sihon king" of the Amorites (cf. R. zamzamah is a distant. Smith writes (MS. but.. W. 3*) name for the shades. Prof. Emim. are mentioned (Gn. . The Israelites. as he says. i. confused sound . and the Jabbok on the N." who and who sponding curious. v. had once been inhabited by Rephaim. Of the Zamzummim (G Zoxofifuv. by the 'Ammonites Zamzunimini. and Zamzummim are . upon reaching the Arnon. 11^3 [where the addition unto Jordan expresses the false claim preferred by the 'Ammonites against Jephthah]). Lex. . F. zizim is the low or faint sound of the Jinn. 14® al. however.. is not wrong in supposing a connexion between C'kst ghosts.'^^-^'^). An antiquarian notice (cf. So again Zamzummim are doubtless. viz. In front of ^rS) the the territory children of 'Amfnon] the 'Ammonites occupied between the Arnon on the S. 64 f. or ghosts of the departed ns'K is a Heb. p. apparently." therefore. to pass on through the territory of Sihon. Rephaim is also the Heb. and also in connecting C"0k with hd'k terror.20-22^ cf. Bonn. cod. 21-* [see Dillm. the land of This also. dispossessed by the 'Ammonites they have been supposed to be the same as the " Zuzim in Ham.

14^^ Na. Caphtor. "ll'Si? jiyoe"] the same idiom. and received permisof sion to commence hostilities with the Amorites. on 3^*. 19-25 41 still p. Crete. To put the fear of thee and the dread of thee] cf. A further of the manner in which. see further Baer. 23*. and 'Ammon. v. 47*). take your jourtiey. in ii^^ Ex. Jos. 20="''. but Sihon wrested — 23.e. cf. the original occupants of SW. 3*^ al. as 4io-*' 6' al. territory.— 25. This day] the day. Gn. as Jer. i). i. p. 248 Am. . 136). '31 D'3B"n D'lvm] the casus pendens. of v. and the territory to be conquered entered. on account of the 1 consec). 'W ^v] 1 1^^ Ex. 54ff. standing on the S. Sayce. (G-K. rare in prose (i S. 'Awim 53 : are mentioned elsewhere only Jos. on which the Arnon is crossed. § X43 Dr. lo^^) i. (Lex." 21. 24. 9^ Jer. to be in anguish (used often of a woman in travail). 2^' (where the same phrase before Israel). 15® iTn no. The Southern 21^6. unlike Edom. who occupied the territory between the 'Ammonites and the Jordan. after the parenthesis. Races. were thereupon commanded to cross it. That are under the ixhole heaven] a rhetorical hyperbole (4^° Job 37^ 41^).^^ The Israelites. and forced them to withdraw S. under God. 25.^. 9' &c. bank of the Arnon. the coast-land of the Delta. § 20. that the 'Awim. p. § 197. Preface to Liber Proverhiorum. — : On and similar exceptional uses of daghesh forte. expelled from their homes by Philistine Palestine. 29'* Nu. were immigrants from Caphtor. 2flr(2)R. with ':£a. 5-. 96* al.— —— n. Destroyed them from before them] is cf. Delitzsch on Ps. Is. i S.^^. a strong this — — — word. Moab. Jer. xiv. according to Nu. —or (Ebers. icK 8 b). 24. 8'". \y^ ^Dijj] the daghesh in D is "euphonic. as 7'" 14" Gn. of the Arnon." being probably designed to secure the distinct articulation of the consonant cf. Rise ye up.. 15H-10 occupation of the Moabites. 49^ Hos. 31') . '^ni] from h^n (with tone milra'. The Amorites. and pass over the torrent Arnoii\ the continuation. 94'*. most fully Konig. I take it that the old giants were thought to haunt the ruins and deserts of East Canaan.. as v. illustration used of the Amorites destroyed Even unto this day\ cf.— Te'>«]=50 that. 23. 28" Is. . an immigrant — race might expel the previous possessors of a country. see on Gn. The p. Gn.Ex.Ps. G-K. part of the Amorite had formerly been in the it from them. 12^^ ixy iDijp. ii^s. 133-4 (beside the Philistines). were not allied by blood with the Israelites. viz. 19. —was the The verse thus states home of the Philistines (Am.

edge of the "wilderness " on the East of Moab (Nu.. . — mavx] the first person sing-ular. 21I1.na: xS i^nxn maj'N. but from a comparison of Nu. to don^o. or other are mentioned. ij3 ''^jna nm J'n . and the words being spoken accordingly in the name of the people as a whole. Tristram. ^ 26. From the wilderis mentioned as belonging. 14^ 17' Nu. Dt.— 42 DEUTERONOMY neighbours of Israel. Nu. m33i ma-a pn. iVx .g.) 2o^^'> . Nu. 2^^) had it been much to the West of the position here indicated. as an apposition 'Ji xara ffuvstnt. la^ 25^ 26^ Jer. 2i55aioy rixi v:3 nm inx i3'i [of 'Og]. And I sent messengers^ ness of KedemotK\ Kedemoth : : visible. Nu. .) 734a . which the Israelites did not enter. I3^^)> it Though assigned by the Israelites to Reuben (Jos. 2327 only the Canaanltes.) 2S2b .\ Nu. more fully. . . and as a Levitical city (Jos. 482). 528 f. Is. Refusal of Sihon to permit Israel to pass through his land.to Reuben. mw nan] appended loosely. . of the Jordan. Israelites. : . Nu. 21" Nu. Heshhon is frequently mentioned as the capital of Sihon (Nu. iij. 21^'' 2i23b nan'jD'? lay "^ai Nin onNnp"? jtyan i!?d xsi. and is alluded to as being in their possession (Is. Vd nx "^xnts" np'i. 15* iS^-^ Jer. 2121 it seems probable that it lay somewhere on or near the upper course of the Arnon. i"?aJ3 "lay "jxnE'' nt< jn'o jn: nVi. 2i2i. Nu. His defeat . 9'' 17'* &c. : cf.) it was situate on a low hill rising out of the elevated table-land (3^^^ about 16 miles E. Comp. 27-29. 21^^ n^K. 14^). perhaps on the N. of the Arnon). The precise site is unknown.conceived as a unity. where its ruins (of the Roman period) are still 26. . (Nu. i Ch. Land of Israel p. 2126. it would have been within the territory of Moab.335 . 26-37. 20^^ 'jixDci pD' na: n*?."i onyn Cf. by the The 2nd and 3rd persons singular plural being substituted {e. . 21^^ (Nu. . p. L.) .O. was afterwards occupied by the Moabites (who re- gained their territory N. tdk'? 'Toxn i?a pn'D hit d'dn^d Vntis" n^ci. (Nu. in the prophets.T. . 21''* (Nu.34 jud. ni9 &c. 13I8. mayx 'jmN ni-rr. &c. io'»-2o &c. G^*^''^)). . and the seizure of his territory by the Dt. 366 f. 2o^**'®'' 21^^ Jos. So frequently. i'?3 iSon -^12 . as Ex. cf. Survey of E. the nation being. Ex. 2l2^-25. In the English version the Hebrew idiom is sometimes concealed.

28^t in the form mn Dvna Dt. as is now the case. inn riK npp. and (diflFerently) Gn. for ntSJ we will incline.] varied day {^)J\ Di'2)] i. see Dr. 9'" (Jer.— — — 11. when on their Western border. — 30. Ps. it and is not necessarily inconsistent with their having sold in to them. (and nowhere else) will go " : comp. against Grafs view of — with 1 consec.i] the usual phrase is 3'? nirpn. Thou shall sell me food. 21--". pp. 104-9. 13'^ (JE). or have been unwilling to assist them. i " in the way G-K. are censured for not having "met Israel with bread or water on the way": the expression used. to 2i22b (in the king's way will we hand or to the left\ from Nu. Q? (Ew. (Dr. the word used elsewhere in the same phrase by D (5^^). will go). . As at —27. Let vie pass throiigh thy land\ exactly as Nu. 39"t.] cf. The phrase is mostly used for the purpose of calling attention to the fulfilment of a promise (or threat) in 2i23 (see the Table). 6« In Jer. 9^) '« (from Jer.^ 8'^ 10" 29" Gn. with "iiDN / will turn. ace. 28". did unto 7ne] it is not dis- whether the Edomites acceded to the request of the Israelites. (Sr'c. they may not have regarded them with the same unfriendliness. 29. Jer. 16^ S. Ex. 20^7. in the way. and the Moabites . 20'^ '3 i3yn kV. § 104). ri« 2^^^ 32* 448-== Dan. The Moabites. 2cP (in the application to Edom). 25!"* it is not expressed by (&. 36'''. Is. — 42 I go\ varied from I will not turn either 26-30 Palestine. cSr'c. 38 82^ (=2 Ch. § 313*. however. . iSn inn inna] the repetition I expresses emphasis.e.) used to connect synonyms. in 235(4). 21^*). account of the disj.^. to strengthen the heart=to encourage as here.d'^). In the "way. 95^ Pr. be a gloss. while journeying Northwards. only 15'' 2 Ch. 4422 Ezr.e. . 2-8 : friendly spirit (cf. . to pass through their territory. and must. from Nu. though there is nothing to suggest that they did not do so. mn DV3] as (at) this day. The statement here is not incompatible with what is related Nu. Only let me pass through on my feet\ as Nu. As the children to the right — — of 'Esau ." i. § \22. through his dominion : cf. Nu.— j'SKi 133*? nx] 3V j'sx has usually a good sense. But this Sihon. Nu. § 132. 30. return for money payment. 97" Neh. v. 2oi8-2i though the Edomites may have opposed the proposal of the Israelites. So 4^". in the application Edam. 228-13 I K. inserted after the fulfilment of the prophecy : see. 28. on their Eastern border. 9' (from Ezr. On 1 (not consec. 32'™) i Ch. 615) 61 Jer. on mayn] "to let us pass through — : — : . are used analogously. 7^ (P). suggests that the Moabites were not forward in offering them food in a tinctly stated in v. ^2"^). as the context shows. away from them. —^7. 'nSpxi] the tone is mirel.—2%. perhaps under compulsion. 13 him. 5o2« I S.

Euseb. ii. 34. Lag. 15^ Jer. 483*: cf. 13^^.of the expression. I have begun. 21-* is different. in writers reflecting the and — — belonging to Reuben (Jos. 1. dr'c."* The expression used of Sihon's defeat in Nu. on i^. Jahaz is often mentioned as a city in the territory N. possess^ t^^ ^^'^. Begin. Deliver tip hefore\ comp. p. &c.\ or the meaning. is it g^ives ex- pression to a thought which particularly common in Dt. 21-^. ^-(Sa yyin be rcvcrscd. "I'i" D'OO] city of men. 34. been recovered. 21^3) in the direction of the "wilderness. Neh. and Israel is now free to invade his territory.e. of the Arnon. oyo '09 Dt. The phrasing. : Deuteronomic point of view the prayers in i K. but strengthened by the addition of lyiX ns T\'Srh32. Kuenen.. chiefly (J) poetical. and Kedemoth). And we stnote him. here 3®. however. the only 19?!? 'Pi? Gn. BeJwld. — = Jud. Onderzoek.e. according to which Sihon sallied forth from his capital. And Sihon came forth to meet us. nearly city male-population. Nu. 2 1 23. The site has not. i. or as in the possession of the Moabites (Is. where D'/id] it is and (though not so pointed by the Massorites) opposed to cattle and property generally (cf. 2i"^^of'0^. Heshbon. as v. situated (Jer. the phrasing of v. to meet the advancing Israelites. the Moabite stone. and neither there nor in Jud. The word 44=8 is prose-phrases being DTiD Ty. and all his people. i. "And they smote him. Jehovah has already "begun" the execution of His purpose. Ezr. and the relation Qf 233b tQ fju. agrees with that used Nu. beside Dibon. Dan. *i6'9)t. and all his people\ as Nu.^^ (which corresponds to that of 3"*) will of course be original in Dt. the open plains on the East (2Si>). 33.. [Onom. 2A^ Dt. — time (i^)] cf. § 56. 8. 2i3oa (pi^Og). are all moulded largely in the Deut. 264) states that it was shown between Dibon and Medabah a situation which satisfies the conditions of the narrative. for battle unto Ja}iaz\ Nu." i." or high table-land (310).] with Sihon's refusal to accede to Israel's request. 4" Jer. Vs.— — 44 the event : — DEUTERONOMY as the occurrences (see below) show. \o^' (=1 Ch. however. 20*®. Beth-ba'al-me'on. 48-1) on the "Mishor. So v. he and all his people. and also preserved in the ancient pr. . 31. ii^i is any mention — — made of the slaughter cities at that of Sihon's sons. * If the view stated on 3^"' be adopted. And we took all his And we devoted. 18-21). ed. phraseology. and (Nu."" 3"). a city so far as it consisted of men. and his sons. and his sons. 26* 28*-t.^*.

2 K. about 3 miles broad and 2000 feet deep at the bottom of this valley the Amon flows. has been suggested f.). used by Deut. The observance of the hdrem. each time immedifor p]] the city that is in the — ately after 'Aro'er. 58 (on Is. 45 72)." . The from city which in the torrent (or torrent-valley)] so Jos. Moab. i. where in the there is **a piece of pasture it. io33 (without nsb'): 'Aro'er. sharada is to take fright and run away (of an animal). 21.— — n. 4819 i Ch. — depth has a genial warmth . is often noted specially by D and D^ Every city of men] see below. no. In Ethiopic. 323* Jud. Of course it has no etym. ttd] fugitive. The country N. a hill with ruins on 1862. amid rich tropical vegetation.)." and about a mile from the stream feet in (ib.— 35. pp. pp. Otherwise. — : . connexion with n?D. it fell out of use in Hebrew. now the Mojib. 33. husband (e. ii28 cattle — — i<J 2 S. and on to Ja'zer"). it is an ordinary word for man. 36. Keil. is a remarkably clearly-defined boundary line. Le/i no survivor] (see ib. for the air at such a great The Amon. The city meant is not altogether certain it but it is a reasonable conjecture that may be *Ar (Knob.). Mark 10'^ Luke 2^®). is it Dietrich. and on the Moabite stone.. 334 fF. and only once besides at all in Qal. Nor what part of the course of the Arnon the . 125-130). marks the is site of the ancient 'Aro'er. valley of Amori] the same description in 3^2 ^48 Jqs^ 122 i^o. S as i". nn{j> "I'NKTI is a phrase esp. 245 [)pi (read with 3L "and they began from 'Aro'er. at a point some 10 miles E. and the and property retained as spoil. u"? WI3] 3^ 20" Jos. Gile'ad] DB. D'iid. 21")..13 31?] only here in prose. 245 (see 3L) Jer. ground. of the Dead Sea. Grove. Dillm. This fact is not mentioned in Nu. and is 4 it enters the Dead Sea. edge of this ravine. city referred to lay a site at its confluence with the Lejjum.v. Erom 'Aroer.. 8--^ 11". the inhabitants being slain. 129-131). at the point where the current has a width of some 80 feet. . 39. p. of it is a far-reaching plain it is suddenly broken by a deep rift.). depth (Tristram. 4o ^s (all D2) 2 K. 2i35: see on 3I-3) Jos. on the N. in the conquests of the Israelites. line 26 (as built by Mesha'). midst of which stands (Sir G. "just overhanging the brow. in certain in MerK Archiv. 87. 822 io28. also Nu.^ Arnon Dietrich. alone. and valley. with precipitous sides. 31-36 treated as hdrcm (on . 16 2 S. s. which is on the edge of the torrentlo^^t. middle of the torrenttowards Gad. which formed Wady : — . : i^o. A desolate heap of ruins. 'Ara'ir. 335 Even unto names VxcwD and nSttnno. writers 3^ ( = Nu.— 36. the N.g. border of Moab (Nu. and S. 172 see Dillm. survivor (from a defeat) Arab. so.

territory. many of the expressions used are similar to those occurring here limits. to N. (half of Manasseh) v. half (inclusively) or the N. Defeat of 'Og. from Arnon to Jabbok.). which may be the true reading-. wholly to the The country taken by West of this. and the neighbouring hill-country inhabited by the 'Ammonites. Nu. the reg^ion lyingalong the upper course of the Jabbok (the Wady Zerka) on (v. t] pjTK cf. 11^ "WJt onpn {sc.— . b. the Israelites from the Amorites. 2iS5>> (ii-iN nx im). 1-3. . . even eastwards] unto the children of Dt. 'v\ nPK hz-\\ and all that J.^^). 3* 3*-' Nu.. lay to the East of this. 37. Dt. 1-7. viz. — Job 5". also The passages quoted appear all to belong to D. half (exclusively) is in the writer's mind. and the cities — the East. commanded But (S {»a. 12^ the Jabbok children of is 'Ammon ") called the . "half" of Gile'ad from the S. . hand) . Israel \sc. 2\^-^ the only difference being the substitution of the first person for the third. and conquest of his territory.^®-'* (to Heshbon) c. 212* ("And Jud. .(i>Tt) expresses 'Ji n^^K-^j^ according us.^-^ . in a 'Ammon. the Jabbok runs S. in Dt III. commanded us Vp. after \For the halftribe of Manasseh.^o-^J. and occupied afterwards by Reuben and Gad. 2135* TTBi"? Turn TiSa nj. in 2^'* ^'^^' 4**'^ should — G ^ .e.. Nu. fig.(or to a Deut.^'^^ (supplying-. all that J. 2 1 5^" (the entire verses). The limit assig^ned is therefore a vagTie one it cannot be said definitely that either the S. 13. With the description of the territory taken '-"^' by the Israelites. Nu. . 46 Sihon's territory 2i24 Jos. in v. . 3^"* . lay Cf. Only the land of the 'Ammonites they did not : — encroach upon fabbok. by the Jabbok (Nu. DEUTERONOMY was bounded on the N. even the whole side of the torrent of of the hill-country i.. Jos. "half" (on 3^°). a. 3^^ Jos. Jud. Cf. V. not to approach) to 4^3.—37. . and the 'Ammonite passing- Rabbath- according to these passages. Nu. (Reuben) v. . possessed the land of Sihon. x-^ prn r T ^p. (Gad) v. course. Cf. . 122). and of its be compared those in Jos. ii^s. which Separated the N. and\ -with it the Reubenites. (generally) v. =5«rf'^: cf. 12'"*.^ at the beginning. the king of Bashan. 1D» ^3 nw v:3 nxi tnx idi.^-2 agrees verbally with Nu. In "border of the its 'Ammon " : in the upper part of semicircle. d. &c.

^^). however. 21^"^ is an insertion. 83-86. and a line passing through Edre'i to Salchah.—By the way to — Basha'n\m the Heb. pp. With the exception of the Leja (see on v. 260. to its herds of cattle Dt. Wetzstein. Bashan was noted in antiquity for its rich pastures and its extensive forests of oak. by Geshur and Ma'acah. 190. i** . Several of the expressions common to the two passages are. while the conquest of Sihon (Nu. the soil of the corresponding region is described still as being singfularly fertile the Hauran has been called the granary of Damascus and its oak forests are frequently alluded to by travellers (J. pp. and introduced into the text of Numbers for the purpose of supplying what seemed to be an omission.^"'). Deuteronomic (see the notes).. i7. xiii. 22^^ Ez. xi. 2^^ Zech. not "a/ Edre'i" (RV. . "the Bashan. after the verb of motion ksi . The prima facie view of the three verses in Dt. chap. of "Gile'ad" (see on v. the characteristic phrase in 3b i^-^jj* ^^ -i-'xsyn *n^3 nj. by the Jarmuk. stretching out towards Hermon (cf. i2^b. 230 flF.i°) is mentioned as a frontier city of Bashan. Is. 2^'').II. that j<?/lf and fertile it From the notices contained in the OT. 1890. 37 — ni. Jos. to its oaks Is. pp. ZDPV. it seems that the eastern and southern declivities of Jebel Hauran were not included in it (cf. being common to both. &c. — . 'ymx] to Edre'i.^^ upon Dt.. pp.e. especially abundant on the W. p. Hiob. of the Sea of Galilee. 453. I 47 V.). Guthe. about 40 miles ESE. I*). 27^ cf. on the W. and signifying properly ground.2 also agrees in substance with Nu. 2. and that Nu. 7^* Jer. 21^. based upon Dt. 4^. L.). p. &c. 448. and NE. Porter. 556-558) G. 3^"^ (or in v. Tristram. would be that they were based upon the passage in Numbers. 5j^ and on the E. and bounded on the S. And we turned (IS31)] cf. From the fact that Salchah (v. Hauran. 32^* Ps. 200. Triple Tradition of the £xodus {18^). III. the allusions to its pastures Mic. 261. 1. while they are alien to the general style of JE's narrative in Numbers : it is remarkable also that in Nu. 11^ Ez. 39-42. 211. that of 'Og is unnoticed hence Dillm. xii. 33^ Nah. 202 ." not improbably (see Wetzstein in Del. usually with the article. . 218. appears Bashan embraced the region lying N.o- corresponding to aJub. Five Years in DamasatSy chap. 24. 50^^. ed. extending as far as the great range of extinct volcanoes called the Jebel Hauran {i. 21^"^) is referred to. may be right in supposing that the passage belonged originally to Dt. pp. Moab. slopes of Jebel Hauran (comp. 22^. 39'8 Am.40 2^-'^'^. mountain of the Hauran).). 186. on the N. chap. So also Bacon."^ pp. except as an accommodation to English idiom (similarly 1 S. 1. 227 .

i S. Jqs. 19. and 40 miles E. 8'. 'nVa ny TIC 1'? TK^n] so Nu. now eJLefa. Unto Sihon\ i^^-. based upon the questionable assumption 3J1«< would be more naturally conthat the root 3JT is cognate with djt. also. 8^ 10^ ii^ 2 K. and it may be legitimately doubted whether the Massorites have preserved truly the original pronunciation. Smith. Against (a) is the fact that TiSa is not used elsewhere with a finite verb to express a categorical negative.21. nected with 3JT clods of earth. g^^t38" shows how the n'iJ"j9n ^iJi were opposed to cities protected by walls and barred gpates. rather than a stony one (3 31^ i S.e. p. on 7^) . frontier i*. 17^* 19®)' there is no reason whatever for supposing it either to have been specially adapted to denote. cities. is however very much opposed to analogy (comp. . 21^^ Jos. 32 248. of a measured portion. i K. ninx] the supposition that this signifies stony is a mere conjecture. 3. 212). § 191'' . or (i) the inf. ^\sn\ countryman (coll.2 W. R. const. — — nS 2l42(44) 4. used fig. Job 21^ 38^ in which case it would denote a rich and earthy soil. (with) is walls and brazen it is bars What locality. 2l2-34 Jos.. the rocky border of the Leja. of the Sea of Galilee and this identification has been acquiesced in by many modern . At that all the (being-) fenced cities. s. 4"^ 2 Ch. Threescore cities^ region of Argob. Dr. 1 S. 3* Dr. § 13). and Lex. . 224 62 77 81-7. §53 R. The Leja Comp. 49'* 2 Ch. Trachonilis. the kingdom of'Og in Bashan : all these ^f^ ^-.). or allotment (Jos. 2 S. 2. on i S. of an act which. represent "Argfob" by K313"ib. 5.—2. in that of i2i-29 322. the subject being.— 48 — DEUTERONOMY ^ Edrei\ on his S. /owm. i. 2^.). Fear not\ lo^ (D2). style than l^. — time] so on i^ 4-5. No survivor\ on 2^*. Ez. 13' Dan. of Damascus. with n"is3 cny (the sing. 2"). 30.v. and whether Tx^n should not be read. 11^^ (cf. '?2n is a cord (Jos. 9"*t cf. a district about 30 miles S. not a cairn of stones. 'nn:] the pf. 16*). nn3i D'n'n nn3J nam] in loose appos. — . — intention of the speaker. 72). with anomalous hireq (Ols. but a mound of earth). or to have actually denoted. 8^ Both this and 1^3^ are more in the Deut. (with) high walls. 23^^ nn3i DTi*?! Tp Ez. '31 '^. 276. It is disputed whether 1'NSPn be (a) a perfect (G-K. having a collective force) cf. The Targums commentators.the implicit •\''^v^^ (cf. — : . = country-folk). — . 38' Job 38'° Jer. 3. and bars. denoted by uncertain. xvi.^^-i* i K. § 238"* Konig. besides very many cities of the country-folk] the "region of Argob" (33"|X ?3n) is mentioned also v. gates. 10".18 iqS.. § 41 Obs. 7-^ Mic. n"in? open country-districts. Est. of Phil. 2331 Nu. or measuring-line (Am. 2» Est. Ew. which is in Bashan. however. {b) has accordingly presumption in its favour.3 i27 224-30 ^24 20I3 2110 Ex. cf. even threescore great "). 38" Zech.8-12. is . § 106. of irregular S. 2*).— Given into thy hand\ v.11. in the completed (G-K. 4.23. on i is a remarkable volcanic formation. 4^^ (<<the region of Argob. 14^. except in the doubtful passages Ez. for the combin. 20^ &c. The hireq in the inf. 6'^ Ez. 2o^'''*^ Cr will mean correspondingly.

could have had little to attract a people in need of rich pasture for its flocks and herds. i. 83). 13 ^. The Leja contains the remains of several ancient cities and the labyrinthine gullies and ravines. in v. the latter forming no part of the ancient Bashan according to Wetzstein (p. they are much more numerous on the slopes of the Jebel Hauran itself and in the country to the S. 190.jth the entire kingdom of Bashan ought not perhaps to be pressed (the terms of the description being rhetorical rather than scientific. retreat) in 1838. 186. The remains of ancient cities are by no means confined to the Leja indeed. being caverns hollowed out in the rock. form a natural fortress.e. like Bashan itself in Jos.e. slopes of the Jebel Hauran contain some 300 deserted cities and villages. which must have been considerably beyond the limits of the Leja. or boundary-line) and {DB. the habitations of Troglodytes. 282). i. 68'"' (see RV. as being denoted by the term ^an (i. 44-62). moving on pivots. built solidly of massive blocks of basalt. houses. and E. but. with shafts. which it very much resembles " (Porter. declivity of the Jebel Hauran. three. about 22 miles from N. and bars.) others are for purposes of concealment in warfare. Hauran. black basalt. : . pp. Not only (see p. "the E. a little SW. p.. The surface of the Leja is elevated some 20-30 feet above the surrounding plain. 12'. 4^'' the region being mentioned as a district in Bashan). &c.) The dwellings in these deserted Some arc cities are of a remarkable character (see Wetzstein. and "its border is as clearly defined as a rocky coast. gates. 4'^). Moreover.v. s. which a small body of defenders can hold against even a determined invader (hence the name Leja. to S. stores. 204-216. Argob). Damasais.) to streams of lava emitted from the volcanoes peaks" of which (Porter. has been supposed to signify stony. &c. as Wetzstein remarks (p.) are alluded to in Ps. 4-5 . as far W. while presenting formidable obstacles to an assailant. The natural border of the Leja. 183. is regarded.w. or more chambers (for cattle. The identification is however extremely doubtful." belonging to the region of Argob (Dt. the rug^ged surface of which consists of innumerable rocks or boulders of oval shape. pp. 227. Porter.) forming the range of Jebel Hauran. being pits : the earth. though the apparent identification of Argob in y 4. 42). cord. Kanawat. laj'a'ah. 47) sunk in — . Nor does this identification derive any support from the notice of the "threescore cities.III. 25 f. as Geshur and Ma'acah." (Comp. the notice in i Ch. to E. refug-e. 48) is its philological basis highly questionable . the physical character of the Leja. and S. who lost 20. and so arranged within as to form two.. the cities themselves being protected by 4 . on the W." with "high walls. intermingled with fissures and crevices in every direction In point of fact it owes its origin (Wetzstein.000 men in the attempt to force it. of the Leja. leading horizontally into subterranean chambers a large underground residence at Edre'i of others consist of dwellingthis kind was explored by Wetzstein (p. invisible from above. by those who identify it with the ancient Argob. 3* i K.e. with heavy doors of the same material. of it. just referred to. 49 and 14 miles from W. 2^' of the 60 : — : dependent towns of K6nith [Nu. 6000 Druses defended it successfully against Ibrahim Pasha.^* it is itself "Argob" described as extending. 32*-]. pp. and in I K. with lofty overhanging rocks. — — . the "conical p.

204-215. more to the E. Suweideh. 184 f. p. . die Trachonen (i860). and f. 164 f. range.-xiv.. On the whole it may be concluded that among the numerous remains of villages and cities in the Hauran are some which may. v.. and especially J. Unexplored Syria (1871). the sculptures. Travels in Syria (1822). about 15 miles to the East lain Dillmann thinks E. the Hauran range. Bathani)eh. in the Cambridge Essays. Porter. it on the E.. however. .. Zerka and W. 1858. such good preservation that it is difficult for still be inhabited (p. 169. whence flF. Lagarde. Salchad. which between W. 248-250. Shuka. 103). 220-226. 82) in Wetzstein concluded favour of the district between Jordan and the Zumleh . or with the 'Pa. more briefly. 51 tions in the Desert East of the Hauran. pp. and there are no sufficient grounds for limiting them to those contained in the Leja. and very old building materials have probably been preserved in such cities as Bosra and Salchad. see Burckhardt. 226 ff. 1858. &c. 216) identifies with 'Apyafi. Bosra. " Explorap. Wetzstein (for many years Prussian Consul at Damascus). Damascus. the latter in particular reaching D^lma (p. must be considered doubtful. the descriptions by Porter of the ruins of Burak. these remains are those of the ancient cities of 'Og. G. and in the ancient Land of Bashan. the highest point of the Leja. sides of the Leja.i*. Soc.). i. pp.50 walls • DEUTERONOMY and lofty towers..a. between Edre'i and Nawa.) Jebel it Hauran on the may have and 'AshGuthe [ZDPV.). cannot be determined" (Dillm. p. pp. or with the modem Rajib. 237 W. The precise locality denoted by the "region of Argfob" can thus be determined only by conjecture. Burckhardt and Wetzstein explored the interior more fully. xiii. 231-239.) To what extent. 25 f. pp. 5). . at least in part. between Gerasa Edre'i taroth on the 1890. p. the ruins of Hibikke (p. pp. p. xi. chaps. 194196. of Josephus {Ant. . and the Greek inscriptions (which are original. of the present Jolan (cf. Reisebericht iiber Hauran und Porter hardly did more than skirt the E. . though it is difficult to determine definitely which these are. 'Ajlun. For further particulars regarding the Leja. Graham. Shuhba. a place on the Wady R^jib. Cyril C.. 49). pp.yap. where Geshur and Ma'acah are mentioned as forming" its W.) are also ancient. Kanawat. 48 f. p." in \he Journal of the Royal Geogr. of Gerasa. the architecture. and W. 188 f. places "Whether the name Argob be connected with'E^ya. Sauwarah. p. 88 f. and in the traveller not to believe that they must : . 155-162 Burton and Drake. border). (p. and not later additions to the stones on which they are found) show that in the majority of cases these transJordanic towns arose in post-Christian times but in some instances the the Troglodyte dwellings are of remote remains are more ancient antiquity. visiting only a few towns quite on the border. 159-196. a village 15 miles the Onomasticon (ed. 15. As Wetzstein points out (p. which enters the Jordan W. be reasonably referred to the ancient kingdom of 'Og. pp. and surrounding neighbourhood. (Comp. than this.

] the cities of 'Og were (a^^-^s). 3" 3" 318b 3. 10. 159). iii. Mardsid {]uynh.). p.^ p.— D'no ry] 2«. For a fourth name of Hermon (I^T). Wetzstein. 2 (cf. . Monuments. Nu. . Nu. cSr'c. 114. 1875. 32» tk'i. J^P. . 36-38). 225-302. p. Jordati] on From call the torrent-valley of 8. . and the Amorites call zS^. and Strabo xvi. Dinn] Ew. . 68. . And we . quoted by Dillm. de Goeje. § 113. 523 . 61.t lanana S21 ujpo i:'r3 mbb. Tah. . i^. ed. 32^ nj 'jaSi piNT '32^ n'rt 21 n:pai. . 41. 38-10 312. ii. . Heft 4.9a . jJt-j (Abulfeda.). 27^ Song 48 Ch. The best and most recent map of the district is that published in the ZDPV. Nu. (3^"''). 1890. it The Zidonians Hermon Sirion . — 9. 32*° rwixi \i TDD*? y^yn rx neo jnn.13 the same manner as those of Si^on Cf. — Hermo?i\ the same limits that are specified Jos. known to the Arabs by the same name. of Damascus between Ba'albek and Horns [Emesa]. such as {e. § 280*. 2. 29^: i S6nir (">^3f ) is found Ez. 260) is brief. but his narrative {Journal. Syrice. see 4^^. probably the part N. 6-10 51 Graham also its geological formation became at once apparent to him. — 'Tann] with a collective force. . cf. as 2". quoted by Ges. Cf. 319a 321-a. on the basis of Dr. Particulars respecting the country taken from Sihon (2^2-36) and 'Og Gad. if not to the Egyptians as well (Sayce.— is peculiarly frequent with gentile adjectives. i. . pp. treated in Dt. Senir\ a parenthetic notice. penetrated as far as DSma. NU. others. pi. p. . Ibn Haukal. * * 8-13. Comp. D"TDt« or D'tdk does not occur. 32*^ TN' nin jnnN xnp'i cmiin nu la^i i^n nriD p Nu. . accompanied by copious bibliographical and topographical notes. or patronymics joined with a verb. Nu. iKip'] the impf. — 6. 341). by Guthe and See also Noldeke. v. Nu.^o. and its allotment to the tribes of of Reuben. All p. and hence The pi. c/^ 13^^ 278. ZDMG. the description of Trachonitis ( = the Leja) in Josephus. Stiibel's observations and measurements in 1882.^ vi.^""). The name Senir was also known to the Assyrians {KAT. Beyond Anion unto Mount 12^'>. « . pp.g: G-K. . devoted them. A. 32^ mn' 'js'? pTn nx '{hn hz dd'? navi. . xv. 419 ff. and the half-tribe Manasseh. 9. 6-7.— III. 32^* yiSvx nj'2 db' v. p. quoted by Knob. . like those in Sirion (ri^) for The name last Hermon occurs also poetically in Ps. Ant. 5. 2I="-25-35("«0. from the two passages (where it is named beside Hermon) it appears that it must have been the designation of a particular part of the Hermon-range.

or table-land. on the N. the N. large tracts of pasture-land and extensive corn-fields meet the eye at every turn. part to the northern half of el-Belga (which extends from the Amon to the Jabbok). Moab). 21 jgr. and reaches southward to the Wady of that name" (Palmer. " The uplands of Moab consist of a rolling. about 3200 feet above the sea-level \i. and is sometimes used a figurative appHcation (Ps. cf. 4500 feet above the Dead Sea]. 1 2^. to the exclusion of the other. and (as a border frontier. while the Belga]. v.12 Jos. DEUTERONOMY RV. Desert of the Exodus. Or. has a special g'eog'raphical sense. but . into the Dead Sea. G. and descending by a series of sloping hills. [spelt Belka. 4« (of Bezer) Jos. 472).^ Here Salchah and Edrei are indicated as two points marking its southern Salchah is named besides Jos. 488. (or Reuben) lay . cf.— 52 . p. And all Bashan] on v. land. according to the context. pronounced by the Bedawin. and used in connexion with the East of Jordan. broken walls that once enclosed gardens and vineyards. part corresponding generally to the modern Jebel 'Ajlun. yet bounded on the W. Jos. on which the territory of lo. comp. 139- n.v. at angles of 45 and 50 degrees. "The uplands are very fertile and productive. .plateau. 26^2 27^^) but when provided with it the art. on the E. and denotes the elevated plateau. and although the soil is badly tended by the few and scattered Arab tribes who inhabit it. 40* 42^^). melting away gradually all Gile'ad] Gile'ad And picturesque. into the high plateau of Arabia. the western edge being cut up into deep valleys.e. The two halves of Gile'ad are sometimes spoken of separately in the OT. DB^ s. Ruined villages and towns. table-land. half). by the Jordan. by the deep glen of the Jarmuk (Hieromax). plain or plain-country^ with The term "lic^p means smooth or level gfenerally (Is. Amon of Scripture modem Arabs El Belg^ the . 473 f. hill-country. 5^^ half). or in . on the S. It is usually identified with the city of Bashan) 13^^ i Ch. . remains of ancient roads everything in Moab tells of the immense wealth and population which that country must have once enjoyed " {ib.. p. Moab 21. Sir. the cities of the tahle-land\ marg-. of these the northern portion is called by the — was the rough and rugged. It is divided naturally into two parts by the Jabbok. 1321 (the N. 122-5 (the S. by the valley of Heshbon. and the term "Gile'ad" itself may be used. Grove. to designate one of these halves alone. These uplands are naturally divided into two districts by the great chasm of Wady Mojib. and extends as far north as the mountains of Gilead southern part is known as El Kerek. and the S.

situated on the top of a conical hill. 269. 3^'"') so also the Aram. : Hebrew 7" also a 6«Vr (Luke S . jnx {ark or chest) . 364.. so that the supposed meaning of ir\y is little more than conjectural. on an eminence forming one of the southernmost heights of the Jebel Hauran. . &c. and it is now generally abandoned. Knob.. 66 (De Vogud. nSrr a scribe's error for il^q. f. Dillm. see on The view (Knob. p. 456). 1109. place called — 53 " in^ by the Nabataans. Syria (J. 359. sarcophagus D. Jci--^ by the Arabic geographers. iii De Vogii^. Porter. Syrie Centrale. The ruins include a castle. left For only 'Og.. and by the modern Arabs. with a — : — il. 50"). Whether by this term is meant a bedor a sarcopha^is^ is disputed. Of on the 2^^. it is true that ancient sarcophagi of black basalt are found in great numbers in the country E. Oettli). 107. Damasctcs. 360 f. and that it denotes here a Elsewhere in fc'nj.^°) : the king of Bashdn. and are often used now as drinkingtroughs they are sometimes of large size. of Jordan.. (nearly 200 perfect ones). Reisen (1854). Levy. corner of Bashan. i. (Gn. remained to contest with them the possession of domain. In proof of 'Og's giant stature. HWB. . remnant of the Rephaini\]os. Burckhardt. (v. i. it sig-nifics NHWB. IL i. was of the retnnant the Israelites of the Rephaini\ the verse states the reason why were able just to take possession of Bashan and the country none of his his race named after the defeat of 'Og. in an Inscription of a. 102. It occupies a commanding position.^ p. 248-253). is used likewise of a resting-place in a tomb (2 Ch.d. I*. the is ^ora'of the Arabic geographers. \(^*\ it is thought by many that bnv may have been similarly applied. At the same time. Riehm. from 300 to 400 feet above the city (Porter. and is well adapted to form a frontier fortress. other considerations 11. still 12* 13^2^ also of 'Og: cf. (1822). p. 368 f. in the inscription on a sarcophagus of black basalt found at Bosra). . refers to Seetzen. of. On 271 Edre'i. pp. 703) and as 33S7D. is however the word which is so used in Heb.. saw a large one near Tyre.). p. Knob. Salchad is situated on what must have been the extreme SE. Mich. — . 41 1.— I". pp. 271 Buckingham. the crater of an extinct volcano. p. as in Phoenician {CIS. Syrie Centrales inf. Rabbah the capital city of the 'Ammonites. Keil. 416 f. for instance (ii.. . Robinson. ^V. 12 feet long by 6 feet broad and high.) that here a different Edre'i is intended. p. usually bed. the Writer appeals to his to be seen in means always a couch in Aram. not a probable one. K3"ij» {CIS. Travels in Palestine (1821). I. pp. being opposed by philological as well as .

(in part) what has been said before. is mentioned Jos.e. imply the rend. of the Jabbok. . 18" Is. it is better to suppose that what was really a sarcophagus was popularly called a "bed. . of the upper end of the Dead Sea for a fuller description of its site. is very 'iVn is patronymic (for ""^Sr^. 2i25(20) 255 Am." as regularly (Gn. has the colour and hardness of iron." impossible that the giant relic By tron is meant probably the black basalt of the country. 1^2 ^12 jj* 137 with the name of a tribe (not its gentile unusual : ':3iNnn. — the half S. is called. p. the rest of Gilead the half N. to the half-tribe all the region of the Argob.^°). and half the hill-country of Gilead cf. being and to the Gadites. 8^ Rev.e. see below. 4'*^ 29^ 2 : . with the article. as this meaning of ai}} Is uncertain. afterward called Philadelphia. on v. nan. The land thus conquered was afterwards assigned by Moses to the 2| tribes. arid all Bashan. 223 2 S. Ex. {i. "all that Bashan is called. Rabbah. of ** all Bashan " (cf. h xnpj "there is called ." &c. (RV.20. which actually contains a proportion of iron (about 20 per cent. 'lyj^n occurs only c. 135^) but this is to wmn] "• "f. (even) the last words being epexegetical All that Bashan is called a land of the Rephaim\ i.). cf." = ". to . the capital city of the 'Ammonites. on v. commonly known as the " Tomb of Hiram.).e. but not used similarly (e. 6^8 Ps. and. and Gad. — of Manasseh. — DEUTERONOMY — — : . see Bad. the kingdom of 'Og. 21^''). But Kinn without a preceding subst. T/ie cubit of a inari\ i. 20^) 1226. A supplementary notice of the territory allotted to the half-tribe of Manasseh. i^*: it lay on the upper course of the Jabbok. pp. 12-13. 26-"-. S wip' v. . iii (i Ch.^). 196 ff. of the Jabbok). of RV. and the saqef at Kwrt. Nnp' Kinn jcnn VaS] the Massorites. as Pliny remarked. are said regularly. 14-17. . .29 1727 jgr. of Eastern Palestine. now 'Amman. by placing the chief break after the athnah at jB'an. in a manner which »• i"- be regarded as a K.20) once dwelt a notice analogous to those in t}^. is unparalleled the athnah must be placed at aanxn. an ordinary cubit. From 'Arder. —These 18^ 22'- verses repeat 13. 1325 2 S. just mentioned.27." Thus it is not shown at Rabbah was a sarcophagus though.g. 10^ i Ch. allotted to the Retibenites [i. which is by the torrent-valley of Amon {2^^). .*).— 54' massive lid.e. about 25 miles NE. On the rendering.w. as Jos. &c. is considered a land where Rephaim {tS^. 19-64. ^yn. Is. Reuben. of full measure (cf. 492. and the cities thereof. i'^ &c. Survey .3 Ez. The article adjective) pixai.

but have been inserted by a later hand. ^^ (where they are expressly distinguished from the 60 cities of the Argob) to say nothing of Jud. 32*^ to have been conquered by Jair was in Bashan. The statement about Jair. 48** 51** i Ch. 291 f. and called them^ (&\eT\) Bashan. x» hi] hy I K. above. This incorrect localization of Jair's conquest in Bashan. to say the least.transferred here. 12-14 55 appears to show that they are not an original part of the text of Dt. has been accommodated to its present position by this addition the result being that just stated.32" "them" has its proper antecedent. Here. and that Moses had given it to the half-tribe of Manasseh (v. 16^." Whereas. 32^ Jos.III. H. 41' {prhii jw not in ©). however.**).^^ (which mentions Bashan) with Nu. here is on the model of. the son of Manasseh. as in i K. 6^ Nu. and called them Havvoth-jair. after the pi. the sg. partly (v. — 14. 4*2 . appears further from the terms in which it is expressed." occurring just before: it seems therefore that the clause. Jud. There are parallels for the construction. 13^. is in an unsuitable place. Jair the son of Manasseh took all the region of Argob unto the border of the Geshurites and the Mdacathites.*-*'). conquered the territory here specified — — That the verse represents an attempt to harmonize. therefore. Lev. instead of in Gile'ad. "their tent-villages.in Jos. is followed by D. Hawoth-jair " the pronoun '* them " has no antecedent. viz. i-'' (^k-jt -iz^ not in G). 48* Ex.). went and took their tent-villages (the tentvillages of the Amorites in Gile'ad. ^2^'*'^ (which is silent as to Bashan) by the assumption that the district stated in Nu.^*') for the purpose of harmonizing it with statements in the Book it of Numbers and elsewhere. after: Gn. cniK renders it pecidlarly harsh .g. "and called them. It is based evidently upon Nu. they are here localized in Bashan. of cjik. that what : . the note in . see also on i S. — jrsrt riK] : jm and probably (as not original. 28" 2 S.^* appears to have been to harmonize v. 10* the "Havvoth-jair" are stated to have been in Gile'ad. there. (even) Bashan. The intention of v.^*') to supplement with fuller particulars. 32*1 "And Jair. though it is not genuinely idiomatic in Hebrew (as it is in Aramaic) e. is some of the other instances) the explicit object (iPzrmu) but has been added as a gloss on the pronoun : cf. and is explained veryawkwardly by "Bashan".. inNu. HaTrvoth-jair unto this day\ it has just been said that the Israelites under Moses (v. partly (v. 21" (and p. in being. however. 21'' Jer. named in v. 18" epexeg.^^).

the " (cf. the colonization of which by Nobah is narrated Nu. 32^ i Ch. lo*'*) in the age of the Judges had the author of Jud. mentioned in i Ch. even if he lived in the Mosaic In i age. whose thirty sons had thirty cities. this its dependent towns were called by the name of argument implies that they were called by the name of Jair. 15^. : Unto the border of the GesJitirites and the acathites\ also as forming the (Western) border of Bashan Jos.in the wider sense of the transJordanic territory generally (and so as including Bashan). 2^3 : . and the 37 (?) "daughters" {i. Geshur and Ma'acah were two Aramaean tribes (Gn. In the expression "Jair. in it is evident." Though the notices of the "tent-villages of Jair " are not all perfectly clear or consistent. 13^^) Geshur and Aram are mentioned as having taken the "tent-villages" of Jair from the Israelites. a Gile'adite.38 <. and by identify" ing the 60 strong cities of the Argob mentioned in v. 1890) Geshur is placed immediately on the E." son in the sense of descendant : is used 2"''- Jair. Their territory appears to have been on the W.*. which continued to be ruled by independent kings in David's time (2 S. and by another (Jud. 17^) " father of Gile'ad he had 23 cities in Gile'ad. " which are called the tent-villages of Jair unto this day. but whereas Nu. 2S. 10* intended to imply (Keil) that the old name of Hawoth-jair was merely revived in the days of Jair the judge." In Jud. and it is further stated that which are apparently identified (v. 32*^. 10^"' mention is made of Jair. Md named j Jos.^) : with the "tent-villages of Jair. of Bashan. he is made the great-grandson of Manasseh's son Machir. one of the Judges. could not be literally a " son " of Manasseh. This view saves the accuracy of one passage incorrectly to one made by him at the expense of another. Jos. 22^*. the son of Manasseh. that the same group of villages is throughout referred to. of the : I Ch. is applied Keil harmonizes the passages in Bashan. for not only is the wider sense of "Gile'ad" improbable in a geographical description. with the 23 " cities of Jair.56 referred DEUTERONOMY properly to a conquest made by Jair in Gile'ad. in the land of Gile'ad.e. he surely would have indicated this more distinctfy than he has done. 2^^*-. Ch. 3^ 10^ 1337. so that it will nearly have corresponded in Fischer and Guthe's Map of Palestine to the present ycJ/rtw (Leipzig. 125 i^ii (both D^). 32^ expressly says that Kenath and Nobah. between Gile'ad and Hermon. 19^). 2-. view of the amount of resemblance between them. and who was localized by one tradition in the age of Moses. by taking. dependent towns) of Ken^th (in the Hauran-range). i Ch.omp."Gile'ad" in Nu. Nor is it open to reasonable doubt that it is one and the same Jair after whom they are named.

Unto this day] 2^ iqS ii* 293(4) 346 (also Jos. from Kinn^reth. remarks. the city (Jos. s. 233). V. "the same narrator months — Gilead] Nu. 333^).Gile'ad to Reuben and Gad. and 'Amman. implies a much (i^ longer interval of time from the event recorded than a few comp. under the slopes of Pisgah. from Northern Gile'ad (exclusively). whether by Machir be meant the whole or only a part of it (Jos. The term occurs only in this expression. an insertion in the original narrative: as Dillm. 12 with closer To the Reuhenites and the Gadites Moses gave from Gilead. p. 34* Jos. 1890. unto fabbok the torrent.\v^ means a collection of tents and upon the assumption that rtn js connected with this word. 32*1 (cited o" P. The "Gile'ad" meant is the Northern half (on V.e. the middle of the torrent-valley (being) also a border the stream itself forming the dividing line). ZDPV. May v. the border of the children of i. as the Lake of Gennesareth. even unto the {i. who in V. The expres- sion. cannot immediately afterwards have said that he gave Gile'ad of Manasseh (Nu. 223t. And unto Machir I gave 32^0.^^'^^ have been inserted here on the basis of Jos. i2i. the rest of Gile'ad to half-Manasseh. -with the Jordan as a border. from Kinndreth unto Sea of the 'Ardbah. also {Lex.27 151-47^ A peculiar use of \ apparthe ently = a^ the same time {zugleich).^^.e. 17I-2). 262^). 12^ (in the same phrase). 122-3? j^y^ pTm] the 1 introduces a circ. the Gh6r as far as the Jordan. \\^ 193^) which gave its name to the known 16. it is usually rendered tent-villages. 16-17.29 ^27 1313 j^u j^es near together (Lane) 1 610 223 239 Jud. The verse must be. it where i. of Geshur (cf. clause — . 15. lid). and the the Eastern half of the 'Ardbah. 49 59 625 ^^20 828.26 62* iQ* is^^ 18^2 1980 al. 10* I K. along its whole course. — 1S-17 57 Seaof Gennesareth. 34I1).— — III. the Salt Sea. border of the 'Ammonites. like v. and (absolutely) to Machir." Nu. circling round (on 237) formed the (i^). These verses repeat the substance of v. better to the North end of the !?nji] cf.55) Jos.19J. i. The tent-villages ofJair\ Nu. Sea of Kinn^reth (Nu. . The precise meaning of H^H is uncertain. torrent of Amon.e. \'^^ Jud.e.e. with Nu." definitions. as used in this and similar passages. and Ma'acah to the N.). 1323. to the upper part of the Jabbok. i. — Vnjn pa'] same unusual order Jos. 4^3 I ch. Guthe. 12-13 represents Moses as giving half. W.

As between the two renderings of slope and foot. DB. Wilson. Upon the assumption that the root is nPK to pour. Survey of E. cf. a. 12^ 1320 nnK'Xn absolutely Jos. — — in 2u also xniyN (i K. The name." n3D2. 10. 21" (notice jyc'J) favour the former. In the Aram. the slopes of Pisgah overlooking the Dead Sea. id. described by Josephus {B.): it and beautiful plain of Tevvrja-ap (cf. and kjdb is a cleft piece (e. remarks that the terms of Nu. foot oi a mountain (Ges. 131 f. art. the Salt Sed\ the Biblical names of what is now known as the Dead Sea for the former. of the Jems. 152. has not sur- there (Dr. now el-Ghuwer.s. enumeration like those of Jos. see ii^*.d. 1173d). 1425. with " slopes. for the latter. . Ke.). or the bottom. and the reference has been supposed to be to the 'Ayun Musa. on the NW. . or the stay of a throne). the two in combination.5 18^^. always with the here. see below). Jos. xz^ 1320!. shows that the appellative sense of the word was still felt. . 10*0 12^: comp. Heth and Moab^ p. 11^'' al.). Pisgah 2120 (in Heb. (cf. as here. JDS is to cleave. Di. lE'J? Nu. Kinnereth (spelt sometimes lay probably Kinaroth or Kineroth) was called by the later Jews Vewrjo-ap (i Mace. 327 34^1.g. 2^^ Dt.v. i K.T nnrx] is no derivation for nrx in Heb. 21^ 23" (tdZ) XiXa. on the Eastern side of the Jordan. see 4*9 2 K.e. Gen. or "springs of Moses. common in Aramaic tree of : . .) or rewT^o-aper (Mt. bursting out of the limestone rock in the ravine forming the northern boundarj' of Mt. 8). By others the word has been held to signify torrents .e. Neba (Conder. 14^ Nu. eastivard. i. cascades. sa/h. § 157-9). 10*" 12®. The former explanation is preferable in an p. of the lake. Kn. 3^** 12^. either a declivity or sloping side of a mountain (Ew. 34^-^2 Jqs. " *^s Jordan being at the same time a border.. but nrx to pour out (a liquid). where it is —— DEUTERONOMY overlooked by Pisg'ah. Dillm. nspsn . "B {in Dt. from sa/aka. .\\uitu»u. Qn the rendering". Targums. ruDEn] the art. iii. DB^. the word is generally explained as meaning a place •where water is poured down.— 58 Dead Sea. Gn.) radices. 89 f. 14^^ rt/. are less likely to have been specified than natural features of a more general kind. 2i^5|.^ iii. 151") the ridge may have been called the cloven on account of the natural features by which it was marked (Cr in 3^ Nu. 7*-'. Ar." as 4« Jos. (For a third name. The Sea of the 'Ardbah. however picturesque. 15^). — : 4''" Tni X»gn/Tiif : elsewhere ieuryai). is . see below. Pisgah (i^apSili J^iTr'i:?)] the same expression 4^3 Jos. the "top of Pisgah" Nu.) The name *' Dead Sea" is not a Jewish appellation it appears to have been first used by the classical The slopes of authors of 1-2 cent.10^*) are supports (the axlea wheel. The term is applied specially to in the fertile : . as a geog'raphical term./. i." a series of cascades. to pour). Palestine.

30^ T^pO with a sg. A i that 32i7. cf. — 18-22 59 it must have denoted some part of which Nebo (32*^) belonged. Ye shall not them] cf. verb. i" 4^2 (both D2). \f^ Is.i2f. 32I. 18. How Moses had. 28 317.) 22. . 3 . — Moses bids Joshua take courage for the future the direction given in i38) by the thought of Israel's recent successes. (cf. at the same time.Nu. i^^. vived . b^t to the original text of Dt. in : contin. — .23.— III. D3jpD] for C3«ipD (Gn. That Jighteth for yoti] \^.28-32 (P) : ^i"^2. cf.. § 93. § 199. Only your Nu.] see Nu. 25.— Which I have given you] v. 47'* a/. Thine eyes are those that saw (nxhn ^'^y)] cf. (JE). Dillm. with 1 the former view is the more probable. § 135. 32I6. —21-22.—Beyond Jordan] of the territory W. when a suitable occasion arose. nnaen § 161. as niKvi \r^. Comp.) would correspond to the ordinary Try 1K1 (48 719 al. 3216." ^c. On the emph. but it is plain that hills to 18-22. of D'si'?n (an implicit accus. kw. . 4^ 1 1". and which.— 21. 32. and v. v.) the form may be either sgf. 34-38. 5 : . lis. of Jordan.20b. . for the usual DD. Toyn D'siVn] G-K. s. (cf. 22. ny). Until Jehovah give rest unto] the same expression. 142^ al. Is. 5^) G-K. (Dr.] Nu. : 118. 17b. Lex. of n'r ttk ny " cf. 20. 7). wives.1'". (the ^ being contr._19. 33^—19. — Ye shall pass over armed.—Much cattle] &€. 28 the formal institution of injunction there given on the constr. 12"-=' (wn onn . on 34I). time] v. the Introd. your God. he is the one that fightelh for you" : cnVan with the art. 21-22 on the ground that they unduly a — : — anticipate v. Dr.pD (cf. see Dr. 24. and NE.t) .*. 26f.T H^n cs-n'^K similarly 8^8 20* Is. mtcn Ti'J'l (RV. . v. io» (mVn: KW mn') i8^ . icni] pff. 26 (jE) jos. the pi. consec.21. — 20. or pi. slopes down into the Southern part of the 'Ardbah. 4'' (cn^nn Kin . i Ch. the standpoint of the speaker being maintained. 2. 2 the Writer's thought passes from Joshua to fear the people generally. of the Dead Sea (cf. This encouragement of Joshua is not mentioned in Nu. from the orig'.ti. 24. feels difficulty in regard to v. -ai of njpD). : 9' 3i«- ^ . office and had also encouraged Joshua in view of the devolving upon him. 3 R. cd"? DnVj. 4^ ii'" ''] : emphatic "thine eyes have seen : : Dr.v. as v. the rang-e of broken by numerous wadys. verb). 2142 224 23I (all T>'^).— "J. 15 1210 2519 Jos.). bound the 2^ trans-Jordanic tribes to assist their brethren in the conquest of Canaan. 21.v. —at least — they do if i^s be allowed to belong but exemplify how the might have been carried out. § 115 {s. 39. 427 93 Ex. I commanded you] "you" is — said here inexactly for **the 2^ tribes amongst you. also Jos.* The term being a collective one. § 4. E. 18.

This permission is not mentioned in JE. it seems. Moses may only view the Promised Land from afar. and expressing properly. 2^ ns^-^K. 77 Jud. l^nk (Jud. on account of '?k v.20). &c. \f^ (Dr. (l^na)] 521 926 I i2^—And thy mighty hand] 621 78 92c 3412. laT^ (Ex.^i. especially Amos and Ezekiel.] the ground of Moses' petition he has been permitted to see the beginning of Jehovah's mighty acts on behalf of His people may he not also.''*. 19. not very common in the historical . (emph. gi^ao) &c. 28. 226 8^3) morC Jos. Moses' entreaty to refused by Jehovah. the reference being generally to the elevated land. — Q mn^)] 9^^.e. 421 (D2) comp. cf. the cognate subst. 8c). see also on 42*.20. before this was curtailed in parts in the process of combination rsjn).id^)] see on (nayjT'l)] Was enraged the word is and cf. irmaa] defect.—28. Jos. for his be permitted to enter Canaan He is directed to institute Joshua formally —This supplication of i. 23-29.—IJnnxj] G-K. Cf. Ex. for :i'rni3J: cf. 14^^ i^'' 421. nai Ic — — : : . § 70). This goodly Beyotid Jordati] v. To judge.^. § 29. conjecture that the uncommon word may have been sugg^ested to the writer by his use of mnyn -^ y<\ on 1®. The good land] \^^. 2020 (of Edom) W7iat god is there. i^^-^ 7IS. 510 Is. — — — ttiountaiii] rather hill-country.] Ex. 4 (Dr.V. i*). 'jS-^. 3" 6^ 13^ 32II Nu.is-2i. 29 j K. Sihon and'Og: so v. as his successor.^^. used often of God (Hos. 19®).) hast begun to show thy servant thy greatness^ &c. be allowed to Thy greatness witness their continuation ? Begun\ 2^^. § io3).). 19. 20. Tho7i frequent in the prophets. rri:}.— -una] 3 = about {G n^^ i S. in JE Ex. 33" Jos.^—24. : — stronger even than the ci3snn of Pr. 421 (nanan bv)an uncommon one. 622 i628 2 S. 25. from the notice in 34^-* (JE) of Moses having acted in accordance with it. But Jehovah -was enraged with 7ne for your i^^ (aabijjn). Moses is mentioned only here. to which a renewed command encouragement is not more than naturally attached.^~ 89^^ Delitzsch) 202 26^"^^. of which the territory consists (i^. najm'i] SchrSder and Di.—27. : . ag-ainst At that time] immediately after the successes Lord Jehovah (^jns books (Gn. 3 R. 15^1 (the Song). fiDi^-*?*] mirel. in view of Jehovah's power. tpn] = since {Lex. : Joshua is enjoined. 34.— 6o — — DEUTERONOMY —— — . W. the idea oi going beyond due bounds (see Ps. "iTK. it may well have been contained in the original narrative of JE. sakes (d33j. i^^) Lex. of Jordan largely — 26. 23^ 2 S. however. cf.and § 54.

i<5-7.). The "ravine" intended can hardly be the broad Jordan-valley (p.—This /ort/an] 312 Jos. It is here). &c. Dt. not Moses. 18 io25 (all D^). the only word of any note common to both beingf "command" interpreted. : the present direction not narrated in Dt.]cL Gen. 29. 3) it must rather have been one of the glens or defiles of the 'Abarim-range (32*^). and that of it is manifest that the one in Dt.). with Nu. TttmtiX^ Ta%(t.^^''^. But considering the relation which prevails in other cases between the narrative of P and those of Dt. and strengtJien him] cf. i S. v. see below] was near mount *oyop.9.^s Nu. 61 eyes. But command (Vi) foshua] i. 13I* {]E). be intended as such) over. Kin la ( (Jud. 31^ ** Be courageous and strong" (addressed by Moses to Joshua) also 3123 Jos. as Is. in (v. Euseb. the spot which the Israelites had now reached. it. 12^0 i^s 21I6 ^28 (the Song). a. n. viz. in the case of each incident. (see on S.-'^ here. Nu. The two narratives are. 32 (which corresponds to true.. i2-h 422 Gn. 10^.— Cause to inherit]cL (of Jehovah. placing y_i2-20 them. Comp. see S. P also—at least if Dt. 32^^ 28.21. In P. however. i^. to JE) his office. 14^ &c. on i®) be referred not unreasonably to an occasion a month or two earlier (i' comp. in view of the somewhat vague . A?id we abode in the ravine in front of closes (tid) Beth-Peor\ i^. . {Onom. Lift up thine &c. App.^. 2328.'*. also c. (unless where Moses "encourages" ^3 Joshua. 20^''''^ 3Z^) than \. ceived to .—— III. 27'2-" is parallel to v. is written without reference Nu. K1. (i^^). p. as describing' a series of events in chronological sequence different occasion.^% On "ravine" (n. 6 miles above site is 28. 318. the retrospect which began with and more closely than had been done in i^.29 be what seems to be their intended sense. —assigns expression at that time in v. Tai ( ='»n). with P. Go lip unto the top of Pisgah\ on 34^. who Joshua) t38 317 Jos.23. 13^* 2520 (RV. Exactly the same terms & : are used in 34^ to describe the locality of Moses' grave..— 29. commission him. 233) states that Bit^aynp [on y=j.e. mys] I (S *>y»f: cf.''^"^ might (in spite of the tense pnriKi see phil. cf. — 23-29 — . The formal execution of si*^^". 27"- 5»). uncertain. Beth-Peor] The 4^6 346 Jos. opposite to Jericho.?). § 2. on 31I*. a difference both in representation and occasion is not improbable. were delivered (cf. 16^). very differently con- 27"-2i to v. Tai^aX =^3'j. it is in 31^*" (which belongs. and at which the discourses of P. 1320. is "appoint"). and Nu. instead of after both incidents to a before Nu. more- *' appoints " him to Encourage him. the verse specifies. — appoint him to his office: n^V. and JE.T '3] Lex. Nu.

whether moral. &c. not to forget the great truths impressed upon it at Horeb. idea in pn is properly that of a statute. and constituting a rule. the idea in Dfiro is that of a. 10^). 16. 23^ compared with and Nu. (ppn : . and (with nipn for D''pn) i K. applicable to other similar cases in the future (cf. 2^ ii^s. 1. respond to the duties laid upon it. 29"Judgments" being thus a term denoting primarily the provisions 34). Conder {PEFSt.^ p. for D^pn. Exhortation to Israel. " statutes " may be taken to refer more particularly to positive institutions or enactments. especially those dependent on Dt. Second part of Moses' first its discourse. especially the His sole and exclusive Godhead. 8^1 11^ 30^^). : . Pal. or precedent. l84. 1-40. 23^* Is. 8. 238) and mount ioyuf placed opposite to Jericho. c. 8 miles SW.43 Ez. (2. p. 1892. 12. as well as 26 ig37 2o22 25I8 2615. made authoritatively once. Heth and Moab. pp. 1882. . And now] introducing the practical conclusion which the Writer desires to be drawn from the preceding retrospect Israel.). 17^7. 146 f. of Nebo.. judicial decision.. 20 7II 1 132 (also. 28(31) 61. The or civil (for instance. and judgments] the same comcommandments pre12I 2^^^^7 45 gl. If these statements are correct. 56- ^ Il20 ig^ &C. 5. c. as the condition of prosperity and national greatness.) IV. and 1-8. . 14. 8^8 9* 2 K. 23^ 24^ 25^). p. 14. very near to the Wady Hesban. if success and happiness are to attend it in its future home. 213) is {Onom. ceremonial. Cf. on the road leading up from Livias to Heshbon.— 62 Livias ( — DEUTERONOMY Survey of East. commanding an extensive view of the lower valley of the Jordan {cf. with HIpH sometimes in other books. 17. 7^"'.^*.. Ex. viz. spirituality of Jehovah.) suggests a site further to the south. Nu. on 34®. having been : — brought by Jehovah through the wilderness to the borders of the Promised Land (i^S^). = Tell-el-Rameh p. 85 f. the crest of a hill above 'Ain-el-Minyeh. But Jos. 21^ Baentsch. Das Bundesbuch. c. Statutes bination (occasionally with testimonies or fixed). Exhortation to Israel to observe diligently the law now about to be set before it. cf. as the condition of its greatness and wisdom in the eyes of the world. fixed by being engraven Ez. of the civil and criminal law. on some durable surface . Pe'or will have been one of the summits of the 'Abarim rang-e. V. but usually otherwise construed: Lev. as i K. on its part. 13^**. must now. . c. It is found also (with nipn) in H and Ez. 25^'^ makes it probable v. both favour a site nearer Pisgah that Pe'or was more readily accessible from the plain of Shittim (the Ghor es-Seiseban) than 'Ain-el-Minyeh would be. and Nu. or inscribed. 49^* Job 19^ Is.5.

v. R. § 44. that nothing" is added to it.— cnri'i] niya !?V33] ''in" rather than ''because o/B. 2. 7* W. both on Phoenician inscriptions (Ba'al of Zidon. The faithful observ52 ij2i 2515 32*7b. Ba'al of Tarsus. and G-K. cf. 22^7 (all P). 2 III. (as Ba'al-zebub Sya Jud. 2^-^ (hence Ps. 63 5^. 9'° the syntax shows that mys Sya P'H. 1.—That ye may live. Ba'al-Me'on." (the cases . Ba'al-Tamar). Lex. 1-3 — — — . Sem. am For the term. Ba'al of heaven. &c. «. loC^s) cf. on 2^. is givingyou] on i^^* 20. Jer. esp. vnn po"?] Dr. '390 R. of v. in the present series of discourses. or have the izing . Ba'al of Lebanon. is constantly held out in Dt. 7* are often mentioned.2—3. as the reward for obedience to God's teaching. 2^^'^) but of the special attributes belonging to him. ]vrh) G-K.*° human it life. 8^ 1620 . 251-5 (JE). § 112. § 115 {s. : . Nu. also 4*<> God of your fathers. . Ba'als with local or other special attributes 2^^) Hos. dfc] life. the pi. and a locality Beth-Pe'or (on Pe'or Ba'al of was no doubt the Ba'al worshipped on Pe'or with local rites.v. such as might for instance possess effect of weakening or neutralany of the provisions contained in it and. i. 30*5 Rev. Ye shall not add unto the word which I am commanding you. 26^ Prov. 25I8 21I6 Jos. That went afterBdal of Peor] named besides Nu. on i S. Nu. those that saw] . 2328). sometimes even forming names of places (as Ba'al-Gad= Ba'al of fortune. § 116. In proof of the assertion that obedience brings with the Writer appeals to recent experience at Ba'al-Pe'or. " the Ba'als. 3c. neither shall ye diminish from it] so 13^ (i232): cf. Ba'al-Zephon. 5 R.^. a casus pendens : cf. Ba'al of Pe'or appears to have been a deity worshipped by the Moabites (cf. — Your eyes are & 7I1 8^1 10^3 and often. Am com- manding] so Israel's — 3-4. 5^0 6^^ 306. Rel. 22i8'"-. — Which Jehovah. 3. As there was a mountain named -f^).w 528(81)51 iiV>. comp." i S. 7^2 g« ^1. coupled with the secure possession of the Promised Land. (cf. 8^ C)*). nna lY. JDn "7^2 the solar Ba'al. 93) and in the OT. it to the wilfulness. 3 rather . . nature. vid. G-K. on 2'each pBpO)] lit. § 121 n. Dr.—In Bdal-Peor] Nu. viz.— IV. 5 being hardly parallel) : "did because of" would have been nry (Jer. Dnxai . Smith.i5-i9 32*7*. z^^. on the one hand.). that nothing is taken from it for the purpose of accommodating inferior authority.s-io.t 73] (after a verb of motion) must be likewise the name of a locality. Hos. Hos. or infirmity. . on the other. On the rendering see below and cf. Israel] as a vocative. 9^°. Pe'or (Nu. commandments : cf. the ance of a body of precepts implies. : = Ba'al of flies.

nothing is really known. ib. will evoke their admiration of . if they are followed obediently. and combined with a knowledge of the laws to which it is due.. v. 29 2321(20) 282!' 63 30I6. and say. iS^ 5-6.-gesch. 25^^. how-ever. is " observe to do " see Intr.* . Dt. § 5. 22^ 2f: cf. 71-75 Baethgen." RV. do not appear to rest upon independent tradition. Nu. he had. Rel. &c. 14 f. nys means fo open wide (of the mouth. But ye in loyal that did cleave. cf. 4.— 6. 1229. his rites (v. . Die Aechtheit der Moab. It is possible that he was a god of fruitfulness and fertility." which. and on c^^i^)). See further Kautzsch und Socin.^ the systematic "exposition" (i^) of the body of law contained in — — was not the beginning of Moses' legislative work already Horeb he had received "statutes and judgments. 5. Dillm. — : constrained to confess that Israel is a nation of singular insight and wisdom. — JVhich shall hear of all these statutes. with the art. 23^)./ have taught you. 23° (D2) the more usual expression in Dt. : io2o ii22 135(4)3020.or from ffi's rendering inxU^n for "iSM Nu. or uncertain inferences either from the text of Nu. See ('"•??"!)] i^. Moses has taught the people have God as their author hence. Observe and do] 712 1612 2324(23) 248 26^^ 28^3. 25^. p. as occasion arose. 5) their statements. impressed upon his people (cf. ii"®=o!rai). : . The derivation of "iiJ'S is unknown in Hebrew. in the eyes of the world. 25^.^ the duty of "cleaving" to and close devotion. though the terms of Nu. Sem. &'€. and the place ni>2 may have received its name from some circumstance connected with its position or geographical character (note mys^ CRi. 5'* Job 16"* 29^ Ps. is elsewhere insisted on in hence in D2Jos. . cf. pp. The statutes which (of devotion to idolatry. 3^). should be simply "And"). &c. De Dis Syriis. For that is your toisdom. at — . i. 2 K. during the years that had since elapsed. Alterthilmer geprilft (1876).. 25^"* are hardly such as to authorize the definite conclusion that the whoredom with the daughters of Moab was connected with "For. the heathen themselves will be God. Wliither ye are gomg in to possess it] 7^ ijio.] obedience to such laws will be public evidence of your wisdom Dt. 29^ (^) Jos. The Christian Fathers and Jewish Rabbis have both much to say respecting the repulsive character of his worship (see the passages collected by Selden.^*. . on Nu. The idea that Ba'al of Pe'or was the Priapus of Moab is thus very insufficiently established (so Selden). Is.— 64 DEUTERONOMY or the nature of the rites observed in his honour. 119'^^t) K"ij'9 in Syriac is a hollo-w or cavern of the earth (Heb. but are based upon questionable etjmologies of the name Pe'or. Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people !] the sight of Israel's national greatness will attract the attention of heathen nations. .

(2) no other i. The spirituality 9. command 7. G-K.i9. so ^^. To-day] of the day on which the Deut. unto it. or indeed reality).). 23^^ — 5 . and at the same time the admiration of the nations. 3412 (also.so 1^9 (cf. construed with a plur. the spirituality of Jehovah and His transcendence above all created objects . i:»tnp 733] 73 with the inf. 8. or in conversation with. ^ favourite Deuteronomic expression.] i S. or (3) may denote Jehovah. being a "plural of majesty" (G-K. sig^ifyingf gods (6^* and often) or (2) may (chiefly in the mouth of. § 145. 8=2 (Deut. though 7. Only] the restrictive particle introduces with lator desires (^: emphasis the particular precept of the law on which the legisto lay especial stress. There is nothing to suggest the use of the plur. and consequently so adapted to kind at large. 23" So in JE. (D2). v. of Jehovah. the admiration of man- — &€. 30" i Ch. Ps. viz. in a similar connexion. 4-9 —— 65 wisdom which has secured Israel's cheerful obedience to 7-8. 248). Dillm.). All this law] comp. legislation is expounded so v. — —9-12. The primary and fundamental principle of the entire law. are further justified by two additional considerations: (i) no other great nation the them.— IV. as Israel has. of majesty here . D'3"ip] D'n'^K.23 612 gn comp. no other nation has the consciousness which Israel enjoys. Set before you ii26. is That hath gods (or God) so nigh ambiguous: but the rendering gods : appears to be the most probable it] cf. 19^ Ew. 34^^ 145^^- — 8. have had no significance. great nation possesses a body of law in itself so righteous^ so conformable to the requirements of justice and right. Take heed to thyself] ??''^)] 11I6 i2i3. lO R. — has so nearly risen to the religious ideal of humanity. § 124. Gen. Ex. 82 (D3"'JQ7 in^)] i. oflFer for your acceptance or choice. § 3i8» .e. 20" Ex. and the correlative duty of resisting steadily every temptation to idolatry. in the eyes of the Writer.^^ in a different sense from i^. the proximity to a nation of a deity other than Jehovah would. as 5^ (2 and 3 are both rare). heathen nations) gods is probably the correct rendering (though.e.] the Heb. is rare : i K. 32^ {v. 9-24. Nigh unto on i^. Israel's wisdom in obeying its laws.) t!?k DKija !?33 . of having its God ever nigh at hand. 48 i K. hence (the reference being to . heathen) be a vague designation of supernatural beings whether the true God be meant by the speaker or not (as Gen. naturally. — . and often. adj.*° 5I 6^ 7I1 30^- : — : 81-11 n8. and ready to succour it . the pi. below. 3 R. (or verb) may (i) be a true numerical plural. ISl? DPinOK'Jl 2* 415 Jos.

^. is the seat of intellig-ence (on v. Eth. 2oi8. 33. 13^ is 16^''^ pathetically for keep thyself. or even quasi-material. Keep thy Pr. preserved apparently in the Arab. 25'*^'' 26^. Ye saw no form. 14^3 1719 31I3. § 135. as continuing. with the implication of cf.^^) here. 19^ : for the phrase. And the cf.to sug^gest a material 2oi-i9. even one of the njion (see below) is form. defining the manner. Ew. for centre. no form. Men of spiritual mind. or represent. All the days of thy life] in particular.] cf. 14 Jqs.2ib (E).] Ex. Lev. i that thou stoodest. most impalpable kind. v. Out of the midst of the fire] the same fact is emphasized. Gfc] 19^^ 19I9 Ex. v. avoiding19I6 some personal danger or misfortune: Vw'Sp "i^b*. midst: Ex. Depart from thy The heart. n^crn a!? ij?] aV hearty fig-. S6 ^4. who are under no temptation to conceive. to fear 31^^- me likewise. And ye came near. . iT5«j. 19^'^''. semblance. : presence of the Almighty. And make them known U7ito thy children. semblance.''. — And that they may teach their 11. Job 4^* of a nocturnal apparition. save (that there was) a voice] the stress lies on the fact that. &c. lo^s 19^2^. mountain burned with fire.—12. of intelligent memory. &'c. D'yor dun] the participles represent the scene § 118. in heart] i. 11. 15^ Ez._10. D'NT D3rK . Ges. 11193113 3246.29 gx. 21.^: the memory of that eventful occasion 2020 (JE) is to be kept alive to throug'h successive generations.20f.Tja nx ng^i cf. of the mountain's burning : cf. also Ex. Vsip pv -. mena. § 300*=. though God revealed Himself by the sound of words. cloud. also Dt. 67. &'c. falsam speciem prae se ferre) as here.pn] '^ {\s\th) darkness. where the " he that keepeth his soul. .— — — 66 — — — — — — DEUTERONOMY — less characteristically. shape. no material. and depict it more graphically and vividly than the mere : — — — . prop. 42if-. or attendant circumstances. 24^ 3124. And Jehovah spake] Ex. 18"." &c. vanish from thy mind and memory. Implicit accusatives. Hebrew psychologfy. 23 gio 10*. Ex. 27^ 2 S." opposed who incurs ruin or even death. That they may learn fear me] comp. 10. in the same words. 6^ 16^ 17^^.— pic!?' cn'ja nxi] the change of order introduces variety. is — species (the root .^^. v.e. i226f. mentitus fuit. fig-ure was seen there was nothing. '—All the days. soui\ Gn. 12. The day to one the . cf.—jnoS' -wvi\ see on v.] 12^ children] viz. and forms a more forcible termination to the sentence than the plain c. but whose perfects would have done (Dr. 138. 24i6fs^f-. i). 5°. mdna. (P). &r'c. dolo uti. Which thine eyes saio\ same emphatic expression 7^9 lo^i 29^. whose presence could be felt.\ in loose apposition to the things. njian] form. ncK DV] on i^.

13-14. at least on important occasions. 34'°*^). This theological sense is rare in early writers (Hos. is 24''. \<f^ 24'*^. 341-*') K. 8» D':3K mm^] : the same double § 124. its shape. on His part. 26^*^ 2j46. 17^^ (7i3iDn f'pna nyaPK) of the immaterial. speaking : strictly. 298) : classical languages. . : . plural —12. common to Hebrew with the a covenant (nna ma . as is Horeb. observes the conditions laid down in the terms of the covenant. yet real and objectively perceptible. mj ^^j a calf or other animal having been slain. or individuals. i. 4^'.^ (= Ex. so to say. 13. or the dream (v. to justify them in constructing a material representation of the Godhead. 5" ^^. of the nature of a digression the chapter at is for the subject of this part of not the substance. The terms." Ex. therefore. (Ps. 21^ i S. A brief notice commands then laid upon are the people by Jehovah. or hope to enjoy the privilege of beholding Jehovah's Israelites at "form": but no "form" was seen by the nothing. His cove7iant\ the most formal and. 20**). (P 8^ never in Amos or : contour could not be distinctly descried (wkto T3K k^i) . iii. Nu. 34'*'* : cf. 34*'' v. there was drawn out more of the fully v. 23--"^) upon it. the contracting parties passed between them. 12* (. The conclusion of a covenant. 20*) 'n denotes that in which the copy of an object resembles the B'3')." the document Jer.^ 5^ (= Ex. cf. In Dt. These verses. will bestow certain specified blessings (Ex. official expression of the gracious relation subsisting between Israel. 10-13 67 12^).^).^^^". 2b.tuf . opicix ri/i. on the basis of which the covenant is concluded.Tin' n:icni of the intangible. on its part. //. and its divided parts placed opposite to each other. Jehovah. which might need interpretation (cf. in case either should violate the terms of the agreement. consist naturally of mutual promises and obligations these are called in Ex. hence the idiom. to cut or strike : reciting them being "the book of the covenant. to which the Psalmist aspires to be admitted (i| T33 mnn).1»- lo'. i^s-"-". . 24^ 34^'" " the words of the covenant. invoking upon themselves. tcere foedus). yet quasi-sensual manifestation of the Godhead vouchsafed to Moses. i8^'* 20^ i K. Jehovah and His people The term is borrowed from the popular lang^ag^e. i —13. is guaranteed by the establishment of a solemn compact. a fate similar to that of the slaughtered victim (Gn. The maintenance of friendly relations between nations. granted to other prophets Ps. where the thought is expressed that if Israel. presence of Jehovah. The theocratic application of the term found first in JE (Ex. of the revelation Horeb. or conditions. may enjoy (Nu. 19*^' . G-K. or agreement between them. Lex.^). 3^^ : v.^. nn'na vh v. as contrasted with the less distinct manifestation by the vision. " Ti*?!?] i K. Jigure\. but the 7node. was accompanied by religious ceremonies a sacrificial feast was held (Gn. the Deity as material. Ex. called technically a covenant (Gn.— IV.e. original. 17^^).

Ezek.. 1893. 910 10*. 14-'. 11" 1910-" 2 K.). are embodied most succinctly in the Decalogue. J. is made the basis of a covenant.) often recall Israel to the duty of observing the covenant. — the 31^8^: cf. promising his descendants the possession of Canaan. to the other patriarchs. ii^-io 22' 3i32»> ^izt. 2/^-^ 34^'''")» The terms of this covenant. or the human which it the guarantee. i \^^ (opp. and declare the consequences of neglecting it as Jos. (Even) the ten words] ID*. to the covenant of Horeb are (as imposing obligations upon Israel) 4^ 5"^ (followed by the Decalogue) 17. In 29^** ^-^-"-^ the legislation of Dt. and II Isaiah) and it is used characteristically in several special applications by P. of may is naturally lie. (emph. 428 498). 9'. And in pictures of the ideal. future. So 24^2 And me (emph. as it were. 8^^ (Deut. is (in accordance with what is a primary aim of the book) loyalty to Jehovah. pp. ZATW. . which is accordingly in the present passage (and perhaps already in Ex.38 j812 23!!.. In the Priests' Code. those influenced by Dt. . 14. it occurs also not unfrequently in later prophets {e. to 13W3 -a».*" and me (opp. The particular duty on which the observance or neglect of the covenant is in Dt. that concluded with Israel at Sinai (Ex. cf. Later prophets and historical writers (esp. 1892.. .). v?^.g. p. but a further discussion of this subject would be out of it ff"." 10* (see note). 245 ff". extended. . Upon two tables of stone] Ex. to the nations. OT. ii. 401 and J. I ff". entered into by Jehovah with Israel in the land of Moab. p. 13^ Jer. on the basis of Gn.29^'' 31^®"^. Dt. either on the Divine promise. the theocracy .e. 22^^'* 26^'* &c. — "Decalogue" (Ex. .68 Isaiah) Jos. the establishment of a new covenant between Jehovah and His people is promised.35. to you. of that concluded at ^oreb. In JE Jehovah concludes a solemn covenant with Abraham (Gn. 8^ 2 K. 20^''^-). it (D' in compilers of Judges and Kings . 1715. Jer. a renewal. cf. Valeton's elaborate study on the usage of nna parts of the OT. principally made to turn. i6**'^ 34^ 37-* Is. i. In references to the covenant.^^' ^^ i K. according to the context and the purpose of the writer. and . 1 ff'. or Messianic. is. v. ^\^^-^ ^2'^ 50' Ez.T. and writers influenced by . is appealed to as a guarantee of God's faithfulness. The covenant most frequently referred to in the OT. 8^ G) and the ark which contained them is "the ark of Jehovah's covenant. opp. for the position conxi 6^ Lev.) in different must suffice to refer to Schultz. 'HKi] v. i K. . "ja). 541" 553 5921 618 (cf. and it is applied to many particular institutions of . (E. -^i^^."). 26^ Ez. i K. 224 ff". as opposed to all false gods (notice the context of the passages cited). however. Theology. 21 (t^e basis of Josiah's reformation). Jer. the idea of the covenant is extended. the stress obligation. 15^^). 7^^* ^ 23i« Jud. 34^) identified with it the stones on which the Decalogue was engraved are "the tables of the covenant " (Dt. Jeremiah) . in so far as they are obligatory upon Israel. 33^. 2» I K.. 15^*). 3. and (perhaps) Ex. DEUTERONOMY but it is prominent in Dt. (as involving on Jehovah's part the obser\'ance of His promise) 7^ in 4^^ 7^^ 8^* the covenant with Abraham (Gn. P. The other references in Dt.) did Jehovah com- mandy Gfc] Moses was commissioned further at the same time 14. : . Cf. place here. (ggg -q^ j^]2j ^g a motive of God's favour or clemency.

93'' (fem. it seems. on v. punctuation is not and that the original pronunciation was ng'!!. 3I 2 S. 32''). in particular either [a) any representation of the human or animal form.—n^'j] a rel. — 15. i. Ex. on i^^. 33 ^ifi-scss &c. The supposition (Konig. »)iyn] the impf. 14-17 — — : 6g which were to regulate their Canaan: cf. and nVna 7" (P) Ps. 18^). is not necessary or probable. 10620. nw 912 (from A graven image. f & io^«-^» ii^ 30". in Cyprus). on .^" S^^-n j^o &c. of 16. qjD niBs] "fowl of wing" : so Gn. Ez. it construed far more frequently with an inf. At the 5^ same time. 2^^-''^-^). 148'": cf. a'Tj??. — The S^.^3-i4jj resumption of v. For ye saw no the digression manner ofform. c. 212. 81°.^ i^^ 528(31)^ The reference.-16.— — IV. or for purposes of worship (comp. c). clause. cf. ye deal corruptly (pmO^'^)] v. (even) a form of-— i. in view of passages such as Ps. partly (above. s.^) to the laws constituting the code of Dt. likeness (n^ji3n) of male or female deities. § iigJ). CIS. Dmciyji] the pf. . Hos. Lest Ex. from njD to build). Ez. which Milkyathon. after dv3 (in the st. as DV3 Lev. v.Comp. cf. on v.— Vdd] in Phoen. is partly to the body of law comprised in the ** Book of the to instruct the people in the laws life in Covenant. are anomalous forms of the inf.Tnum . § 115. bird.v. 7^.— 17. 41^ 'HD iVd in'3'?D jn' CN IK "^DD this statuc. with the force of an imper. i2 (. it\ : — Whither ye are going heart the lesson cf. L i. 4. »]33 "73 mss Ez. or [b) heaven. and resist strenuously the temptation to worship any the host of material or created object. § 130. 2* is very possible that the Mass. statue. n^33n model constnwtion. constituted (^'P?)] "^PP by any statue Ez. with the "waw consec. 191. —17-18.^ the prohibition any beast that is in the worded as generally as possible fish is to no representation of beast. 25 3129. earth. 2*5. 15.12 (after as the foundation of the following exhortation. 2022-2333 over to possess 15-19. js G-K. (see below) = dvSpias. 7=» Nu. as Ps. v. Israel. 309) that "iS'i &c. — gQi5 J 333 JqIj 292^ where is this explanation is evidently not admissible.) ii2. reptile. (Gn. and esp. — Vnn dVodh these statues (D^!?!?n) . 88. 3c a). 17^3 39*-". : then. Take good heed. take to of Horeb. be made j2i3b 2310 nniNi (opp.^ 2 Ch. S^^). 23^1 (D2) (SrT. Let 6^ 1 1^." Ex. ^'VC. .). cf.] comp. —'31 '?os] cf. (Kition.g. to . king of Kiti correct. cf. "take heed. (Dr. e. G-K. 22^ (=Ps. so Ex. to yourselves (ind DmOB'Jl Da'TiEJ'QJ^)] so Jos.^. v. as 2^™.. The likeness of is &c.T33) . 6^ Lev. (Va) . 33''^t : in Phoenician female^ with allusion to male and or likeness (lit. as often in this book. with nis'N unexpressed. Dn'tyyi prrntyn |b] so v." "so take heed" (Dr.« gi^ § 112.e.^^ (cf. then. na^ n^nn). then. on 58. gave.

31* Ps. S'"*' W. 121. Reste Arabischen Heideiitumes. 14. (1880). Al." So Just. and tribes named from animals). i5 Jer.n. (on Totemism. Keil.. 82 1913 "The . Drawn away (n^j?)] so 30^^ and (actively) 136. ZDMG. Dillm. & S^^ i K. is a witness to some of the deepest needs and instincts of humanity in default of a purer and higher faith. iiof.5. Ez. the influence exerted upon mind by the beauty of the heavenly bodies. p. reptiles. 7^1 Ez. the ancient their wonderful but inexplicable * ' : .e. are intended Gn. . J. 18." (Dillm. 1721 Qre 2 Ch. Schultz. 173. ix. It is : alluded to frequently in the period of the later kings 2 K. 1 30 pxn ^y bph h^. is picturesquely indicated by the phrase employed by the Writer. Natural religion. Smith. 270-293. (even) all the host of heaven^ cf. the yearnings of mankind .5 234. Ez. to be worshipped by them. comp. Lest thou lift vp thine eyes to heaven^ and see the sun. 157-169. So Gn. the same writer's Religion of the Semites. though it may become depraved (Rom. — . the source of springs and rivers. . Frazer. Clem. §§ 55. with the criticisms of Noldeke. the veneration of the host of the earth\ so Ex. The subterranean waters. S^^. i2iff). 292^(26) << other gods. 1886.).—That is in the water under = Dt. zi^^. 20^) 30^7 (in inverted order) 8^^ 1 1^'^ 173 2925. c. pp. &c. Of anything thai creepeth in the ground\ i. 5I3). seductive character of this worship. vi. and be drawn away. 10. and the venera- tion of the heavenly bodies by the nations (other than Israel) forms part of His providential order of the world. 242 136^. chap. and Wellhausen.denoted by nora (of. 19. 5^). " in the Journal of Philology. and by their varied effects upon the world. whom He had not allotted to them (the Israelites). Next to imag-e. quadrupeds being. cf.worship. .. p. and worship them cf. 2i3. i. Job 3126^.12 zeph. Which fehovah thy God hath allotted to all the peoples] viz. Totemism (1887). On the worship of animals. Tryph. Strom. The sun and the moon and the stars. . " Animal Worship and Animal Tribes among the Arabs and in the OT. R. 160. I76f. 20* : — heaven is Israelite of the Writer's mentioned as that form of idolatry into which the day might most readily fall. Gn. pp. ise ^^. 17^^ 7I84417.1* (s. G.— 70 : . Mart. on { which the land was supposed to rest.13) 2 K. DEUTERONOMY . by movements. 75 ff. &c.—Bow down [worship) and serve] 5^ ( = Ex. vii. s^nd Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (1885). The God of Israel is supreme He : assigns to every nation its objects of worship .

p.— — IV. to minister to their needs and comforts. Ex.) Moses himself. 21^^— 22. as here. &€. however. thee as an inheritaiwe] 154 1910 20I8 2i23 244 2519 261.—23. the 8^1 special relation subsisting between all a ground for Israel's discarding and Jehovah is made heathen rites and practices. 444).^^*^. where it might be expected. thy God is giving to The good land] 1^^. (cf. so that he could not participate privileges fully in the of the n^m DV : let Israel. 20I2 Jer. nnx no Is.) even views the worship of the u'a (jltj heavenly bodies as granted to the nations ytv6fji€voi TcAcojs riXeov a^coi Kot Sia^^apukrtv rise enabling them to and as the appointed means of ultimately to something better (68os yap . of a severe and searching ordeal 2g25(26)_ : — . as Gn.e. 230. had incurred Jehovah's displeasure. — Which Jehovah reiterated. take heed. avTT] BoOelcra rots (. 48^^) : of Egypt. of the imminent future (G-K. N3 'nVaVi] perh. as Gn. 20. (I. Vi? "^^3 furtiace of affliction. faction in Clem. Urschrifi. § 135. lest by lapsing into idolatry they kindle God's wrath against them. according to which the heavenly bodies were "allotted" to the nations. is indef. and had been forbidden in consequence to enter the Promised Land. A people of inheritance] cf. The exhortation of v..20-22. unlike the heathen it has been chosen by nations. as here. Israel and reserving day] 326. . iq'-^^ 24^ 2520 Ex. .) Jer. But you (emph. where. (in gf. a people of special possession. its exclusive allegiance for Jehovah. Iron-furnace] i. 18-23 —— — 71 satis- after a power hig-her than themselves find legitimate it. Is. as i* &c. As at y^"^ this — 2i_ But Jehovah was angered with me. 5c. not only where the subj. &'c.] (g-v. no '3Jk] idiom. cf.. The ptcp. yet view of nay just before) 'xi should be restored Other isolated cases occur of the omission of a suff. 48-1 50^-^. then.Ovccriv dvaKvij/ai tt/sos dtov). Dr. \\"\ but also besides. is inconsistent with the context. n*t. § 116. with the inf. fig. I K. "to be (Deut. after and move Him to withdraw His favour. 20^ 43'). 17^. (as I S. has no share in such deities and it is accordingly peculiar possession Jehovah as His Him exclusive service. .is the fresh considerations advanced in v. 38'. besides being inapplicable to the parallel passage Under the whole heaven] 2^5. al. 5'" Gn. Geiger." 7^ 14^. 3) so T3iV 'Jrx (cf. Rashi.. 21. however. Al. : .e.) hath Jehovah taken. The explanation (F. S'* i K. 7--' Kt. 2710 (contrast ") 4i'*-^ i Ch. bound to render furnace for smelting iron.] Israel.. la"'" Jos.

so. writers. cf. (30^9 312s) as '' witnesses of the fact that the ." 8^9 11" 256. are vexation (Job 52 here. x^. Is. Him in true peni- — 25. &€. as Jud.^ 28" Gn. 13. Zeph. in favour of other gods. same spot" 26^". and the cognate substantive Dy3 Job b-ys). 13^^ 2522 v. And ye he grvwn old (DPlJCiJ^) in the land] the word (which is a rare one) implies *'the loss of spiritual freshness. original impressions. — contrast the different position of Kin 3^^ j. not of anger.— 72 — — .^j. if it lapses into idolatry. the use of the root. in after-times. 15 2217 2319. and who visits those who slight Him with the fire of His vengeance (cf.7 3229. produced in the and the blunting of by force of (even) custom.) : D^pn. To vex " to provoke Him Not — in the eyes him. 24^^) j He is likewise a jealous God. 29^ 3o27. J : 25-31. 27. to (lD^J?3n!?)] so anger" (AV.26) and Jeremiah (718. will find itself exiled from its land . I call heaven and earth to 'witness. by deserting Jehovah. 26. lyii. 34!^ cf. v. An emphatic : declaration of the ultimate ground of the preceding warnings a devouring fire. 1I8 38 Ez. representing the unchangeable and ever-present fabric of the universe. 42^).^*)). 2ia (Dyp). J — solemnly appealed to 21. express always the idea. as onnVn 3'^ 'a] and — . is evil And do ^f. 149-15 1530 162. The word is used frequently in the same connexion by Deut. DEUTERONOMY —A graven image. or 6^). though even then God's mercy will not forsake His people.): comp. if it turns to tence. that which of Jehovah] 9^8 iy2 3129. A graven image. (in RV. 2o5) ( 615 Ex. as 5^ = Ex. consuming and destroying those who set themselves to dishonour Him or thwart His will (9^ also Ex. njx commanded. after the gracious and condescending regard which He had manifested towards Israel (v.^*'. 'j^^). vm nV^k fk thSk see on i". (Dillm. but of chagrin. 365 Ps. (even) the form of anything ivhich Jehovah thy God hath cojnmanded thee (not to make)] cf. 2419 Nah. in a negative sense.— A jealous God (N|i? ^N).] heaven and earth. on 6^^. 31". 2^°. tboo 'no] constr. and especially by the compiler of Kings (i K.7. as oP. Israel.26. 32 ^^. caused by some unmerited treatment.33 2122 22^ 2 K.23.25. 17 216. or long residence theforvi of anything] gi8 3129 32I6. 8J and occurs occasionally besides. Jehovah is — 24. 32^1 Is. Ni3i5 ^X Jos. Lev.30 who will not endure that the honour which is His due should be rendered to a false god (cf..

28 178 a. only Lev. 7* ii^^ 2820 Jos. 37^^ '•T' Ch. 30^^. Jer. io3 (enn stone. 32G Is. in the psychology of 521 being of man. 4oi9'- Hab. the 6^ nations. 449-20 Is. here. 37^9. all thy heart. "with all the heart. 23" (D2). 28-20 j^s ^022 (cf.— PemA gmckly] cf. 5i2(i3)_ Wood and 283*'. . — Ye shall not prolong : (d''0^ p"'"iNn n!?) upon a favourite Deuteronomic exprescf.s Mic. 24-29 — 73 — WheretintOy days sion : consequences of Israel's disobedience have thus been foretold to it (cf. The phrase almost verbal).) = Is. 28^^ 2 Ch. . may — be prolonged (i^C* (})13>-IK^ jyofj) 5^^ { 27-28. 26^0 (the 29-31. and thou shall cf. is 152-4. such as the desire to escape from misfortune. 28. viz. ( functions of animal 2i8f- also Hos. there also they will sink deeper in heathenism. 29. 20^2 . But from i. hence (with variations) Ps. They will be scattered among in = Ex. 32^9) Ps. 19I8 (Deut. (see on and a genuine expression of the It ** which animates the Writer." is characteristic of spirit Dt.^ " return ").— IV." His being sought for. 8^ 132 Is. iQi-io. as HB^Vd) Hos. Notice the fourfold Hos. find him\ experience again His grace and help: I Ps. the the ancient Hebrews. all the soul. 2 — 28.*° 530(33) ii9 jy20 22^ 30I8 32*7 (rare besides) that thy 20^2) days 25i5f.\ the words express the condition of Jehovah's being "found. and with 6^). its permanent. the nation . and will not be the heart of its will turn sincerely to penitence being accepted. until they become dumb cf. but with a radical change of heart (v. 14* Is. similarly c.e. 115^"'^ iSS^^'^"^. Jer. not from superficial or interested motives. 27^5 jgr. and dwindle worship of ( numbers idols. But Israel's alienation from D3"'S^3 ''IJQ). the organ of intellect (see Jer. both phrases together. and the devotion of the whole being. 556 65I Ch. (^) 154 135I5. 819 3oi7f).^* 29^^ Ez. Tribulation will it God work a change in Jehovah. &-c. thence ye will seek Jehovah thy God. 7^^ emphatic \r (1"). and hearnot. 14-15 = 5ii7-i8) 46*5f- 417486): elsewhere in the Pent. Which see not. 29^3 (where the agreement him with Provided thou search after &c. will receive again the tokens of His favour. 19^8 1 = Is.\ K. and not even capable of the life.The same sarcasm on 2 idols. — made by the hands of men. and esp. spiritual denotes (substantially) the entire heart " being. . abandoned entirely to the The work of merU s hands\ 2 K. jSt'c] 31^2 32*^ it\ cf. v.

§ 112. comp.T<^2i] the with 1 consec. or age.45. . 49I of the period of Israel's possession of Canaan in Nu. 381*' . No doubt originally 1S3 was intended as the infinitive of ns. (ny) i Jer.XO. 51* Is.— —— 74 RV. i 142 0) Am. 31. He will not let thee drop (l^ll ^)] or.. ) nu? Neh. : — . varying with the context. h 31?. "VS Jer. pf. 2" -h -tjv?). 34^ (JE).. 'V 'XS being regarded as a poetical variation of the more prosaic Til?? .28 2 Ch. 3' Ex. (G-K. lo^* of the age of Antiochus Messianic Epiphanes. § 118). the desires or affections (on tribulation just referred to. Jos. 2^^\. — 30. i«) as pointed (with the art. Dr.17 27IO 281-2. leave thee to sink . conceived as following at the close of the existing order of things.^'-i^) .-*'*-. 301.). to his voice with bs S. nan being the syntactical equivalent of aien Gn. 195 2321-22 Nu. therefore. introduces the pred. \ is: are both frequent but this phrase recurs only Hos. the late expressions Ps.62 ^^O^. in Ez. if^ ^m nmapi 'niD3. Elsewhere it used of the ideal. 5^) or ni-3 (cf. (not Is. and falls it rather frequent occurrence in prophetical denoting the to final period of the future so far as within the range of the speaker's perspective.19.). Hos. 4^) . &c. naen D'D'n nnnKa] here the 1 consec.).S. it is The sense attaching God. f al. and the "soul" being the organ of 24^^).15. 2218 2&> Ex. the and implied the In the latter days] lit. n». 22^) 66" io6« 1076-13.^ ( = Mic. and pronounced therefore "ii'3 (cf. 7^ K. carrying on "^ ns3 (G-K. &c.«. Dr. 1) i¥3] ^ IS. and other writers influenced by Dt. (cf. 15*. 16® Dnjni aiV at even then ye shall know. All these things^ v. or Ez. i K. \ v-i^ Jer. 120^ "•) nti"3V3> Jon. (^ al. 5^. 46 Is. 912(13) 1^22 al. 833- 'is And (?) hearken {inpl nyocn)] so 82" 923 135. . 1422 (all JE). — . i. of the imagined period of Gog's attack upon restored Israel in is Dan. .19 52 2614. to accept Israel's penitence. DEUTERONOMY Job 12-*. in the end of the days (D>io\n n''inS3).. lo^ but > a-itJ^ Dt. Here 3129 it is used of the period of its Israel's return to the close of history so far as contemplated by the writer : in it is used of the antecedent period of Israel's rebellion Gn. 3^ Is.ifi Gn. as Ex. \ aia? Hos. 25* Ps. 9^8. 24^* of the period of Israel's future conquest of Moab and Edom (see v. not absolute.Hos.. it can hardly be anything but the subst. § 123/3). \ ch) Hag. be sincere ^W\ 7K. § 112. 56 222 (Joshua's) 242^: elsewhere chiefly in Jer.e. an expression of books. —Return even unto . forming thus relative.._ j^s 1526 Jehovah] 30. 2^ 48^'^ 49^9 Dan. pro(30^). For Jehovah thy God is a compassionate — God] vided who it is ready. i87 (=2 S. 2320 ( = 302*) «/. down slack 80.

v. regarded as significant of a truth beyond A mighty hand] itself. Ex. 32. sub fin.e. Ex. in designations of the terminus a quo. For\ introducing. and with . testings of the character and disposition of Phara'oh.^) — not whether any other nation ever so heard the voice of (the God. 622f. 36 i92i). an occurrence (as well as in other books).". but whether any other god had ever given such evidence of his existence as Jehovah had done.28. The point is earth. man appeared upon Horeb has witnessed at ever people hear the voice wonders which Israel and in Egypt (v. regarded merely as something extraordinary something. i^' 12^^ Jud. ^^32-36^^ 37-40^ who will not permanently abandon His people and who has a claim upon Israel for its obedience 32. and comp.) or extraordinary. that no man can "see God and live" (523(26) Gn. s. Nor forget the covenant which he sware.— — IV. to come nation out of the midst of another nation. 20^ : nis is a sign.9." as be. Jer.30 iQi. Song 3^ al. 26^'^-'*^ (in the peroration of the " Law of Holiness").). 7" 141^. — War\ Ex. Lev.25. portents] Ex.. &c. as here. 30-34 — — .17. on A stretched out arm] g^ (with "great power. happen.. 6^* 8 opp.^^) nothing so marvellous has ever happened at any time.g. 20" 3320 Jud. 19* iWKTj) 20* al.)\ so 31^- Jos.z (^ix) 421 ^9 ii9.^^ and i^. Did of God?\ rather a god. and feeble 27'^ (cf. 11^ 2 S. ^^ Dt.1322. whether of time or place e. of jp. 75 al.— nw] the nif. as Jehovah has done Or hath a god attempted (nD3) &r'c. — tending to : show since that Jehovah will not forget His covenant (v. in the sense oi come to pass. to holdfast (Job 28-0. as the case 1213 31I3 Is. 622 268 292 34" (all with allusion to the marvels wrought in Egypt). Jud. c'crn n%^:T:h just below.). Israel has grounds for knowing that Jehovah God ^y alone. or ventured (285''). i. pS] a syn. : may (II . effected — With by the display of Jehovah's might signs (7^9 292). 33. Out of the midst ofthefire\ w^^. 48. 20* Ex. or impressed with a Divine purpose. 7". or in any place.. And live] in accordance with the thought. 132-3 DSio is a portent. i6i3 3231 Ex. dr'c] see on v. often expressed._34. 9^ 2 S. 10 (nsiD) both. as i K.^^). used esp.?\ in the case of Israel? Trials (nbp)] or provings {p\\ b^^'). 32^. 6^9 {Lex. of the hands. i.the considerations. cf. JD.e. as the [v. true) — has a god ever even and take to himself a attempted. i^ i Ch. is 32-40. ordinary (Ex.

— 76 2 — DEUTERONOMY — K.) at chose. this day. . ID^D nS. Loved thy fathers] God's love of the patriarchs is emphasized again in lo^^ comp. Before thine eyes] on — heard the thunderings of God (Ex. 4^* 8*2 ( The Ez. but sole God.) wast Tnade to see.. 21^* 2229 28*^). 6^ (P or H). v. that.\ because of. 8^. '3 nnm consec. 35. 136127. ^?^). not an adequate rendering-. 6. whether on the part of God or man {e. I K. iP! denotes not (K*7in. i K. thee. (^°) And keep. Know ('3 and is lit. 5*). 2i5) K. first in i 515 71^ ii^ 26^. So is 26^ 34^2.» 7' 1 the pf. but the discipline or education of the moral nature : the spectacle was one adapted to quell waj-wardness and pride. Ex. 3221 (cf. in return for (the fact) which shows (Dillm. i. i. Ex.g.')] comp. Jehovah. and upon earth (Ex. 3y»^ 3pp Nu. 12"-" Lev. 2f 32^7). and heard his words out of the midst of the fire. . is emphasized again. and (derived hence) 2o33. and the cognate subst.e. aweis inspiring" manifestations. His in place that nnri . . io2. To discipline thee (^T!'?^. § 123 y . which weaker. 8«> i8»-»: ion as 3=2. so as to know that is God: there is none else beside him] this was the ultimate aim of the wonders wrought in Egj'pt cf. ^ renders bpa^iara (as the reading- though i30_ CXIO). 1736 [compiler] Jer. 19^^) had they seen his great fire. combination with mighty hand.^"^) the fear of Him in a concrete form. — .3912). Dt. €^c. sometimes severe ones. call to mind. (Dr. mn rm<\ v. . G-K. that Jehovah is not only God. Jehovah's manifestations had been made alike from heaven and upon earth. 35^ : — 339 f. 19^^). The truth. cf. i.e. 60^'. "Instruct" (RV. 34 Jer. and to generate in Israel's heart a temper of submissiveness and reverence. with the intention of impressing vividly upon Israel Out of heaven had Israel the truth and reality of His words. . 6^2) Ps.-37-39. 26^8 jgr. .) that the construction here given is the correct one. lo^^ 30" Ps. &c. and in response to JP' Is.) is the instruction of the intellect . 36. he Thou (emph. &c. D'n"?Kn liyri] jief.. § 112. as 2 K. 7^ lo^^: see on 6*.. 22^' Is. And with great terrors (D^X"iiO)]. 19^^ 29") it is used also of other corrective dealings. with . 14" &c. Ts: is the word used to denote the discipline with which a parent trains his child (8* Pr. embodying (cf. .e. defended by Geiger. (39) And because he loved thy fathers. cf. 37-40.. and that the apodosis cannot be (RV. and chose. that he might discipline that the people might be brought to a temper of becoming reverence. though p. v. = 2 Ch. Urschrift.^^.

all the days. is mentioned only if in the passages quoted. 18. on i^.e. 823 ^69. That it may be well for thee {^ 2t3^^)] S^^. 7i«'«* 9I ii23. as Gen.is 1225. K. Neither is taught is._38. The passage all however. i^o . With his great power — (i'lUn inaa)] 9^^ Neh. on 6*. recall to mind. as the ground of His care for their descendants (on i^) . 331^ 13^^ \JS. so thai so the two sentences to each other here resolvable into ]ilDh s"^ 6^% aS^^-si Gn. m though found also elsewhere.. see below. To dispossess g^-s u^s igia (cf. " Bethink themselves (AV. Ex. 11' al. Jer. After thee] cf. frequent in Dt. the reference will be specially to Abraham. 3i36 2239 33I8 3519 al. 42^ [D2]) 4432 i S. Ex. and which the ancient versions. Ex. And God in call to mind] i. : a link relating v.). 43® iii 1423 iS^ i9» 2833 Jos. 21.26(29) 63. 2 S. 44^^ 46* (W) Lam.13. thoti\ cf. 8*'' Is. 530(33) 19I3 (^ niDl). (526 Jer.). 2^1 He is heaven above. frequently exemplified in the narratives of Genesis comp. As at this day] The reference may be either to the territory generally: East of Jordan. expression for co7ititnially. . reflect. : but His love of them —A7id chose 10^5 has.ao («<the God of your and it is also referred to often elsewhere in fathers'') 32^^ 33^ Dt. as often (cf.^s repeated. ih 2B" ipk] tpk. —39. 17^^ (of a human person). ^33^ Sk naBTTi] lit. I K. 639 '*and the angel of his .] Jos. 22 K. their and them. 7* (where see note) 23^. from before thee] Nu. cf. 275 32^7 (both of creation) cf. &c. which here also would is harmonize better with the context. Comp.— 40.e. (both Jehovah's regard for the patriarchs of course.15. 717 gS) gx. 1736: {^^yjh) 342* (JE). Greater and mightier than 220. 8") is a good paraphrase. 28 22^. (Lex. 32" (hnj n32). — esp. The thought (D2) i of v. on 3-* 1 1^^). expressed by And brought thee out with his presence Is. Forever] lit. or (by an anachronism) to Palestine the similar language of y'^^^ gi ii23 favours the latter interpretation. 23'-. 3^1. a Heb." i. elsewhere in the Pent. 77 ^^ love of Israel. . tpk 8 b.26. (VJQ3)] cf. . li .—niy ps] Is. JE and P) . "bring. presence (VJS HX^o)] saved them " also.35 jS^o 39. 4556.back to thy heart.— —— IV. I4i3-i7.i" 6^ (cf. consider. 36. for the general sense of 0*^3. (Deut.—40. 14. 2 . " consider : so 30^ i K. Prolong days (n"'D^ 1"'isri)] on v. parallel his seed after him\ the text be correct. 35-40 — — — .

writer (perhaps R'l). no doubt. JPh. adloc: comp. Einh p. and this necessitates the repetition of the idea of fleeing: Dih and is accordingly resumed by Dji " That he might flee thither (=yea) that he might flee and live. and seem designed to separate the introductory discourse 1^-4*** from c. Ramoth. 5-26. (Dr. Bezer. § 7. 7 Obs..). that 4^"^ was added by a later Deut. lo^ 2920(21). .— 78 DEUTERONOMY IV.iVkh some 80 times in the Pent.^"**. 18-^ (against . On 'Clj. for the : resumptive : D}i. . . as the sentence proceeds. (Di. 18^. Separated (^^2^)] so object. nsn nsr Oi)] ^k DJ? is corrected. 35^""^*).). . . "and he being a not-hater to him aforetime " so ig*. of the trans-Jordanic Cities of Refuge. '?n3' ik] Dr. Nu. Oettli. 2e. Thai the nianslayer xi. . 18* K31. . but hy Joshua. Nu. § 118).^ — 42.g. iS wr k*? Kim] lit. if 1^-4*' be not by the same hand as c. .§27/3. Dji. . see G-K. 83). 198-25 2&-^ is best construed as a subst. p.). .i. The phraseology is throughout Deuteronomic (like that of the additions in Jos. and Golan appointed as Cities of Refuge. In 19^^". f 41^3. Oe. with a final conj.T. The Appointment by Moses of th^ee Cities of Refuge in the trans ordanic Territory. not by Moses. L. 35^ aix vh ki. . Sxn] as 7" 19" (but not ') Gn. in time past] agreeing nearly 41. Dr. 5flF. also (Jos. expressions in v. ii. physical separation. 28). p. as regularly {e.i9(p? G-K.ti The ptcp. . Gn. 20" T\'m. § 118 n. is continued by the pff. ig^- 7." Jos. in accordance with a tradition w'hich referred their appointment to Moses. as separation for a particular purpose or — 42. 207 Westphal. 41 43. OiV.*^-*^ here agree with those found there. and nSx t8o times). It seems more probable. (Di. 'm. however. supplied the omission by the insertion of these verses (Konig. § 162 n. 20' . § 135.'p) Vkh onyn |d. 17c?. with waw consec. — .). It is possible. who desiderated an express notice in Dt.). same purpose. Wellh. with kS is unusual [ib. .. The Deuteronomic law respecting the Cities of Refuge is contained in iq^-^^ ^q ^^g notes on which the reader is referred for fuller explanations) and all the characteristic — . § 104. 20^'^. 219. The word implies not so much i^. . According to P. and. as a new institution : had the writer of 19^'^^ already described the appointment of three cities for the it is difficult not to think that he wouH have framed his law so as to contain some allusion to the fact. . Comp. . 35^. . Q. i* R. 213 . the Cities of Refuge appear to be introduced for the first time. Dji . and has no affinity with that of P's law in Nu. Beyond Jordan] on . as well as those on the West. cf. that they may have formed an original part of Dt. and K}b \S (Dr. therefore (esp. 20^ cf. . the Cities of Refuge on the East of Jordan. — 2^ itdki — Lev.§ 107. 105). by the more precise nnn ." The inf.O. were appointed. The verses mark a pause in the narrative. Their origin is uncertain. Kuen.

4b. — 43. Not only does it which is plainly intended to refer. of Bne'Ammon). tioned by Josephus (cf. 31^^). JV.t should be vocalized Vxn (cf. Lag. It is generally identified with es-Salt (see Bad. 1882. 44-49. 1. 1888. but even supposing that a special superscription were deemed difficulty arises in i^"". Gramm.*^'^') IV.. Phoen. p. at the ruins of el-JarOd. as a dissyllable (Schroder. On 285 .'^ i. i.. IV. 354). j). DB.^*''*). nnv. but Dillmann (on Gn. just as nK.] (=1 Ch. p. following Hitzig and Langer {Ausland. 1-4 only. contained in c. {CIS. 44-49. it then specifies the and (indirectly) the time (v. (v. This superscription first characterizes the substance of the following discourse. IV. Lang. 20^ 2i38(3C)(=i Ch. modern district Jolan (or Jaulan)^ see Bad. The variation is thus not an "archaism. connexion with it. named by Eusebius menthe p. it was probably situ. p. p. 20^ 21^7 ( = 1 Ch. ry. but to the Deut.^ i. More than one appear to be superfluous after : and I Ch. ated towards the eastern border of the Moabite table-land {Z^%—Ramoth in Gilead\ Jos. Survey of the Jauldn. Bezer{yi:i) in the table-land] mentioned besides Jos. Phon. Comp. ed. The word is written similarly in Phoen. according to miles Roman W. of Sent.e.." 14' 93' [cited on v. Jos. 28. and Schumacher." but is purely orthographical: no doubt ^k. 3^ was dialects pronounced prob.2 K. though I. t. . often Schiirer. 5-26. Wright.). Its site is unknown but being" in the "wilderness" (2^''). when they occur for nriK. not to c. 65*^ ("i)). site 6 miles to the North of es-Salt. io8f. Gr. 6*'8 ("s)) also on the Moabite Stone. 20^ (Sx)t. discourses generally (v. prefers — Golan] {Onom. 5b. i8i). ^ly. 774 «. place (v. 287) 15 Philadelphia (Rabbath S^s 9^**^^. The kindred have generally a dissyllabic form (cf. 4^3 223^.'"]). 27. Zg. but not at present known. Superscription to the Expositiofi of the Law. terminated originally in a vowel sound. it i. p. 41-43 79 Bezer verbally with is ig^i*.^^^^^j^ at which it was delivered. §61). which is an indication that the pron. 6C5(£0)). Vk D'enpn cjVk "these holy gods. Eusebius {Onom. or Ramoth of Gile'ad.® "to expound this law "). Golan gave name to the province Gaulanitis. 1 K. are vocalized ^s. a 287). w. as one of the cities which Mesha' rebuilt after his revolt. 242) as a its KOi/xr] fxeyioTrj. 20^ 2i3<5 [see RV.

a solemn declaration of EGa will on. and that v. 44 A:ndthis\ ffiFS omit and. Ej. towwawi.) . prefe r^ 3:^ from JE. Valeton. i-j^ z-f (aH 2m ^ and see below. to point ta its being the work of a writer who either (a) was not acquainted . and declaring that the " exposition " of " the law. 17" 2. times Elsewhere (in this form) only Ps. tiqt). connecting link. Laddhefore (nr TS^] Ex. in particular.^. tiie minute particulars contained in v.** being inserted at the same time as Dillmann (U) cMLthe contrary. wh^her by the original writer {Graf. When written piene (nrry). <. and the " testimonies. i63). p. implying a forced distinction b^rween the tWQ added subsequently) ^**-'* — 5^26.^).I — DEUTEROJTOMY — Bo deaarafaJe for c 5^26. p. v.**"* or (Konig. Studieiu. to which 1^-4** was prdixed afterward* as an introduction. J^etHnpanson of the two grougm of fsaaagBs (e. EQeinert.* to c Ez—26. 9L in Pa.44?* i Ch. considers the aaperscriptian not to be original. OT. and the subscription (29I). to show that v-^ is not tautoI?. icfi from Er else^ J4f are derived from P..—45. ng. 37.* appears to be borrow^ed fi-om 3*". Einl. . **' wilaiea»") is that of an attestation^ or formal affirmation.gi of t K. Camp. but to have been added here by the ELedactor of Dt. which forms (see note) part of an insertion in the original narrative of c 3. of nrrs (Stade. now begins. B^ii ia with v. § 320"). with to i:^-4** or (b) disregarded to it. rgz Kuenen. for the purpose of marking the distinctive character of the discourse which follows (c 5—26). even in Israel" (on fiar the narrative parts. ^ 7.** refers to c 5-11.. r2 .^~" — . By have been limited c accnrdingiy considered to have been the aoperscriptian to that disccurse. on the basis of material derived from c r-3. zK. K3nig. verses include laiight pfaraseologicai traits which are not diose of D (see the notes). has ns^ . Ekmt. pp^ 6^. Testmwmes] &^-^: ct iK. it^ edsewhere Dt. «. 34^ Ne. vi.'*"'" seem tn be uimecessary when the cdrcumstances there noted have been ah-eady described in detiul in c z-j moreover. or by a somewhat later hand(WeiIh. which. 31 Tvtere in the book only 3^ z"^ ("sons" as distinguished froas daughters). 6^^ makes it tfwwfcntT." promised in Dillm.^ is itself tautoiagxjus by the side of v.25^ 78" 93* 99'^ ti2». fiance. 2r2£). p. . is those («) who hold the original Dt. SEgn^abnsj which is not aistained by usage (see v. which wonUi be: tbe pL cstr. an£c4.'s attempt. pp. 225 Westphal.. Gesch. Butter. 9 times in Ps. that the words. 29» 2 Ch. zr^ : —The law] in r^. most books of the r^^) . the word is v ftmOiBd niTH (r K. however. as referred to God. thwgjfe dMtk mnttf vocaiizcr: rtr^X &'^. v.^. 33.m (oa chUdreTt af Israel\ sufl^cientiy common The v. The idea of a "testimony" (<. and judgOBBBtigb'* of v. statutes.K. 2» 2. 2^ with Dt..3* Jer. but contrary to tiie general usage of Dt. 24''. Sz. pp. who observes that the a. tiie heading' z^^-^.**^cannat be pronounced succes^d : the supposition that the •*iiBw" of V. The circumHtantiaJity of the heading appears.^. who thinks v. do not' . 4. 28.


aid it may rest assured of His ever present and succour it (c. V. Let Israel. as DEUTERONOMY a nation.-XI. With warm and its it persuasive eloquence. and to the motives which should prompt their observance. 5-1 1 consists essentially of a development of the first Commandment of the Decalogue. C. let has shown a wilful (9^-10^^). and motives of it fear. not to forget Him in the enjoyment of material prosperity. should prompt to give effect to His will in its crusade against heathenism. And this obedience should be prompted by the thought of the favour existence as a nation . Let Israel recollect the lessons of the its wilderness. the only return which Jehovah demands is loving and ready obedience (lo^^^). further. and warning manifold temptations to neglectfulness by which might be He begins by reminding Israel of the covenant it concluded with at Horeb on the basis of the Decalogue. and perish it whom God is casting out before it (c. but to serve his children to serve Him to be loyally himself. The (i^). in the midst of the good things of Canaan. no intercourse with them is is to be tolerated Israel holy to Jehovah . beware of remember how from the beginning it and rebellious nature. and take to heart lest dependence upon Jehovah. The Israelite's fundamental duty is to love Jehovah. is to be governed. to the purposes is the in "expound" with reference. like the nations to forget the Giver. 7). 8). no truce made with : the Canaanites.82 Israel. be tempted. it ought to be impelled. and to teach 6). (c. not less than of grati: tude. righteousness . 5). or to of the promise which the nation had then given that forsake Him for false gods. Hortatory Introduction. which they subserve. the legislator sets before Israel loyalty to Jehovah. to be devoted to Him with intense and undivided affection. 28) includes the code of special laws. and it would obey whatever future commands Jehovah might lay upon it (c. and how its present self- is due solely to Jehovah's forbearance For these and other mercies. 12-26. urging primary duty of against the it upon the motives to obedience it by which assailed. which object of the legislator to particular. Him is loyally afterwards Upon entering Canaan. second part it (c.

24) which Jehovah seems to be described as having spoken them audibly to the people. 4. — Out of the midst of the fire] on 4I2. cl." an implicit — . are parenthetical (see RV. i-s — — — — 83 with which the Lord of heaven and earth had visited Israel Him on its behalf at the and of its dependence upon Him for its future prosperity in Canaan {11IO-25J.21 (22. acceptance (ii^^-ssj. not in the comhim subsequently." &c. in is apparently at variance with v. as the terms used imply.). is "lOV '^^kJ a circ. The Writer ends this part of his discourse by solemnly reminding Israel of the two alternatives.) used here in the old (Dr. It appears. and on — 4. 622. § 135. however. 2). forefathers. \<^ 25**). 15. wmn] emphasizing the suff. All Israel] 4^0. 4^2. 520-28 Thg representation of Moses as mediator. 2° i S. who are bound by the terms of it. "but with us. of closer definition (G-K. 5-26. fact that the greater part of those who stood at Horeb. The i^o. of the deeds wrought by Exodus (ii^-^). 528. Gn. " Show " (AV. the patriarchs {^^- ^7 78. 141* jg. D''3D2 D^3S] cf. describing the part taken by Moses as mediator between God and the people time — — of course. 5.] the words. 1-18. 4*) it is w^. D^3D bs D*3Q 34^° Ex. now offered for its (1014-22). I standing between Jehovah and you. pya py Nu. — — accus. D'osn d':b] "(with) face in face. The Writer begins by reminding Israel of the fundamental principles of the covenant.^- ^^. § 161). for the the Decalogue commands received by purpose of "declaring" or "reporting" (see below) the words of the Decalogue. 4^. to mount. RV. Jehovah's commands. in unn (G-K. the discourse learn. Not with our fathers] this covenant was — made not with our but with us therefore. sense . — —5. This day] Observe —2-18 (21). as embodied in the Decalogue (4^^). Y.— V. Tjn"?] to declare. 16 io4. The aim of i^. 3. 28) here beginning. V. us. and then further strengthened by 'Ji ns nVx. 33I1 (both of Moses). Hear. 4I 6^1. (c. &'c. The covenant concluded by Jehovah with Israel at Horeb. ii^-^. on the basis of the Decalogue. 40 years before. Face spake Jehovah] thus solemnly and impressively was the covenant inaugurated. to face is disregarded cf. viz. 32^1 Jud. 3. in appos. — 1. : had passed away. at the when munication of (23-31) ^14^ was promulgated. these here to-day. to do] O on Israel] 6*91 20^: cf. (4^^). § 156. that Israel may and obey. the blessing and the curse. 12 318)^ : who are here alive to-day (cf.

Dt. 1920-25 19^. T.ny form.: 'JT?^: (Ex. followed. thou shalt not bow "the likeness of"). but not distinct words: the latter Moses declared p^?"?) to them afterwards. Di. 20^ **a graven image. eases the sentence by inserting : : j I ii. exhibits will be noticed here. divide the verses Dt.. but they do not The necessarily hear distinctly the actual words spoken. W^^ Syil Ex. but the combination naicn Vdb seems a doubt'ful j " one. sSS^. the rend. treating 'n Sa as a casus pendens.to the conception of D.—%. language. (so also 4^"' ^." Comp.— 9." but also "that wherein an object made resembles its model " in making a has. A. 25j : — j j and see below. 20^-i^ only the variations which the text of Dt. D''tJ'!. Qal is 4^®. iv. 156. and uncertain. 20*"^) differently.^' ^). &cJ] Ex. Ols. and struction is difficult. and construing " Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image (and) every form that is in heaven above. A graven image. (KSJIIJ. 9^ &c. "a graven image of a. 20' 23^^. and the Writer's hand recognizable in | them.to E. "words": so Kuen. in other cases siderable. 20^-17. by an inexactness of at the same time produced. And in fact this representation is 1 not inconsistent with Ex. njicn denotes nothing at least the most obvious (so 4^®. RV. &c. mediate verses : \ ! — \ word of Jehovah] p. DT3yp] so Ex. § 261.. Observe \ i (RV. j 6-18(21). 1881. material and hence it might be objected that a n:iDn could not be "made": but the direct obj. 8. with ] j verbal differences. for apposition (on 18^). of nsryn is hos. to 1 that of Dt. S." &c. //%. a njiDn is This "form " is then. §§ 549P. 160). — D 9. 179In view of Ex. I j ] . 4I6." Others assimilate the text of Ex. to report or tell : see AV. and it is peculiarly hard when .. 20^ (as it stands).) and it is a question how these four anomalous forms are to be explained. ^'^ ' : : down to them. ( only "that in an object which may be imitated. repeated from Ex. of the word. Wright. &c. Stade. Dt. Th. and njinn may signify not 46^^ Ex. W.^^ —both verses belonging. as in genitive.^) . identified with the corresponding "form" ("that is in heaven. . 'i^ -wk njion !?3 '?cb] the contelt). 13^ dt?J?}ordinarily Tij. adopted above is of the fondness of It is true. therefore. ] j • . On the Decalogue in general. Gn. and J) the people overhear the thunder of His voice.K' hv138 — 12..) upon which it was modelled (RV. Ewald (Hist. and followed orig^inally by 2oi-^''' (the interj forming part of the parallel narrative of according to these passages God speaks with Moses. or worship them. 180.84 DEUTERONOMY j that according. or (^) any form. more con' The longer variations are mostly in agreement is with the style of Dt. 4^ &c. the people heard the "voice" of God. by another The impf." &c. and rendering. sometimes slight. omitting 1 in n:iDn ^3i.. (even) any form. (=Ex. 23. see the notes on Ex. 3" al. The Decalogue. 10-" 32^ I S.

i). treat them as Hofal forms. If the forms are Hof. p. DT?yj. that the punctuators intended the forms to be understood . 251^ regards them as irregular forms of Qal. " Thou shalt not be made to serve them " (pass.n to make to serve. but that the original pronunciation was (as regularly elsewhere.g: 12^2. Jer. Ew. " For in six days Jehovah made — heaven and earth. as though the meaning were. might accordingly seem (cf. whether resulting (Gcs. — here as a periodical memorial of Israel's deliverance from Egypt. n^D?*] on i*^ — . — And thy manand thine servant] Ex. the sea. is artificial. .22 ^each same words). is i^2Gb J511J 15 shall remember that than wast a servant in the land of Egypt. 6^5 24^. The philanthropic motive assigned for the observance of the sabbath is in accordance with the spirit and thy cattle. 6-15 — 85 (liDE*)] i6^ In Ex. with the inIt junction to remember gratefully the deliverance thence. 12. [e.^^ 20^^. Jer. (§ 60 R.." The recollection of the servitude in Egypt in is made a motive for kindliness towards others placed time in almost a similar position in \^^ 16^2 24^8. though it expresses the thought of Ex. the most probable view is that of G-K. ** without "and. and rested therefore Jehovah blessed the sabbath it. of T3j. 259 f. ass. and not favoured by the context if they arc Qal." may rest as well as thoti] this clause is And thou which prevails elsewhere in Dt.. 16") DTaye. 20^" has for these words simply That thy man-servant and thy maid-servant not found in Ex. Under the circumstances. 17^) but fails to explain satisfactorily the two o sounds.. as here.^''^) as if the observance of the but the sabbath were inculcated upon a similar ground words which follow. and on the seventh day day. 20^°. i. 22^-^ (in the ** Book of the Covenant"). Hof. the idea of compulsory idolatry. . in \^'^ 24^8 coupled." show that the sabbath is viewed the .g. 20^^) being occupied by the words. 2o» *' remember cf.) from external pressure. "—As i^i). Sg^*. the o sounds are unaccounted for. "Therefore Jehovah thy God commanded thee to hold the sabbath day. the words spoken.— V. ^'c] this verse is not in Ex. "As Jehovah spake in unto thee" (on is and the frequent A comment on 14. §§ 66°. and hallowed : all that in them is. Kon. /c/iova/i thy God commanded thce\ so v.is e. and Jehovah thy God brought thee out theiu:e." And thtne ox.. or (Konig) from an irresistible inward impulse. and all thy cattle] Ex. which of course not strictly appropriate what purports 2oi<' to be a report of them. the corresponding place (Ex. v.

26(29) 6^8 1225. 20^7 "Thou shalt not desire thy neighbour's house. —17(20).— 86 and of 7^-s its DEUTERONOMY relation to Jehovah. For "desire" ("'P'7) in the second place. does not express a substantially different idea. comp." &c. In Ex. 22 Ex. 17-20). which was sealed thereby {^^- ^ &c. Honour thy father and thy mother. and ass being the illustrations chosen. Dt. his ox. &c. and "house" is limited to ordinary domestic property. thy neighbour.)] rather a technical expression. as the dearest and a man's possessions.^^. especially in prose. and rarer. the second clause as v.not only the actual dwelling. 342*): for mwin. acquires from the context the sense of sinful coveting (cf.e. thou shalt not desire thy neighbour's wife.2s 227. And thou shalt not desire thy neighbour's wife. or his maid-servant. 20^2^ is giving two italicized clauses are "With the clause. 2 S. or his man-servant. as Jehovah thy God commanded thee that thy days may be long". To Ao/^(nVk^*j. his field. a false witness. "house" appears to be used in a comprehensive sense. thee] the first upon the land which Jehovah thy Grod not in Ex. 45^2 01). and thou shalt not long for thy thy neighbour's house. 8^5). embracing. producing a more flowing period. land. and that it Tnay the sabbath only once besides. v.^^^-^). or his man-servant. they are connected by the conjunction (^<'^). apparently merely as a rhetorical variation for ~J^»0'?. common " And thou shall 'iioitncss\ not answer against S}K' i. 2712 pr. insincere witness: in Ex.— 17 (AV._18 (21).). servant. Comp. In Ex. the wife. constituting" a domestic estab- lishment Gn. comp. Similarly in (19^*^) v. non. and other possessions (cf. 2013-16 the 6th to the 9th Commandments form each an independent sentence: in Dt. . but also w^fe. the more expression (Dt. 19-30 (22-33). GS^" (!">). he 'well for thee. Request of the people that Jehovah's future . Mic. 20^^ li??' ^V definitely 19^8 Ps. ox. servant. — 16. 53^ Ps. has ^?.^<J?'?i. or his maid-servant. closest of .] in Ex. 152 Job . ox. used of 3ii<' (P). expressing in itself a perfectly lawful affection (Is. "longed") Pr.e. is named separately in the first place. examples of which are after- wards specified separately in Dt. 23" (RV. or his ox. on i6^. as a vain ^y i. 619 145 25is). though a somewhat stronger term than non. in Ex. a hollow. 13* 233 Ps. ass.

6* I S.^-22.) Nu.. 16^2 = 27^^ characterizes frail. — : with note.— 21. 5*). 2oi» (above). 20^8-21) that in future Moses may speak with them as God's representative. 2^%— Elders] cf. 4.): cf. 17)1.) Lex. and lived] cf. 1893. Ex. That hath heard.^^ commonly Is. Nevertheless the spectacle little is such a terrible one. All flesh] the expression sometimes (as embraces living beings Gn. i i^s. 3ia. 24. and it can so be expected that the verdict of experience will again be reversed. §§ 38 a. 153) recurs i S. i S. "?V "^^ ""^'l-—25 f. ^'c. "(with) a loud voice" (2 S. 16-25(28) commands might be conveyed i^aiynij ** to them by Moses. 19* i K.).13 Nu. — . as in the Aram. p.*). and he liveth] contrary to general experience comp. the statement anticipates what. nipNi 3Tp] "draw thou near" (emph. And Jehovah heard the voice ofyour words] will hear. / V.2i(iio)Ps.374. (26). 28"! ni?!J ab. clause (G-K. (27). And he "wrote them. (>n '«) K. i:nci] introducing 4«t. &'c. 4238431. 18^^): more Nu. § 112. § 159). &€. according to 32^^^. 194. 6^''. stantial. The expression living creatures. 4o5-^ «/. Ex. : 6^2. § 32 R.. and we comp. (G-K. as unsub- and dependent (Is. G-K. rm . § 137 «. 2 Dr._21 (24). The living God (D'^TI D''nbK)] this "significant and moving name" (Sanday. . Ex. 2419 al. 8-^ nr^^ Dip. of E.) shall speak unto us. 17"^ n^tj \^^. 61). p. all it —23 cf. Jehovah declares Himself graciously pleased to accede to the entreaty of the people and gives warm expression to the hope that their present obedient frame of mind may be maintained perpetually. . denotes mankind alone (Gn. — — — Ps. The heads of your tribes] i^^ (cf. (28 f. 33_ That God doth speak with man. His greatness] 32*. Vnj "jip] as v. only took place subsequently: it is introduced here for the purpose of completing the narrative respecting the Decalogue. 4^3. i75Job 10*). pyn say. And thou (emph. 'il2-%^ (25-27). § 135. on 20 (23). Bampton Lectures. Ex. 43-" nns nsp. nai'] Dr. . sS)] as we should g^-^^ and he then stopped " : Nu.*. The people request (comp. No doubt ^H should be read (as 19. (ib. —20. § 141. 11" Ez. the apod.— We have heard his voice. 2q\^ ^^^. G-K. S^^). 20* 22" pxi] so (in the masc. and do] (>n bx) Jos.\ 4^^ And he added no more cf. umx d'BD' cx] Dr. 113. Jud. 1726. ""^N paipni] i^^. Is. 2 cf. Lex.30 jer. (ciD^ —19 (22). rK3 nj?^ "vm^^" -while the mount burned with fire. that they dread to witness it any further." a circ.ic( —24 = 15. iqIo 2386!. tacit contrast to God.—the accus. in "i^^3 6. 3ioHos. 124. 4^3.] 4^2.— — — — — — — — 87 V. § 112. 271 29^ 3i9-28. &c. —20-24(23-27). 3i8Jer. .

2519. That it may be well for them^ ^^^ 5^*^. § 115 {s.— ht oaaV] 17I1. origin- — ally followed "tables of stone". 29 f. with rule. 12^ 26^^). and afterwards to communicate to Israel.—27.^^^^^) 6^^. to fear me.—— — 88 SO i^*. As n22 199 show. legislation side). All the com.v. ni 2 b Dr. <5r'c.). — According to these passages (cf. 4^' 1* (see note). appears to be parallel with Ex. 14 51 J2I).)." &^ 8^ 118-22 j^s j^g 27I (of a special injunc- tion. 24I2 E (where "which I have written. to do] on 4". that they m. 6^ 12I. as a whole. lo^ ii^ &c. (30 f. 31? 33)- — 1891. i7 23« (both 26. DEUTERONOMY The words addressed They have to Moses. on its moral and religious viewed as the 6^. v.v. were (so to speak) overheard •well said. Moses is to receive from God. ii^s Ex.^^C^s). Bacon. : . I/ath commanded] the past tense as v. and not pass away. immediately before the Israelites' entrance into the land in which they are designed to (v. T. 27 f. fr'c. iii) the "statutes and judgments " (on 4I) embrace the laws com- prehended in c. expression of a single principle. Which I am giving them to possess it] cf. iSr'c] O that this their heart were theirs continually. see Kuenen. the fundamental duty of Westphal supposes that here it refers particularly to the development of 6^ contained in c. the commandments to be observed by them.] so (metaph. 222 (Deut. while (pp. 'D] Dr.20 28^4 Jos.) D2) 2 K. 29 (32). generally (esp.) 'P). JBLit. m (not nin) in accordance .28(3i) ^5. come into operation Ye shall not turn aside. — Which ^- thou shalt teach them. so iS^^. after 2i20 Jud. a noun defined by a suffix {Lex. 28 (31). —26 (29)." it is probable. s. — . p. Budde. 36. 6-1 1 (cf.] "the {or this) commandment" recurs 6^7^^ when — 30^1 . 6^ 7^^).m. 31^).andment. 4^) the laws received by Moses on Horeb had already been made known to the people the aim of the discourses in Dt. 1893. 12^ (1^3) 15* 192. Th. when they are settled in Canaan. § 209 Obs. 1881.ay do them. (32 f. p..14 2ii The verse. 6" al. 342. frm IIT =2 Ch. cf. (Sr'c] by Jehovah. Observe. Upon Jehovah's gracious response Moses founds an exhortation to obedience. O that their present temper might continue. it denotes the Deut. 12-26 (cf. is to recapitulate and reinforce them. diV 13w] on i^. 225. fir'c] cf. then. 194 f. as in i^* those spoken in the privacy of Israel's tents. ZATW. the impressions to which it is due have been obliterated and forgotten.) So with rhn. with "all. pp.

. i6'®* ^ used: 4*" 5^* &c.].-Gesch. Lev. (d) "J. however. rf thus verb 11**. 32^3 (^u je) ^f. eizf. is in question here 30. 32^) ^^ 1 28 136(5) 2. — WJiich I am." such as **in the land which Jehovah thy God is giving thee " (cf. ii. VI. the devotion to Him of the Israelite's entire being. D3^ 3iBi] God is one fehovah] the what sense the pred.\'^<i. if it obedient to the — 1. passes from the nation to the individual Israelite on i2i. {a) "J. our God is (c) "J. Bihl. Baudissin. life] 4^ 16^. 11^3222 Ez. or.—Prolong days. Keil. cf. 30'! (from [aa. J. — upon 4. 1327 148 1613. as So 19^ : For the impf. 2o6-i5f.3. Theol. 5*5 (D2). That it may be well for thee] on As fehovah spake ._2. Nu. and most). is one " (RV. Oe. All the days of thy 42". 4 (lit. on 1^1.) {b) "J. with consec. ii^ 269-15 273 3120 Jos. prolonged] cf. 86'"). RV.— — — —— — 89 V. Jer.\ spirit is Tq implant in Israel the of true religion and dutiful obedience to Jehovah's the aim and scope of Moses' instruction. That will. the uniqueness and unity of Jehovah and the fundamental duty founded . dir'c. § 43 . . Hear. 2nd m.— 30 (33). 167. AV.— Tb teach you. on — 3. ist m. 27^). ib'n] 4^". stand here out of construction.14 (all JE)..^. Oehlcr. alone" (Ibn 'Ezra. been misplaced. no sufficient reason appears for the resumption of the subject by the second "Jehovah" b is less forcible rhetorically than d\ c assigns a dub. which Israel may hope to receive. i. perhaps (Dillm.. &c. {promised) unto thee] Gn. A land flowing with milk and honey] Ex. viz.]4i-" 528(31). 3rd m. 19" Ps. RV. 202* (H). 243. 26(29)— VI. O Israel] 5I. of the 4^). 15^ 22^7 26* 28^* Ex. aits 1 is cf. it. RV. nnx mn' u^nVt* mn'] the words have been variously rendered. (constr. And this commandments now about to be laid before is the commandment.) . but the 3 pers. YI. The benefits is it. 4-5.40. our God. is one" (Ew. (Sr'c. but as against a. 3^-^^ 13^ 33' Nu.) one J. . 17^^." (Schultz. cf. Thou.. 4. 1-3. com: manding thee\ 42. i S. Theol. cf. Rel. Di. <Sr'c.—Live\ 1 ^^. is our God. . Dt. (even) J. 2-'7 (see note) i S. The way -which Jehovah your God hath commaiukd yoii\ 9^2 (from Ex. on 529(32). is our God. ** one " is to be under-Jehovah our here not the adj. The words. The fundamental truth of Israel's religion. J. and thy son. Sem. sense to nnx ("alone" is na!? 2 K. 3'D'n) is — — . i. the rendering " z» a land " being illegitimate. perf.] 426.] promised in 528(31).) Dt. Be 4*".\ the Writer's thought cf. 4^" 526(29)^ of.) from the end of or that words have dropped out after "unto thee. a and b do not differ materially from d. 7I1. thou mightest fear. to be well. It seems either that the clause has v. In meaning'. &'c. cf.

is The verse thus a great declaration of Monotheism is (in the sense both that there only one God. p. — . on —assume different phases or attributes. who are often spoken of in the plural 4^) number i^e. God with whom no other "Elohim" can be compared." or that " other gods " cannot be compared to Him {e. Hauptprobleme. The truth is one which in its full significance was only gradually explicitly brought home to the and it can hardly be said to be enunciated much before the age of Dt. 14^ Song 6^ representing Him as God in a unique sense.^ (for a God. In the Mas. p. 90 stood. for instance. basis for the practical duty inculcated in v. who same time "unique. as the ness of Jehovah (see for this sense of only Deity to whom the true attributes of the Godhead really belong Konig. . as the Job 33-^). less spiritual Israelites) with heathen deities character but is only known under the one by which Schultz) ? He has revealed Himself to it Israel (Ewald. 15^^ Ps. Ex. Sayings of the Jewish Fathers (ni3K 'pis). . the first and words (ihk . Israelites Comp. as presiding over different localities. pes') each end with a litera majuscula.." might not necessarily be a worthy object of human love). . 131).g. and expressions last remains the most prob. xiv. and also that the God who exists is truly one). and forms also a more adequate (Keil. Oehler. The first interpretation is not however excluded by it: for the unity of at the was "one. W. the intention of the scribes who introduced it may have been to mark the importance of the verse. rend. It is said in the TaXmud {Berachoth \^) that " Gehenna is cooled for whoever pronounces the SJi^ma distinctly" (pjjiso . Tiberias. declaring that indivisible. and Jer. Taylor. i : comp. 14^. as embodying the fundamental article of tlie Jewish faith. or to warn the scribe (or reader) that the words must be distinctly written (or pronounced). E. It is often indeed implied that Jehovah is superior to " other gods. 18^ (^^* Dt. . or different departments of nature. Of course it did not originate with the author of Dt. text of this verse.g.TnvniKa p-\p-iS\ c"p irnp Sa tuau iV). F. and cannot further be united syncretistically (as was done sometimes by the . Various explanations of the peculiarity have been proposed (see Buxtorf. Zech. 3^). DEUTERONOMY Does in it express the unity of Jehovah. 7* cannot — like Ba'al and 'Ashtoreth. He is His essence S. Or does denote the unique- " one " Zech. Baudissin. or C. Oettli) ? The second interpretation gives the higher and 38. fuller meaning to the term. ch." but not Jehovah is almost a necessary corollary of His uniqueness.

638) 2 K. i5 Dan. and with the pure and intense affection denoted by the term "love.) it involves the fear and the service of God : . AT. Baudissin." to the service of the one Jehovah.. Hauptprobleme. and as the chief command(Mk.). while alluded to Dt. 40-48). It occurs besides 42^ 1012 ijis 13* 26!'' 302... . 12 ioi2ff. Is. 8«o al}). 7^).18.22 134(3) ig9 306.^ (cnVKn) Dt. illustrated with the greatest eloquence See further on this subject. 38 ff. p.21 459. SO Jos. Him (Dt. 226-229. . 317 Onderzoek. Kuenen. i^^-^ Z'^^ (the Song). 1512: Jer. i.. 2*8^8 (^2 Ch. 22^ 23I* (both D2). beside God " and c. 175-184. uses it once. 1892. 214-216. which logically leave no room for heathen gods beside Him: still. with undivided allegiance. AT." are used (as by Amos). f)." but that "other gods" have no real existence whatever . Konig. pp.* 159 ff". 446 455. and with all thy force\ the primary duty of the Israelite. 5 91 respecting His supremacy over nature or the heathen world. Theol. 1882. pp.). with peculiar as characterizing Jehovah's true worshippers in the Decalogue (Ex. I K. implying the devotion of the whole being to God (see on 42^). (v.16. 356-360. jos. 233 ( = 2 Ch. not to serve different gods indiscriminately. 20*5 = Dt. 205-207. the real existence of "other gods " does not seem to be actually denied and it is only gradually seen distinctly. ^^ . of God. 22^ 23" (both D2) not else: where in the Hex. § 71. pp.6. i^o-iTj . 268ff.14. Smend.— With all thy heart. Theol. but to devote himself. 134-137.^. cf. 1893. And thou shall love Jehovah thy God with all thine heart. 5^°. not only that Jehovah is unique among "other gods. set forth in emphasis as the fundamental motive of human action (iqI^ hL 13. 9* (both from Dt.T. attd with all thy soul. it impels those who are filled with it to the conscientious observance of all God's 30I6) : commands (iii-22 i^o it thus appears as the most inward and the most comall religious duties. 5. 6. in other books Jud. Hibbert Lectjtres.VI. 329 ft'. and taught explicitly. Rel. Theol. 1874. The truth is emphasized and power by II Isaiah (esp. 312* 9710 14520. . and His relation to "other gods. 435-39 7* 2 S. 32^1!. 3^ Neh. 3431)25 (all It is Deut. 304) Montefiore. 20. ! Hibbert Lectures.) comp.-Gesch. 13 1012 iii3).C. ft". «« it is a duty which follows naturally as the grateful response to Jehovah for the many undeserved mercies received at His hands (v. 119. 728 i K. 5^1 i K. lO. 2 Ch. and prehensive of ment of all with all thy soul] a specially Deuteronomic expression. Rev. i22&f)" {D\\\m. The is love of God. Ps. Schultz. 275-277 (E. strengthened here by the addition of and with all thy force .

so perhaps msaiB may have denoted properly bands goi"& round In 2 S. lo^'^f). The words embodying this truth. it is to serve as an ever-present memorial to the Israelite of his relationship to Jehovah and of the debt of gratitude which he owes Him. The etym. and this duty. And shall talk may all Comp. which is parallel to 65 here. Shall be : upon thy heart] as it were. make a clraiit . to prick in.] in 11^^). 31^^) cf. sense of phylactery (">KB being msmo] ii" Ex. Stade. 8'* C . These words\ i. of conversation at — 8. where the reference seems to be in particular to the truths expressed in io^2_jii7 (see esp. and esp.e. is a great one and it was it a true instinct later time to select for which led the Jews of a recitation twice daily by every Israelite (the ShSftia). v. questioned as to the "first commandment of all" (Mt. and as to the primary condition for the inheritance of eternal life (Lk. D3 ma-n] on 3**. 24^^. also 4^^ 620-25. are to be ever in the Israelite's memory. In Ex. . 13^''.^-^. —The passage. and they shall be for frontlets (niSDlob) between thine eyes] so ii^^. the reference being to sacred The form is generally 8. 3). § 116. Mk. ii^^* words upon your heart and np07i your soul"). The Arab." i. i^" © Knsmo denotes a bracelet ( = the head. so Est. And thou shall hind upon thy hand. order that they not be forgotten." 21 it has its techn. upon thy children] |3B' (only here) is properly. made them familiar. — DEUTERONOMY hence 2 K. 7. they are to be a subject times (cf. see Ex.— 92 (lisr^ h^yi) . regarded as scribed before his eyes. 7. Ew. 13^. i3'®t« supposed to be abbreviated for msafia (cf. — the quintessence of the entire teaching of the book. &c. Dt. should have referred both His questioners to the same text. ii^^. inculcate. § 158*=. phrases. is uncertain. as i i^sb is to 6^ and 1 1^^^. or head-tire. impress. 11^^ (teach). 6^"^. already 6-9. of them when thou sittest.. Hcb. It is further significant that our Lord. with force = greatly). where the dedication of the first-born is to be " for a them for a sign (niS?) sign upon thine hand. with which daily use must have \2^^^-). and to be visibly in6. when 22^''''-.e. — interpreted in that sense) . . imprinted there (Jer. and for frontlets between thine eyes. 23^^ (of Josiah)t. as it ye shall lay these ("And my — seems. Afid t/ioti shall impress them. —the only passages in which "lX>p occurs in this sense (elsewhere always in adv. a circle. /a/a is to walk round about.^). mysn) Ez.to 6^.

"^ ii. p.^. and regarded as an . 3 Schiirer. but among the Jews it is the name given to the small metal cylinder enclosing a square piece of parchment. -^Between thine cf. These are the cf.. 3 Jos. Ant.^ by inscribing Ex.^.. Ant. its Deliverer.similar and the . Jud. 8. 581 ff. . provided without exertion on its part.*-5). Let Israel beware lest. And thou shalt •write thetn upon the door-posts of thy house.e." We find *' even the store-rooms.^ 1871.* gave rise to the is still regarded as obligatory by all orthodox Jews. in the royal mansions.. same time Ps.' the miitizel mobdrak of the modern Arabs. called p^sn by the Jews Times of Jesus. accommodated to the ii20. Pesahitn iv. it seems on the whole to be more probable (cf. 8.^ Similarly it is a common practice to the present day. v. p.e. . with leathern thongs attached. The antiquity of this custom is attested by the references to it in the Mishnah {e. : — religious creed of the Hebrews. and on thy gates] so Probably an Egyptian custom. V. Berachoth 1. containing the ovals and titles of the monarch. "Mezuzah" properly signifies ^door-post. Synag. as the good abode. 6'*"^ and 11^^"^. 1878. Edersheim. 121^ (Kitto's Cyclopedia. amulet . &c. 319 f. pp. Anc. reciting at the the pious Jew. or something. Mezuza). iv. . —The . placed under the protection of a tutelary deity " (Wilkinson-Birch. 14^. 13^-1^ would favour the same interpretation."^ p. which were then enclosed in cases. : : : . visible expression of the Israelite's creed . 13 Buxtorf. Modem Egyptians. . it forget Jehovah. (v. on thy forehead 9. 8. I. in Mohammedan countries. 7f. to inscribe verses from the Qor'an. i. ' ancient Egyptians sometimes wrote a lucky sentence over the entrance of the house. VI. inscribed with Dt. or pious invocations. Megillah \. i. 13 (quoted ih.g. 361 f. 10-15. vineyards. at the time when the Sh^ma was recited. The later Jews carried out the injunction in v. NZg. eyes] i. iv. upon (or over) the door (Lane. Pr. in the enjoyment of material blessings. touches it. were frequently covered with hieroglyphics. and gardens. 1^ 3^ 621 ^3) . and bound on the forehead . 76.). which is affixed to the upper part of the right hand door-post in every Jewish house.). and some material. Edersheim. the expressions are evidently meant figuratix cly here. referred to comp. is^'^"* ^'"^^ and Dt. s.ind left arm. Egyptians. that the injunction that is is intended to be carried out literally. 6-9 93 observances. where the reference is to words only though the parallelism of Ex. . i. p. . the terms of which support some- what strongly the literal interpretation of x. 383) it can hardly be doubted also Its observance that it is alluded to by Josephus.v. and desert Him for other gods. Life and (pvXaKTYifia of the NT.). as he passes it. or kisses his finger. institution of the Mezuzah {Berachoth iii. 8 Taanith iv. for a favourable omen. "The lintels and imposts of the doors. 6*"^ 11I3-21 q^ small scrolls of parchment. 76).

such as are cf. 2 Ch. 36^^.1^ (JE). like So 78 8^* 136. — — for the storage of still common in Palestine: water during the hot season. 26^0 Is. 24-25. Beware The house of bondage (onny n^a)] lit. 133. : And by his name shalt thou 11. § 104 (v. first in Ex.—12. 34^3.) are thus the Hebrew equivalents of "religion. was no cistern in : — (Deut. nyan] Dr. . —13. lest His jealousy be roused. sometimes referred to purely as a blessing. ^^'jS) are used technically of the performance of sacred duties by priests and Levites {e. 2227 7828 Ru. 6* Jer. both the verb and the subst. 5^)1. 1821 &c. 68 the Latin ergastulum. 10. ^c] i^. Neh." of the Feast of Unleavened Cakes) cf. 13. 2325 Is. «« The fear of Jehovah " and '* one that feareth Jehovah " or " God " ijm'^ nxT. sometimes as tending to elation of heart. A person taking .") : Dr.— 94 — DEUTERONOMY : — — same thought is drawn out more fully in S"^'"^^ cf. position of the obj. 24 86 10I2. 925. 10^2)^ often inculcated in Jehovah Dt. 1923 &c). fhe expression occurs It is 2o2 ( = Dt. . in contin. and He be moved to destroy His people. the spontaneous outcome. of religious reverence (10^2. 9^5 (a quotation). Jehovah thy God shalt thou fear\ the fundamental element of the religious temper and the basis of other religious emotions {e. house of (^^»k^^^)] 4^." Eat and be fult\ 810. and consequently a source of spiritual danger {&^ 8^2 nis 3120 Neh. 1." And : him shalt thou serve] viz. 13^. 31IO Neh.g. 13). Which he sware. in acts of public devotion. c. place where slaves were kept in confinement.11 Jos. (DM^X) niH' sn^ Job ii 2828 Ex. 1 2^' ^. Cisterns hewn out\\'xz. In the Priests' Code. "And there Kereho and I said to all the people. 32^2-15 Hos.g: Nu. of § 49. 3^^ 4^ 7^* 10^ 13'* ("to serve this service. i. of devotion and love. —13-15. Make you each a cistern ("13) in his own house. 2\^ 2 Ch. ify^ifi] swear] so lo^^. . (4IO 526(29) 62. and Mesha"s inscription. No doubt the word was also used more widely. so as to include the performance of other duties belong-ing to a religious life but its primary sense of executing definite and formal acts of worship is apparent from such passages as Ex.20 nis 135(4) 28^7 Ex. 20 135 1^23 17I9 2858 31I2. (cf. 2417 (D2) Jud. i'*). 11." and "religious.e. § 115. Notice (thrice) the emph. 1K'3' '3 — G-K.12 11I5 1429 26I2 3i20 Joel 226 Ps. Israel's duty is to cleave steadfastly to and not to forsake Him for other gods. slaves. 925).) Mic. 4*^ 16*). and the natural expression. always used with reference to Egypt. 3c. {i^JJ.

ii^ Jer. 10^). Jehovah when they act as if doubting whether His promise be true. provings (see note on 4**). attend — may 16. Introd. His presence amongst them. mn' js] on 41". 721 2315(14) Jos. ^in. in order that prosperity it. and Dr. Hath commanded thee] on 4^ 529(^2)^ \^ Shalt do that which is right and good in JehovaKs eyes] so 1228 2 Ch. Ex. or whether the character he bears is well established (i K. The cxprcssion. Israelite is to 12^") : swear by Jehovah Himself. In the midst of thee] Hos. is specially characteristic of writers of the Deuteronomic school (in particular. Dt. Go after\ 4^ 8^^ ii28 i^s (of ( following Jehovah. 20^ 1^3 i820 281436.— VI. 48^^-14. Comp. Israel is not to put Jehovah to the test.] by calling in question.^^). 78I8 (see v. § 5). "p'OBTn . of faith. Ye shall not put Jehovah to the proof. 16'* Jud.. — by Deut. 4. cf. 57) 74 819 I1I6.e. as they had done formerly at Ps.28 133. 63^2 (n)j jg thus a synonym of Jehovah's true worshipper: cf. Proving (Ex. v. 23^3 2/^^-^^. Ps. 1225 § 1 j^wos) 10. 95^). and Jer. Gn. 8^^) a blessing is promised by Jeremiah to those who swear by Him faithfully (Jer. cf.— 18. the — 15. and means to prove a person. 13* (^'. 2^ 3*). 42 12^^).«• 08 958 106". for instance. or other prophets. I0-I8 — — — 95 reveres an oath invokes naturally the name of the God whom he an oath is accordingly a peculiarly solemn confession . not by Ba'al or even by idolatrous representations of Jehovah (Am. So massoih ^34 yi9 292(3) are not "temptations.). and men test. 16-19. in modern English. cf. or puts him to the test. 20j Jqs.7. 177).—Destroy (n^Dtj'n)] 127. 172-7 Nu. The (Jer. 26^. Testimonies] 4*^. 922 338 by doubting His word. writers. 17." but trials. = Dt. 28^*. . 172. the compiler of Kings: see 15. 14I 3i2<>. 1422 Ps.'i nKai] on 4' . to see whether he will act in a particular way (Ex. 149 al. "He that sweareth by Jehovah" (Ps. 22^ Ex. Is. for to tempt has. 20-" Dt. Is. . or whether He is faithful to His revealed character. acquired the sense oi provoking or enticing a. A jealous God] 310 on 1^2 : cf.^) 23I3 Dt. or prove. a phrase used frequently . act in a particular : test or Massah] i. 7^2. Other gods] Ex. to see if his fidelity or affection is sincere. . esp. God thus proves a person. 8^ {q-v. Tempt is a misleading rendering . &c. n'pn) npj is a neutral word. : not in Is. but rather to obey His commandments. person in order that he may way (=Heb.7. or Massah (Ex.14 M 2^25(26)20^7 31I8. though found occasionally elsewhere. compiler of Kings. on 42*. Usually without "and good " and in that form.

) he brought out] cf. (Introd. 10" Jer. When thy son asketh thee in time to co?ne 13^*.). 38 — &c. corresponding to the Arab. application only 9* Jos. As at this day] on 2^^.] Jehovah. nasala. 3' Jos. and ii29. . . law now set before (lit. occurring.^).g. To keep us alive] cf. 1. tis to- — morrow).\ 4^. Jer. 2 R. exceptionally. 4^^. When Jehovah thy God shall bring thee into the land] so 6^" And shall clear away] see below. YII. the Israelites are not to mingle with the native inhabitants. that He might complete His redemptive work towards Israel. The Hittite (i). go in. camem ex lebete) in Ex. and to destroy all their religious symbols. nashala is extraxit {e. : . ii33. and occasionally besides (see on 2 S. Before our eyes] 420. as Ex. Arab. unixi] emph. 4^5 9^8 j*^2 — That thou Ex. &'c. (see Tnayest (s]in)] ibid. saying] verbatim as Ex. In the land of Canaan. and shall be accounted righteous before Him. as happens 6 times (on 2^) in this phrase. 16* (Piel) in Ex. f 25'. Ex. 23. is To do Jud. feathers. § 35. And if we are careful to observe this law. 25. 4"to come. •inD]=m time 1:^ 31bS] — : —24. The good land\ — 19. loS^i. Signs andportents] 2I.— — 96 21^ Ex. to keep alive in it the spirit of true religion. 2^" Saad. not elided after 3. — — It shall be righteousness unto us\ cf. \ vh.. 1-5. 13^^. 15^ Ps. VII. —22. 24^2 (which makes it not improbable that the words "before Jehovah our God" have here been accidentally misplaced. 1526 I —— — — — DEUTERONOMY K. Sm\ so v.. cf. cf. on 4^. The children of successive generations are to be instructed in the origin and scope of the Israel. we shall have done all that we are required to do. &€. Testimofties] 4*5_ 32*. 23^ (D^)- ^^ Jehovah hath spoken\ 20-25.. tliat "which is evil in the eyes of Jehovah^ yet more ^iSO 5^^. g"ave it this law. 20.] Mighty hand] 434. cSr'c.besides in this cf. The correlative. 2P- 3"^' ^2 &c. 5^'t of drawing off a sandal. = Heb. — 1. 32*9. on 4^°).. and that they ought to follow " unto us ") . — That it may he well for thee^ i^^. 2327 ff. hm in 19*28^" is a different word. also Gn. — Brought forth. But us (emph. 2 K. to drop off {pi s^ hair.—24. — 20. vn'PO. 13" Jos. To fear. 21^ G-K. frequent in writers of the same school: Dt. &c). For good to us continually] lo^^ (cf. but to extirpate them completely. and to secure in perpetuity its national welfare. ^'^ al. § 5).-23. in a similar inquiry. To thrust out a rare word.— mn nvna] the art. 20.

Die Bibl. 10^ 11^ 2 K. ii) the Amorite and Canaanite. of Canaan (cf. 22i^ (31546 7). under Lebanon and Hermon. are included as well. and then "the Hittiie under Hermon "). Five of the nations here named (viz. and the Rephaim). 9^. 24^ IL XiTTiuf* Kahs for "Tahtim Hodshi). have been a branch or offshoot of the great nation was Kadesh on the Orontes. 24" (3541267).Jos. i. 15'^"'^ (153427. 7^) is attested by notices in the Assyrian and Egyptian Inscriptions. On the Amorite. esp. Jud. p. and the extent of whose empire (cf. Nu. is obviously rhetorical. and by their own monuments (at present undecyphered) the reference is probably in particular to parts in the extreme N. The intention of these enumerations . 7^ Jos. living beside : in the present lists. and the Canaanite (4). Urgesch. 33. 1 1. 23=8 (6 4 i). 19— VII. 13** -|-the Kenite. ii^ (S {Hivite for pittite.34" (341567). 9I and 128 (i 3 4 5 6 7). 9^ (3 I 5 6 7)=2 Ch. whose capital city . I 97 and the Amorite (3). which are alluded to elsewhere as having been in their occupation comp. 24^1 is one that is very the Girgashite (2). <f\. Seven nations are enumerated only Dt. 3^ and "(413567). by the figures just attached to them) we have Ex. 20" (i 3 4 5 6 7). the Kadmonite. 3^" 24" (both D-) : but (& often completes the same number by In Gn. . clear — —introduced by the compiler) and Deut. for brevity. The fullest enumeration is Gn. Sec also Ezr. writers.e. without any indication of the locality which they inhabited. on account of the topographical character of the notices contained in it (cf. rather than geographical or historical they are designed for the purpose of presenting an impressive picture of the number and variety of the nations dispossessed by the Israelites. the two principal tribes which once occupied Palestine. their relationship to each other is expressed by their being represented as the children of an eponymous ancestor. The Girgashites are named besides only in the lists Gn.(4 3 1 5 6 7). N.Dt. Elsewhere (see p. Budde. 11). 1* 3' Ct (HittUe for Hivite) Jos. together with some others. of Canaan. them in particular localities. 13^ 34'"' (both J) Jud.VI. 10" (=1 Ch. 4 5 are specified alone. 13' (4 i 3 6 7). 1") 15^^ Jos. and the Periszite (5)." Cf. 2 S. 11^4 3 i 5 7 6). Jud. see The Perizzites are mentioned (apart from the lists quoted above) in p. 9^ Nch. 7 . are also included in J's ethnographical table in Gn. and the Jebtisite (7)] such enumerations of the nations of Canaan are common. where they are described as "begotten" by Canaan. i K. 344 ff. 3« (4 I 3 5 6 7). 17326). 3^0 (4 I 6 5 2 3 7). 87 (I 3 5 6 7). being tribes inhabiting in common the country of Canaan. the Kenizzite. stand alone as representing the pre-Israelitish population the minor tribes. and the Canaanite. "Canaan. i"*-' (?lso perhaps J) inserting 2 before 6 7. in JE (in many cases probably ^Jos. and the Hivite (6). 3'" 24" Neh. is somewhat different. Hittites will The of Hatti. Thus (representing the several nations. p. I K. 10'^"^*.

It was thus applied. 17'' (beside the Rephaim). in the neighbourhood of Bethel and Shechem. 1 193. and presented to the sanctuary. is prescribed for the case of those outside the community of Israel trous Canaanites: in is : here and v. 15^). such objects being withdrawn from society at large. commonly the '^')J}. (as in Moabitish) was applied in particular to denote separation to a deity. according to the gravity of the occasion (contrast Dt.and 1 S. shalt devote theni\ or ban them. Dillm. anything imperilling the religious of the nation. 1^ 2 S. 32^^). or life rendering harmless. 5« a/. It is mentioned first in the Book of the Covenant. after a vow Dt. expelled from their strongholds by the Canaanite invaders. An in archaic institution often alluded to in the to OT. !*•' (in each case beside the Canaanite). i828 Jud. in which case it will signifj' properly d-wellers in the open country. 2 S. The name is derived possibly from the same root as 'lis (on 3^). the term used means properly separate or seclude Heb. in particular. 22^^ ('^\ of More the disloyal Israelite.^^ 4^^ 9^ ii^^. for the purpose of checking idolatry. after he Mesha* in his Inscription. 21^. became a mode of secluding. 2^^^. shows. 24'') thejebusites are well known as the tribe whose stronghold was the fortress J6bus. or not. frequency bj' Instances of the h^rem being put in force (which is referred to with and D') arc : Nu. DEUTERONOMY 13' 34^ Jud. all The "devotion" the cattle and it were destroyed. . HWB. to authorize their destruction. 34^ Jos.^ p.^**^ 2oi^-^8 for the idola- 1313-19(12-18) ^^g idolatrous Israelite city of a city involved : to be treated similarly. Deliver up before^ — Thou it thoii\ cf. .). but maintaining themselves beside their conquerors in the open country. — 2. the usage was utilized so as to harmonize with^the principles of their religion It and to satisfy its needs. The Hivites appear in Shechem and Gibe'on (Gn. if necessary. apparently as living in the centre of Palestine. 16-18. and '* dragged " them before Chemosh. From the Perizzites not being named among the descendants of Canaan in Gn. v. the death of spoil human beings resident in esp.(JE). at the same time. 9'' 11^ cf.98 Gn. afterwards Jerusalem (Jos. 10^') that they were the survivors of the pre-Canaanitish population of Palestine. he "devoted" 7000 Israelitish prisoners to 'AshtorChemosh ('noinn ^^"2 "inJJ'i/'b ''O). i^?^ nin^^ ^rib nnn^^ Q'^^^J' n2f. 1. on Gn. tells how. In Israel. had succeeded in carrying off the "vessels of Yahweh" from Nebo (Nu. 2^"* 3"" D . Ex. : Greater and mightier than 1^. lo^"'^^ it has been conjectured (Riehm. Jos. which had power. As Arabic .

• . 25® Mic. . and the hanm. applied also to its occupants. 210 . at points at which the voice would naturally rest : cf. . . cf.-6. with the single change of cut into hew cf. prohibit. ^4^ soii] cf. as Mic. 4^^ Mai. the classical passage defining 142.00. 8^ 'yj'!. ishp] notice the emphatic pausal form. see on 1621-22. the "harem. 2iVi holy nation"). 6-11. i5'" *• *• 1' (the spoil express secondary ideas. An holy people] so . .»« . : was here made h^rem. 34^2 lit. 23^2 ^£)2j • Qf_ q^. or son-in-law so Jos.21 26i». i.— aTTPK] with 5^3 3 K. The ground of the preceding prohibitions it : Israel is sacred to Jehovah. Hos. and frequently. not less than of fear. 2280 enp "'B'JNI TD'] cf. dHD'T is usually rendered "utterly destroy. 21 (^11 D^). 34^2 ^cf.). 28' zf^ 63^ 91" 104'". 426 2820. 6"-"- 7"-") g^.01. and motives of gratitude. The root is the Arab. 1 1^' (unless annn should here be read) 34^ Jer. or " devoted " a part of it was afterwards reserved by Saul. 3^* (4^) i K. 2x5 also Gn. devote" on the margin." the connexion between the two cognate terms is preserved. 34' ('mn Dj. k^'^ (**ye shall be unto me a peculiar possession out of the peoples. with the smaller distinctive accent Zaqef. harama. Ex. (both JE)." and D"in "accursed thing". by the Canaanites are to be destroyed. " nnxD to i S. On the "pillars" or « obelisks" (ni25fD). . All objects worshipped. Nor Join thyself in marriage 'with them] : make I thyself inn.e.t^^'^f). pyilJp . as very often in the prophets: so 17' Quickly] cf. whole 20. 18^1. 17^4. ^c] . . and mn being rendered "devoted thing. altars Their ye shall break down. 39. upon Ex. 'f^' ""^).!. with " Heb. S. whence the harim or sacred Ttfityos of the Temple at Mecca. Nor his daughter shalt thou take unto thy Ex. '' nna la] for the position of 13. 2820 29^^-. In AV.12. Ex. — . ao''^ ('onn b-'k) Is. . . — 4. the terms of the covenant between Jehovah and His people. and their Asherim ye -shall hew down] repeated verbally from Ex. S. and their pillars ye shall dash in pieces.28. or held sacred. 123. 40 „ 11. Jos. nnxo . with rhetorical variations. the secluded apartment of the women. Jer. 34^^^. 34^^*. For fig. but these terms both I S. 15" nby. 14' 18* '. "utterly destroy" has been mostly retained for onn. 12^. — 6. Jud. as it was secreted by 'Achan on a similar occasion. to shut off. — Thou shall make no covenant with them] so Ex.i. 5^ Ps. 23" 2 K. 2^ Ex. 35'' 'yao 'yjp. Jos. Dt. 28^ Comp. 232*). 2-6 — — 99 « (cf. For he will turn away thy son from following me] Me] the discourse of Moses passing insensibly ii^*'- into that of God. uses of both. 4" nap^. cf. should impel to obedience. — 5." .— — VII. For thou art an holy all people. 2ii"'' . based. besides being apparently unrelated to each other in RV. see Is. and "Ashdrim" (Q'l. 2322. cf.37. — 3. i. Gn.

partly ceremonial. from peculium. The doctrine of it Jehovah's love of Israel not expressed elsewhere in the Pent. 32 Ex.20 44I. loved 7. as a quality demanded of Israel by Jehovah the in the Holy One. 19^ (n^JD whence also Ps. v.—8. Is. in conse- "Law of Holiness" {L. &c. ji peculiar people] '^Yt^ '-^j "^ people of special possession. Is. by Jehovah ("peculiar" being used in the sense of the Lat. the now termed. (4^7 77 iq^s 14^) so Jer. occurs before. a technical term denoting the private property which a child or slave or master to possess) : so 142 26^^. 2 ^-4^ also (of the future) Is. 29^ Eccl. ^^. partly moral. 14I 659- and of Jehovah's ideal servant." a people specially treasured. according to the thought which the Writer at the time desires to impress. The holiness of Israel.22. Rare (Gn. (see RV. 332*. in Dt. The representation of Israel's numbers and power appears to vary. silver. —ayan] 91" . not on account of The smallest of all the peoples] cf. 1-3 the figure of the 7. and prized.— lOO 'b '{friT] — DEUTERONOMY — .) belonging to kings. denoting 43 God's choice of Israel (though the idea. where is used of a private treasure applied to 'h Dn^'ni) (of gold. 135^. the art. Israel in the fundamental passage Ex.O. the love for the patriarchs 4^7 is lo^^). 19^"^). — 8. used as a theological term. contrast iio iq22 («<as the stars of heaven"). expressed more generChosen\ first ally. cshk '• na. : Am.g. gives to ej-d the force of a superlative. (see on is 14^^). ^\ p . — 9^=2 Ch. 38" i K. but because He and would not forget His promise to its forefathers. 35". 348 Ps. in different passages. Comp. i^^. 17-26.' 9=» Ez. 2^. "the fewest" {Lex. and (of the faithful Israelites in the future) 317 deemed it Jehovah has thus chosen and reits numbers. is and if the date assigned to Dt. first taught by the prophet Hosea. e. quence of p. and demanding a corresponding love and affiection on the other. peculiars. by critics be correct. 418. n lb). as y. who conceives the relation of Jehovah to His people as a moral union^ marked by love and affection on the one side. it was allowed by parent The force of "jiap appears It is from I Ch.^ 43^0. on 125.). prn] ioi» 21". Loved you] so y 13 236 (cf. —7-8. often this characteristic. and in II Isaiah.^ 4^^ gi ii23.) insisted on with great emphasis Code of laws contained in Lev. ff.iKO] cf. 4^ 26^ ("great nation"). Israel.T. Mai. In Hos. ^•^- 42^497.

cf. 3I 9^5^ and (in the promise for the future) i4^<*>. In later prophets the idea recurs Jer.— tnn] 322. The oath which he sware. death. 2922 Hos. Dt.i^kh] h^ 2 K. however. Prophets of Israel. 69'^ 72^* 103* . Ex. 3^''. and the author's Sermons on the O. thus in the Psalms . 43* 63^ Mai.T. i^. and esp.g. the covenant and the loving-kindness. v. and on 4'*. 3010 31^ 43^ Which keepeth the covenant and the loving-kindness] i. Jer. 31*' id. Gn. i» Is. 32''. i54ff." Like ms. ii^-* . in the expression D^n Vxli. in II Isaiah ^kj is the usual term. 6" (P). it is thus used Lev. an exposition of the 2nd Commandment of the Israel's Decalogue. to reclaim. The fig. 45^8 (p. i. 24^^ Ps. fidelity to His promise. (see note). io^t. 17^ 49 1 K. of Jehovah's reclaiming His people from exile in Babylon. Qf ransoming. So v. A mighty hand] 3^^. Ransomed thee (llQ^)] here used fig.&c. danger. p. who has been betrothed : it is then often applied figuratively to deliverance from trouble. i^. or by payment of a sum of money (Ex.— — — VII. from death. R. . 15 2^20 fju^ jgis. in different books . 48'^ Hos. is effectively marriage-tie ing this: in Hos. 26" 92*' 78*2 Job deliverance from Egjpt. faithfulness (not truth) — 49^ also Ex.".^ Is. either by a substitute. Ps.e. 13^ 15^* 21^ 24^* (not : denotes the person who vindicates the rights of a murdered man. is different hta is properly to resume a claim. p. comp. 41" 43^ 44-. 313 Is.\ cf. of the so elsewhere in the Pent. of deliverance from the "house of bondage" (6^^). &c. 9-^^ see on (1892).. or right which has lapsed.— d'.i] He has promised before. Ex. Snj is then also used metaphorically of release from trouble of various kinds {e. || II 9-10.®) .. 13" Ps. 72*. Gn. See further W. 22 ff. and esp. 91). it j^is. 6* (I'ms may r'3Di). 13'^ ma. 15 ff.is. or revealed is character — is an attribute which frequently mentioned as «/• characterizing Jehovah.).. of ransoming. 222 f. 7-9 — . the "avenger of blood. nyi.e.Tifl is more common than Sk3.the firstborn).a woman. Cheyne's Hosea (in the Cambridge Bible for Schools). which which are familiarly known. 2525^. 19*^ 520 a/.— The J^^N cf. and those that hate Him. in II Isaiah.e. or animal. Jer. re-vindicate . 19'° Is.of the redemption of a house or field.. He is the God {^^rh'^T\)\ : 435. (2 S. &c. 21^ Lev. as here. The primary sense of the synonym hxi. 9.39. Mic. 34^ (n!:si IDn m). 2 S. 19* al. i. And justice both those Vv.) comp.— 9.). and (of the future) Zeph. Is. use of the two words varies. after it has been sold (cf. comp. Smith. lOI applied for the purpose of symbolizJehovah is represented as cherishing towards His people the love and affection of a father. In its technical sense ms means to ransom a person. pp. 15^^ (the Song). 9-10 are faithful God] God is one Who rewardeth with equal who love Him.

ii6''. The in amplification. Cf. but ton is a quality exercised mutually amongst equals . . who has oflFended or injured him . e. the blessings of His mercy are fj^S of Dt. R. of obeying the commandments now laid before it. to. 1\i&sing. 4^ 6^*® i2"(®)). or national ties those who love God. 406 f. nONnV). him. Ex.\ 528(31) 51^ 12-16. cf. whether by : domestic. or social. 7-*^ felt in antiquity than in it (which was modern times 2 S. as it were. experience the tokens of His favour. he deferreth (it) not." "thousands" of the 2nd Commandment does not mean definitely to the thousandth descendant of the godly man.). to a thousand generations] ** doing loving-kindness unto thousands. form. &'c. The practical duty based upon Jehovah's moral dealings with men. (see 10'-) 358 41^ 552". 10. 20^). Job is requited in person for h-s misdeeds 2119 jn^i \^\^ xb^\_ (Job's wish see RV. 736b jgr. 20*5. 24). 2ii-i^ c. and courtesy. § 145. 2325-27^ at the end of the "Book of the diffused abroad.« ps. 5 R.g. 22^" (G-K. cf. and keep my commandments. which adds a grace and softness to the relations subsisting between members of the same society (comp. (if .28 iyi2f.— — DEUTERONOMY IS : I02 ion is a wider and more comprehensive term than "mercy": "mercy" properly the quality by which a person renounces. 20^ in virtue of the solidarity of the family or the tribe much more comp.. The reward of Israel's obedience will be prosperity and health.e. i6ofF. related to The (^) them that love me. The passage in general character resembles the exhortation. rather than — : : — izing: Job 13". consideration. (cf. after vnjp'?. viz. out of motives of benevolence or compassion. 10. his legitimate rights against one. and in virtue of th^t love. 24^^ (see note). 7^ is thus a rhetorical an exact interpretation. Ex. it is the kindliness of feeling." Gn. Smith. The force of non is most adequately represented by kindness (Hos. for instance. &€. whether or not his descendants suffer likewise (Ex. whence. individualthe text be always sound) 7^'' Lev. upon Israel's part. the obligation. strongly Jos.. centres. "to do ion and faithfulness with a person.] stress is laid on the fact that the evildoer. W. 21^ 25"^ Jud. pp.—11.34b ^4 jjS 8o32b. denotes thousands of those belonging or connected with. &€. The commandment. of the D^Q^S of Ex. upon thousands brought within range of their influence. sufF. Prophets.). to show towards one the kindness and faithfulness of a true friend).. or when applied to God for the term is too strong to be used generally of men loving-kiTidtiess. the common expression. — To them that love him (6^). 24^ 47^ Jos. VJB !?«] cf. i. Repaying them that hate him to their face . 2" &c. but.

431. § 93 R. Die Bb. § 115 (s. ^c] !>3. p^ Mic. apy).— 13. under one of her types. Will remove from."• i8. Gn. and appears to had the form of a sheep {v. p.v. The covenant. or harmless (Hos. The expression is peculiar (lit. V. Krankheiten des Orients. if Israel be Hengstenberg. . the St.5i. — Will put none. 457 'yi 'y inan33i 13 n". he sware. 284. elephantiasis and other skin complaints. 13" The root is preserved in the Aram.^ B . on thy al. — . and ophthalmia being particularly p. The para- graph ends hearken : (cf. 292). R. Mose^ s und Aeg.2*.24(8. will be laid by Jehovah upon its foes.g. 4^1). -wq. 302 oil] Ps. I^el. was nevertheless a much (cf. Smith. (l3t53)] — Will 13^8 — : 12. B^l^n IW fresher extract of the grape than 9^3). wine 1422 . f.). inc] 28«'t. Increase rare words thus rendered. —— — — — io-r6 — 103 Covenant. 13^^ Ps. 22) jgj." and contains reminiscences from see below. . : . . 460 ff. The climate of Egypt is unhealthy. 4^^ ('3 apj?). It.g.-Jon. behoof: so S naj Lev. On •\\^ to cast forth (a coi-pse) c. 342^^—15. § 191°. All such diseases. 6^ Is. lS]_/&rthee. Ex. 2^^ 12"* 28"»' 41^7 43". tears Jer.— H. prevalent (cf.. 28*..35 (the D^VO pnK') ®°. — 16. cf.TXI "it^X i^^. 225 f. if together in similar passages: 210. Crc] And bless thee and multiply thee] Gn. dysentery. CoT^i . force : Dr. 22^'' 26^^. c. . not D^t?n. 1321^1. 53 ^o^ of. 6^5 Is. it is promised. of the goddess 'Ashtoreth. 22" Dnxin] with a frequent. — — 14. 2&^ al. cf. 28'"»-5«» Gn. Because] The fruit of thy womb Mic. Ex. though not entirely unfermented. The terms used denote these pro- ducts in an unmanufactured state.. Cf. pysB'n i-pv\ in = — — have its origin in the name show that this deity. irj]*'^)— |J"n — relatively not (t^'iT'Jji). In on 15*. 15. 1526 Evil diseases of (JE) l^^y n^E'N sb DnVD3 TlOtJ' IK'K n^ncn 282". not m^n. 658 Jud. especially at certain seasons of the year. Tb'jk •)i^] so zS*-^^-^* . e. 2322f) with a renewed inculcation of what because ye reward for (the fact) that ye hearken so 8-". nona "^i^ Ex._ n^* 12^'^ 18* 28^1 3112 al.— VII. ty^ to drop. . it must 12. referred to and Pruner. the three chief products of the soil of Palestine. keep for thee] v.T k"?] might seem to be a neater and more logical sentence e.^-^. 2326. (JE)t. Gn. More often of past time.is Ex.. Wliich thou knowest] cf. Am. G-K. Sent.T nV . note). not ^f. see below. " the 'As/ttoreths of thy flock"). thee all sickness] Ex. 2325 "impo ri^n» Tin^Dni. 1^ (see but there are many examples of a similar order in Heb. obedient. Or female barren] Ex. inonaai r\^py\ ipy 13 n-. 13". young] on the Upon the ground which . by Dillm. Egypt] cf. Stade. ^c] thee] ii9-2i 28^^ 302" 3120. W. absolutely (I".— iJKs mncy] so 28^-i»-«t. I)!.. . to drop (young) Ex. — 13. often named Hos.

only the uncontracted form occurs before suffixes (Je.^ be complete. In cavities of rocks necessary to fly with .' ^3in vh\ expressing a moral possibility = " thou mayest not. Provhigs] s^. TJsa «'"»« as«n' k^] so 11^. TCK 4 c)." Nu. 20. i.^^)." a usage of Ss' almost confined to Dt. in Two of the four species of hornet Palestine construct their nests underground or in : and should a horse tread on a nest. an extreme case of tpk used as a mere link of con19..). (v. The repetition expresses gradual prog^ress G-K. c. 9^ 18. Shall clear away Ex.— Terrible] iqIs cf. in (Dillm. of the Canaanites. a semi-poetical 14^. cat {^3S). 486). In its struggle with Israel rest assured that the nations still of Canaan. .— I04 is — — DEUTERONOMY — here foremost In the Writer's thought (v. 34^2. igis. 17-24.29b^ Quickly of course a relative term. Which thine eyes saw] 4^.n (2''-' al. 3 R. 21.v.''') : a similar it corresponds thee] "in one year" in Ex. nexion between two sentences = wherewith i S.] cf. 2^. 4^* 62if-.^) these nations by is little and little.— 22. cf. 2 Ch.Jud. — — — 1^3S> ny-ivn-ns Tin^^in. cf. Canaanites will ^K'!n. 23^. "vcxn ij. and force them found to relinquish them. ttr] : — — — p._ryo eye] so Ex. Jos.'Konig. 28"" 8'* {Lex. (12" 16* 17" 21^" 22'-^^'^ 24'*. 285S. E'pio^ lS n\n^ ^3 Dn\-i^x : varied from Ex. 23^8 aid. let Jehovah will be present with His — If thou shall say in thine heart] iS^i. it is all speed for the combined attack from such a swarm has been known to be fatal {DB. by which Israel was to be aided in the expulsion of the Canaanites it 24^2 (E or D^).— 21. 25^2. cf. § 133. (Sr'c] Cf. 4520 Is. 2329. —23-24. however. would penetrate even into the hiding-places in which "those who were left " of the Canaanites had taken refuge. &c. .^ s. 23.). ^j^g same idiom and often nayn "3 in Ez. 28^. . Gen. 43*^). and must be understood here of a shorter period than in 9^ divergence of representation in the note on to v. perhaps cyn was avoided as a solcecism (cf. 23^2 cf. The hornet is named (**and also") as a specially terrible plague.— 19.n on account of rtmno" Elsewhere the verb in use is c. 2330. the pf. pyn k"?] i=*. What Jehovah thy God did. — the midst of thee] 6^^.2 D3nri \h. 2820- **• «• »• «>. usage. The destruction of the —23. v. lit. f?Nn] 4^2. oon)] "pointed as though from oi. And the hornet also] Ex.—22. cf. Jer. 15' CD^jq). ^fc] varied from (cf. 17. "our bread. — Neither shall thou serve their gods. lo-^ 30^^ 50^: also Gn. 21 TJiine eye shall not pity them] 139 (s) 13^^. morn ny] cf. the destruction Shalt devour] cf. Deliver up before . 51** '^sct.\ of which.

26.27. So V. 5'. the yet the syntax could not in such cases have actually permitted it motive.] similarly 28^ Jos.26 igi* 22'-* 23". 1822. i*. 51^ a3mn riy. f Vn (see Jer. Their graven images ye shall hum withfire^ repeated from v. 'Jea is stronger than '3sS. shows that the punctuators must have recognized an inf. for though it is true (Ew. 23^^: see on i^. i/s^^^ {T\'\'i\>^ nnx) the form. as they stand. In all probability the punctuation. and in Jer. . 2^^.x ground of a prohibition. 11". i S. \>). 17-26). 25. 10". Jer. 10^ 21*2 23^!: cf. But in hour victory. 25^ Dnx TTOe'n nj. Such a form of the inf. ^'? nnpSi] under the government of \ih in ncnn vh (Dr. i. the syntax will permit Taori and T'lnn to be treated. 14*®'' TJori "O' Va mx. with which the wooden core. ." through God's judgment being- provoked by the idolatrous fehovah thy God (l^n!. 'Jsa njy to answer against.not to the images. Lest thou be snared by it] i. Lev. 5^ 1420. Hif. in a hostile sense: cf. of Their kings\}QS. In Lev. — § 115. is hardly one that could have determined the pronunciation in the living language. s. into idolatry." but "be brought into misfortune.). 23-"". — the precious metal idol. comp. 212) that it is due to the analogy of the perfect . but to the precious metal upon them) not "be seduced relic. Never so in JE.) the syntax. 25-26. 15^ 2 K. does not represent an original and true tradition and -n should be throughout restored for -rt.30 20^3 (but The expression fehovah' s abominaBook of Proverbs (n20 1222 it] —26. 14*^ nr<< 25. c. — . therefore. 7^^ \2^^ Y^ 1^4 2715 32^^. p. 30^2 40^9 Hab. only of sins of unchastity). 25^' Jer. . tion also occurs frequently in the 158 al. ':S3 pT to spit against or in one's face. in the "Law of Holiness" (Lev. . (not 3. from under heaven\ cf. 17-26 varied from Ex. lo--^. Of course in these passages.v. Job 16^ Hos. and very insufficiently explained by the suggestion (Konig. and most probably also in i K.e. as perfects (see i S. § 238^) that it is usually found after a noun or a nounal prep. Comp.29. 49^ 50^) : so also Lev. or framework of the cf.e. expressing not merely before. the suffix. but in the face of. as in Lev. i-jis nin^ nnjnn)] abomination of similarly. with liireq (cf. as the final An 17I 18^2 22^ 23^^ 24^ 25!^: cf. And become a devoted thing (D^n) like the with nDy Jos.^. On iS see on i". '3S^ as'nn 9^ Jos. and so in a position which would readily admit of a finite verb. let not Israel be — The silver and the gold upon them] overlaid : tempted to make truce with the idolatry of Canaan. (the reference being. against. kV). though it is one which might have influenced the punctuators. on 3' 28**. 3. Discomfit\ Ex. 40'). with Stand in thy face\ 1 1^5 see below. A great discomfiturc\ 12"^-. was Is. on 3*).11^2 Make their name the to perish blot out {jWKi) 9^* 251^ 29I3. . is however highly anomalous. 50^ (V'JTn \V^ ranni . — 24.— — — —— — I05 VII. in these cases.

. a \. To prove thee] cf. 2-6. for the purpose of enforcing it by a fresh motive.^) : the Israelite is to abstain even from bring-ing into his house. providence of God. i6i Nu. WJiether thou wouldest keep. law the principle of ii^-^. as illustrating the discipline of the ni] 2''. in which God had taught the infant nation its dependence upon Him. English versions the distinction between the two roots has not been more uniformly preserved. &c. 625: comp.thee. All the commandment. 3. {Lex. tog-ether with all that is involved in it is to be obeyed by the Israelite. (agi^. 'H- ok . pp-j. &c. on 6i^. cf. Hunger (v.. 1-5. 12 is repeated. 3^. lest he contract the same taint himself (Jos.e. yet searching^ and testing. Dn'3-n] pf. ii" oL the }- The j- in the pi. 6i9. esp. S^c] i^. 21." is and the subst.i3. The new motive the recollection of the years spent in the wilderness. I IW is used similarly (Lev. fny__ Thou shalt -utterly detest it\ Ki^r? here rendered "detest. 20. The ex- denotes false gods or idols — — — — hortation of 529f. To H.] cf. are a test of the temper of those who experience them. Let Israel VIII. wilderness. 41. to discover thy real purposes and disposition: cf. 2b).22 155 ig9 27I.— 3. — That ye may live. v. To know what was in thhie heart] i. RV.1^. 42 661" f). or other privations. Qq {^ and possess.. 3231 (133^3 ba njn^ iniDJ^). perf.2* 7U.. Both these words are commonly represented in AV. In particular 4I 530(33) 53_ : — . — Observe to do\ 5I. 1.. by abomination.^s).G. Jud. The -aohole of the Deut. Ex. Ez.—2.43 2o25). used specially with reference to prohibited kinds of food (Lev.^. viz. humble thee] by teaching.. though this rather corresponds to the more general and It is to be regretted that in the ordinary word '""^Vin (v. The lessons of the remember how their life in the wilderness had been a period of discipline. and the evidence which they afforded of the loving.) 62f 17-19 7I1. in .(32f. on 528(31).-'^-. 16* JE (of the manna). iiii. — — the manna is pointed to. 21". i S. 810 Is. thy dependence upon Him cf. 3rd q] Ex.^).— I06 tainted metal — DEUTERONOMY is — —— to be "devoted" it .\ n8. (v. Jos.J cf. detestable thing often with the note). 23. 721 jio-is. according to the spirit in which they are received. IU'T:] as 4I. Led thee forty years in the wilderness] Am. so v. dr'c. 147 2 K. e^sb ^12 cf. w. -which.—yinX\V. lo^*' 2 Ch.—«*> YIII.

. on which man may But the words. for the purpose of showing that needs of sense do not exhaust the requirements of human nature. hn] Gen. The only other example form is . &€.^^: Further. § 6 Obs. is also a sustaining power. The will showed that the natural products of the earth life : are not uniformly sufficient for the support of the creative of God. and whether therefore it could be trusted to obey Ex. p. "proved" by showing-. its want was supplied it it was daily (Ex.). live doth on bread alone. Talmud) but it is difficult to think that the three isolated cases in the OT. That man doth not — Which thou knewest not. imp/. see Ex. 11^-9 2i5 (both JE)." first by suffered to feel a want. —3. 1892. and food operated as a test of Israel's disposition. (on i^') — is both anomalous. that man leads a spiritual life as well as a physical the 2nd and 3rd ps. wilderness: its beingf Israel's self-sufficiency was "humbled. though originally suggested by the history of the manna. in which manner was thus taught how. manna whether or not Israel would accommodate itself. 83-86. are not limited in their find himself obliged to rely. the viz. 38^^ questionable. the occasions for its employment would surely have been more numerous (v. narrative a further lesson being based on the narrative of the manna. 185 ff. properly any other laws which might in future be laid upon it. for very existence. iG'') dependent on the (creative) word of God. Bsicon. 2. in His answer to the tempter (Mt. Targfums and the Jerus. with the reff. JBLit. 27^ Is. and afterwards by the its . is Is. 1-3 lo.— VIII. On the manna. Israel (v. Dr. Nu. Thus the manna (2) (i) taught Israel its dependence upon Jehovah. hut on every utterance of Jehovah! s mouth man live] the didactic treatment of the history continues. are original had the form been in actual use in ancient Hebrew. and phllologically in the OT. in whatever other way it may. to this state of continued dependence upon God. cf. : they are of wider appli- and they are accordingly quoted by our Lord. pi. p.] before (Ex. 4*). 6f. 26'" I'py. 21^). and comp. Triple Tradition. trustfully and contentedly (Nu. The met with occasionally in Syriac and other late dialects (as the Palest. : . 16^^) unknown . pp.. 137(6) 28^'»-^*. i6 (JE and P). iS*). import to that particular occasion cation . upon occasion. It was a and consequently a signal evidence of God's sustaining providence. speci- ally exert itself.

The terms of the description are and are not of course to be understood literally. both way and ways are frequent in the same moral application e.— 5. nps3 Neh. of springs and deeps. — : with all 1012 ii22 Jos. respond with filial obedience. and that by yielding' inopportunely to physical necessity. 6.-^).—To fear him] 6^3-24. Hos.. may be neglected or frustrated. Cf. On s^'^. issuing forth an attractive and faithful description of the 4. — —— DEUTERONOMY —— . in the ways which He approves. JiyTJi] know. that like as a man disciplines his son. cf. — — — — . with thine heart. 4I 19I8 29^'''). Just. 23^*. Jehovah had been as a father discipliniiig his child (see on 4"^ and cf. then. 23 314 858 ii33.). § 131) that the clothes of the rhetorical. and occasionally besides. Gen.38 (all Dcut. 5. which the lessons of the past The Writer begins by an soil of eloquent and glowing description of the richly-blessed Canaan. Let Israel. A land of streams — properly Wadys in vale (on 2^3) of water. Pr. Jehovah thy God is disciplining thee] in the wilderness. is — 7. c. as 7*. 6. 22^ 282 2 Ch. in the enjoyment of the good things of Canaan. i" 24* 2910.—io"] the impf. To walk in his ways] i. their bodies. Thy raiment wore not away from neither did thy foot blister. then. cf. higher spiritual needs Utterance (N^VO)] on off thee. A and good land] hill] i^s. 6^-8 2 Ch. For] the preceding admonition needful for Israel about to enter into conditions of life in may be only too readily forgotten. With other verbs. ascribe its it be tempted to forget the Giver. use of cy. as I**. Let Israel take heed lest. Israelite children grew with Neh. tS^^^^ (the wilderness a place of discipline for renegade Ephraim).g. t'^J'O nnSa] a pregnant constr.e. 133^ oy] for this idiom. S'"-" 9I) I Ch.). — illustration of God's sustaining providence during the years passed in the wilderness. "wear away (and drop) from upon 8. 15" Jos. Rashi: cf. 225 (D2) I K. carrying on njm.. "like the shell of a snail"! Cf. Job 30"-^. by the Jews. who even fabled {v. Know (439). And keep] see below. and its is prosperity to own natural : powers. i8i9 QE) Ps. g^f. and educating him with a view to his ultimate good (v. then. these forty years\ a further 4. 294(5) 921 (a quotation). and which He directs men to follow (Ex. 14^ i K. : 7-20. Tryph. lo. thee": so 29*. nnDB'i] and keep (as an imper. of.— I08 life. as was done. iS^o) so 19^ 26^'^ 28^ 30^^. for instance.(=1 Ch. i822(2i).

are partly from Kn. cf. 93-99. 416 f. which contains itself.e. 2 K. 388. 4" gis-iS. the "waters under the earth. (9 times). nyan] G-K. i. A . of. 1063 (Kn.) hills is thou mayest dig copper] according to copper not found nearer to Palestine than at Aleppo. 23^. 237). — : — — . at Hasbeyah. iron was ever obtained is in Canaan meant the hard iron-like basalt. The hot springs at Tiberias contain iron and further north. 32*1) in Edom. 241-246. for which the soil of Palestine was principally 8.e. the aihrifoZv epos of Jos. 377) as opposed to 9. is elsewhere only poet. 49). 54). about \ of iron : (p. &c. the wild olive: are iron] i. it an object of envy oil. v.) is not found till Eccl. BJ. — land of "wheat. the olive of the cultivated olive (Tristram. 3". 331^ Nu. it occurs also about Safed. 294-300= C^ogr. or plain between mountains (from yp2 to cleave or rend). of Pal. immediately after ntfN. 8. : Coele-Syria. 1852.i] this plur. 411. 145. 10. and here and there W. the broad sweep between Lebanon and Hermon) ii^^ 34^. (The reff. however. at Zahle and other places (Seetzen.e. land whose stones whose stones contain iron. or plain. n:DDD] only here isop^oor (common in Aram. Hull. 9. &c. "the g-round and springs are strongly impregnated with iron" (Burckh. Geology and Geography of Pal. 49) this extends over a large area E. to its neighbours. § 49. J^pn Is. and horse-shoes made at Der-el-Kamar are used throughout Palestine (Schwarz. in parts of Moab (cf.) ii. 4-xo — 109 Palestinian landscape. of the same sea.). ii^'^the "^Vi?? of Lebanon.). and which was used for various domestic purposes (p. and esp.e. 1886. ^c] it will be Israel's duty to praise God. NHB. iv. i. (transl. n:3pp3 r"?] notice the emph. So. Copper-mines were also formerly worked at Punon (Gn. p. Rob. And thou shalt eat and he fill (6^^). 323) but it seems doubtful whether . i.e. and shall bless Jehovah." see on 4^'*. nm. 40*) — and broad (as Jos. A celebrated. (about Tiberias). of the Sea of Tiberias (including the Leja. Ritter.\ the various products are enumerated. Das Heil. Galilee and Lebanon. Land. and NE. position in which this idea is placed. p.— VIII. level (Is.) And out of whose Schwarz {I. For "deeps" (nbnn). 187-190. — 375. f^yi?? is a vale. and iron-mines. what is a volcanic product. 10. pp. with the geological map at the beginning. 409. 2). p. of Jordan: see RItter. xv. and which contributed to make Oil-olives] V^^ H"! lit. and barley. mentions traces of former copper-works near Hama (Hamath). are frequently mentioned in the Lebanon. xvii. Perhaps. cf. NW. with a grateful heart.". though he adds that it is said to occur in N. ii. Iron-works. properly a wide valley (different from N'3 a ravine). Erdhxmde. i. 33 f. 1822 "in^^ n'T. 40^.

as the art. § 127 R. 28^ will illustrate both . shows. which he had successively received The great and terrible wildef^ess] 1^^ cf. e. .e. — 11-17. 14. Israel forgets its Benefactor and Deliverer.28 63I1-12). — 15.H]=where (i^). 16 Ps. 14.. v.\ so 6^-. "vthz |s or ." its fate will 12-17. 24*^ i S. . . &c.being subordinate English idiom (which expresses such distinctions more readily than Hebrew). 4''): so v. nnapi 133^ . &=€. though He grants it to them.. (G-K. — here. . (with note). of a kind not very frequent in Heb. 8* al. then (v.". He may be faithful to the promises given to cf. 132^3 rnoyi {^"^ . ii^ Jer.). not for any merit on their part. Fiery serpents and scorpions] . represented as an individual (Hos. rnn S-nn "h n^j?] Ez. Ex. v i*i>-i6^ each introduced for the it. I07**tprincipal . 34^*''.g. 30^ (of the same region) 176. . . wealth'. (in m — T — — — . The : verbs are those in v. 129^ whose training in early life has been severe for the purfitting him better for the position which he has to fill in riper years (n"'"ins as Job S'" 42^^^^ 13 gut Israel must remember that Jehovah is the author of their prosperity. i. in the later period of Israel's history. and follows after ''other gods. n3c"i . IS. Which brought tJiee forth bondage] 6^: of. and thine heart be lifled up. 13^. ^2^^: Ex. The descriptive clauses. ^ain: Gn.^^. — — .—— — I — — DEUTERONOMY — — —— — : lO abundance of good things which He has provided for The caution lest. be that of the nations whicl cni . Nu. 12') and S'n (substance." But . of a long sentence under the g-ovemment of a single conjunction cf.^). is an accus.iry {/o make.] v. Beware. 14*^ Ps.]ap^\ i^ As at this 19-20. osy] cf. Is. 60" ii8''*^^ |nin Kin] on 3^.... 2^ Ez. narn nar ck] the inf. puss] Is. iK'incn] the suff. Is. 18. 19. •«..—To do thee good (28^3 Israel is 30^) in thy latter end] i. 136 Q3p D")'1 IV^V^'. elated by such affluence and prosperity. Is. . 17 (as often in II Isaiah. Job 30-' 35' Ps.^^ to exhibit prowess. &'c.^-'^'°. — bad sense). those in v. . instead of " Lest thou eat and be full . do valiantly. of the period of the occupation of Canaan. . the fathers (4^778). So Elsewhere S'n ney (without the reflexive ^) means to make might. .e. Nu. pri'] v. 11. 44-"."*" 13^^^. &'c. If Israel neglects the warning. JD would in Hebrew be thoroughly unidiomatic. . ni'sn h^nn ]s]] an example. then thine heart be lifted up. 16. 17.^®. achieve.—16. pose of — but in order that day] 2^. Out of the rock of flint] cf. when thou hast eaten and art full . His covenant.). Thine heart be lifted up\ 1720: Hos. by a 43!^- participle with the art. 21^. With manna." has accordingly " Lest. .^ 17. fiai^] remember. are effectively designed to remind the Israelite of the benefits at Jehovah's hands.

— 2.] of the spies. ii^i. and of whom thou (emph. Dillm. vi. — i "in. ntrh] &c. 3ib (cf. 1-2. 1 — 5. of Israel's rebellious disposition (9^-10"). 1225 i4«) 2o«-'-»-2i 1. due). and improperly anticipating it i2i).M an implicit accus.24-30 2o23 Dt. Israel's successes against the Canaanites are to be attributed not to any exceptional virtue ness of those nations or merit of its own. 31': . en\ with a personal object. 1 83. 13^^). comp. 1-X. 330 423 828 ii33 I s.. acter of the inhabitants of Canaan. iSr'c.— — — — —— VIII. 428 li^ in the 235. as z^--"^-^ ii^s i22-» 18" i9» xhe obj.) and passages of Kings 1" cf. 166. i.. 4^^. &€. I testify against you^ &'c. it III ^^^6^*'). but to the wicked- (9*'^). — Nevertheless. Greater and Cities mightier than thyself] 4^^ 7^ 11^3 (also with possess). — 5. 21^ Kt. The formidable charHear. as Jud. with Jehovah's cf. He (sub- and he shall subdue them] both the pronouns j.— npy] 7". IX. i^s viz. confirm. Go after other gods.— ccmo] the IX. A devouring fire] Cf. 3).— 3.23 (Deut. Israel will be victorious against them: thee] 31^. 2323- 4-6.] 6^^. as fulfil : 2*. 221.9 (all D2) Jud.^33n are emphatic. let i. — : 1. . »]in] G'". on 722. . thotc [en\^\\. Whereas for the wickedness before thee] the clause is not expressed in (S and is very probably a gloss borrowed from v. Is he which goeth over before shall destroy them. — IX.) hast heard.e. Lev. For the wickedness of these nations] cf. O Israel] 5^. But it is not for any merit on Israel's part that Jehovah thus gives victory to its hosts He drives out these nations on account of their wickedness. hai Jos. 'Anakim]i'^^. § 161. 3424 y^fi'o Jos.\ cf. he (and not another). opp.] the ^* abs. Say not in thine heart] cf. ptcp. 1x23. — — —— — 5 II— IX. Thou art passing over this day] cf. 7^''. 713 2 S. &:— Quickly] 27. Jud. i63 178 Is dispossessing them [n'^y^'d) W'\i from before thee] Ex. 2^^ — great . 1424 2 1 26 2 Gn. 2 15I6 1 2. expelling before (cf. : so also Dt. K. from the report i^o 313. 18^2 20^8 . to maintain. 5 Dr. 829 12" a/. Jehovah is now 11. 721-24. from the history. as Ex. nSsk pk] Nu. Oettli). That he may establish. 3'» (cf.. 5. (G-K. aid. is usu. "j'sn to fall ai^ .T nx D'pn] 5 lit. k. (Valeton. 21' S.) knowest {'j'^^). § 118. 4^*. Who7n 3. to raise up. A warning against self-righteousness. .) just quoted. Proof. . As Jehovah hath spoken unto thee] Ex. S. so K. 15^ 19* 21" 22'* I Nu. a place. and that He may be faithful to the promise given to the patriarchs. (Nu. 3^'' K'niN ""a (JE) . . 4. (all Deut. dr'c. : — — — . emphasizing the terms of a condition.

— cn"n onco] the ptcp. and Jehovah's forbearance. 349'(Cf. 29 (by the side of other reminiscences from Dt.— 333. of Israel's rebellious temper. Ex. 2412a. from the history. (Xu. isb. The : following Table other will (in show how the two Ex. 9I2 9'^ 9"" 9I' Ex. 32^ as DEUTERONOMY 7^. 9« 927' 928 (Ex.8. Israel has never yielded itself readily to God's will. 32i9». Proof. 34» (cf. hard neck Dt.19. in accordance with the Writer's manner. 9" 9»8-"> Ex.— 112 same motive Ex. 30^ 36^3. Is. many passages being repeated verbatim. The bnn fig^ure underlying. 32II''). 7. 8" dU). 1-3. 48^ iD-iy 11. 1-3. y^. as exemplified in c. narratives run parallel to each explanation of the parentheses. Ex. Tii). Dt. 22.^—Madest wroth] Ex. 34^). Ex. 33I). 177 Nu. i4i« cf. Iol0( = gl8». 32"). (Ex. 3127. ^c] '^.22: cf. Ex. Ex. v.the expression is of course the unyielding neck of an obstinate. 92* [Resumption of ^^ 9»»» (Ex. See Nu. 152* 172-7 Nu. 7-X. \^. Ex.Tn emphasizes the I K. 32"*'). see p. ii^-^ Ex.—From the day. . which. 171^ (Deut. }D^] 4*". 9»»' (Ex. 726 1723 jgis 3 K. 0-9 34*. [Seei"-»-«]. intractable animal (cf. v. 3428b.l»b) Cf. Nu. 5 . had cost them their national existence. — . 34^ . lo^^ and hence Jer. 32^ Ex. 8^^. forget not] comp. 32^'. Ex. The proof is given in the form of a retrospect. with . but for Moses' intercession. Remember. iqI* lo^'* 9I6 Cf. 32"".2^ 31^ 2 S. 25^". G-K. ^ ia«'-*'(thear>6) 9a 9^2 923 Ex. * • io2» Ex. of which it is a free reproduction. Ex. IX. ^ ^ 28». § 135. 32'»»' (cf. Ex. 32'-8*. — 6. * * 341". similar in general style to c. Ex. cf. to harden the neck Dt. and especially from the episode of the Golden Calf.5 3497 (all ^ stiff {hard)-necked people (STi. 9? (to nights) Dt. 17. and based like that — upon the narrative of JE. Ex.V nc'p)] from the narrative which the Writer is about to recapitulate): cf. 3" (Dr.^^ cf. lo^' (the ark) 9). io3«> 10* jq5. 3220. 2 gi6. 31^8^. continuance of the action : cf.) Neh.). ii*-». Ex. Ch. 10) . while others are expanded or otherwise varied. 10" 7.

Ex. Tables of stone. 22* 27** Is.— d'33k. clause (Dr.'^ 31^7 : the latter (so RV. once stood in E after Ex. &€.^i-" K. get thee down for thy people. 18b.] ffi i S^ e^"^^-. which however. in Ex. used in the description of one incident. was given Horeb is — it statement that ^^ The v. 86^^ a/. . nation of the day on which the law peculiar to Dt.e. 3118b (£). repeats v. uy niry Ps. — Was angered] 2412. they have . Ex.^r/A_j//^o/. or cf.. .Moses' fasting. an expression. 11^ al. the mount out of i!}T\^r\)] the midst of the fire] 5^ 10*. _ 7-^^ Cf. it will be another example of the peculiarity which was several times referred to in the notes on c." &c. sayingf. 24**-".] dr^c.^. And particular) in Horeb. § 114. 4^^ — When I went up.2—D5?] i. hath done corruptly: ^ they are quickly turned aside out of the way which I commanded them : they have made them a molten image . .—Been ai^''- 2^'-> . t^^-*. -which thou hast brought forth out ofEgypt. § 163). prob. written with the finger of God] exactly as Ex. § 117. Ex. oy a'p'n Nu.* —/ neither ate 34^8. 32' And Jehovah spake unto Moses. § iii. 2o3a-5 113 i^^. v. Dr. which thou hast brought up out of Egypt."-25. to a diflferent occasion. And Jehovah said unto me. describing. Moses' third ascent of the mountain. 24^^''. — 8. so v.) cf. somewhat singularly in the — 10. as G-K. 6-II II. the verb in 410. si'**" " [And J. saying.— 'Ji — onV] a circumst. hath done corruptly: they are quickly turned aside out of the way which I commanded them : they have made them a molten image.'8'' (from and he went up) belong closely to Ex. Dr.t mm!?] 4". viz. * Ex. 8 .). Gn. § 127 /S. 5 Ex.—Uilto this place\ (in defiant with] on i^^. (being afterwards omitted when the narrative of E was combined with that of P). & &c. and which will meet us again in the retrospect here.^o i37. in dealing with 3pki . —Forty days andforty nights] (see note). forming a continuous narrative of E the intermediate passages.. Ex.—9. Arise.^°^ with the was at the end of the 40 days that 11. being applied description of another in Dt. or occasion. Unless it may be supposed that such a clause. i. 24^^^..4if. : 'nVya] either (a) {b) defining the occasion of v. and are not referred to in Dt. (Deut. additional the tables were given to Moses. lables of the covenant] v. Go..*. agrees with Ex. gave him] the tables of stone. 9.— — IX. as G-K. viz. and was still read there by the author of Dt. 3. § ir6. get thee down quickly from here . 1-3. R. 24^'"'* 31^** (to testimony) belong : to P. 32-34. bread nor drank water] this clause relates. lo* 18^^ : Spake with you in In the day of the This desigat assembly] comp.

and I brake them before your eyes your sin. . even the calf. j 12. iSr'c] 29^9(20)5 also 724 2519 (Ex. 15. . 7^ ("nations larger and mightier than thou"). n. on^ iry] on i". Ps. with fire. and Jehovah's consequent repentance. and beat it in pieces. 2*' And And he took the it calf had made. and their name from under and I will make thee into And now. **ye Before your eyes] one of D's phrases (on i^o). Mightier and larger Nu.—14. and have said. and the two tables of the testimony were in his hand ^'"' And Moses' anger kindled and he flung the tables yrow his hand. and made the children of Israel drink of it. said unto Moses.). and he brake them under '^).s- 19. Destroy (TOIJ'n) v. and that I may consume them. thy me" v. dr'c] as 4^^ than it] i | j — g20(23\ Of the covenant] v. and I burnt it with fire. i S. the the two tables of the covenant were on my two tables. c. As Moses came down. and sacrificed to it. that blot out . (v. 17. which ye had made. 27 . 25 . grinding it well. but not verbally. as Ex. had turned aside. 16. 17^^). burnt which they and he and I cast crushed fine into dust its dust into the stream (wady) that descended out of the mount. I took.—Blot \ om/. 'np hso] the correlative of — hand) from the dat. slacken (sc. S." &c. / have seen this people. Tliese be thy g-ods. I Jelwvdh said unto me. he perceived what Israel had done substantially. they generally exhibit the characteristic style of D. . this people. and mount burned with fire and . and I will make thee into a great ("jiij) nation ^^ And Moses turned. Lev.— 114 — DEUTERONOMY . — Ex. is passed over in Dt. and he strewed crushed fine it upon the water. Moses' — ] : 1 — — 'nff . ^^ And I turned. bowed down to it. and came down from the mount. And the mount.y). and behold it is a stiff-necked people. 14^2 <«And I will make thee into a nation (3-1) greater (imj) and mightier than it": cf. 46" ^S'v^. T n^ fj-jn {for us. and until it was he ground it. saying. ^2.". commodi). 18-20. let 'jdd). 11^ '300 ng-in. heaven a nation mightier and larger (an) than it. see on i27 (phil. | 32"-^^ describing Moses' ] first intercession for the people while he was still on the mount. that me alone (nn'jn down frotn the m^oiint. —17. ^^ 1^ And " And Jehovah it is have seen and behold ^<* a stiff-necked people.20. The variations will be apparent from the synopsis : as in I other cases. and came Desist from me (^"in I may destroy them. being repeated from v. hands I " And took hold of the two and I flung them from on my two hands. the mount. 828 03-33 if^^ l. 32^^. " relax. until it was -^ mine anger may kindle against them. ii' 15I* rpn alone. it will be seen.^. : Jud. —14. t hy i Cf. &c. i 'jdd fp!\\ lit.

§ 113. 3220)._23. Tab'erah] 5lu. ceded for Aaron also at that time] the intercession for Aaron is not mentioned in Ex. on account of illustrated its significance in the argument: 10^*^. That which was evil. according to Ex.. 19. — 3B*n] "doing. abs. nVcai] constr. 43^8!. as 3®. —Kibroth-hatta dvah] Nu. . Gosen. idiom employed (see below) perfectly admits this. course.^^-^O. and lo^ob vvith g^'-*^).^. used adverbially: G-K. ii4-34. as Nu. 115. ii^-^. &c. — 18. 1^13-20 21^-9 Ex.it weU" = p. lo^** with 9I8*. To vex him (iD^yjDn^)] viz. The reference The compari- — be used of fasting and humiliation genermust relate to the period of time only.^ Ezr. Kadesh-bamea] iiob. 28'^*' Job 3^5 928 pg. Not ** to provoke him to anger " see on 42^. : — — .® {b). when. — —22-23. was before the intercession of and the Heb. As at the first] so can be only to the forty days mentioned son {uvAg^ss fell do7on ally) in 9®.21 corresponds to Ex. lo^ differently. not to intercessory prayer. it signally how much the people owed to the merciful forbear- ance of Jehovah. 34^"^^). thoroughly (the inf. in this application. 388. on which Jehovah listened to Moses' intercession may (as — . 144. 23. only 2 K.^) so 13" 17* jgi8 2^8^ Elsewhere. same 40 days mentioned in 10^" (comp.— IX. pp. he also interceded for the people. — Jina] inf. 13-23 — — 115 fastrng.before intercession : for 40 days he not. disobedience. and Ebers. That time also] the other occasions. in anticipation of its true chronological position (for v. on behalf of the people and Aaron. See the synopsis above. is^s 174^. 'nnp!? . fy'c] cf.e.''^. And I interThis. 22. with the second period of 40 days spent by Moses on the mount (Ex. For I was in dread {^n^y)] a rare word 1 1939. 148. hsinn] v. (of Serbal) p."rt c'S'spo] ye were making -wroih (on vJ). abs.. 1] not npxi. . 1 1'^ 22. — 21. see on 10^". 172-". jjS i2i3f. —20. nom . by requiting Him with ingratitude. csp. of v. i. as v. 2 R. v.22'-.— 21..] on 6^^. : the whole period of the 40 years is in the Writer's mind. and the occasion of the Golden Calf seems to be specially dwelt upon as being the gravest of all) be subsequent ones. No doubt this intercession is mentioned here. implicitly alluded to. and obtained their forgiveness.21 18.. as fell down God. The might appear at first sight. (of Jebel Musa) Ordnance — Stirvey of Sinai {iS6<^). 113. The stream that descended. . Dr. to Ex. Gn. reference is 2 231-33^ but to the according to Ex.are iustanccs of response to : petitions for help. 34^. Other instances of Israel's Massah] 6^^ Ex.

and is parallel with The forty days and the forty iiights^ ivhich I v. i*^ 2915(16). Dvn D'. for the purpose of emphasizingIt is (in accord- ance with the g"eneral design of the retrospect) the indebtedness of Israel to Moses' intercession." &c. 27.g jog'. 41" i S. 6^c. 14^^." contains two Deut. i K. 10. repeated in terms of keener reproach ('* from the day that I knew you").duration of time. 28** (see note) also Is. 3211-13 (as also some from Nu. 24. remarks) Sam.i^ for the he would destroy you] form of sentence. 3213. Ex. 32 ("believed him not"). 31" Ps.28a. whereas virtue of the terms used. — — 25. ^ 131] so Ex. 15^: so with ytH = ear/h.e. But (as Di. as Lev. Dvn. rStfir.] cf. 135). Gn. i.4 ggi. and in late Psalms. p.. remarkable however that the terms of the intercession. px. 4* Ez. as 1 K. xara.??] not elsewhere.T ncK' jb] the plur. ii^ DTjam . — . regard. 13^ because " the 40 days " are intended : so Jud. marking. which clearly narrates Ex. 2 S. . but include many reminiscences of the earlier intercession in Ex. "which thou hast redeemed through thy g-reatness. 5" Hos. Remember thy servants. 6-*^). very rare (Ex. has p«<n DV. 26* ^28. is Lev. Jehovah (Hos. 17**. Moses' intercession. v. in a favourable sense. 32^'. usu.e. 26. i. — Lord fehovah] 32^. 9!^).i^ 32"-i3. 17' tpzn riKDi ^Vk. 3212 ("Wherefore should the Egyptians speak. ''." The preceding clause.— n^3:] Nu. expressions see on 32* 78. For " I. and with a mighty hand. 27.i^. 3211^ << which thou hast brought forth out of the land of Egypt with great power.?3"iK nx] nx. Which thou hast brought forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand] Ex. 34'. (Vv. because the intercession there recorded was made before first Moses' V. and (5&WS '^ao] lit.ticj. express ymn : '3en\ 14" 'nVoD cf.i^ [i. saying." Sam. 14!^) : comp. Jhom want of. Lest the land whence thotibroughtest us out say From JelurvaK s not being able to bring them into tJie land which he promised to them. ^k). ("defied Jehovah's mouth"). points back to v. do not agree with those of Ex. The indictment of v. and from his hating them.) — 25. nV'^n (with the art. '. 34^. in the original passage Nu. That 26-29. 25^ 136^ 2 Cb.25-29 cannot refer actually to Ex. Abraham. 25**).— Il6 — DEUTERONOMY ^^ — i — (^. 28.e. . G have " he" {Sl^n for 'r^f[). 34^. cf. The Writer reverts here to the occasion mentioned Ex.i*. Vr na] turn to. as — — 651. in descent from the mount (see = Dt. : what took place after it. 8^. fell down] v. 34^28a)j v. '^the ten tribes. he hath brought them out to put them to death (DH^on^) in the wilderness] based on Ex. 25-29.). as here quoted.— Otherwise S naj is rare (Jer.25.

at Jehovah's direction. pletely to Jehovah's favour. (Dl3nB'"'i) i in the 8^^ —29. "). as it were. which thou Ex. and prepared which to deposit them Jehovah having rewritten upon these tables the ten commandments. ^ that I may write upon the tables the words that were on the first tables. and thou ^ shalt put I the ark. and the formal order for their permanent preservation. 1-5. He7v thee two tables of stone like utito the first. and took in his hand two tables in the were in my hand. 24—X. and to consume them from the face of the earth with reminiscences of Nu. and come up unto me to the mount. X. which according to Dt. and make thee an ark of wood . Moses made at this time for the . to slay {nTh) mountains. Ex. Hew thee two tables of stone like unto the first and were on the brakest. or chest. It is is is evident that based upon Ex. In mischief did he bring them forth.. Israel's forgiveness. IX. and he went up into mount Sinai. he hewed out two other first. 34^"* there is no mention of the ark. on which the "covenant" was based (9^). There it only one material difference between the two accounts. but : a» important one in Ex. as Jehovah commanded him. like the in an ark of acacia-wood . hewed two tables of stone like unto the first and Moses rose up early . tables I of stone I like unto present thyself there unto me on * And he the top of the mount. ^^'^. (Sr'c] 32^^. first tables. v. sealed. Moses narrates how. I will write upon the tables the words that brakest. .). therefore he hath slaughtered them wilderness (Deut. and was an assurance that the breach between Jehovah and His people was healed. . 34^ And Jehovah said unto Moses. 14^'' {" From Jehovah's not being able to bring this people into the land which he sware unto them.^"^ is of stone. they were placed by Moses in the ark. T/iy people and thy inheritance\ K. 34^- 2. and thou shalt come up in ^ And acacia-wood the morning into mount Sinai. prepared for their tables of stone. ^ At that time Jehovah said unto me. And them in made an ark of which thou be ready by the morning. and and hewed two the first.*. — Which thou broughiestforth. reception. and mount went up to the and the two tables morning. 3 117 them in the "). c. cf. doubtless to The intention of this part of the retrospect is show how the people were finally restored com- the rewriting of the ten commandments.

in- respecting the ark are given in and is having been commissioned to execute the work of the (31^". the ark of acacia-wood. are based upon JE's narrative in 34^-5 Ex.. Nu. least. under his by Bezalel but in Dt.^**. narrating the journey ings Moserah (where Aaron being- died). the command to make the ark is both given to and executed by him. the passages containing these statements were omitted by the compiler. which (v. however.) with detailed particulars. once told how Moses made it. as uniformly elsewhere . And he wrote.\ as 9^^ — — i (after \}\& first sojourn in the v. on ^cJ] Ex. as inconsistent with the more which he preferred. mount). 342^^. above.after the sojourn at Horeb) and it disagrees with at least P's account of the journeyings of the . sanctuary makes the ark. 20^- 1** 2o22fi"- (both P) —cannot . —at — 4. (after the but when JE was combined composition of Dt. 5) he placed them This difference between In Ex. belong to P. Ex. 25^^-^ . 34 in its present form (cf. The consistency with which the retrospects of Dt. And there they are] cf. It interrupts the discourse of used instead of the 2nd. before ascend: ing- the mount the in third time to receive the tables of stone whereas Bezalel. &cJ\ exactly as 9^0^ 5_ And I turned. as understood by the author of Ex. 37^"^. 5 . I 1 reception of the after coming- and in down from the mount. and Jotbathah. 8^^. 6-7. &'c. —The passage occasions Moses (the 3rd person in difficulty. &'c.\ see on v. . Moses is instructed to make. in the narrative 1^2 327. Comp. while Ex. which —see Nu.35^^-36^). v. deposited the tables in that agreeably with Dt. A of the Israelites from Beeroth Bene-ja'akan to fragment of an itinerary. and Ex. Gudgodah. may have been making himself what was in fact made. the retrospects) it interrupts the chronology (relating the death of Aaron. 2. P. does not admit of reconciliation. after Moses' return from the mountain (35^°'''^. contained 31 . the ark of acacia-wood.36^ 37^). have taken place till long. structions Bezalel. 25- 3429-40^8)^ cf. Ex. In the mount. Dt.i"3. K. of P (Ex. and see ad loc).that Moses described as direction. — Commanded mc\ And I put. and io^*>^^-^a. There of course no difficulty in supposing.8 — — DEUTERONOMY two tables. renders it highly probable that the text of Ex. and actually does make. 32^-342^ belong to JE. 25-31 and 342^-40^^.

^s 'Ezion-Geber. ii. The order is. not at Moserah.nriations to Kadesh (with no mention of any intermediate stations) in the order of Bene-ja'akan and Moserah. in order to accomplish the journey round the S. and that it once stood after v. Gudgodah. and Aaron dies on Mount Hor (cf. The explanation.**). viz.^" Moseroth ja'akan. after which. 33. Hor-hag-Gidgad. v. but not removed. turning back. Moserah. and being only recorded in Dt. is artificial and the reason assigned for the omission in Numbers of the four stations in Dt. however.. and 'Efion-Geber (at the N. Jotbathah. 119 In Nu. just noticed. 33^^"^ but with Nu. 2*) will come in a more natural place. The source of the itinerary in Dt.). v. though formally possible. Nu.32 of Moserah). 33. the original order of the stations will have been Wilderness of Zin (Kadesh). however. by the conjecture of Evvald. passed successively (Nu. v. v.*^ Zalmonah. 201). and of Gudgodah and Jotbathah. being borrowed from P moreover . v.83 Jotbathah (followed. journeying. Jotbathah). 4 stages before the border of Moab is reached (v. without making any formal stoppage on the route. different. retracing their steps Southwards (Nu. 33. lo""'' . 285 (ET. Bene-ja'akan. .s* by 'Abronah. the variation as regards the place of Aaron's death is further explained by the assumption (which in our entire ignorance of the actual position of Moserah may not be illegitimate) that Moserah was in the immediate neighbourhood of Mount Hor. though not in the same order (Beeroth Bene-ja'akan.^ the Wilderness of Zin (py). to suppose that this difference between the two itineraries is due to their expressing divergent traditions respecting the order of the stations passed by the Israelites. they revisit Kadesh (Nu. &c. supposed. instead of being followed by the long march back across the desert the v. 'Abronah. 33^ : is that Dt. : remain. . viz. perhaps the desert at its foot. Mount Hor. 2022-29 p). It is most in accordance with other phenomena presented by the Pent. hence. that in Nu. Moseroth. By 10^''' is Keil and other harmonists the assumption usually made Nu. **"•""* has been transposed from its original position. Gesch. where Aaron dies. it is parallel. Zalmonah. Jotbathah. v. it names differing so slightly that are the same. not with the Israelites. end of the Gulf of 'Akabah). v. Hor-hag-Gidgad. Moserah will now be actually 'Abronah. v. is conclusive against its The discrepancy. The discrepancy is diminished. seems a very insufficient one. v. the next station to Mount Hor and 'Ezion-Geber (see Dt. &c.X. : . v.^i Bene- Hor-hag-Gidgad ("the Hollow of Gidgad"). because their names had been given before.^". ii. or Kadesh. contained in Nu. Bene-ja'akan. their second visits to the same spots not being mentioned in the itinerary in Nu. 33 there occur four cannot be doubted that they (pi. 'Ezion-Geber. they pass some of the same stations as before. 4-5 Israelites. is probably E.^'^ Mount Hor. towards the close of their wandering's. 33^'''*'). border of Edom. 33'^). still as before. If this conjecture be correct. 33'^'*^) Moseroth.Southwards.

in which case the "wells" referred to would be are also in or near the 'Ar^bah the other three places not far from named Edom.8f) illustrating. but : .i8b-20) analogous (Bacon) to that of E in Jos. 297 (with v. is passed over in silence. 2ii2-i3. 36^7 mentions 'Akan as the name of a Horite : family or clan. the "Wells of the children of Ja'akan. it would have been expressed so Aaron's own institution to the priesthood. Beeroth Bene-ja akati] i." Nu. and the late period in the 40 years. and as intended to specify the occasion. 1881. unknown The : sites of the addition . probable that no original part of the text of Dt. or (Bacon. DEUTERONOMY form from the stereotyped formula of P ("And they journeyed and pitched in . 131. viz. Delitzsch. must be admitted to the notice is make .— 1 20 differs in . which would be the indirectly important point. as has been already observed. subsequent insertion (Wellh. Nu. 371 . 24^. . the note in v. The purport of the notice remains to be considered. Kayser. which in opposition to the other sources it would assign for the consecration : of the tribe of Levi. while the people. 257 narrative of Israel's final course. . which still survived independently. 565).. Dillm. It is true. except as introductory to v. its aim has been supposed to be to show that Aaron was not only forgiven at Moses' intercession.®*^) Cornill.). belonging to almost the close of the 40 years' wanderings. it from .^^) the manner in which priestly duties . § 9. Nu. constitute serious objections to this view. introduced from a part of E." The site is unknown but. 1880.. Triple Tradition. perhaps with the view of (v. but either a Reuss. By some (Hengstenberg. not improbable that the two are to be identified. T.) a fragment of E's original journeyings. ii. and of Moses' final disposition after the latter (as a whole) its was replaced by our present Dt. but it is difficult to think that. The interruption. it is i Ch. 9-10 is to illustrate the grace of Jehovah in bestowing anew upon His disobedient people the tokens of His favour . for after Aaron's death f. both in the chronolog"y and it in the dis- course of Moses. 112.is. site of the (i^). i'*2 has Ja'akan (and ffi in Gen. the sojourn at Jotbathah or at least the period of Aaron's death. are represented as still at Horeb. Einl. .^""^^). which retained 343 f.. were provided 207 f. Keil). La Bible. Gesch. Th. but was even honoured by the priesthood being confirmed to his descendants. ZKWL. it cannot be reasonably explained. 8 . Kuen. 2i^'''^^. that the general design of the retrospect in c. at which the tribe of Levi were set apart for sacred purposes.«^ also. B. had such been the aim of the present notice. for which lovKa/t). 201 f. But the introduction here of a piece of the itinerary. both before and after (v. as Gn.®'-.e... If it forms an integral part of the narrative (so Graf. Hist. p. is resembles that of E (cf.(v. 33 passim).

181).^). which runs down from the Tih plateau (p. v. as showing that in the tradition of JE. 40 years' wanderings.. nearly opposite to Petra (Rob. but which the comExodus did not deem it necessary to retain by the side Nu. 14I &c. not probable on phonetic grounds 3. addition. which was interrupted by v. these two verses are a genuine continuation of the discourse of Moses. xhe passage is important. 8 3226-29 — to which reference .^-^. except Jos. will of course. 28-29. 32-34 contained originally an account of the consecration of the tribe of Levi in connexion. the words described in v. — with their display of zeal on Jehovah's behalf. the institution of the priesthood is narrated in Ex. existing" Pent. 342) and others be accepted. At that time] if v. piler of is here made. : for c does not corre- spond to the Heb. 20) into the Wady Jerafeh. =the Levites (on 3»- ").— X. to the period immedipriestly functions. the contents and phraseology show and note "thy God" in v.— 'i"?. that JE's narrative in Ex. towards the close of the on the other hand. but not elscwherc in JE. of the more detailed particulars of P (Ex.). 28-29. 2o25-28 22^-28 Jos. the reference must be to the period indicated in these verses. .^"^ be an original part of the text of Dt.e. 8. Lev. if of Dillmann [Ex. 24^3 ^gj. 8. p. Separation of the tribe of Levi for the exercise of Nu. — ately following the death of Aaron.- —As (see the references. not less than in P. 8 (both P). presumably. and the Levites (the inferior members of the tribe. and so into the 'Ardbah. The identification of Gudgodah with the Wady Ghudaghid (j^iiUii). narrated in Ex. 8-9.-Lev. to the occasion In the during the sojourn at Horeb. 6-8 121 "a land of streams (wadys) of water" to Jotbathah would it seem to characterize as some specially fertile spot in one of Wadys leading- down into the 'Ardbah. And Eleazar his son was is mentioned frequently in P (Ex."*'^.^'^ be a later refer. i. 623 priest in his stead] Ele'azar nor ^^ to 1. X. Lev. as distinguished from the priests) are 3^''^- consecrated to their duties in Nu. Aaron was the founder of a hereditary priesthood. expression at that time is (also P) : but the the view much more significant. If. is i. !?n3n] 4^1 192.7 2920 (nyn"?).!] collect.

20^ (in an explanatory gloss) I S. 5*." even if. in particular to the family of the Kohathites the Chronicles (i Ch." title ^sff. 52. arid to bless in his name unto all. c. certainly acquired increased currency through its and it is probable that there are passages in the influence (cf. 31^ (on i. are described in these words. reads ephod.18 Jehovah " (nna. in Jos. 8^^ "the and the Levitical priests (see on 18^). p. it be too much to maintain that it actually originated with Dt." (as disting-uished narrower sense of the word from the ." to bring the passage : 2 Ch. lo*' 14-".^* or exceptional. 12 J i " . is In P (Nu. which corresponds to i K.25. in view of Nu. 2 S. 15=^ I K."-13 76 I s. v. 15** (unless must have been either a subordinate one v. 10*^ 14^ (both JE).15.probably the original reading. 8^.*. 83. priests)..?) Jer. the embodiment of Jehovah's covenant (on 4^^^^ xhe desig-nation is one which gives prominence to one of the leading Deuteronomic ideas (4!^) and it is accordingly frequently used . or influenced by its phraseology. 43.e. (Baudissin." 6 s-'. into conformity with later usag-e i the Levites. day] three principal functions of the tribe of Levi.4. receive the " bearers of the ark of Jehovah's covenant 56. the ark containing the Decalog-ue. properly (i) speaking-. f {bis). * Which shows in **).26 &c. 1525. 5^ has "the priests K.37 jyi 22!" 282-18.— 122 3). 209. 5-6 passim.^. 2^^.of King-s: 2 Ch. 58 gss^ ^nd without "of (mostly Deut.26. 152.^^) 4^ 6" .. 3« 619 81-8 (= 2 Ch. 3'8 I Ch.29 166.^ the priests are represented as bearing it K. priestly ones. Jud.ik"-22. see also K. D's sense: on 18*) by the " Levites" in 2 S.^ (cf. simply "the ark of Jehovah (or of God)" as Jos. 68) Massoretic text in which the expression originally used has been subearlier hist. It occurs besides 319. "Levites" is substituted for "priests. passages) also (sometimes with God for Jehovah) Nu.17 ^7. 3^ 46. 8^ has "the priests and the Levites. The usual expression in the : however. and the same view is expressed in But in Dt. 3" 4'.) . 6 passim.^^ see note) Jos. as in other duty of priests earlier books.).5 2 S." preserving. 8^) "priests" has been permitted to remain. books is.28.) The ark ofJehovaK s covenant] i.* (In 2 Ch. The fuller title " ark of the covenant of Jehovah. by writers belonging to the Deuteronomic school. Dt. to Tninister to to : stand before this Jehovah him.e. . the Levites. meant (cf.26 jQg_ ^3. 14. — DEUTERONOMY To hear the ark of JehovaKs covenant.the ark in the assigned to the " Levites. 3^^ 4^^) the duty of carrying.T {-nx) 3^. this is consistently represented as the the priests. To bear the ark." where 5''^ (=1 K. that the part taken cf. i^^' ^. Priesterthum.

ordinary syntax (inxn with the art. perform menial offices for the worshippers. 13"- 33 (Jehovah his inherit- ance) by the latter expression is meant that the inheritance by which the tribe of Levi was maintained was its share in the sacred dues and other oflferings made to Jehovah by the people (cf. 40''^ 43^^ 44". 9 " .18. to minister unto "to stand to minister in Jehovah's name"). 17^2 jgr (gee note) Jud. 29I1 (cf. in the st. 4^'^ and a comparison of i Ch. i. To bless in his name \ so (of priests) 21 5. that of burning incense. "stand before" the congregation. Jos. 182 Jos. by scendants of Aaron) — K. 17^ iS^^ 2 K. 6^3 Lev. 6J-'. See more fully.26. &c.g.). iB^-'') the Levites are said rather "to minister to the priests" (Nu.'^ 45'' Joel i'2''' I Ch. To minister (nig') is a less distinctive term. 16® Ez. 4415 2 Ch. 123 sequently expanded by the addition of "the covenant of" : thus it is plain that nna did not stand in (5's text of i S. be/ore J. In Jos. f shows what the tendency of a that the original text later age was. though performed sometimes. i Ch. 44^'*'. i Ch. The Levites. is mentioned 33^*^ {(u. cf. A fourth duty of the priestly tribe. 12^ Jer. on the position assigned in Dt. as I S. and (repeated from the present passage. 2o28 Ez. i K. which is : . as the servants of God).13. tinctively of the priest. 18* To stand before (i^s) is a Heb. to serve (i K. 2 Ch. 8^*). note). 1 K. or to the people (Nu. 3"'^' the extramakes it all but certain him (cf. 10^ of Solomon's courtiers. 2"' '* 3I (of Samuel) : at the same time. Unto this day] 2^. c. 52^2. compiler of Kings. as distinguished from the priests. 17^2^ in the name ofJ. as God's minister. 6^8.: Nu. 3" 6'® 8''* (cf. i. Dt. 13I4. to discharge menial : services for (3) them (see e.t (as v. 1891. 44"''). As feJwvah thy God spake tinto him] this is not recorded in our present Pent. on iS^-^). 21) the expression may well be due to the Deut.ti. to the tribe of Levi. idiom meaning to wait tipo7i. 92'-2''. Nu. 3^* ^^ of Elijah and Elisha. " to minister to Jehovah " is an expression used regularly of priests (21^ Ez. See further the ^ATW. sufficiently . but also of Levites (Nu.33 i87 (all D2). Nu. being used not only of priests.31-2 .e. 114 if. the notes on iS**. 2 Ch. v. 131" 29" cf.e. i — is his inheritance] so I2^2b 1427b. 35").) appears to have usurped the place of an original . but limited expressly to the dea priestly duty. on solemn occasions. Therefore Levi Jiath no portion nor inheritance "with his brethren : Jehovah kings (2 S."). 3^^ rt-an (see Dillin.28. cf. cf.) had simply /he ark (as 3" 4^") : Jos. 23^^^ 9^2. and of I Ch. 82*) and other subordinate attendants. 23^' 2 Ch. p. 38 182. 9. 15. 15^. Dt. and is used dis(2) To stand before Jehovah.— — X. 29 jgi ^^o portion. 1820 (P). 8"-55). 16' (P) Ez.^-ie ''priests").29 with 2 S. if with 2 S. Dt.

§ 239* . emphasizing again the earnestness of Moses' intercession. Arise. (cf. And." (Dr. 11. : Hearkened unto me that time als6\ repeated from 9^9 cf. having been Jehovah's gracious dealings — with His people. Nu. n. gratitude.^ narrates the it repeats in fact what had been stated before in 9^8 close (of. rrsyrx KnpD^. but not retained by the compiler. and the success which attended it. 33I (though the occasion is not the same).??^? (with trans. and conduct Israel to the land which He had promised to the patriarchs. forty days and forty nights\ the verse (see vJ". of a subst. ib. when JE was combined with P. not less than awe. Ew. 4" al. and Arabic) the force of an inf. 30^^ l^riCj and 1 15. it whose "inheritance "is specified tribe. 1 R. which though it may be sinful propensities of difficult in view of the human nature. force). i"-". zro nK D'n'?K nssnoa Am. as at the first time. cannot be referred to. § 45. 'HTDV '33K1] permitting (as inyKj would not have done) a reference to an occasion prior to v. i" —12. by bidding Moses arise. as distinguished from the Levites v. § 76 Ohs. 8) that narrated the consecration of the tribe of Levi which was still read by the author of Dt. G-K. separately. Gen. &c. one of the rare instances in Heb. now] introducing. here is given to the whole without distinction. with the view of showing that the present existence of the nation was due to below) does not describe the sequel of : Jehovah's grace. WJiat is fchovah thy laid God asking of upon Israel: thee. lovD ^m\ Ex.21-24).^ varied from Ex. Conclusion of the narrative of for the people. 925-29.— 124 — DEUTERONOMY — usually quoted. 12. — 10-11. 22" I S. VDdS] for journeying. the practical inference to be deduced from the preceding retrospect.'). : cf. for there the promise is made expressly to thepriesis{Aa.. (v. formed with D having (as in certain cases in Aram. — — .2^ . nevertheless involves the observance of no intricate or burden10.ron) alone. as 4^.').?\ no arduous or complex task is only obedience. but something contemporaneous with the transactions of which v. then. Moses' intercession Jehovah finally gave still more substantial proof of His complete forgiveness of the nation. 12-22. dfc. lo* xmnan t» j. The words may well have been contained in a part of JE probably the same (see on v. should prompt Israel to yield ready and loving obedience to His holy will. 9^5). — 10. Such. And I stayed in the mojint. go to journey.

Titles are accumulated. To keep."— 17. just as he 9^^3._13. The fear of God should be promoted by the thought that He is the Sovereign of heaven and earth the love of Him by the reflection that this august. is The Israelite's heart is not to be unreceptive of godlike affections. are lips which open and speak with difficulty. IO-I7 — — — 125 the case of Israel assistance to some rules.] "j^^. 6b. of His own free love. ^7.\ as in 6^3. Lev. and fear Jehovah thy God. and ends with the devotion of the entire being to His love and service (see.-14. closed in. the highest heavens so (a reminiscence from this passage) i K. the foreskin yotir heart] 30^. chosen first the patriarchs and afterwards their descendants. dr'c. An uncircumv})i)i of the heart. — . — 15. the foundation of the religious temper this brings with it a natural disposition to is theyi'«?'of God nvalk in all his ways (8*^). i R. 6834 i^s^f. e^s) 2 Ch. and the terrible] hence Neh. 2^ Neh.— 'jnn] the . 6^°) is an ear which. «'plur.— — — X. from the same (cf. 530 (33). and yield itself cheerguidance of its God. and uncircumcised lips Ex.c). uncircumcised of 26^1 Jer. 827 ( = 2 Ch. for the The heaven of purpose of manifesting Himself to them. § 124. 3 R.^._i4_i5. 44'". cised heart is one which is. 96 Ps.27) not to be any longer (see 17-19. Dan. Circumcise. Qvavn >ov] G-K. . -b 310^] 62^. 932. 6^2. and Lord of lords] hence Ps.e. of Jehovah should constitute further motives to obedience. then.] Let Israel therefore exert itself an open and receptive heart. as it were. on the expressions . 4230 (G-K. § 133. — 16. The great. So 624. &'c. and should be its facilitated in by the recollection of Jehovah's presence in midst. kw] as Gn. The majesty. &€. of majesty. and so to acquire fully to the impervious to good influences and good impressions. absolute sovereignty and supremacy of Jehovah. 3«. 17. heavens] i. hears imperfectly. Mic. jis at this day] 2^^. gracious 6^. and awful justice. Chose their seed after them. stiff'-necked. and similarly Jer.— For good to thee] this is the ultimate scope of the duties imposed by Jehovah upon Israel. cf. But used. or unamen- able to guidance. Mighty (">^33) the mighty. Comp. just as an uncircumcised ear 30) (Jer. all-sufficient Being has nevertheless. 925 Ez." — 13. for the purpose of expressing the God of gods. cf. 2*7. Set his love (ptfn)] 7". 1362-3. 4*: cf. cause. 65-i3).

The social position of the Hebrew gSr may be illustrated from that enjoyed by the corresponding. The term is really a technical one. then. in zgi"!"). by the side of the fatherless and the widow. fatherless and the widow. DEUTERONOMY who possesses might such as that of a warrior . in addition to the free tribesmen of pure blood (Heb. and acquire supremacy over it. — IV/io regardeth no consideration will deter from taking vengeance on the wrong-doer cf. Ps. 20I1 also Is.e. kindness and justice are to be dealt out to him (i^* lo^" 24"* ^^ 27^^) . 20". In Israel. 28^'^. a class of men who were personally free. 126 suggests one (cf. the gir was liable to be the victim of injustice and oppression . often so tardy and uncertain in the East. Arab. but also befriending him with the warmer affection of love. in JE the injunction not to oppress him is repeated twice. is meted out by Jehovah with absolute impartiality and strictness. . Sei7i. the protected strangers. and denotes the pro- tected or dependent foreigner. who does not permit the helpless to be oppressed 14^9. and are under the oblig-ation of observing the Deut. cf. Kinship. put himself under the protection of a clan or of a powerful chief" (Smith. Love. 24S Is. and he is repeatedly commended. by not only treating him with justice (i^'^). cf. nor taketh a bribe] whom — ment of the i. See further on 14-^ .75 f. viz. the Semitic communities embraced. 8'»-s5 (D^). 22^ 23^ . but had no political rights. to the Israelite's charity (14-^ i6"31^^. he will increase in importance. 23^. 41-43)." which would also preserve the connexion with the corresponding verb in such passages as Gn. 9^^^') lo^i). 2417. 52*. ezrah. jiran). 12^0 19^ 47* Is. Jos. it is again insisted. he is to enjoy the rest of the Sabbath. : J not persons. . " 24i9-»>. In Dt. The ger was a man of another tribe or district who. coming to sojourn in a place where he was not strengthened by the presence of his own kin. sarih) with their families and slaves. of whom mention is so often made in the OT. Justice.i3).those who enter into Jehovah's covenant. 19. Ex. i6"' " 26'^ he may share in the joy of a sacred meal at a festival 28" if Israel is disobedient. 42^3 jei-. the stranger {sojourner) : for ye were strangers {sojourners) in the la7id of Egypt] in your attitude towards the dependent foreigner imitate Jehovah.2i 26'i-i2. 18. 23^". and in early Arabic literature. settled for the time in Israel. also 1 17 1519 and i6i^ 27^5 Ex. and he is included with the Israelites g-enerally among.. and loveth the stranger] . as he is also to observe it. " Stranger " is the conventional rendering of 12 but the sense combination.e. as is apparent from numerous allusions. Rel. of the Hebrew word would be better represented by ' ' so- journer. " From an early date. for the and cf. and hence inculcated so earnestly by Hebrew legislators and prophets. law . see on — .. Who executeth the judgi.Arabic jar (pi.

therefore] the enclitic "therefore" (Heb. . The crowning evidence of Jehovah's claim for Israel's gratitude and regard (poet. but possibly AV. and praise. — Who hath done with why Jehovah Cf. it) K. (|3 1).. the words at the beginningD3'J3 riK nh '3 being forgotten. Di. 223 (D2). Gn. : on4*).—20f. Lev. (2. as (Deut. thee.e. agrees 2220(21) 238 (JE). —22. Oettii) XI. know. -bk] cf. the oh^^ci ^2).e.— — X. 15" and the expansion of the theme in Dt. XI.. not the emphatic "therefore" phil. the recollection of the feelings of a sojourner. n?nn — —As the stars of heaven for multitude] obedience.).— an"?] i^".'-^^) dependent on 's\ tri' «V nrK. words ikt . Threescore and ten persons] so Gn. vh : . "as" cf. 1 22 135(4) oqSO (cf. 21. '3 are treated above (with Keil. gi^. 1^^ it is (H). 17I* (nnx Tl^nn He is thy praise]i. 2 — 127 The motive of the verbatim with Ex. A God shall owning such august fear. 462' Ex. Let Israel (who has seen i. (cf. on 6^). been sufficiently indicated ioi*-2i Motives for the fear erf" God have : the Writer now proceeds to emphasize more particularly the duty of loving in —And keep his charge] (imotro m!2Cn)] only here P (esp. . isfcJ] -Jehovah thy God thou repeated from 6^3 : the duty of " cleaving" to Him. ^V or )?S) : so v. derived from the experiences of Egypt. 2''-*' explains) His great deeds in Egypt and the wilderness. Which thine eyes have seen] 4^ y^^ 292(3). D'j'3C2] the 3 is the Beth essentia = and on i". nor chastise- 21. 8. 2. 22. 8^5 iS^o 22^ Nu. ii2-7. in Dt. RV. 26'>-" . and which have not seen) the discipline of Jehovah your God] 1W0 : denotes neither instruction (see on on I**. and left without a verb.) S^ij . Understand in (Kcaa) 28«.: often Numbers). i^o. 1-9.23 i in a 2^ more general sense. Lev. devotion. charge " (of a specific duty). but usually in a technical sense. Jehovah's . are right afler the series of clauses (v. Him (cf. the discipline of Jehovah. Jos.. as a motive to love and Love. here. The as a parenth. injunction. —2-7.. of thy praise cf. And know ye day [for (I speak) not with your children which have not known. 43^). Appeal to Israel to call to mind the wonders wrought by Jehovah on its behalf. (as v. Jer. 26^ (JE). and take to heart. this — 2. i^ (P). as Nu.:i3^. — — i8— XI. and c]} <^. with 1^3 328: <« genitive of the object to be kept. 26^). as 1 attributes Israel's duty to regard with reverence. iSr'c] the relative clause is suggests the reason worthily Israel's praise and Israel's God.is 4^5 note) & and often. Ex.

—All the (living) substance that followed them] cf. ing over. 3. Your eyes are those that saw] 3^1. 15^® i S. of obedience to His commands. JE mentioning only Dathan and Abiram. is meant. which "do I speak.^^ Qpib "IK'K ^3 (ns)l. 8. 16 is of composite authorship. All 8-9. Unto this day] 2^^. i630. viz. unlike Egypt. or 3^^ TraiSta). and their households] almost verbally as Nu. The passages referred to all belong to JE and the fact is a fresh corroboration of what has been said before. The passage of the Red Sea (Ex. ^c] cf. 4^. That the Israelites a disciplinary influence. is remarkable and significant. i6^^-^). as Nu. the Writer reminds Israel of the judgment upon Dathan and Abiram (Nu. 5'° nxi ':n'DnS 'Dy (see note). 20'. — — Whither ye are passcf. the thought of these passages is here drawn out in greater detail. 1^-84^). The silence respecting Korah. — — — : — — — . inference founded upon the preceding description of Jehovah's ID^D. Job 5^^) or less severity (Pr.^"^^. (living) substance. The practical the great work ofJehovah] Jud. His greatness] 3-^. Hoio the earth opened her mouth. D?p^] Gn. 4. idiom. more elegant and classical the present type of sentence does not occur more than 11 or 12 times in the OT. P only Korah.—And their tents] cf. 7. attended with greater (Pr.— — 128 ment (though discipline (fflr — — — DEUTERONOMY this — may be included). Nu. Nu. 11* i S. 6. subduing and pride. and swallowed them up. 16** cn'na nw duk vhin\. and educating generally their moral and religious nature. 2 K. &'c. — oa'Vjia] at their . The acts of mingled judgment 14). Sights] ^^^.]6^. and mercy wrought for Israel in the wilderness.] cf. and the fate of his companions and sympathizers (Nu. 10-17. CTna nxi oyVam] Nu. and do not presuppose that of P. : Flowing with milk and honey] A new motive to obedience Canaan. 16). — — ye may be 4*°. feet. that the historical references of Dt. 7**^(J)t' is : — — denoting properly that which subsists. 2" (Deut. the duty. ought to have exerted upon waywardness promoting humility and reverence. for " opened ").). but moral education. ^c] 6^. as the case it may be: the sight of Jehovah's wonders. Urito this place] i^^. cSr'c. 4^* 6^2 yisf. in. either case — and go 9." 6. are based uniformly upon the narrative of JE. Nu. A rare and peculiar word. \&^.. \&^. His works. His mighty hand. iG^^a ^^<^ nnVD. not nnns. {ov foUoTving them : Ex. strong. (Sr'c] 4^*. And that ye may prolong days. 5. 25" al. as Dt. In particular.

Algiers. 21^ Pr. as we afterwards saw [see ii.. ^a a). which is wound up around it by the same process. In Palestine the wheel or reel is more rude . Egypt (Lane." it may have been Asa garden of herbs\ i K. Shaw. not by oxen. pushing the rounds of the under part at the same time with his feet one after another.. 15'.. but by men pressing upon with the foot. 2« 6* 292-2 Ex. p. p. "in more ancient times the water-wheel smaller. and the crops are dependent. G-K. Travels in Barbary. 25-27). i.' a view of which he also subjoins [Reisebeschreibung. 581 f. . 'a watering-machine that turns by the foot. of Egypt. 187 1. that the reference may be to the mode of distributing water from the canals over a field. where it was called Sakieh tedur birrijl. BR. § 1 12. "Possibly. or water-wheel by means of jars fastened to a circular or endless rope. HWB. and raises the water the Sakieh. chap. 328) speaks of vegetable gardens in Palestine as irrigated "by means of small ditches trodden by the foot.. by making or breaking down with the foot the small ridges which regulate its flow (see. jn'i] 1 Gn. 1877. or withhold according as Israel faithful or — 10. ii. is the allusion cultivated. as is well known. however. The labourer sits on a level with the axis of the wheel or reel.) which illuswatering with the foot " here alluded to. 33^-" &c. —mTppm . 4/3 " usedst to sow . pp. p. . 149. and the system of artificial irrigation by which the waters of the river are stored. 22. Is not as the -land of Egypt. I'jy^. and turns it by drawing the upper part towards him with his hands. in the same way that water is still often drawn from wells in Palestine. as occasion arises.. § 13. i. trates the practice of * * One of the commonest of these machines this is usually turned is by an ox. 226]. 1738. Niebuhr describes one such machine in Cairo. &c. and distributed by canals. and . though none (according to Robinson. and turned. with plate xv. over the fields. upon the annual inundation of the Nile. water " . reproduced in Riehm. (Dr. The comparison seems intended to suggest that Egypt generally was irrigated by a method which in Palestine would be applied only to a IC. which is God will grant the reverse. whence ye came "where thou sowedst thy seed. Conder {Tent Work." It is possible." writes Robinson. . out. Modem pp. p. 3-IO 129 is dependent for its fertility upon the rain of heaven. rain is exceedingly to the rare . . and wateredst it with thy foot\ method by which the soil of Egypt was In Egypt. ed. for their necessary moisture. XI. 431). or by using the foot for the purpose of opening and closing sluices. '«!Vi\='w1iere (i^^). and a single rope is used. which hangs over the wheel. 19]. xiv. for the purpose of raising At present machines of various kinds are in use in water from the river or canals Egyptians. 9 .

and prof. —16 The admonition 8^^^). an extreme case of the h of norm. Comp. issuing. and on the mountains in the first weeks of June barley is ripe. Is. the showers of March-April. in each pers. The former rain (^7. -Nov. D'Dcn tod"?] rather . the and vernal rains the proper ripening of the crops depends. nyan] on 8^". or rule comp. 26*-^ . 11." see Pr. 30^'' Is. 'jiDmm] the tenses as4". n f. Upon . —13-17. Tlie latter rain {^V?d^ i. The enjoyment of this natural fidelity bounty of Palestine is dependent.— nVu' rut jnn] Lev. Jer. dr'c] lo^^. i6i5Job 2923 Hos. in the plains. of spring's and deeps. 24". — 15_ j^^t and be full] as a source of spiritual danger. To love and to serve. : — — . — 11. but water from these sources would be far from country. 16-17. upon the its with which Israel remains devoted to the service of God. — . which begin in Oct. which refresh and advance the ripening crops (the wheat-harvest beginning. at first intermittently. a week or a fortnight earlier than the wheat). 33 (withheld). afterwards. 5^* Joel 2^3 and for regularity of the autumnal allusions. 14_ / ^/// giije] on the first on 7*. true that Canaan a land of streams of water. and allowing the husbandman time to sow his crops of wheat or barley.forth in vale and (8") . " as the rain of heaven permits it "). crops are essentially dependent for their proper growth upon the two annual periods of rain referred to in /or] lit.^*. — 12. till the end of December.e. 32* (. viz. after 3 is generic Lex. pTn pa] the art. and care The eyes of Jehovah are Job cf. See Lex. tsbd!?). contiitu: alLy upon it] it is ever the object of His protecting regard (with ^x) Ps. n' 32^ (pis^ eBm"?) i S. that. 15. . vocative of idolatry.— 1 — DEUTERONOMY — — 30 small garden of veg'etables.e. Job 42^ Ez. According also ** to the is rain of heaven it dHnketh water] It is the supply of water is reg'ulated by the hill " rain. : seeketh after (em). however.— 7%)' com and thy wine and &^ (see note) 8^2 3120^ thine oil] 7^3. the autumnal rains. 15". v. falling heavily. not to follow false the temptation be : gods is repeated (see 6^*'- accompanied by a warning if suited to the present connexion. Jer. 63. during the first half of May.. sufficient for the general irrigation of the and the Careth cf. "as the eye sees it " so here. in particular.e.e. i. see : — case.^"')] i. viz. with interest 3* Jer.. 12^* yy^ {i. 23^ 2 S. 62^2 Ez. h i. 33^^ 34^^. b. and continuing at intervals through the winter. to^the refreshing nature of the "latter rain.

cf. 18—25. commandment. and from Lebanon on the North. And Lev. from the wilderness of et-Tih on the South of Palestine. the Opp. '» Vp] . The hinder sea] i. 47^8 Zech. Whereon the sole ofyour feet shall tread] cf.] in all his 'ways\ 8^ 10^2. i^ (D2) 149. From To <Sr'c. and Lebanon] i. 8^^ : remembrance national : the observance of them vnll be rewarded by prosperity. The ^ . cf. The fear ofyou. There shall not a man stand in your face (d3''JD3)] 7^^. then. — — — — the wilderness.— — — XL — — 11-25 —— —— — 131 indulged in. from (where see notes). i. Joel 220). "One might be tempted to conjecture even unto Lebanon' (pja^n njn) see. the Dead Sea (Ez. he shut up the heavens.). Dispossess Ve shall possess nations greater. in other words. 6^-^ with slight varia- tions of expression. 342^). § 209) collect.— The good land] i^. 1 €.^^. river Euphrates] this is : named see on as the ideal limit of Israel's i^. front sea" ("-jonpn DM).18-20 are repeated. 23I6 (D^). drought and famine may be expected as the con- Lest your heart be deceived] J oh 3127 (in a similar connexion). Lay. however. : 26-32. 8930 Job 1412 cf. 7. i7b^ Jqs. &fc. (p. on i^^. also Ps. cf.] 420. 2^ Lev. Csfc] cf. i^" (Dillm. 148 On the ground of the designation." As the days of 21. = " every place" : Ex. n!?x] so (not .] (B'^iini)] 9**'-^^(Ex. Jos. nVKrr). 24-25. 17. &'c. 726love.— 2* is^-^s &c. and there be no rain] 26i»'". cf. And Jehovah!s anger be kindled against you\ 6'^. sufF.] v. 3427 Zech.— 19. 8^ lo^ al. Jos. 2820 also. and the dread ofyou shall Jehovah put.. 2327 (-T^jsij n^jj»K ^riD-'S ns) : cf. 8^. 20).e. as long as the heaven endures above (or resting on Job 26^^) the earth. 225. ^c] cf. — upon your heart. &c. 8^2 a bless- Ps. as 342 Zech. 28-^'- (Deut. 25. Israel's reward shall be the complete and undisputed possession of the land of promise. As he spake unto Mediterranean Sea. The alternatives offered for Israel's choice Ez. &c. All To "walk Xo cleave to him] lo^o.)._22. 677 85'^. 14^ Joel dominion on the East — you] Ex.e.e. with v-i^b. 24. G** "shall be upon thy heart. Let Israel have these commandments in perpetual also i K. Ps. is "the 220t. Whereon ye shall tread (lann)] cf.— 18. 2^.] comp. (Dr.e. . 9^. see on \.^. — 18. 23. the heavens above the earth] i.—25. ca] a noun with a Dipon Va] K. sequences. That your days. 4*° 62 ii^. 2^ Jos.—Perish quickly. s=« as regularly after (ni). : perpetually this : cf. — V.

4".e. of which ye have had no experience. commanding. in the heart of the (cf. respectively. of the East). the burial-place of Joshua (Jos. as sui{\ i. 320. 7. See ("^^l)] 1®. D^i^ and \3S bv.^). 3 1 23. see 27^21 two mountains more closely going down of the 27. from the point of view of the Hebrews. And turn aside from the -voay] 9^2. 28.) that. ttk] nearly 422 Jos. When Israel has entered into Canaan.). and 'Ebal for the curse. Gerizim which was regarded as the side Mt. 29-32. the right hand. naturally looking Eastwards.— the position : A . to be set symbolic- upon Mount Gerizim. Vtd] Lev. 27^2f. in _ conceived by the Writer. 24^2^^ often mentioned as a place of national gathering and political importance (Jos.—30. CK \. 17* a/. The ground why Gerizim is selected for the blessing. Pp^.and the curse are drawn out at length in c. (cf. ttk 8 d) in front 0/(3" Ex. close to an ancient sanctuary (Gn. respectively.— 132 ing if it — — — DEUTERONOMY — obeys the commandments of Jehovah. 12^ SS^^*-). and the N. first —The verses form a suitable conclusion to the part of Moses' discourse (c. 24I Jud. Dillm. rare usage {J^x.n. in front. cf. The contents of both the blessing. 28.32. 34' i S. /se/ 26. fhe position of the Beyond Jordan] from the Behind the way of the on the other side of the great = if (cf. and a curse if it refuses them. Gn. — be/ore you] for your choice (on 4^): so v. of the South. IVJiich I am — — the blessing and the curse are. )0'n. On the manner defined. 5-1 1). 2533). and which have consequently no claims upon your regard: so 133. is Which ye have not knoian] To go after oilier gods\&^. TJie blessing upon Mount Gerisitn. stating more concisely and emphatically than before the two alternatives set before Israel. who conceived themselves as ally country j — : . is probably (Schultz. standpoint of the speaker.] 4^''. i K. which forms the solemn close of the entire Deuteronomic legislation. which the ceremony 3q^ is 35I8. 135. side of the fertile valley in which Shechem (the modern Nabulus) lay they were thus in the very centre of the land. 29. Ex. and see Jos. S^^f. 9. on the S. &€. was on the right-hand of good fortune (cf. When Jehovah thy God shall bring tJiee into the land\&^ "j^'. in fixing the quarters of the heavens side. 12^-25). 14 28''^ 29^5(26) 32^''^ (the Song). and Mount 'Ebal. and the curse upon Mount 'Ebal] Gerizim and 'Ebal are.25. — — 27. Keil.).

Gerizim : but it i'jSjn)] the words are difficult. connecting it with hhi to roll {away). partly as being a " district of Palestine specially associated with the "Canaanite (Nu. 5*. though the most celebrated was the one near Jericho and one or other of these . a village a little E. 245). 7I6 &c. that d-voelleth hi the'Ardbah^ the 'Arabah. or Kilkilia. has been thought by some commentators to be intended here. Erdkunde. it would seem to be some welland hence it is natural. about 18 miles W. 11^: cf. of Shechem: cf. — . 1329 Jos. to it seems most probable. partly as being immediately in view of "the ravine in front of Beth-Pe'or" (3^^).) thinks of Jiljilia. of course. through the Gcogr. In spite of the objection that this lies too far Gerizim — some 28 miles to the SSE. (Knob.). Keil (and so HWB. supposes that the place meant is either the VaXyouXis of Euseb. which must have passed formerly. from the point of view of one looking Westwards. direction . modern parlance) a cromlech the art.). a large village lying on a ridge 2441 feet above the level of the sea. and the locality intended is uncer- tain. of Kefr Saba. still. a village still called Jiljuleh.) In the land of the xvi. or Jordanvalley (p. 4"f- known and Gerizim. pp. think of the Gilgal near Jericho (Jos. s. does not express the real origin of the word. of Schenkel. From its being named for the purpose of defining the position of 'Ebal place . to S. 'Ebal and Gerizim would be "in front of" this well-known spot The word or (in in the Jordan-valley opposite. and commanding an extensive prospect towards both the Mediterranean and Gerizim). II. at a considerable distance from 'Ebal and seems that it is named here. BL.v. leading through Palestine from N. 13 f. speaking loosely and generally. 6 miles W. as it passes plain E.— XL 26-30 133 westerly road. 293 ff. is = 658 f.-NE. from 'Ebal and to be chosen as a landit mark. Ritter. from a site at the foot of Nebo. upon the is viewed or approached. of 'Ebal and some 2 miles to the S. p. viz.) iv. it is the place intended may be supposed. Canaanite. Such stone-circles (which were no doubt esteemed sacred) might naturally be found in different parts of the country. Vj?? wheel) means a round or circle.. on the whole. that. ("rj^vii) shows (see Lex. Gilgal (cf. of stones. Thus Knob. of Antipatris (which he identifies with Kilkilia. The popular etymology : in Jos.. in the first instance. n 2) that the appellative sense of the word was still felt. and indicated in in which the determining object any particular case depending. In front of Gilgal (hfO the assumed position of the speaker. of Palestine (transl. to s^fi S. {Onom. that the words. being meant indicate. 3).

is an oracular tree (or grove) and if Moreh be rightly taken not as a proper name. the mountains of Gile'ad (Rob."] critically examined. 184 — — . as is read also by Sam. situated 13 miles N. that it makes the defining landmark. Beside the terebinths of Moreh (miD "•Ji^x ^^*^<)] ox ^^ of (the) director. likewise near Shechem. pp. Others have sought to relieve the difficulty of the verse by punctuating differently: thus (i) "the Canaanite that dwelleth in the 'Ardbah in front of Gilgal" (Colenso. of Jordan. but as an appellative. The reason why this injunction has now been given to . ^. On sacred trees among Semitic peoples (who in some cases treated them as actual gods. 265). if not also by the n^x as it is now pointed. in the latitude of Sinjil (perhaps the "Gilgal" the present writer understood on the spot on a clear day from the top of Gerizim. of Gerizim. yet the heights of the intervening mountains (as exhibited in the large map of the Palestine Exploration Society) show that it can have formed no particularly conspicuous landmark and as it is certainly not visible from the plain at the foot of 'Ebal and Gerizim. the words would define very suitably the position of the two mountains. meant K. it is probable. though the original pronunciation may have been n^N "in the sanctuary of Jehovah. as the verb min is used of the authoritative "direction" given by priests (on 17^°).-Gesch. and Baudissin. 67). see W. ii. 24**. If this "stone-circle beside the terebinths of Moreh " could be supposed to have been located in the plain E. Sent. 31. pp. it will denote the priest (or company of priests) oracle. especially from a standpoint E. 134 DEUTERONOMY ii. of the great road leading from Jerusalem through Bethel to the North of Palestine. but an otherwise unmentioned stone-circle beside it. [the " Speaker's Comm. should be described. through which the highway mentioned just before still runs. v. and on the methods of divination from them.. who gave answers to those who came to consult the D'ojvd) Perhaps the same tree is meant by the " Soothsayers' Terebinth " (pSx of Jud.). 1873. it is not easy to understand why it should have been selected for the purpose of defining the position of these mountains. of 'Ebal and Gerizim. the words being supposed to denote a spot close to Shechem. Rel. mentioned Jos. 223-230).. But it is an objection to this view. in 2 2^ 4^®). of Jiljilia. The New Bible Comm. 12^ as close to Shechem that of also 35^ ['''^??V'])' The name. Smith. for terebinths. about 13 miles S. Rel. Though that Jiljilia was visible . fflr here) in Gen." Knobel's and Keil's proposed sites have also the disadvantage of being (so far as appears) places of no importance or note. flf. nor is it clear in what sense two mountains. 178 f. . the words being taken to define the part of the 'Ardbah inhabited by the "Canaanites" (2) "in front of the stone-circle beside the terebinths of Moreh" (suggested by Dillm. 169 if. R. as "in front of it. and paid them divine honours). (of. p. ^^ mentioned also (with terebinth." at Shechem. not the well-known " terebinths of Moreh " itself. Sent. 1878. (among the Hebrews. and 3 miles to the W.

Homicide and murder (ig'""*). Sacred dues and sacred seasons (i4---i6'^). merely as such they are generally enforced by hortatory com- ments and explanations. King (i7"-20). and sometimes they are developed The arrangement is not throughout entirely systematic. Priests 3. the treatment and the style continue the same as in c. the exposition of Israelitish law. of the Israelite "statutes and and criminal. Repression of idolatry (12^-13^^ ('^'). 2.-XXVI. So far as in detail the civil. Prophets (iSS-). Comp. as a rule. are not (as Israelite is to be actuated. 19.— —— — — 135 XII. (iS^-**). and large-hearted benevolence towards man. p. (4^ 5^). by which the The laws. Concluding exhortation to obedi- on XII. . the the same theocratic 1 same parenetic tone prevails. 205 t 16^-17^ belong to No. ib. . under more practical i^. the more technical nature of the subject admits. them ence. 5-1 principles are insisted on. Law of the single sanctuary (12^"^). 38 f. promised in judgments " the daily life and particularizing ceremonial. 2i^"^*t) d. same stress is laid upon the motives of devotion to God. b. d. principal disits 5-26. : : 1. These chapters form the second part of the course of Deuteronomy (c. Judges (16I8-20 lyS-is). 21-23) promulgated. c. 4. Holiness of the laity (14^"-^). by which was to be regulated. Wellh. c. Observe to do] —32. f. : a. 28). . XXVIII. The Code of special Laws. aspects. Sacred observances (12^-16'^) a.-]: b. for instance. %Q. : in Ex. * Comp. 4*^. Criminal law (c. and here and there some displacement may have occurred but on the whole the principles determining the order followed by the Writer are tolerably plain. The following is an outline of the subjects embraced * at considerable length. embracing. p. : the Israelites are about to enter upon the permanent occupation of Canaan. is mostly the case. Office-bearers of the theocracy : a. Westphal. 20 belongs to No.

the places at which the native Canaanites is to served their gods are to be destroyed. also (more generally) 20^3 22^^(-<*) 34^'^. Nu.. 17I-9 (H). 26). viewed generally. for (i) though with reference only to — the religious symbols of the Canaanites.). and Jehovah be worshipped publicly at one place only. —The Code of 17^'^). gives rise. 12-26) begins. the parallels in the other Codes are. In Canaan.^sf. Expiation of an uncertain murder (21^"^). Lev. Ex. relating.(JE). (JE). with injunctions respecting the place. viz. arranged in tabular form. 12. Parenetic conclusion (c. at which their rites were observed Ex. divorce. and the character. however. stands to the other Codes of the Pentateuch. 20). special laws (c. but embracing such subjects as the conduct of war 21^"'^* (with c. False witness (19^""-!). not to the places. (H) and for (2) Ex. Miscellaneous laws. like the "Book 2o23-26j of the Covenant" and the "Law of Holiness" (Ex. of earth or unhewn stone. C.136 b. c. 232^. seduction. — For a detailed synopsis of the laws. The relation of the last two passages to the law of Dt. family law (primogeniture. 4. as such. &c.-Nu.lays no stress upon sacrifice being confined to a single spot. with the parallels in Ex. as well as for a discussion of the relation in which the Deuteronomic legislation. to difficulty. in simple fashion. and attaches to such worship the promise. " In . Laws designed to XXL secure the Purity of Religious Worship. 28). 21^^-^ 22"-»' 24I-5 255-1%. 27 interrupts the discourse of Moses with a piece of narrative.interest and loans 2Z^^-^^^-) 24«-i«-i3. just weights 25*^"'®. the i. and peroration (c. (i) (2) the destruction of the Canaanitish places of worship.(mostly) to civil and domestic life (21^'c. d. 2o24f. 25). of the public worship of Jehovah. and needs discussion. 5. DEUTERONOMY Encroachment on property (19").34^2-16 comp. containing injunctions foreign to the context on both sides (see the notes ad loc). izo^^f. the limitation of the public worship of Jehovah tcf* a single sanctuar}'. XII -XIII. — . to be selected by Himself. not systematically arranged. Lev. — Of the two main topics dealt with in c. but directs it to be offered upon an altar built. 33^2f. reader is referred to the Introduction {§§ 2).

(Cf. 9'^"" ordinary and regular customs arc described. it cannot be doubted that other local sanctuaries existed in different parts of the land. lo^'*-^ 13^'* 11'" 14^ {i\iG first of the altars built by Saul to Jehovah)." The memorated). 27^-8 &c. 17^''). at which Solomon was accustomed (n^j. be to the whatever place I cause will altar of burnt-oflfering" before the Tabernacle.35 16*). in the earlier centuries of Israelitish history. for instance. and even the good kings did not remove them (i K. but also independently. i24(3) 14* 15*. in pre-Mosaic times. in spite of the splendour built The Temple : . who are often in During this period the historical books imply the existence of sanctuaries (other than that at which the frequently of the erection of altars. and worshipped. in any With the plurality of altars.): not only. i K. 241-^ i S. and that sacrifice offered at them was considered perfectly legitimate. but the alternatives offered (earth or is unhewn stone) are an indication that the law its meant quite generally.7 xii. 10*"* it is especially evident that : the and ^clai of by Solomon. agrees not merely. ig^f. 22® W. Ex. 32. that a law such as that of Dt. which also presupposes local sanctuaries sec on i^. the practice of the JE stated to have built altars. the sanctuary at which the Ark was stationed had naturally the pre-eminence. Although. Jud. of a theophany. manner prescribed. on the part of either the actors or the is being infringed : in i S. is a far simpler structure manifestly in the writer's mind. 3 1423 j-h 2243 2 K.19 2 S. i**^'^). especially at spots where Jehovah had manifested Himself to them (Gn. but also the usage of the Israelites generally. Comp. retained their popularity through the period of the Kings the Deuteronomic compiler of the Books of Kings notes repeatedly how the people continued to sacrifice at them. therefore. 24««). thus sanctioned. 137 my name to be remembered (or comcome unto thee.') to sacrifice). 32 ("where men used to -worship God"). y^'-'' 9'--" (at a high-place). or any intimation. 3* ("the great high-place" at Gibe'on. I reference here cannot. and bless thee. S**"* Jud. 12. 20^28. patriarchs. and of sacrifice. Ex. and was the centre to which annual pilgrimages were made (cf. is 22^-'^^ 2(y^^ 3320 35!.346^: cf. between the ages of Moses and Solomon. as described in P (Ex. 23'*"^^'^ ffirst-fruits to be brought to "the house of Jehovah"]. built in the part of the land. Ark was stationed). In none of these notices is there any mark of disapproval. Jos. or in obedience to an express command (as Jos.) and speak not only on occasion narrator. Ex. local sanctuaries. 21". for many reasons (see ad loc). 2' 6'^ 1316. and that intention is to authorize the erection of altars. 127-8 134. I S.

') the Israelites were prone to offer them. 1423?- . ^c] the words are of the nature All the days. des AT. 7^1 17^ 19^) . Time however showed how impossible them against abuse. and of the other passages. but the . Lev. by £ modification in its phraseology. 20^. Studten aus Wiiritembergf 1881.HchenPriesterthumes. had been proved to be incompatible with purity of worship it marks the final. illustrating the practice of the period from Moses to Solomon. The gist of Lev. in the manner of a peace-offering. sanctioning an indefinite number of local sanctuaries. 47 : comp. 17^'^ (accepting it. 1. v. These are the statutes. &c. ii7 2 K. to whom (v. In view of Ex. on Lev. Edinb. without its being presented to Jehovah at the Tabernacle. 17^"^ is (i) to prohibit the slaughter. 18^-22 21^): in Dt. 1878. K. in Haupt's " Sacred Books of the OT. by Hezekiah formally declared illegal. The full discussion of this subject belongs to a Commentary on Leviticus but the most probable opinion is that. restricted to the single sanctuary ideal Josiah : . K. W. p.^). In its more original form. of a superscription toe.*'*.^"''. effort made by the prophets to free the public worship of Jehovah from heathen accretions. to the Libel. 18^°'' igio-i*. pp. p. The law of Dt. and its special aim will have been to insist on sacrifices being offered to Jehovah alone instead of to the imaginary demons of the desert. even for purposes of food. Theol.\ in Dt. the law will have harmonized of course with Ex. Smith. 12-26: cf. viz. JOi. 17'"* had no reference to a central sanctuary (the "Tent of Meeting"). the abolition of them was attempted. 42 if. 99. Gesch. Hebrder. A. Addit.. by H. and (2) to forbid burnt-offering or sacrifice being offered except at the same place. when it was incorporated in P. they are legitimate sacrifice being expressly . it is extremely difficult to think that Lev. in effect (3°).^^'* the aim of the : second is to insure sacrifice in general being offered exclusively to Jehovah. Usu. just quoted. though with only tem(2 porary success. . of any animal of a kind that might be offered in sacrifice. Jer.— o8 also it I DEUTERONOMY K. as originally formulated (as part of the "Law of Holiness"). XIL 1. The principle on which the first of these prohibitions depends is explained below." (1894). and to the Deuteronomic gave practical effect in his reforms (2 K. d. Dillm. on v. v. as pre-Deuteronomic) can still be in its original form. and was only accommodated to the single sanctuary. thus marks an epoch in the history of Israelitish religion it springs from an age when the old law (Ex. JO}] hath given. i. but presupposed a //i^z-rt/^'ify of legitimate sanctuaries. 23^. Baudissin. 23^3. This view of the passage is taken by Kittel. R. and to preserve the worship conducted at them from contamination with Canaanwas to secure i itish idolatry (cf. 61-64 5 ^^^ Leviticus. 5^ 6^. Gesch. 20^ . 20-*). and most systematic. Answ. White and the present writer. 17'. in substance.

by the immigrant Israelites. 1423 2 and under every spreadK. 7" (cf.is (cf. tSerxia." 22^^ al. 12^ 28^^ i S. &c. in Heb. 6^3 2o2Sf) ^53 see more fully on not Nu. The etym. 1710. The fact that such spots were selected by the Canaanites for their idolatrous rites. because the shade thereof is good therefore your daughters commit whoredom. All Canaanitish places of worship are to be fundamental and necessary condition for the (v. nwipon] word may possibly. of trees or leaves. always. : 16^6). (ffi) Jer. pure and uncontaminated worship of Jehovah the high mountains^ Upon spread- and upon the hills. therefore. flaccid. 1 al. 21^ localities {e. 1221 1332^ cf. 750) writes (41^) ** They sacriupon the tops of the mountains. except Ps.) in such K.g. in Arab. Ez. accompanied frequently alluded to in the period : Thus Hosea {c. . "made. in connexion with idolatrous observances. adopted from them Ez. caused them naturally to be regarded with strong disfavour by Hebrew legislators and prophets. speaks of the terebinths.^^). and under every ing tree] the favourite sites chosen by the Canaanites for their idolatrous observances.) the the shows that the punct. destroyed. but spreading.. (& ^aait.. to the mind. 92" {\i]ri pc) '" (of the righteous. shortly afterwards. 57^ Jer. used lit. 16* (all " upon the mountains.. and often. ffufiiiiS. 7^^. Arab. 3352 (H) n''D::'n nn^on nxv is Why the sites referred to were chosen for religious purposes.— XII. luxuriant. is not certain. — —A 2_. and gardens. the standing phrase. D'cn'] . . applied fig. 6^3 '* 65''^. 36 172) . under the oak." Ez. with accompanying i shrine. i K. like the Arab. sense of " sacred place" Gn. "high-places"). 1-2 _^io 139 2 1 13.ii. 3^3." Is.3. or chapel (n'3: K. hill." Jer. altar. 2028) under every spreading tree. ing tree. and the terebinth. and the poplar. under the fig. is correct. artificial The "places " alluded to are no doubt the ni03. of a tree). Jeremiah. definitely stated.. or mounds (AV. i8«. — pj?"i] — — .) 22^ Is. id. and burn incense upon the hills. and your brides commit adultery " Isaiah. uXffuirif. Trees may have position {before the subj. the primary meaning of the root may have been to fall abroad loosely. on 9^. of trees. erected ("built" 2 K. often by licentious rites. KariffKto. in which the idolatrous Judahites delighted (i^^) in the age of of the Kings. have acquired in Heb. it is probable. 2. ra'una is to be (mentally) lax. and can only be inferred by conjecture. ii^ 1423 Ez. makam. Worship is at these spots. Deut. fice : : . — not green. cf. is " upon every high 220 (cf. weak : possibly.

not worship Him. \^V ." see on (72*) 1621-22. on 11^". 2o2*^. (i) The Massorites. were chosen as being open to heaven. 470 f.. and hill tops.36 1^21 2 K. R.. . 6-6 I S. to be chosen by Himself. Only at one spot. ness to the injunction of On the "pillars" (obelisks) to and "Ash^rim. D-j^p. and theophanies. 8"-48 (cf. Sx at the beginning being governed by the verb of motion. are described as taking place on mountain-tops. 26" c. "i^Si by the side of a-ijD. A subst. 3^ 4^ 24^^ i K. Cause their name perish out of that place\ the very it names of the deities once venerated at are to be forgotten (Zeph. Ye shall break down. but partly also because they were often regarded as sacred (on 11^). 1532 1 K. S^c] nearly as 7^ (Ex. as Ex. 252 fF. 4. TOP nxm WTin ^J??*?] the construction is uncertain." of Horeb. Ex. at every spot without distinction. R. 356.") iii3. 352. 22^ Jud. ^Ssj. which is described similarly in passages of Kings due to the Deut. partly for the reason assigned by Hosea.e. and on sacred hills. 23^* 34^^)is The command naturally repeated here. 5. connecting 1J3C7 with icTin. 6- and "to cause his "to set name to dwell (ISB'"^) there " 12I1 1422 i62- n 262. the "mount of God. § 245''. also. &c.^ i. else in the Hex. 231 ff. cf. i* Zech. and under sacred trees (Gn. viz. ii. Rel. are sacri- and other sacred dues. 29-^: yet cf.— I-40 DEUTERONOMy been selected. agrees with Ex. sacred associations gathered 358.g. — — in 10 Dt.. also by vocalizing ?• (not xf. which is implicitly in the writer's mind. 21^ 232^. 927 (D2). it is generally supposed.). on sacred trees. 7-* (T3Kn)." i K. v. Of course the place tacitly designated by the expression is Jerusalem. Ye sliall not do so. as giving completev. see W. — 3. 5.-Gesch. Ols. The expression occurs though the idea that the place of sacrifice is to be appointed by God. 913.32. as the city which Jehovah has "chosen. 132). Is. dwelling. 14. 15. I2^'13'^ 18^ 21^ Jos. compiler. to be presented to Jehovah. G-K. Rel. Gn. 19 io5 2 S. 186 31I1 Jos. by placing the athnah at cj?. 19*). 6"'^^'^). Ufito the place which JeJwvah your God shall choose\ the standing phrase fices. . . 4-7. pp. perh. . 24^ Jud. or other eminences {e. : nowhere — . Sem. le j^s. and regarding it as resumptive of cipa. not by man. Baudissin. DDr nK cmaxil cf. but the construction being broken by the insertion of vcm\ Mzvh. on account of their shade. Among the Israelites. and with idolatrous rites.520 ^^1. and nearer than other points of earth to the heavenly gods (for another conjecture. Sem. §61.^. round the same spots and both religious ceremonies. Smith.T Vk in this case there will be an anacoluthon. with the addition (as here) his (DVlJ'P) name there" 1221 1424. for the central sanctuary \2^^- is. See further.26 1425 . iS'S-^O. "wn cipni ^k ck '3 3.') show that they treat udc as a subst.

the prophets. however. the parallel phrases "to cause his name to the idea is dwell (i3K'^) there. school. disregarding^ the athnah.— — " ^ XII. 30^ 62'*'^- The name. 9^ al. for when Israel suffers contumely or reproach. render as an inf. however v. and bless thee.).).]). Ezra 6^2 i Neh. 9^ iiso 2 K. in consequence of some manifestation of my presence " I will come unto thee. Keil. and see on i'^'.— 6. OT. 48" Ez. p.) is to act in such a manner as not to is belie His revealed nature." v. The term is first found in connexion with a sanctuary in the Book of the Covenant. 712 (of Shiloh) i^t (cf.29 2 K. nor is vn construed elsewhere with hn of the place resorted to . Theol. and the expression " to build an house to Jehovah's name" is found 2 S.5) 8i7-20-«-« (all Deut.shall ye seek (iB'nn)] i.e.. when they wish to it : character. and others. Thither all sacrifices. for religious purposes comp. OT. cf. nK3i] Sam. (& cnioi . and with His sanctuary in specially associated with its midst : hence He . 21^ (all Deut." because He there vouchsafes the special tokens of His presence and graciously responds to His servants' devotions (comp. K. that His presence there may be an abiding The objection to (2) is that M2vh is then somewhat otiose (for one. often say that the expression of the nature hence describe a person or place by its real will be called or named accordingly. Theol. To set his name there] so v. Oettli. Ps. (i) and humt-qfferings and sacrifices (DTIST)! the two commonest does not. the sentence also is decidedly more forcible. Is. are to be brought: viz. Oiit of all your tribes] comp. and "that my name may be there " S^o. 3'^) . 20^* "in every place where I will cause my name to be remembered (or commemorated) (cc 'CB' TaiN ib-k cipcn ^33) viz. [ii. 21 142^ i K. "the 'name of Jehovah' is thus the compendious expression of His character and attributes.'. and with on 18").w(3. Gn.. and comes in lamely at the end of the sentence. after the long intervening relative clause. i''® 4' is — Ez. comp. — — — . 2327."• ^^ 36^"^^) and the sanctuary is the place of Jehovah's "name. Jehovah's revealed nature His people." 1423 i62-6.^. 21^-'^. 8^^ 11^2 j^^ai 2 K. 5") to act " for His name's sake " (Ps. if DipDrt *?« be resumed. 74^). Diy IDC riN nw'? see above is a synonym of cv ice pcV). 123 f. 3-6 141 On on the theological application of the 4^7 : word choose^ see further a favourite one with writers of the Deut. will not it is forsake His people His profaned (i S. i K. occur elsewhere: hence (2) Knob. God (2) as obj. 23^ 31* : 143'^ Is. 2522 i S. 3^ 5". 514 f. Schultz." Isaiah (i8") calls the Temple "the place of Jehovah's name " (cf. 48^^ &c.e. . 20^. Oehler. and other sacred dues. by a synonym such as usr"?. own name which is — — (Even) to his dwelling. I4'''-' al. resort thither . "that he (or it) may dwell (there)." i. f^ 1 K. § 56. as He has revealed them to men " (Kirkpatrick on Ps. Israel. Jer. Am. (cf. 12^ Is.ii 262 Jer. with the Hebrews. 48* Jer. Ex. 5^ fjKJT'a IBniD ^N1.

Nu. DEUTERONOMY often mentioned together. and the cognate verb Dnn.(pa'tpifia. which in other similar passages seems to be combined with m^iy as a parallel to DTI^T (^. Nu.« £2." was For D'vt." or "presented. and forming the priest's due {e. 25^* Nu. 38 ("tithe and teramah. 29 419 68 (15) and for nann D'ln combined. The usage of the term makes it probable that the reference is partly to the firstDt. s») 1344 j^s Ez. spoil. « ("." which. 722)." but that it denotes properly what is lifted off 2^ larger mass. "what the hand lifts off ip^'y^) from the produce of the soil.i^f-) !:4. 517 (Na'aman) Jer. being used principally by 16^0^. 2'. — : . fruits. always in P (or H)] : nonn corresponds rather to "contribution. see more fully on Lev. . 23^^.v. Theol.I6b-i7j^ a term belonging P and the priestly prophet Ezekiel. shows that it does not imply any rite of " elevation. C KnicnsN. An examination of the passages in which naiir. Wellh. or first-fruits and firstlings so not only 2 S.-" i8i9. cf. ib. .®-^ al. 20^ 40'". K. 45I Used absolutely. 8^.). 69 ff. nonn is thus used of contributions of money. s." as here). for sacred purposes (€r often a. ^^ and is only used exceptionally in connexion with sacrifices. offered for sacred purposes.ii-" (gee v. the usual rendering of ]T\p Hebrew the two words differ in their application considerably. i. a regular and ancient offering (Ex. 'f^--'^ al. such as were presented at to the priestly termin- the three annual pilgrimages (see ology. to in the enumeration. 352' Nu. I. Nu. 45'.142 kinds of 615 1522 2 sacrifice.^ Ez. but also 2 Ch. In connexibn with sacrifices nDiin is only used specially of portions " taken off" from the rest. Oehler.^^ in JE 262 . Ex.«. &c.g. 18* (of the sacrifices named in v. whether the tithe. lo^^ iS^^ Jos. 1" (if the text be sound). 18^2 in p)j which would otherwise not be alluded offering . 20^* 24^ 32^ On these forms of sacrifice. 29^ .. with the " wave-breast. cf. Ez. 3. as a contribution to the service of the Deity. &c. and Di. the priest's share of the thank-offering.^. iqS 13^)." and is applied especially to sacrifices. see on 14^2.. taken from the produce of the " Heave-oflfering" {terumaJi) is soil. 7". especially 2226. see Lev. and esp. Knob. as. OT.e. or separated from it. 15". nDiin is sometimes in AV. treated generally as contributions to the sanctuary) 2i29. the "sacrifice" specially intended in such cases by DTI^T being doubtless the thank(d"'d!>'J^'). 7'-. Ex.^. 15^-21 18" (see v. produce of the land. § 133. 3iW. the " heave-thigh. both expressing the idea oi separation so also Ges. p.)." . I S. 45'^^^ Ezr. g.28 j in general designations of sacrifice (Ex. partly to other voluntary offerings.«) Neh. 28. of land reserved for the priests and Levites. Lev. but in represented by offering. \y^p denotes an offering as "brought near. Lev. nnnn commonly denotes gifts taken from the (of land). Keil on Lev. oblation. (4) the contribution {heave-offering) of your hand. (3) tithes. Ex. i' 2^ 3^ and frequently [79 times : except Ez.^^. io«8. on Lev. 20*" Mai. RV. 1519" (Oettli). occur.. Hist.

meant the period of the people's sojourn in the field of Moab. or communion. 525.54 Ex. (7) The firstlings of your oxen and of your sheep: see 1519-23.^8 igio 2321 288-20f. 2ij^ or burnt-offerings (Lev. 8-14. S^c] in the case of such offerings (notably the thank-offerings) as were accompanied by a sacrificial meal. 1520 For other allusions to "eating. Every man whatsoever is own eyes] comp." as an (firstlings). 9I3 Ps.). Hath blessed thee] 2^.18 1423.e. 7-8 The him in addition *' of your hand " (so marks the tcnimdh as the worshipper's personal offering. offered either performance of a vow. The Israelite. 152 i6i°'') XII. the worshipper's family and household were to share it with him: so v. accompanying sacrifice. 2230(29). : — . on 2^) v. This centralization of public worship is to come into operation as soon as Israel lar. 7^") see on these passages. 7. m. At the same time. 132. Lev. as Oettli remarks. when he brings his offerings to the sanctuary.) denotes an undertaking. "vphI^ wherein . ii2. is — 8.12. The irreguin- arbitrary worship of the wilderness not to continue definitely. and partakes of the sacrificial meal which a bounteous year has enabled him to provide. on 7'^ . Comp. i8^^-i8 (P). — (5) and (6) Your vows and your free-will offerings^ i. enterprise.^^ 1423. is to thank Jehovah with a joyous heart for the success with which his labours have been blessed. 1812 24I1 I S.i5 at the sanctuary. 252. see especially one connected with agriculture (synon. or from a spontaneous impulse on the part of the giver. extraordinary sacrifices.e. cf. in the scrvicc of false gods Ex. Am. — 3146. Jud. though the former appears to have been the more usual (Lev.26^ and frequently (i S. 17^ 2i25 (of the period when and order). 34^5 Nu. rendered by deliberately and willingly.— — — 143 v. i^-n &c.^^: cf. is secure in Canaan.26 (tithes). And there ye shall eat. 2229(30) 34^. as v. either thank-offerings Such (o^JD^tJ*) sacrifices might take the form of 22^^.— And ye shall rejoice on account of all that ye put your hand to] *i^ '"•'r'J'O : 1^ npK'O (peculiar to Dt. qe) Nu. Before JehovaK\ i. see Gn. the terms of the description are no doubt coloured by the cirthere in Israel to preserve discipline is was no king By here and to-day 7. gx. 27''. where it is implied that sacrifices were not offered right in his in the wilderness. act of worship. cf.

4^ 7 a'mn to give -width to. for Hifils to be construed with h. Ex. in corresponding terms. of manner (G-K. Lit.— 10. 11. to 518(4)^^ v. ns3 being. . 25^** ^' 26' al. K. cumstances of the writer's own day. is else- where also the object of a 1511. 22^ 37^ al. both in poetry and prose.is 1427 i6n. when with probably a lax ritual. (v. (see the Introd. "and when .\ so 251^ Jos. § 5).ii I K. h 3. § 2820. cf.i8 1426 Lev.) Pr. ("the stranger cnnajn] AV. cf.from which the expressions used are mostly repeated. 15* Is. S^e Ps. and being found besides only Ex. . . And ye sJmll rejoice your God] the holy joy with which a sacrificial v. 11.— — 144 — DEUTERONOMY sacrifice — . 11. &c. to the place of rest : own land. 12" (Deut. 12. &'c. v. § 121 Obs. 23*0 (H) of rejoicing during the Feast the Levite\ here the Levite. 9. it 10-11. To the 95II.e. 45' ^ . Gn. Dr. see is to be celebrated. cf.rm . the local sanctuaries. In all probability the reference the peace secured by David and Solomon (2 S. who has no and is accordingly dependent for his subsistence upon what he receives from others. nnao] cf. 7I i K. special injunction in Dt. the sacrificial feast (so v. v. all your choice vows\ the expression seems to imply that vow being something it exceptional. 1^. which likewise illustrate the Writer's regard for the Levite and see on i8i-8. 5) is more usual. 23^. . as "chosen" by Jehovah for His abode. cf. 10^ h nz-ci. 2. at : was offered.ii containing a covert allusion to the Temple in Jeru- salem.'^) — feast (which is here meant. .i9 1429 26^2. 53" h pnsn to give righteousness to. The — .e. shall be. § 118. cf. This use of gates " is peculiarly charac' * teristic of Dt. — The excuse for such irregularities Israel has not yet entered into its i the secure and undisturbed possession of rest (nn''^?)] i.T with •T.14 2611 277. cf. apparently as a dat. cf. Cf. a tendency in Heb. That is within your gates] i. Lex. i.^).an accus. occurring in 2oi° it some 25 times.T is the absolute case. commodi. 518(4). the sacrifice offered in fulfilment of before Jehovah was of a superior kind. ^ n'jn] there is . 2i^(**) (both 7I. territorial And possession of his own (10^). nt33 pp 33^ but nazh ZV (poet. is rest. —And the See v. resident in your various cities. such as occurs constantly after n»ni (18'" 21' Nu. Is. the city so often described in the Kings (see on v. Ps. 17" 21*"' &c.5'6. — accents (which connect DipD. And he shall give you D2) 2 S.— naa cnapn] so i S. 14 2611).Ti. . and separate it from what follows) must be disregarded : cipo.— 10. is included also among those who are to be invited to of Booths).). then". as regards the place. Ew. Hos. on 8'-.Tnn to give life to. Lev.) V.

(i2iS'23'26 1523)^ feeling against 178 f.34. that are intended for food. — 15. permit thee. Frazer. accordHos. 20. 145 —though not accepted —see — the meal was not a sacrificial one. freely.23. might attract thee to make it a place of sacrifice. though the same word is used. 317 726f. such as the ox. immedilaw on the place of sacrifice) 192'^. 224f ing as thy means. note. So.21 i S. After all the desire : of thy soul^ (^^'33 H^^"^??) v. like game (which was allowed to be eaten as food for sacrifice) . and denotes to slaughter simply. (cf. 2320 (^) n^s besides According to the blessing.^^ was a necessary consequence of the and in the other Codes. Ez. S^c] i. in other nations. xhe unclean and the clean may eat thereof as of the and as of the hart\ so v. that thou seest\ — 13. — the land. below) hence the flesh of domestic animals. by the advantages of its site (cf. v. By ancient custom in Israel.22 1522. provided only that their blood be not consumed. but to slaughter for sacrifice : here. all slaughter naj naturally was sacrifice expressed not to slaughter simply. however. with special reference to the burntoffer this (cf. 16_ Only ye shall not eat the blood] to eat the blood or " with the blood " (Qin hv) — — : was a i. in the precepts of v. 1432. and it is strictly and repeatedly prohibited in Hebrew legislation. 21 ige i S. 94 Lev. Thou mayest slaughter . 837 (Deut. 10^'' Jer.). practice prohibited to the Hebrews the antiquity of the it (cf. The Golden Bough. so gazelle. and not for sacrifice. 9-i6 — 145 . 720f.— 13 f. phil. as stated above. 15-16.*'* ^^'•. ID . even though of a kind that could be offered in sacrifice. On the animals named._The permission expressed in v. slaughter : and sacrifice were identical (cf. (nDtn)] see below. viz. however. is i K. and therefore those partaking in it need not even be ceremonially "clean " (Lev. both in Dt.e. nam] in old Israel. shown by i S. and (P) Gn. The meaning is that animals so slain. might be eaten 16^''. on v. may be slain and eaten freely in any part of V.) = 2 Ch. see on 14^. All that I am comma^iding thee\ viz. through God's blessing.) is — 1710-1* (as here. 19".^) at In every place and which. that is within thy gates"). the 13. 28^* i K.2). Animals. 628.— — XII. See further on v. 14. the context shows that it is stripped of its usual associations. (H) Lev. ately following a limitation of all offerings to a single sanctuary. The injunction repeated. 3325). offerings as though the temptation to other places might be peculiarly strong.

firstlings. how could a law. that is. because sacri- acceptable to Jehovah cannot be offered beyond the land (cf. one of them tinction : with the limitation of all sacrifice to sanctuary.^' is naturally taken by those who reg'ard Lev. was evidently impracticable when the people were settled in their homes in different parts of Canaan. 14^2-35^ is people in eating- with the blood" 9^. that : Lev." as a statute. 17^'' as (in its present form) Mosaic Lev. Amos 7^''. as just explained. lamb. in its original form. and other sacred . though practicable in the wilderness. 12'* is supposed to be a formal abrogation of it. altars. promulgated immediately before the Israelites' entrance into the Promised Land. the relaxation of natural corollary of the centralization of 17-18. it falls into its proper place as a law parallel to Ex. which. not intended for sacrifice. was still not to be eaten. be described (v. of Israel. was a sacrifice introduced by Deuteronomy. indicated p. I'f . except at the one sanctuary. where is implied that in exile all the food of the people will be unclean. But while flesh.146 sheep. 17^"' requires every ox. the old rule had necessarily to be relaxed a dis- had to be drawn between slaughtering for food and slaughtering for sacrifice the former was permitted freely in all places (with the one restriction. A different view of the ground of the permission in v. hibited. that the blood. domestic animals slain for food in the country districts could be presented at a central . intended to be permanently valid? But upon the hypothesis. Dt. and the goat (as DEUTERONOMY is still the case amongf the Arabs) was not eaten habitually . but to be poured away upon the ground). the latter was pro. 17^''. may be eaten in any part of the land.* rectified where the sin of the by the erection it of an altar at which the blood can be properly presented to Jehovah fice : also Hos.') as "a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations. This explanation is however inconsistent with the terms of Lev.). act. and animals slain for food cannot consequently be presented at an altar local altars p. which could no longer be presented at an altar. or goat. 249 f. tithes. could not be lawfully partaken first unless the fat and blood were in this presented at an altar. and its flesh the slaughter of the animal was a sacrificial of. So long as were legal in 202^). Compare connexion '* i S. to be presented at the sanctuary (the "Tent of Meeting") as this law.^ Canaan (Ex. had reference to a plurality of 20®*. slain for food by the Israelites. OTJC. which from the nature of the case could not continue in force when the joumeyings in the wilderness were over. 13S. when it was eaten.

^3in K^] 722.for. a kind of rhv so Is.. 12). 71' n!?rD] compound subst. 342* (JE). I will Shall enlarge thy border. 20. Kbo cc'2: that which their eyes long. and the restric- with fuller explanations.i4^ above on v.^^ ness of may become necessary. Ps. repeated here. Book of Ruth" {OTJC^ : p. 15^°. —20-21. 7^^*^ (P) . formed from T the ox is that to which thy hand is putforth. The Levite] the command just given it (v. 24-' C.^^ (on v.15. at a feast. viz. "f^ "wzi Th&a. The is injunction of v J. — — 18. Except at a feast. ." &c. This throws light on Dt. Lev. the enlargement of Israel's border. 249«. have afforded occasion for a sacred meal. and the consequent remote- many cf. The conditions under which the permission of v. 11' v:'y nwio.^^) is repeated."nxn '3] ^^ because or when thy soul. comp. Repetition of the permission of v. 12^^-22^ which shows that in old Israel game was the only meat not eaten sacrificlally.^: must also.— —18. on that of the firstlings. respecting the place of the sacrificial meal.^). See on v. or to entertain parable and from the 17.". "heave-offering of thy hand" (v.^2.Tj'V lono. 90* T^D tikd that which thy face illumines.^- 19. thee (i^^)] and see Ex. accordance with the stress which the Writer lays upon tion of v. '3 expresses here rather more than ck it enunciates the circumstances (which are conceived to have arrived) under which the action denoted by — . on the sacrificial meal accompanying vows and ings free-will offerings (in so far as these : were not burnt-offeri6^of. appears very clearly from Nathan's eatflesh\ viz. V3IK vacD that which his eyes see. in more general terms. On the eating of the tithe. . or ** occasion. that to which they lift up their soul. as he hath said [promised] 19S. to —20.). That flesh was not eaten every day even by wealthy people. sent forth. in order to preclude any possible misapplication of the permission granted in V. 'Ji "CSJ . And thou shall say. 44^'' CNT -ma that at which the head is shaken. on some other exceptional a guest. the gifts designated by the cf. parts of the country from the central sanctuary. that which his ears hear ^* DT mVrD that upon which their hand is put forth = their dominion. or in sacrifice before a local shrine. on in 26II).— XII. though the first-fruits (if these are included) were the perquisite of the *• 10 : priests (18* 262^. 20-28. however. that which the sheep tramples down . nc cdtd that to which Is. it appears. Ez. I7-20 147 dues may be partaken of only at the central sanctuary. see on i^--^- . the Bedouin tastes no meat but the flesh of the gazelle or other game. in more definite and explicit terms.

Arab. or "soul" (Heb.^ * 13" 14" i6'5 i9«-9 2i9 28-9-" 30" 3i2»i>.g. it contains its soul). Gn. j Have cotnmanded v. expansion.. in the parallel clause) (2) it is tioned often as the seat of desire {20^^) or appetite (23^5).] lit. 26*3 Is.— 148 DEUTERONOMY '' Because thy soul desirctJi] the " soul V.e. . not to eat blood (v. so v.^* "for as regards the soul of its and "the soul of all flesh is its blood" (cf. 2-^- resist firmly the temptation the soul) . 52^. psychologfy (cf. 217). '3sn nic ^5?:] G-K. so its life ebbs away hence the blood was regarded as the seat of the vital principle.23) is is in the sentient principle in a living- Heb.v<\ 3^. . and as such : treated as the org^an of feeling. 9* its "only flesh with the soul thereof. menThese ( 1 — two usages explain the employment of the term here 21. 14^2^ to eat For the blood is the life \ a7id thou shall not eat the soul with the flesh\ similarly in P. to God who gave it. Lev. shall ye not eat".— iipflj m^n] so \i^.or emotion hence that (i) it is used 1 in the higher prose style and in poetry. and in H. ji* ns:K') 42I (^jrs3 nnyn) 6110 66-' it is . on organism. blood is with soul [i.: so Jud.^^." that so the " soul " which it contained might be restored. 1. where it is expressly described as reserved for this purpose) but. as directly as possible. indent) . with a statement of the ground on it. 2210 (see V. which it is based. from — — 22.V. 17^^. with slight 23-25. § 121. thee] v. Gn. 14^^)." v. (cf. i means of the its soul. .: is idiom. 12^^ 27*- 19 ^<< my soul may Ps. j J 1 : j . v. 59. which could be accepted by God as a substitute for the sin-stained soul of a man see Lev.^^**. Only be firm not (lit. 5J'S3) in virtue of this it possessed an atoning efficacy (for it contained the pure and innocent life of the animal. i630 ('"t^'33 ^&'pj nbri) ] 54 ii5 259 Lev. \ " \ \ the principal verb in the sentence takes place (Germ." j \ . : v.m. as a pathetic periphrasis for the personal pron.29 6^ (notice in the last 8 passages that an alterna- * tive for the simple pron. to eat. Heid. 1 bless thee") Nu. even | blood. it was also too sacred to be applied to ordinary human uses. "be strong-" (P]D)> it. Wellh. A repetition of the injunction '. Lex. &€." and hence " the blood atoneth by all flesh.— 23. (i S. . Hamasa. or employed as food: it was to be "poured out on the earth as water. Jer. Repeated.— 12. further. As the blood flows from a wounded animal. With njx the i \ use of C!. 17^^ "for the soul is of the flesh in the blood. e. and a motive commending —23.^^).

The Heb. 8^^).46 £2. v. ipnn). pp. on Lev. 7^^ 15^^ 2 cf.e. 392 f. % 70. whether such as were dedicated on a special occasion Lev. In the Priests' Code.i'^^- is attached to v. &c. 2 S. 12.the Hebrews a ground partly physiological. same motive. : Offer\ 2928- (jT'B'J^l). as often in P {e. in these passages. 120. Smith. but no account v. the flesh is to be eaten. ^^. 26-27. only the blood is to be poured out against the altar . the Aristotelian idea of 4'ux^. nephesh. (Lev. That it may 'well.^^^-. — 26.. 2^) and occasionally besides. OT.^). 715-21). the latter. being distinguished (see from the 2122). 222' 8 (i K. just as the prescribed ritual. 319-327. sacrifices.).—That &c. pp.the prohibition whether it was a mere superstition. (comp. 538 f. Thy —27. 10 Lgy_ jj 10. the term has a special sense. or whether it [i. in a sacrificial sense. but also of the humblest marine or terrestrial organisms (Gn. blood There follows a brief descripand thank-offering (TTIDT see on so far as concerns the disposal of the flesh and the of the former. 215-217. 351-361 384-396]. 32- »• is ^^20 nniDn ^y . 220. pp. I. 21-27 — : 149 See further Oehlcr. Ex. T/iou shall nol eal it\ repeated a third time for emphasis. Theol." denoting the sentient principle possessed by animals generally the same phrase — . TheoL § 127 ..— — XII. Ex.).g. (cf. it should be explained. — was that the blood. 215 f. not only of man (Gn. OT. i^ of : . 47*. must be presented and there disposed of according to caution. as stated above. Rel. 12^^ : designation of sacred gifts. at a sacrificial feast. the flesh and the blood alike are to come upon the altar (strictly the blood of both these oflFerings was thrown in a volume (piT) against the altar) see on Lev. 220) among. was deemed too sacred to be used as ordinary food (Smith. as 4*0 526(29) 518^ cf. as tithes (26^2^. Dillni. by the worshipper and (by "n!?^^)] his family Poured out against not the technical . Schultz. "creature" (AV. — 25. Sent.e. 28^^ or is Nu. so ^lo.*'1''. having been once the special share of the deity. Whatever may have been the primitive idea underlying. 6^c. I. vo'ws\ ^i- L''Knp *t^np. 2^). Thy holy things (T'EJ'lp)] a general K. in P. . taken of this distinction here. 416. do . came ultimately to be assigned for it.] the •which is right. and he in order to annex the promise that follows. partly theological. being lit. in : tion of the ritual of the burntv. is. and comp. attached to v.\G^. Lev. 18S «/. pp. . or recog- nized dues. on Lev. "most holy things" lit. 20-25. "soul").24. is a wider term than the English " soul. See Oehler. "living soul" is thus used. Nevertheless the permission — A thus granted for sacrifice : is not to be extended to the case of animals slain the flesh and blood of these at the central sanctuary.

and see on XIII. prefers nearly always the lighter form (Jud. 13 and often. xi. p'^TO a bowl. | A closing" promise. The injunction is aimed against the syncretistic admixture of I s. 2 K. p. Good and the right] 6^^. Lev. For the expressions. 18"'^^ &c. ! 29-31. 32- 8. 1 27). <2r»c. All solicitations to . v. met at once by the : sternest repressive 'JH Dl] in the discourses of Dt. not uncommon in digenous to a country may not be predecessors had observed. When Jehovah thy cf. as and more emph. to the service of Jehovah. after it has taken possession of the Promised | Land. j ' j heathen rites with the service of Jehovah. pron. Israel. The reason (naym) .— 1 —— DEUTERONOMY — — c. the nations] so 19^. usage. and (of the Sepharvites) 2 K. 16^^^. pro- i perly a vessel for throwing or tossing). Jos. which is p"}T to throw tn a volume (cf. in whole or in part.. ^.\ v. Lest thou be ensnared in. such as the unj spiritual Israelites were specially prone to. cf.o i I term. 2. the desire arise in their breast to serve the gods of the country with the same rites which their | The by the feeling. • neglected with impunity Thou shall not do so to Jehovah thy God] the rites by which these gods were worshipped are not to be transferred. To possess them] v. who prefers '3K just as prefers '33N L. and in P. XII. commending That it i the present injunctions to the Israelite's observance. 32*'* ** Song). T. that the gods in(cf. 1725-28 J inquiry would be prompted antiquity. Lex.^^^. 1 1^) God shall cut off 1 ' after them] cf. are 32'-''=»9'29-39-89 (t^g (P. &c. follows: / the rites in question are of a kind which Jehovah cannot \ tolerate. previous inhabitants. —And lest — Whither thou goest —30. except here and 29' (see note). and 1 1^'.] cf. 226). is appended to a verb for emph. to serve their their j gods. 7^^- thou inquire after (2 S. Jer. 17^1. i F'or even their sons to their and their daughters do they bum iri the fire i gods] an extreme example ("for even") of the enor: | mities practised by the Canaanites cf. idolatry are to be 30. 1' 8^ 2 S. 7^5 2319(1^) 1622b. gods ?] let | the Israelites beware after the occasion of temptation appears to have passed away. on 4^. 7^^ 19^. nav] used to serve the impf. 1 may be well. when the pron. unholy rites practised by the . 1-19 (AV. —28. which. 18). is uniformly employed 'JH here is in accordance with (56 times). 32-XIII. 18^0. 2 K. 23^ (D^). The D j 1 : . O. 2619).— 31. — j the fuller i : ' JPh. How used these nations lest. and other cases of 'JK in Dt.. 223. saying. is not to imitate 29. form of the i pers.

§ 123 Obs. (9^ a dreamer of dreams] comp. here contemplated. Ex. . I S. —4(3). 5812(11) «<that always asserts existence with there is a god judging the ") hence D''3nx D3B«n is more than D^S C?!}^'!? (which might have been said. is to be put to death. Gn.). 5(4) — 15^ iz^^-^i. is indeed rigorously proscribed is Ex. see Jud. 32). taken most naturally as a preface to the The wJwle -word (or thing) which I tSr'c. article of Israel's creed. \ns\ . : Is putting you to the test (S^- to know whether yoti do (emph.) love. A sign or a portent] on 4^^.— majfii] on 5'.] command you. XIII. a repetition of to a slightly m.). in terms of disparagement. is seems. .g. —3 Come 1**) pass (N3)] .] {^ emphasis earth {e. who comes forward with such a doctrine. —The chapter continues the subject of is In the other Codes there no parallel. 2 (1). division appears to be preferable to the English.— — — XII. —— 28— XIII. and is exactly expressed by "whether you do love. 23. with particular reference to the three ordinances following. viz.5. 2-3. that : to overis fundamental Jehovah the sole object of the Israelite's reverence the prophet. as rule the it proceed from a prophet. 28.. but it deception to. 2225. 11^ Is. 1 (XII. it No invitation go and serve other gods.odified form. Arise] 34^° i8^5. 42. —2-6(1-5). a searching test of the 5 (4). And lit. as Jud. he give give to to thee a sign or a portent] affirmations 1 . 20^ &c. 27." (2). Jer. which thou hast not known] 6^* 1 1 28. 12^ Joel 3^: 31^1 cf. dreams are referred as here. irrefragable credentials. even though possessing. 8" 2 K. measures. in that shall ye observe to do.g. 32 27° 29^ Zcch. Go after other gods. for this verse is ordinances following. Ps. and in the might readily become a source of selfpassages quoted. Dr. Dip' t] on 42*. 1. mR] resuming' emphatically the obj. The dream might be the lo^. 20^ special but no provision made for the cases of seduction into idolatry. . — channel of a genuine revelation (Nu. &c. — . The worship {e. 48- ^. . ^^ri) i K. — . nai . The Heb. After fehovah your 17^ XIII. in attestation of the truth of his yO (<< comp. lo'"' ^. 222)." Jehovah's claim upon the Israelites' love and obedience (6-^) is a paramount and fundamental principle of their religion hence the fulfilment : of the false prophet's affirmation sincerity with is which Israel holds it.so show. (cf. of " other 22^^(20) gods" 23I3) .

. &c. or his most trusted the author of such a pro- posal to be put to death. the gods of the peoples. 19I3 21^). thee] the not only from Israel's 6. 2729 Ps. : AV.\ fundamental duty. —always at the close of instructions A for the punishment of a wrong-doer. i^ 31^. see also 19^^ Is. except 19^^. for Which brought you out. 181 ("And Jonathan loved him iC'333 ") s. as far as possible. ^^^. The son of thy mother] i.]<^^'^''^^ ii28. 2i25). Jud. . cf. 14(13). — —And thou shalt ^a"^po)] extertniyiate the evil from thy viidst (yin n")j?3l so 177 19^9 2i2i 2221-24 24^. binding" upon every also 8^ 10^2 ijis. — 8(7). Is. &c.3(-).] danger therefore might threaten neighbours (i K. cf.^^ (10). &'c. No invitation to idolatry is to it be listened even though is emanate from a man's most intimate friend : relative. but from nations Of 26"-" i K. defection. because he has been disloyal to evil Israel's Divine deliverer. 59^^ nnp (turning aside [comp. &-'c. shall ye 'walk. also 530(33). Entice thee] with induce- ments such as an intimate relation or friend can apply (Jud. To draw thee aside (^H'"'^!^?)] v. 5020) ffir Sam.— Out of the way. 22^ is an emphatic reafBrmatlon of the Israelite comp. 6^^ : — 6(5). Thy friend. the verb e. 18^). — us go. ^i5^n T)22]y Mic. 7^. also 7^ 9^6 &c. (SrT. formula peculiar to whereby the duty is laid upon the community of clearing itself from complicity in a crime committed in its midst.g. cf.e. ii* I K. and always. in Israel's mouth. 8^*. which is as thine own soul] I S.—Z<?^ : . (6-11). including expressly the half-brother (comp. rebellion or revolt).— 152 — — DEUTERONOMY — — : God lo^O. read "jdn p IK H-as p. The wife of thy bosom] 28^*. the same expression. and of preventing".\ cf. Lev. here the addition of the two relative clauses emphasizes the fact that defection from Jehovah is also ing-ratitude. thy own brother (Gn. 20^^). with reference to capital punishment. Dt.] as v. 7-12 to. 12-"]. The prophet who has so misled his countrymen to be put to death. i^o zi^i 22<7 2 K. and in order that the in the bud.7). —7 (6). an evil example from spreading (cf. 6^*. and with "from Israel" 1712 2222 (cf. 1 1^. 28^^ lin) against Jehovah\ the same expres- (f)x) 29^2 (likewise of untrue prophets). i S. which he secretly meditates may be checked (!T^D Spoken defection sion Jer.).56 cf. 23-* (Deut. also Or far offfrom mpai] for the verb. The term significant of affection is chosen intentionally.

will 17^2 ig20 2121 : the example. which has permitted itself to be seduced into idolatry. is cities which Jehovah thy God If thou hearest in one of thy giving thee (i^o) to dwell there. 101^ is giving thee to dwell there. For "to hear. not a proper name (in spite of 2 Cor. its inhabitants being put to the sword.^(8)b). 10(9). the seemingly pleonastic d'c:k. 14. 6-14(5-13) 153 at a distance {e. =from attachment to Jer. of 15^ Ps. Hos. good-for-nothing. to be treated with the utmost rigour. I**. but even though the temptation have only been expressed by him in secret . comp.'^). 13' Jud. he is to be stoned to death.— XIII. &c. rightly.— 14 (13). 9^ Is. Any Israelitish city. In one of thy cities which J. 16I6.g. thy God men have gone forth." cf. its spoil burnt.\ so I'f : (of the wit- nesses against a man convicted of idolatry) in spite of thy relationship to him. be adopted to check the evil not only is the tempter not to — — : be listened to. 1 627. 18' i K. 2' 32** 9. for the purpose of giving it. 69 8® 11" 14' 44^»•'^ cf. 13* I K. Base fellows] so RV. the legis- have a deterrent effect upon others. 22I1 I S. shows that he was sensible of it as the pressing danger of the time. saying. as the most important part of the sentence. and tend to prevent a repetition of the same fs offence. Wh-2 'n dtjk] for Ez. and also to be the first to carry out the sentence against him. 13-19 (12-18).e. comp." nnN3 y^V being brought up from the subordinate into the principal clause (like ^n^D "•inx 31^9. And all Israel shall severity with — hear andfear] similarly lator trusts. from Syria. SyVa is sons of U7iprofitdbleness. he is to be treated without mercy or compunction for his attempt to seduce a brother Israelite from his loyalty to Jehovah. nvp Ijn y\'^7\ nxpD 9-12 (8-11). 'j1 Pr. though the expression 11. 6'*) . The which the Writer seeks to check every encouragement to idolatry. 7^^. Thine hand &c. h nax] Pr. (v. Gn. compared by Dillmann). or Assyria). 13^ Nu. thou art both to denounce him (v. the rend. : — — . Jos. i. Neither shall thine eye pity him] shall be first. 568. saying. of h)yhl in the RV.] apparently an inversion for thou hearest. —13 (12). 6^2 Lit. The sternest measures must at once l^xn] 28*^*. ** If Men have gone forth.. a more emphatic position. and its site abandoned. —9 (8). worthless fellows. saying. Vj'd] idiom. 12 (11). &c.

And. the thing is true (and) certain.. or pred. (2 S. 8-- on 726. . low-minded characters {e. used without a defining. 10' (Dr. as 17* 19'^ al. Into the midst of its broad place] the 3rn was the broad. 6-') as well: as the spoil would hardly be "devoted" with the srcord. —Devoting the spoil Jos. is gratuitous and wrong. i6-* i K. 2ii»-i3). 2<5f- —Afid own use {2^^^- all that is in it] the expression is an : incf. was of the most severe and 6-7. the subst. (in lieu of the Vi^y faithful. . cf.— — — : 1 54 DEUTERONOMY "sons of Belial" has become so naturalized in English that it has been sometimes retained even in RV. 1922 I S. according to the mouth of tlie sword. With the edge of the sword (ann "^h)] lit. Devotion to the ban. or it may include human beings and cattle (Jos. Jud. established: cf. —15 (14). where public city. it imparts to the expression the sense of some Gn. : cf. was destroyed. G"^. 2^®. ''(''). v.^^ (^^) ppn nSVr ^3 nxi implies a tacit contrast with something different which has been named in It is true. The second clause ('3i nnrp). so i"]*. &c.^. who have succeeded in leading astray their fellow-citizens. ni2K]yaithfztIfiess. i. nain] render as above. 32^5 al.ada numeral. 22^: that in AV. cf. . 37^ (cf. Ex. 10^7 2525 30^3 I K. elsewhere as a designation of unprincipled.'* (!'>). 16. of idolatrous practices.. in which (as here) the spoil also rigorous type (Jos. Gn. as 17* 18^ 20^^ Jer. 20^"^). behold. Are gone out from the midst of thee\ the suggestion is represented as emanating. such as or certain. aa'n] 9"^ Jisj rex n:m — — — — — G . as the sword can devour The phrase is a common one. na] the expression may denote only the spoil (z.g^. the words 3nn '2^ nnona r\H^ are not represented in V. see Jos.«< "73 nxi p3:] lit. and Dillm.r\y= if {Lex. true) ir.e.t ncx 22^^ i K. this do?ie] abomination hath been the same words Abomina- tion (najnn). as 20^*.from native Israelites. is common besides in the Hex. v. just as 17* ig^** {nyj npc).»SsTfl>. 621. of Jericho. if na ts-k '?3 be understood as explained above. n:n. —17 (16). the domestic property of various kinds). it] see on 72. the word does not occur but h]!'h2 (tjk) c-'k.). 2). and see below. nea. 15. and justice was sometimes administered not its street: 21^** (the same phrase: junct. would omit them as a gloss : but the omission makes the verse rather short . gatherings were held. open space in an Eastern something like a modern market-place. i S.\ in 17*. there is no difficulty in connecting it with Din.^^) 2 K. 15^): more commonly Israelites for their was retained by the al. 41^*.t. 2^ ii^^).— 16 (15). RV. onnn] on 3^ § 189. and..T of cattle. mn d). it is probably to be understood here of the human beings resident in the city : observe also that the emphatic position of '* spoil " in v. without quarter. definite one but probably human beings are intended Jos. ^^2). nann . Let us go. Except 15^. i<rt. or h]!'^2 ('33) ]2.T : for ann "eV Din.

30b 618. note on 12^^). are not to disfigure their persons in passionate or extravagant grief. (12I-28). must grief. 42*^ Is. 7-^^). io9 Neh. " 167'.— — XIII. 32^2 Jos. '• '• »• occurs as the name of a species of sacrifice in Phccnician. ais" lyoS] 4». 8^. the characteristic of which was likewise to be that Jehovah. 25* Jos. Israelites. being specially dedicated to Jehovah.—As a offerivg^ (yh^) unto Jehovah] used i in Lev. An heapjor ever (D^iy bn)] only a desolate mound shall mark its site. XIV. EJ'in).^ Is. 5121 ^\^y\ n^iy) as a term either descriptive of. should be rendered wholly to Cf. 20^0 (no'Dtrn "i^yn hh^ nby rum). Turn front the heat of his anger] Ex. 3®. 591* ^'h'2. Nu. For the expres- sions. and "7^3 1653. i. Jer. The i^wcis))^ 1-22. 2328 Jon. being Jehovah's children.n) is to be reserved by Israel (cf. |n3i . And ^18)^ multiply thee.] cf. Utito Jehovah] comp. Ps. lest Jehovah in His anger be moved to withhold the blessing which He has promised. 1-2. 32^3^ —19 Because (or when) thou shall hearken. Holiness of the Laity. appears elsewhere (3310 here S. 47^ {qv\. . 326 Ezr. &c. 22^'^ 26^ Ex. where the it same sense of the word is at least alluded to.~D"Dm if irui] Gn. 2 Ch. IS(I4>— XIV. 6^7 2 S. 7^ TWx^h hh:i n?"iy n^jn. 42. conceived to be satisfied. Job 2g^). —The CIS.—18. 18-19 (17-18). . 155 wJiole- (cf. The Israelites. so Jos. not imitate the heathen in yielding to excessive 17. — — . 18 (17). XIV. did not fall within the class of cases contemplated in the present law). 2i<'. There that none of the — shall not cleave aught oj the devoted thing to thy hand\ the words may be illustrated from Jos. H/iy (burnt-offering) : it is applied figuratively to denote a sacrifice of another kind. The instructions close with an express injunction "devoted" spoil (the D^. &c. place of public worship having been fixed and the encroachments of heathendom guarded against (122^- the subject of the present section follows naturally. ^'^3j I. 7^^ Gn. cf. of the promise taking effect (see phil. 43*' Jer. S^s (of 'Ai).] the condition. 2 K. "before Jehovah" 2 S. or synonym- ous with. Jud. 720 (at the close of the narrative of 'Achan's offence with the V.)of the priest's nnilD. of course. 6"'("f. 6^^ 7^ (though Jericho. 21^. ':ii . 492 r\'ac>'^ bn (of Rabbah).

Second Journey. to baldness"). i8ofF. the blood is made to fall upon the corpse. common among semi-civilized races one or other. 67). Brit.— 1 56 DEUTERONOMY He has given them. the hair shaved off is deposited in the tomb. . my : firstborn") is here transferred to the individual Israelites children . 71 . iii. do not scratch your faces. nor make baldness (nmp) between your eyes. There is no law on Sons are in H. Heidentumes. 4. Comp. this subject in JE or P ye to Jehovah your God] what is affirmed in Ex. in particular. 19-^). de Leg. said that "yi^^oT. Smith. "When I die. (Smith. p. Lev. for the latter. note). Among the Arabs. also. and mourning. Spencer. p. with which the heathenish character of the practices prohibited is regarded as incompatible.). as though for the purpose of concluding a covenant with the departed : .fora. (ipa^itMas ^ipirdfcvovTai). prob. and especially resorted to in mourning. pp. 57). Cyrop.. for the Scythians (Hdt. and do nothing that is unworthy of the close and intimate relation in which they stand towards Him. In some cases. MS. they are Jehovah's and while on the one hand they are the objects of (i^i 8^). xxi. rpi^as Vipixtipovrai. for the dead] two common practices significant of grief. for instance (see Knob.(JE) of : Israel as a nation ("Israel is my son. Am. Hos.^^ called to weeping. in spite of the present prohibition. and Abyssinians (Riippell. 32* 152 it is Moab). 4 (ed. they owe to Him on the other hand filial love and obedience. Huber and Brockelmann) says to his daughters. and still are. ii^-* Is. Rel. : a. i. Cic. and to shave their hair (Wellh. and Mic. to 810 Is. if not both. ^^^^. or shave off your hair" (W. Reste Arab. 825. on Lev. for the women. 290 f. Sent.iiVovTai. i^^ Jer. The prohibition is grounded upon the relation subsisting between Israel and Jehovah. Ve shall not cut yourselves (minn N^). or on the funeral pyre. 16^ 41^ 47^ (among the Philistines). (in 714 (5 miJnO. ii. as an offering to the dead sometimes. 2. see Jer. to at least the time of Jeremiah : for the former. it was customary. and on 32^. 13 at the burial of a king rov arcs 3. they should conform their character to His. or Dillm. in mourning. H.^ ix. i6*5 Ez. ig^^* is parallel. i. or imprint upon mutilate the body which their person the visible tokens of death. for the modern Persians (Morier. both to scratch their faces till the blood flowed. 176). 22^2 (where. i2. 23). for the Armenians and Assyrians (Xenoph. 7I8. for various other savage races {Encycl. 304-306). are attested. the Romans (the Twelve Tables forbade the Roman women ^ena^ radere. Abyss. R. 160 Labid. : Both practices were. Principles of Sociology. which prevailed among the His paternal care and regard — Israelites down (MSS. also Hos.

* able thing any abominThese are the Speak the children of These are the beasts which ye shall eat living things all which ye shall eat among earth. 2. the beasts that are on the and the goat.e. ' And the rock- . ^ And every beast that parteth the hoof and cleaveth the cleft of the two hoofs. the camel. 19^8 (H). Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of those that bring up the cud. and the gazelle. on the forehead The Hebrews. saying ^ ii. though same term is not uised (D3"iB'23 wnn sb ^•Bif' onci) that of making baldness on the head is forbidden in Lev. ' Thou shalt not eat (najjin). even if they were not definitely connected with heathen superstitions. and the wild goat. The Israelites are not to defile themselves by eating the flesh of prohibited animals. is Lev. and of those that part the cleft hoof . Him in The verse is a unique relation among an all but verbal repeti- 3-20. comp. unto Israel. but only the front of it. because he bringeth up the cud. mountain-sheep. that bringeth up the cud among beasts. the sheep. : 14. and the antelope. 21^ (H). P : the parallel cf. a passage with which the law of Dt. but only for the priests. and of those that hoof. among beasts. The custom of lacerating the person in grief for the dead is prohibited also in Lev. 1-2 157 Both practices had thus heathen associations. he is unclean to you. shave the entire head. In order to facilitate comparison. and the the ox. Lev. part the and the hare. measure verbally identical. Between your eyes] i. * the hart. and the roebuck. but doth not part the hoof. ' that parteth the hoof Every (thing) and cleaveth hoofs. in — ^JE has no law on this subject. that ye shall eat. and the addax. it appears. the cleft of the * that bringeth up the cud that ye shall eat. the use of ^^13n^ to denote the ritual of the Ba'alworshippers in i K. 112-23 ^not improbably an extract from more briefly 20^5). did not on such occasions (6^). tion of 7^. iS^s. and stands towards the peoples of the earth. the two passages are here printed side by side in is H in large parallel columns Deut. ' Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of those that bring up the cud. The ground of the prohibition is stated more explicitly Israel is holy to the : — : Jehovah. the camel.—— : : XIV.

; ;



badger, because he bringeth up the cud, but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean to j'ou ; ® and the hare, because she bringeth up the cud, but she is hath not the hoof parted And the swine, unclean to you. because he parteth the hoof, and cleaveth the cleft of the hoof, but he cheweth not the cud he is unclean to you. ^ Of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcases ye shall not touch : they are unclean to you. ^ These ye shall eat of all that are in the waters : whatsoever hath

and the rock-badg-er
because they bring- up the cud, but have not the hoof parted they are unclean to you. ^ And the swine, because he parteth the hoof, but . . he is unclean not the cud Of their flesh ye shall not to you. eat, and their carcases ye shall not
; :



These ye

shall eat of all that are



whatsoever hath





And whatsoever hath not


and scales

and fins, in the waters, in the and in the torrents, them shall ye eat. ^^ And whatsoever hath not fins and scales, in the seas and in the torrents, of all the swarming things of the waters, and of all the
living souls that are in the waters,

ye shall not eat

it IS

unclean to you.
^^ ^2

they are a detestation (j'i^?') to you. ^^ And they shall be a detestation to you : of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcases ye shall have in detestation. ^^ Whatsoever hath not fins and scales in the waters, it is a detestation to you.

Of all

clean birds ye



this is that of



ye shall not

testation of fowl

these ye shall hold in dethey shall not be

the griffon-vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the osprey ; ^^ [and the . . .,] and the falcon, and the kite



" and

every raven

and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the seamew, and the hawk after its kind
after its kind





and the great owl, and ^^ and the pelican, the water-hen and the carrion - vulture, and the cormorant ; ^* and the stork, and

eaten ; they are a detestation to you the griffon-vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the osprey ; '* and the kite, and the falcon every raven after its kind ; ^^ after its kind ; ^® and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the seamew, and the hawk after its kind ; ''^ and the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl ; ^^ and the water-hen, and the pelican,

and the


and the


the heron after its kind, hoopoe, and the bat.

and the

the heron after


and the

hoopoe, and the bat.

And all winged swarming things
are unthey shall not be eaten.

^ All winged swarming

go upon


four are a detesta-

clean to you :

tion to you.

XIV. 3-S




clean winged things ye



^^ Yet theseyemayeatof all winged swarming things that go upon all

which have bending legs above upon the earth ** even these of them ye may eat the locust after its kind, and the bald locust after its kind, and the cricket after its kind, and the grasshopper after its kind. ^ But all (other) winged swarming things, which have four feet, are a detestafour,

their feet to leap withal


tion to you.


v.^ is introductory, the various

kinds of prohibited

food being classed under the category of abomination (n^inn),

one of D's characteristic expressions (on 725). There follow provisions respecting clean and unclean qtiadrupeds^ v.*"*,
aquatic creatures,


\ ^^-'^^ flying

insects, \?^^-,


the general subject of these provisions, the reader
to the


commentary on Lev.

1 1


here, only the differences in

Dt., or other points of particular interest, will be noticed.




nothing in Lev. corresponding to these words. between the two texts is this, that in Lev. (v.^)

the clean animals are only defined, while in Dt. they are both

and exemplified (v.*-^). The ox, the sheep, and known, and frequently mentioned the hart \>'*^ fem. np'X hind) is also often named, especially in poetry, as a figure of affection, surefootedness, and rapidity

the goat are, of course, well


{e.g. Is. 35*5
(^nv) is


2^; in the fem, Pr. 5^^ Ps. iS^*)


the gazelle

alluded to similarly for

swiftness and beauty {e.g.

2 S. 2I8 Is. 13I*




mentioned together as


hart and the gazelle are also kinds of game, Dt. 12^5.22 j^ss^



("i^J^n^) is



{^)\, by the side of the hart

and the



the delicacies provided for Solomon's

royal table

an animad bearing

according to Conder {Tent Work, ed. 1887, p. 91), among the Arabs the same name YahinUr
in the thickets



on the sides of Carmel, and gives

XIY. 5. '3s] gazelle =.PiX2im. k'3B, Arab, ^c^' The word (as Arab. Aram, show) has no etym. connexion with ns attractiveness, beauty, the
root of which

= Aram,


to desire, •mill,


\x,e to incline towards,

yearn far {com^. Dr.

§ 178, p. 225


the etym.





to a large valley, the


Wady Yahmur,

in the



south of Carmel

a specimen sent to Prof. Newton at
to be the true Cervus

Cambridge was pronounced by him
Cf. Bochart, Hieroz.

capreolus, or roebuck {Proc. Zoolog. Soc. of Lo7idon,



910 ff.,


280 ff.


(codd. A,



The wild goat



named elsewhere
in Palestine


the ibex (or wild goat), which


(i S. 243,

near 'En-gedi), and some species of which



be meant (Tristram,
F) rpayeXa^os.
Antilope addax
the identification


97; DB.^'i. 1202).


(codd. A,

The addax

also, is

that of Tristram,

named only here; who states that the
Egypt, and Arabia,

in the

in Abyssinia,





'Arabah, S. of the

Dead Sea [NHB.

(whence AV., RV.), a white-rumped species of antelope (of which there are several), found in N. Africa {ib.






Si^^f: Cr


a large kind of

"very beautiful and graceful, with long slender recurved horns" [ib. 57 f. DB.^ i. 464). The mountain-sheep (10T) is mentioned only here. The animal meant is uncertain, but some kind of wild mountain-sheep (Col. H. Smith Trisantelope,
; ;




= Heb.

556 f.) may well be intended. gT NSn (in Pr. 5^^ wild goat)', S> Nils mountaiti-goat. KafirjXoTrdp-


a native of Africa, and not probable. AV., RV. "chamois," which, Tristram objects, cannot be right; as the chamois is an antelope of Central Europe, unknown to any
Bible lands.

A singular argument has been founded (Tristram, at the Hull Church Congress, Guardian, Oct. 15, 1890, p. 1623 Pal. Expl. Soc, The City and the Land, p. 80 ; and elsewhere) on the animals mentioned in DL 14^'-, in favour of the Mosaic authorship of the Pent. It is said, "Nine animals are mentioned in Dt. which do not appear in Lev. Of these 5 or 6 at least never lived in the Nile valley or in wooded and hilly Palestine : they are inhabitants of desert open plains, or of bare rocky heights. They are not mentioned In Lev., because immediately after the Exodus they would be strange to the Israelites ; but after 39 years had been passed in their haunts they would be familiar to them all." A little reflection will show how inconclusive this argument is. Had there been as the PEFQuSt. 1894, p. 103, very inaccurately says there is a list of clean animals in

zamara, to spring, quoted by Tristram, does not exist the meaning is conjectured by Ges. in the Thes., merely for the sake of explaining' this word. 6. iSaKn a^iK] see on 13^ cf. 20^ i S. 15"'.



XIV. 7-1


Lev., to which in Dt. others, having the character referred to, were added, it would indeed possess plausibility : but that is not the case ; no clean animals are named in Lev. they are only defined (Lev. ii") in Dt. they are both defined (v.*) and named (v.**-). But, except by assuming what the argument is constructed to prove, there is no reason for supposing that the writer of Lev. 1 1, if he had been asked to name the animals cj^ned by him in v.*, would not have mentioned just those enumerated in Dt. 14*'*. And the further objection, that the animals in question could not be
; ;

known to a writer living in Palestine, is open to the retort that, would be no occasion to forbid the Israelites to eat them. But

if so,



view of


5' (4^), the allegation itself is questionable.



particulars respecting the camely the rock-badger,

and the hare, which are repeated in each case in Lev., are condensed into a single clause. The ISC' is named besides Ps.
104^8 Pr. 30^6



the Arab, loabr, the

Hyrax Syriacus




a rendering of the German

name Klippdachs; but there is, in fact, no perfectly suitable ** Coney "is the old English English name available. word for a rabbit but being now practically obsolete in that sense, it has been retained in RV. as the rendering of the Heb. \tx^,

the animal which this terra properly denotes being indicated
in the


As the hyrax syriacus



appearance and

75 ff.), though belonging to a different family, the retention of "coney" in a
habits not unlike a rabbit (Tristram,


popular version may, under the circumstances, be excusable.

— G Sam. supply the missing words, reading

exactly as in






clause be necessary or not,


cheweth " must certainly be restored see below. 9-10. The description of the lawful and prohibited aquatic animals seems plainly to be abbreviated from the more circumstantial particulars contained in Lev. In the last clause, Dt. has NDO unclean, where Lev. has the technical term, used of prohibited animals (see on 7^6), \^'}p detestation. 11-18. The paragraph on birds does not differ materially from the corresponding paragraph in Lev. V.^i is an introductory addition: in v.^^

with a collective force: so v.' (=Lev. n**') Jud. 20'^"; Job a rare orthographic variation for '^j;_D ; cf. Gn. 47^ nHi, i Ch. 23** ife'V (Ew. § 16^). 8. .TJ3 »i^i] n-ja is elsewhere always a subst. ; and n}! (Lev. 11^) is from nia, not .T13. Read rri? nil! »i'?i, or (cf. Sam. G) Kin^ nr Ah n-jj, as in Lev. tj: will be Qal, in pause either for ni: (Kon. p. 337 f.), or better (as this is an intrans. form) for ni! (Sam. nu'), cf. G-K. § 29. 4^*.
7. ni]







the words Y\^^ and Ki?^ are avoided, and
•which ye shall not eat.
eagle^ which,


merely said,



The griffon-vulture

not the

though adequate

a popular version) as a

poetical equivalent of


not really the bird meant.


As Tristram {I.e. p. 172 fF.) shows, the Arab, nisr, which corresponds to Hebrew nesher, is not the Eagle, but the Griffon- Vulture, or Great

Vulture (distinct from the ordinary, or carrion-vulture,

with which

also the Biblical allusions to the "asi agree : the eagle, for example, does not congregate around carrion (Job 39^® Mt. 24^), nor has it the neck and

head "destitute of true feathers, and either naked, or thinly covered with in agreement with the allusion in Mic. i^*(" enlarge thy baldness, as the nesher"), whereas both these characteristics suit the The Griffon-Vulture " is a majestic bird, most abundant Griffon- Vulture. and never out of sight, whether on the mountains or the plains of Palestine. Every'where it is a feature in the sky, as it circles higher and higher, till lost to all but the keenest sight, and then rapidly swoops down again {db:- i. p. 815).

a powdery down,"

The bearded vulture (D"!?)] or LdmtTier-geier, the "largest and most magnificent of the vulture tribe" [NHB. 171). The osprey (^'^^V)] or short-toed eagle, "by far the most abundant

the eagle-tribe in Palestine"




And the




(nsini)] Lev. ii^*

has nothing corresponding.
see below.

The word



a vox



The night-hawk


or screecJi-oivl [ib. 191


including gulls (DB.^i. 679




The sea-mew (IDw')] or petrel, perhaps f.). 16. The water-hen (nOL"3ri)] so 249 f. water-hen or ibis\ Knob, al., a

13. r\y:h nn.Ti .tkh nm nxnni] Lev. 11" has r\VTh .tk.t nxi njtnn nxi and so Sam. (5 here. The text of Dt. is certainly corrupt, nx^j, as the name of a bird, is not otherwise known, nxm was miswritten rwr^ri : this, being a vox nihili, was corrected r\'-m (Is. 34^'') on the margin and the correction afterwards found its way into the text beside the corrigendum. On the
; ;


'nr?^] times in Lev.

45^ and a*n i S. 2:i>*- '^ for 3Kn. otherwise occurs only in P (16 times in On. i. 6. 7 7 11), and Ez. 47'°, 13 of the occurrences in P (Gn. 112.21 ^/^^ including the parallel, Lev. ii^*) being with the same peculiar form of the This form of the sufF. occurs besides (with a sing, noun) suffix as here.
.in, cf.






onl}' Jud.

19-* inriVfl,




Job 25'



Wright, Compar.

Semitic Languages, p. 155, compares the Aram, aj^p, and traces both to an ancient genitive form, malki-hu or malki-hi, the usual form ^370, H3?iD originating in an old accus. malka-hu (otherwise Stade, § 345°). I'o] in Palest. Syriac (Payne Smith, col. 2094) nation in the Mishn. species, as here in the Talm. it also means heretic, schismatic. The root may be the Arab, mana (med. »), to split (the earth, in ploughing): see Fleischer, iii. 310.

Grammar of the





XIV. I2-20
species of owl.



The carrion-vulture




Unclean again corresponds, as in v.^", to the Ki?.?' of Lev. By "winged swarming things" (^iyn J*?K') are meant winged ptJ' denotes creatures which appear in swarms, insects.

whether such as teem in the waters (Gn. i^o Lev. ii^°), or those which swarm on the ground (Gn. 721 Lev. i i^i-^ " swarming things that swarm upon the earth "), i.e. creeping insects,


t)ij; are flying things generally, not birds only reptiles. hence ^iyn pB' denotes those swarming creatures which also

fly, i.e.

"winged swarming

things," or flying insects.



all clean 'winged things ye


eat] unless the verse is to

be a

mere repetition of v.^^, RV.) of "fowls," but

must be understood, not

(as in



the sense just noticed, of winged



then correspond

and be an abbreviation



The " clean "

insects referred to are in particular

(as Lev.


shows) certain species of "leaping" locusts


—a group possessing two posterior legs




of great strength and length (shown very distinctly in the

illustrations in Tristram,


move on

NUB. 309, 311), which enable them the ground by leaps, as opposed to the "running"
which would fall under the category of " unmentioned in v.^^ [id. 307 ff".). The locusts,

locusts (Cursoria),

clean " insects,

permitted in Lev.

are accordingly alluded to in Dt., but


as a whole, the composition of D, but borrowed by him


v.'"'* is not,

(with slight additions, as v.^-^^, and other unessential modifications) from some independent source, cannot be doubted : not only is the general style


unlike that of D, but pp kind v.^^'^*"^^ (v.^' with a peculiar suffix: see is a term characteristic of P, and is not likely to have been adopted

independently by D.

Kuenen {Hex.

§ 14. 5)

argues that the provisions, as

17. noij-in] with unusual tone {miVel)'.

Lev. has






not the


of the fem, (which always has the tone), but

an obsolete accus. (G-K. § 90. 2 R. *• '') the mitel tone here may therefore have been intended by the Massorites to preclude the word being treated as a fem., whether on the ground that this would be in conflict with Lev., or that it was improbable that the female bird alone would be prohibited. The Massorites have occasionally done the same elsewhere, partly, as it
seems, for the sake of uniformity, as 2 K. 15^9 nj?'^?? (elsewhere "^'^Jn : the fem. would be n^'V^l?), Ez. 8^ n^5^i3 (1* Vp^'n), partly on syntactical Cf. Ew. follows). grounds, as Hos. 7* Tiy'ia, Ez. 7^^ nnjp (the masc. Stade, § 308*. § \'j'^ note





they stand in Lev. 11, are a later and amplified edition of those in Dt. (though he allows that the latter are themselves borrowed from a priestly source) but vJ' ^"^"' '^ ^- ^ wear rather the appearance of being abridged from the more circumstantial parallels in Lev.


point of view under which these prohibitions are here

introduced, though not expressly stated,


be inferred from

the context
ii44t 20^6);

(v.^- -^^)

to be that of holiness (so, explicitly. Lev.

Israel is

a holy people, and

therefore to avoid

everything that

of demarcation between
it is,



however, determining the

clean animals and unclean,

not stated


and what

has been much

embracing satisfactorily all the cases, seems yet to have been found and not improbably more principles than one cooperated. Some animals may have been prohibited originally on account of their repulsive appearance or uncleanly habits, others upon sanitary grounds in other cases, again, the motive of the prohibition may very probably have been a religious one, particular animals may have been supposed, like the serpent in Arabia {I?el. Sent. p. 122 Wellh. I.e. 137), to be animated by superhuman or demoniac beings, or they may have had a sacramental significance in the heathen rites of neighbouring nations and the prohibition may have been intended as a protest against these beliefs. Sacred animals were a common feature in many ancient religions {I?el. Ez. 8^"'* mentions the superstitious worship of various Sent. 272 fF., 446 flf.) creeping things and quadrupeds described as XP^ "detestations," the same word used in Lev. 11 and Is. 65^" 66^ allude to the flesh of the swine, the mouse, and other "detestations" (again }'i5S'i^), as eaten sacramentally (cf. OTJC.^p. 366 f.). Analogous prohibitions are found in many other Eastern lands, as Egypt, India, &c. See further on Lev. 11.
single principle,







The Israelites are not to eat the

flesh of

any animal

dying of 21*. Ye

shall not eat anything ihat dieth of itself {rh^yh^) : thou mayest g^ve it to tlie stranger ("u) that is within thy gates, and he shall

or thou mayest sell it to a : for thou art a holy people unto Jehovah thy God.

22'^ P") (JE). And holy men ye be unto me and flesh in the field that has been torn of beasts (nine) ye shall not eat ; ye shall cast it unto the dogs,





And every soul which eateth that which dieth of which is torn of beasts (nsno), of the home-bom or of the strangers {"^i) he shall wash his clothes, and bathe himself in water, and be unclean until the evening and then he shall be clean. But if he wash them not, nor bathe his flesh, then he shall bear his miquity.

(H or


itself (phzi)f or that




a carcase,


used technically of animals that have

died a natural death, without being- properly slaughtered
21. nb9 ^k]


Lev. 25" Nu. 30^ (G-K.

§ 113- 4')-





ground upon which their flesh was prohibited being-, doubtless, partly because it might be unwholesome, but principally because it would not be thoroughly drained of blood (see on 1 2^^ and

note the position of the corresponding- law in Lev.



mediately after the prohibition to eat blood,
of Dt.,


The law




closely related to that of Ex.


does not, however, directly conflict with
to n?3J, the other to

for the

one relates




in conflict

with the law

of Lev.


for in Dt.


prohibited to the Israelite

allowed to be given to the "stranger," or foreigner resident
in Israel (on 10^^),




it is

forbidden to both alike

(except under the condition of a subsequent purification)


and the stranger are thus placed on different footings in Dt., they are placed on the same footing in Lev. The law of Lev. must certainly therefore belong to a different age from the law of Dt. the only open question being, which is the

earlier ?
difference is in harmony with the distinction which prevails generbetween Dt. and P, as regards the status of the Ger. In Dt. the Gir does not stand formally on an equality with Jehovah's people he is dependent (p. 126) upon the Israelite's forbearance and charity (cf. in H, Lev. ig^**' ^'•) and though some conformity with Israel's religion is expected of him (29I" (^')), the only command laid expressly upon him is the observance of the sabbath (5^^). In P the Ger is placed practically on the same footing as the native Israelite he enjoys the same rights (Nu. 35'^, cf. Ez. 47-'^), and is bound by the same laws, whether civil (Lev. 24*-), moral and religious (18^ 20^ 24^''", cf. Ez. 14^), or ceremonial (Ex 12^^ Lev. ,629 jy8. 10. 12. 13. 15 22I8 Nu. 15". 26. 30 j^io) t^g principle, "One law shaU there be for the home-bom and for the stranger," is repeatedly affirmed (Ex. 12*^ Lev. 24''^ Nu. 9'* 1215.16.29^^ the only specified distinctions being that the Gir, if he would keep the Passover, must be circumcised (Ex. 12*), and that an Israelite in servitude with him may be redeemed before the jubile(Lev. 25^^'), a privilege not granted in the case of the master's being an Israelite (v.*"-). Indeed, in P the term is already on the way to assume the later technical sense of -xpetriXvrBi, the foreigner who, being circumcised and observing the law generally, is in full religious communion with Israel (Schurer, NZg.^ ii. § 31, esp. p. 566 f.). The analogy of other cases makes it probable that the law of Dt. is the earlier, that of P reflecting the greater strictness of a later age, when the Ger, who desired to share the advantages which residence in Israel might offer, must, it was held more strongly than before, subject himself to the same laws. Dillm. is only able to maintain the opposite view (EL. p. 540 NDJ. pp. 304, 606), by the not very natural supposition that the law of Lev. is part of an ideal constitution constructed by P, not, like that of Dt., based upon actual practice,









and hence not necessarily

the creation of an age subsequent to Dt. Cf. Led. pp. 182-187; Smend, AT. Theol. p, 333;

Benzinger, Hehr. Archdol. (1894), p. 340 f.

Nowack, Hehr. Archdol.

§ 62.

Foreigner\ on
referred to the



holy people\ v.^: the law in

v.-^* is


g'eneral principle as the


in v.^^.



A kid not to be seethed in its mother's milk. This repeated verbatim from Ex. 23!^^ 34^^^. The prohibition
against the practice of using- milk thus

may have been aimed

prepared as a charm for rendering

and orchards more

See more


on Ex.

XIV. 22-29.
XrV. 22-29. The law of tithe.
to Jehovah by rendering


— Israel






a tithe of


the produce of the

to be eaten by the offerer, with his household, at the

central sanctuary, at a sacred feast, to

which the Levite



be invited as a guest


those resident at a distance



with them the value of the tithe in money, and expend
similarly at


the sanctuary in such food as they desire, to be consumed

a sacred

feast, V.22-2T.

Every third year, however,

the tithe


not to be consumed at the central sanctuary, but

to be stored

a charitable and the destitute, v. 28-29. in On the the legislation of JE there is no mention of tithe. relation of Nu. i82i-32 Lev. 2730-33 (P) to the law of Dt., see p. 169 f. 22. All tJie increase of thy seed] the tithe is exacted only on the produce of the soil, in v.23 corn and wine and oil
in the Israelite's native place, as


fund for the

relief of the landless


being particularized




said of the tithe of cattle,

referred to in one passage of


(Lev. 2732).

— 23.

This tithe


had already been prescribed incidentally in another connexion, 12^-'^^), and consumed there at a sacred feast. For the expressions used, see on 125- 7. From the stress laid, both here and v.2^ 126'^- ^\ on this provision, it would seem that the custom had prevailed
to be brought to the central sanctuary (as



of presenting the tithe at the local sanctuaries.


Kirn] ks', of plants, as i K. 5" ; the art. in construed not as a g:en. but as an accus. (on 8^*) Ex. 9»'»».—njr n:v] G-K. § 123d, 1.





cf. njt ks'

Gn. 44*

XIV. 21-28


The firstlings of thine oxen and of thy sheep] these are mentioned was similar to that of the tithe, perhaps also because it was usual to offer them at the same time (Dillm., Keil). The law relating" properly to firstlings follows in I519-23. That thou mayest learn to fear, &€.]
here, only because their disposal
cf. 4^^.


to be the

The regular observance of the duties just prescribed means of keeping- alive and exercising- the religious

feeling of the Israelite.




in the case

of the offerer's

home being

too distant from the central sanctu-

ary to allow of the tithe being- conveniently carried there in

— 24.

When fehovah

God shall

bless thee] cf. 7^3.


difficulty is likely to

be the greater, when Jehovah's blessing

and augments in conThy soul desireth asketh] "soul" is here nearly synonymous with appetite', cf. Nu. ii" (the ** soul " dry) Is. 29^ (the ** soul " empty, and eager
increases the productiveness of the

sequence the bulk of the

— 26.




for food) 32^ Pr. 232 (C'W pj;3


possessor of a soul,"
1220 2325.


"a man

given to appetite").

Comp. on

there before Jehovah, atid rejoice] 12^.

Shalt eat


The Levite that

•within thy gates] the Levites resident in the various cities of

Israel (12^2) are not to
festivity (cf.
in 26^2

be forgotten on the occasion of sacred



the "tithe-year"

—28-29. —a



every third year

. . .

different disposition of the tithe


it is

to be devoted to the relief of the necessitous

28. Thou shall bringforth and deposit within thy gates] i.e. the tithe of the third year is to be "brought forth " from the owner's granaries the verb
in the Israelite's native place.

may suggest

the collateral idea of
21. 24



brought forth

publicly, cf. N-'Xin 175 2ii9 2215-


—perhaps in some
up (AV., RV.)

public storehouse

— and "deposited"

in his native city.

an old English expression, often used where we should now rather say lay doian, or deposit see (also for n-sn) Ex. i623.33.s4 Nu. 1722(7) 1^9.—All the tithe] a//,— as though

guard against the

possibility of the tithe in this year beingi K. 19^ imn idd an 'd; Jos. 9'* Is. for money (the Beth pretii), i.e. exchange it into ("?)," R.V. So v.=».— 26. db' n'??>«i] G-K. §§

idd nav t] 19" imn nav "d;
it it



1033 nnn:i] give


money: not "turn
20. 2.

49. 3 R.<=



in part diverted to other purposes.




cf. 26^2

&c., shall come, and they shall eat and he

satisfied (6'i)]

and they

shall eat


within thy gates,


not at the

central sanctuary, but in the various cities in which they dwell.

In what manner this was to take place


not stated




have been

in public feasts

provided from time to time by the

local authorities, or the tithe thus reserved

dispensed in doles to individuals they were in need of a meal.
(v. 27)

may have been who came and showed that

The ordinary


in part

applied to the maintenance of the landless Levite


triennial tithe

was applied

of a poor-rate, to relieve
tute classes,

manner the needs of the landless and destientirely, somethings in the


sufferings so often excite the compassion,

or indig-nation,

of the prophets





stranger, the fatherless,


the wido-jo] these, not less than

the Levite (on


are constantly the objects of the Writer's
iQ^^-'^^ 2417- 19- 20. 21 2612- is

philanthropic regard: see lo^s


comp. before


JE) Ex.

2220- 21(21.

^l^^ j^ jj (of the stranger)

Lev. 1933-845 so in the prophets, as

Jer. 7^ 22^ Zech.

comp. allusions to their oppression.
Job 627 22^
243-9 2912iStt.]

Is. i23 io2 Jer. 528


227 Mai. 35; also

13 ^i^^-'^''-^^.—


may bless thee,

24^^, cf. 2321


comp. the same promise


7^3 j^is

28^30^^; and see on


mentioned in these two verses was called by the later Jews 'py 'itt'J?^ "the tithe of the poor." The importance attached to it by the legislator appears from 26^2f.^ where the Israelite is

acknowledge solemnly before Jehovah the due From the subject of the law next following, 15^^-, it may be conjectured that this triennial tithe fell due every third and sixth year in each sabbatical period in the 7th year (in which the land lay fallow) it would naturally not be

payment of





sacred tithe, especially one exacted on the produce of


was a common
it is

institution of antiquity.

Of the Greeks,

for instance,

often stated that they rendered a tithe to the

gods of spoil taken in war, of the annual crops, of the profits of mines and commercial industries, of confiscated property, &c. [PRE.^ xvii. 429 Hermann, Gottesdienstl. Alterth. d. Griechen,

XIV. 29
§ 2o. 4).


Originally the tithe will have been rendered volunan expression of gratitude to God, the giver of all as good things and no doubt with religious minds the same

have continued throughout to operate at its payment but it was often exacted, whether by the priesthood or the community generally, as a fixed impost, payable by the landowners in a particular district, for the purpose of maintaining public worship at a sanctuary. In the East it was moreover not unusual for the revenues of the sovereign to be derived in part from tithes, e.g: in Babylonia and Persia (Arist. Oecon.
feeling will

pp. 1345^ 1352^): comp.


S. 8^5.




Hebrew legisla(29))^

tion (Ex. 21-23) requires the

payment of

first-fruits (2228

it may be either that the on which in old times public worship was conducted was not such as to require this impost, or, so far as the Temple at Jerusalem is concerned, that the expenses of its maintenance were defrayed largely out of the king's revenue. The Deuteronomic law of tithe is, however, in serious, and indeed irreconcilable, conflict with the law of P on the same subject. In Nu. 1321-28 the tithe is appropriated entirely to the maintenance of the

but makes no mention of tithes

priestly tribe, being paid in the first instance to the Levites,



their turn
in Dt.
it is

pay a tenth of what they receive

to the


spent partly at sacred feasts (partaken in
his household), partly in the relief of the

by the



both cases the Levite (by which in Dt. are meant the
tribe generally, including priests [see
(v.^^f- 20^^

members of the



sharing only in company with others
of the Israelite's benevolence.

as the recipient

Further, in Dt. the tithe

though it is not expressly so stated, the impression produced by the terms employed (note the similes in v.^^-soj^ is that here also only a vegetable tithe is intended if, however. Lev. 273^^- be rightly regarded as an original part of the legislation of P,
exacted only on the vegetable produce: in Nu.

so that



be legitimately used in the interpretation of



the tithe levied on the annual increase of caitle will

be included as well.*


in either case,

a large proportion



so far as

may be

only other allusion in the


included in the " all " of Gn. 28*^, the to a tithe on cattle is in the late passage

; ; :



devoted exclusively to the support of

of what in

the priestly tribe,

remains in Dt. the property of the lay

From an

early date, endeavours have been


made to harThe supposition most commonly

made, which is found as early as Tob. i" (cf. Dt. 26^2 ^ |^see note]), and Jos. Antiq. iv. 8. 22, and is adopted generally by
legalists, is that the reference in Dt. is not to the tithe in


Lev.-Nu. at


but to a second or additional


levied (after the deduction of the Levitical tithe)

ing nine-tenths of the veg-eiable

on the remainproduce only, and appropriated,
and to charity.*

not, like the first tithe, to the support of the priestly tribe, but

to public feasts celebrated at the sanctuary,

must be frankly owned, however, that
which the
tithe is there

this interpretation

not consistent with the language of Dt., or with the terms






the intention

of Dt. to introduce a second tithe, in the

manner supposed, the

must surely have been indicated expressly by the terms it is incredible that a second tithe should have been instituted in Dt. /or the first time, without a word to indicate


Ch. 31^(1

S. 8^^ referring only to the secular tithe,

exacted by the king)

indeed, even in post-Biblical notices (except in the expanded text [cod.

including those in Philo and Josephus, there is no reference to such a tithe prior to the treatises of the Mishnah {c. 200 A.D.). Lev. 27'^, it seems, must represent a claim asserted on the part of the priests, which deviated too widely from prevalent usage to be, as a rule, successfully

of Tob.


It is, however, remarkable that the only express notice of a on cattle in the law should be found, not in the primary and constitutive enactments of Nu. 18 and Dt. 14, but in a chapter (Lev. 27) dealing only with the subordinate subject of the commutation of sacred dues and hence the suspicion may not be ill-founded that Lev. 27^'* is a late

P (Baudissin, Priesterthum, p. 173; and others. Hehr. Arch. ii. 258, n. 3). • The "third tithe," of which mention is made in Tob.
insertion in


in Jos.


Antiq. iv. 8. 22, is that prescribed in Dt. 14^'- (cf. 26^'-^-) for payment in the third year, which was held by many of the Jews to be not the same tithe as that of v.^"^, differently applied, but an additional, or (from their
point of view) a "third" tithe, levied triennially for the relief of the poor.

This interpretation was, however, not universal even among the Jews it is generally allowed by modern commentators (including those who, as Keil, still treat v.""^ as referring to a " second " tithe) to be incorrect it may thus be taken for granted that the charity-tithe of Dt. 14^'* is simply


the festival-tithe of v.*^"^, applied to


different purpose.

Ryssel in PRE. is a "second" tithe: had a tithe been paid regularly every year to the Levites (Nu.^ p. merely accommodating it to the general scope of his legislation by insisting that these feasts shall only be held at Jerusalem. 27^} Riehm." The language of 26^^^-.) argues that the tithe being an offering rendered to the Deity. which of the two stages (though not. 29 that 171 it was an innovation. of a joyous character. two laws. or anything. is most easily understood as a diversion from its original purpose. Antiq.^ xvii. that the legisin its existing' P failed to supersede it the legislator of Dt. introduced at a time when altered circumstances rendered the older system impracticable : the laity. was content to leave the custom as far as possible as he found it. 1793 f. and only once in three years to the support of the Levites and other destitute persons. • That the " second " tithe is no genuine element of Hebrew law. on Lev.g. for the payment of the tithes to be accompanied by sacred feasts. but a harmonistic device of the Jewish legalists. and by making the institution conducive at the same Dillmann (on time to the ends of philanthropy and charity (14^* ^"^). 440).'^ xvii. its being paid directly to His ministers would be a more natural and primary disposal of it. Lev. . he conjectures. The only question remaining open is is. to such meals exclusively. and the Hebrew makes a solemn profession that it has been properly disposed of by him. abandoning the endeavour to enforce the provisions of P. which P however ignores : the Deuteronomic appropriation of the tithe. to be an old one. by Ewald. it is inexplicable that every third year should have been called. speak of one and the same tithe and the discrepancy between them arises simply from . p. is admitted by the most moderate critics {e. the fact that they represent different stages in the history of the institution.different from what would be ordinarily understood by the word "tithe. .^ p. supposing this to have been really due from him. 442 f. II WB. it is impossible to doubt. who holds the legislation of P to be older than that of Dt. also. or (as in every third year) to the relief of the poor. It may have been the custom. 301) «. and so firmly established among the people.) the custom of spending the tithe upon sacred feasts. makes it exceedingly difficult to suppose that the tithe referred to in Dt. iS^i*""). . in which the offerer himself would of course retain the lion's share. 1794'' Ryssel in FRE. in two out of every three years. Kar i^oxrjv. 346 (E. supposes {HWB. "the year of the tithing " and when in this same year the whole tithe of the produce has been stored. it is not less inexplicable that there should be no allusion to his disposition of the first and principal The tithe. Mosaic). 27'^ and following him. form. lation of . therefore. .XIV. T. than its being appropriated either to a feast.. Dillm. the older ? * Riehm.

28^2 to be referred to the example of Jacob. 1793^). "the year of tithing. to the sacred meal. Both." The diversion of the tithe from its original purpose. though the exact manner in compulsion to the . In the tithe seems to be mentioned not as a due paid under freewill offerings. had it been the case that he was thereby supporting the Israelites in depriving the priestly tribe of its : legitimate due ? of The data at our disposal do not enable us to write a history Hebrew tithe but the disposition of the tithe in Dt. the transition from the prescriptions of Dt. but by the side of thank-offerings. priests. Dillmann's theory is open to the further objection. and forming probably. far as possible to relieve themselves of did not leave the destitute altogether unprovided for. such a practice the law of tithe in Dt. p. that it does not adequately account either for the prominence given in Dt. and would readily acquiesce in an arrangement by which the tithe was reser\'ed largely for their own consumption. no attempt to put them in force being made even by the reforming legislation of Dt. might naturally be understood as attaching itself. but which at the same time was so far in harmony with the spirit of the age that it by genuine religious feeling. might have fallen into desuetude altogether .. as something offered spontaneously. The tithes paid to ancient sanctuaries were not necessarily appropriated to the maintenance of a priesthood . It may be doubted whether either of these theories is satisfactory. is also violent and improbable if the priesthood. 13^°"^^). Mai. wears the appearance of being more primitive than that of P and : . it is easy to understand. the occasion of To a festal meal at the sanctuary (cf. like these. which the same theory presupposes. 3^"^ Neh. or for the fact that the third year is called xtfT i^exw. had been unable to enforce their claims. during which its provisions remained a dead letter. earliest historical notice of the payment of tithes in Israel is in connexion with the Ephraimite sanctuary of Bethel (Am. to those of P seems The 4*) easier to understand than one in the contrary direction. for instance. and the custom of paying tithes here seems in Gn. Riehm. from whatever cause. 172 when . to which (by the law of P) they were justly entitled. the tithe. are open to the objection that they assume a "latent" existence of P for many centuries. they might be employed for any Amos purpose connected with the public exercises of religion. and vows. the patriarch to whose experiences Bethel owed its sanctity. but is the Deuteronomic disposition of it a probable substitute for its original application ? and would the legislator have inculcated so earnestly this disposition of the tithe. DEUTERONOMY not impelled would naturally seek as a burdensome impost (comp.

it is not unreasonable to suppose. 258." as "every morning" of "every year"). also Sir. Zehnten. which they used in aggrandizing themselves (cf. Proph. The Levite specially . and in the third year. Arch. to organize his tithe-feast himself at the central sanctuary. Am. references to tithe in the 135.10-12 OT. and the sacred feasts disappeared altogether. Amos 2'* ^ 5^' 8*'^). as usually understood ("every three days" an ironical exaggeration of "every three years. was intended to remedy these abuses. 78. and intended for rich and poor alike. especially for Tob. the "tithe-year. noticed that it is only in the third is it year that. for his household and the destitute Levite. are —Gn. 2. R. (codd. The law of Dt. Sem.^2i. Prof. s. Smith thinks. 3'*^ See further. Sel.XIV. 38-10 : cf. also W. 4**) seems to authorize the inference that some ancient custom. .) to its maintenance. the poor held a very subordinate position at them. the landless poor and the landless Levite. 5" some account of the minuter regulations contained in the Mishnah. 226-236) supposes that the tithe-feasts at the Northern sanctuaries were public ones. But see Wellh. Smith. Die Klein. 29 173 it which it may have arisen out of must remain matter of conjecture.^ xvii.v. 22eS.. ''• Dt. viz. prevailed also. i2« Mai.xar*. Prof. connected with the payment of the tithe. A similar application of the tithe. according to Dt. by appropriating the tithe entirely to the support of the dependent classes. Sent. p. BA). * At least. 32(35)" Judith 11" (S. ii. 26^2 (cf. accompanied by similar abuses. the whole tithe actually paid is away by the principally Israelite in the other two years consumed is by the offerer and his family. 14^ 2 Ch. raw flfvaw xa) rod ixaitv). si"*^^ Neh." It maybe .. but that owing to the power possessed by the great nobles. 428 fF. PRE.called. maintained by the tithes paid by the community g-enerally. Nowack.. mentioned as entitled to a share of the tithe in every year and on the basis of this provision it is not difficult to understand how in process of time the claims of the priestly tribe could be exleg^islation tended until at last (as in the of P) the entire tithe was appropriated The other . by leaving the oflFerer free.o38f. must have led to every third year being.(37f. and they were monopolized chiefly by the ruling classes. Ryssel. Proph. I Macc. as a substitute for the abolition of the communal fund (which theoretically maintained a public table). in Judah. kut i$ox^v. Smith {Rel. Hebr. in two out of every three years. It did this..

renounce vated. a year during which the rights of a lender are to be in abeyance. noocT •\y^ nn] cf. On the relation of this law to Ex. 179 f. . 2 it is applied to letting loans drop. Ex. where "c^ the e?id of seven years" corresponds to "zw the seventh year" of Dt. i. . "urx nann m Jos. 15^2^ and where the period thus denoted is plainly conceived to have begun as soon as the six years are terminated. allowing them to remain in the hands of the debtor and the year in which this was done is called (v. and repayment of a loan is not to be exacted by him of a brother Israelite. At to letting \}!\e : land drop." On the question whether the intention of the law is that loans were to be cancelled. the relief afforded by the present law will not be required. xvi) r\2pin -on n'n mi. let drop."'2Cni 177 f. The law XV. but "at the end of every period of seven years." which was understood by usage to mean "when the seventh year has arrived" (G Si' iiTTa irSiv): SO 31^°. especially Jer. — XY.e. 1. with allusion to the law of Ex. Jer. 5* i K. 1-6. every seventh year : . 231°^- (JE) Lev.^. ^-2. 2. 17* (read prob.e. Every seventh year is to be i. — end of (every) seven years\ the is not to be pressed.e. is not to be extended to foreigners.— 174 DEUTERONOMY 1-18. v. not "at the end of every seventh year" (though this rendering could be defended by the supposition that it was at the end of the year that debts were called in). and the Siloam Inscr. word "end." it apparently. 9". Laws designed to ameliorate the Condition of the Poor.^ 31^°!) n^n^'n n3y' "the year' oi dropping. leaving it unculti- comp. v. i. g33 niDOK'). comp. 23" (n'j. XV. . the meaning being. v. 19* i K. however. shalt have to desist from its cultivation. This privilege. the nntJ'Cil njiaOB'n) 25I-7 (H). see p." concludes with a promise. — a "year of release. The year of Release. also . that in the event of Israel's obedience. 2. Thou shalt make a release ('^^'??')] ^'^'^ '^ to fling down (2 K. 11*^: nan pp.^ ''.e.e. seems. 34^*. Three XV." i. or whether it is merely that the power of calling them in was to be suspended during that year. see p." or "of release. T?"'^ for ^3^) "and thou shalt let thy hand fall from thy inheritance" {i. i {Samuel. The nature of the "release": every creditor is to "let drop. let fall: it is applied fig. 23^1) v.

In the pi. "my litigant. 24" al. as Ex. 23^0^). b«] prop. Lev. 4**). nature. is the cognate ptcp. — 4-6. v. 5^3 Jud. 19^'' 2525.dv^ tdk'i.^2 Lev. Ex. 2 K. 14 (and often in other T'nJc/azVwe^] by a formal proclamation cf. in His honour. nx] with. 25^ (of the jubile year). Is. see below. or permanently : — his it claim upon the season of that which he has lent to his neighbour is "Jehovah's release.g. 58^ N"ii5] the implicit subj. 2. 920 f. be no poor in and consequently nearly = the Lat. ratio. \2y^.— 3. So.e. is 247. p. . for any relaxa- tion of his creditor's claims. G-K. : IT can hardly refer to anything but Sya be "the loan which his own hand has given. Thes. Neh. 24^" = "one who fore." which must be observed with the forwhich He has prescribed. 23^ Is.: he not. e. I S. it has a right to call in (v.) " Every possessor of a loan of his hand shall let drop that which he lendeth to his neighbour " : for hy2 in — a forensic application. R.^). will. therefore. lo and in H. account. &c. for trade. will — — — : . 89. 10^ lyisa. 3» R. § 144. 50^ 'tjero ^ya cf. suff. 4 2320. requires a change of form and the passive voice has to be employed (as RV." But perh. CDc] the inf. in the possession of: Lev. (exceptionally) attached (ib. 1-3 — 175 — whether malities for the time. 348 36^ also Lev.') : cf. Bb^p "thfire hand shall let drop " should be read (cf." For n^5 loan.o- "• 12 i^isb j^is.. S6." which has the 22I. Lev. 20 jgis. 47 but the usage does not occur in the laws of JE or of P. 21 253. the meaning. and not so distinctive. Schultz. Is. but whatsoever of — : . e. "cause thine hand to let drop.^"^) : cf. Kipn. (G-K. Lev. countryman. "P' BC>?'e] notice the jussive form. 6' Ps.).— XV. 24" onm Vv3 cause" . with note. 10^ t''? k^O' (see other views in Ges. 17^. Hvmn see on 16*. English idiom often Cf. — . Jehovah\ 3. intended bdct to be the 2nd person. Is. however. comp.2 Jer. here)." and which. by exacting repayment of a loan (so v. 178. On the constructions in His brother^ a synonym of " his fellowthis verse. Ke. There § 113.): cf.^*. in his case.g. Reflections of the Writer.s- 7. therefore. in Qal. and often. in The has a Neh. 48^ ». with the subj. like the Israelite (Ex. a n»:] 24^". — thine is "with thy brother^ let thine hand release (T]^^^ tDOK'Pi)] the "foreigner" [nokhri) — — to be distinguished from the G&r [id^^) is the foreigner is who merely visits Canaan temporarily. 232-4. 17^2^ Construe (with Ges. Unto i. v. 252. to press hard upon. A foreigner thou mayest pressfor payment. so. 17'* Pr. The punctuators prob. under the obligation of surrendering the produce of his land every seventh year : there is no reason. so. the corresponding application is more common. abs. reason. therecf.27 books). 6ii. Israel. tdikh. as. as always in such cases. 5'. 3. effect of bringing^ strongly before the Israelite the claims of kinship. Gn. 8'' k'^:.

&c.7 714 (Heb. will be in a position to lend to men of other nations. ^c] so RV.). which the Writer did not contemplate as likely to be realized in practice. however.t. not ^3. 6. {sc. Perh. And thou shall rule over As he spake unto (i^^) thee\ many nations. ^2X. to cause to give pledges = to lend on pledge to. B3S to hold out (with the regular phonetic change: Dr. Ex. oav is an Aram.. howbeit. So 1 K.\n the case contemplated so v.]on8i.. With thee (AV. show that the prospect held out in them is an ideal one. 1526 (p) i<J> zf'^-. Klein.— h\p2 lyOBTi VDtr Dx] 28I. Ex. limiting the promise to the event of Israel's obedience. But " should be " is not (in this context) a very natural sense of . 8^ 2 K.T (here and v. —1^ }n3 yrh^ '"• "iB'K 2519 + nnc-i^. hence to borrow on pledge. p. loan-word (Wellh. 4* DK p^'\=ifonly. dfc] thou shalt enjoy a position of financial and material superiority to them. t3'3j:. if only thou hearken. 76 no occasion then the for the present law to come into operation.— — 1 — DEUTERONOMY — . — 5.) is not correct this would express ^riK (Lev. 25^9). it would=Arab. csay (24^"t) is properly to give a Am. The law embodies a new i. 1810 2311.') is the more usual word. Cf. . 88) 1910 20IS 2i23 244 5. Nu. JE. This rendering seems to be the best. 2325 Dt.^^ : Jehovah will surely bless thee] n^m] 421 (cf.t. application of the institution of save that. supposing the meaning to be either (Schultz. Proph. — pledge on the occasion of borrowing). in this commandment. 261. 13^ Jud.) as express- ing the abstract truth that poverty ought not to exist in the nation. or Jehovah will surely {^f if only thou diligently hearken. or (Dillm. introducing a qualification. <Sr'c. Cf ony a pledge 24^""^! B'bsV Hb. as here). Keil) that Israel should exert itself to prevent the pauperization of its members. In thee] of Israel collectively {i^^) = in thy midst: so v. on ( 2'. § 178). after Jehovah has promised His blessing upon it. Keil. render.o to hold firmly =Yi&h. 7I8. In whatever sense. : — 6.). and Dillm.H) is thus lit. if it be obedient." &c.15 (10.7.. : introduced in commerce if so. 14) 25I8 2854. 2^. for Jehovah will surely bless thee. the words are understood. <Sr»c. so far from having" occasion to borrow of his —Howbeit there shall he no poor in thee bless thee in the land. For V. neighbour. 207). if only the nation so comports itself as to merit Jehovah's blessing Israelite.—All Will have blessed thee\v\z. . "2 D2k] 9'. and treating the intermediate clause as parenthetic. 21^. "Howbeit there should be no poor in thee. San (24". Schultz. pn being prefixed to the clause introduced by DK for emphasis. '• cf.^* 12^. 28^.

the year bears no special name. or (Riehm. and described as "a sabbath of rest for the land. it is provided that in every seventh year the vineyards. and olive-gardens are to remain uncultivated. but not leave it left to the poor. S. or produce. i. it is the debt) . at stated intervals. 29-32. The term " sabbatical year " is based upon Lev. In Ex. 25^"^ same time uncultivated and it is by being allowed this aspect of the institution . Fenton. 107 -113. villagers collectively. Maine. for the land. is portion for a limited period. 2^'^-~--^-'^'^. chiefly of form. might in readily be adapted so as to minister to the needs of the poorer classes and this is the point of view under which the institution at the benefit .. Such a limitation. such produce as they bear naturally being not gathered by the The terms of this provision do whether (as is generally supposed) a year common to the whole land is intended. where substantially the same regulation accommodating of H)." or rest. individuals only acquiring the use of a certain and the rights of the community being recognized by the individual landowners being obliged." and clearly designed to be operative through the whole country simultaneously. is regarded Ex. Hist. 23^°''- 177 and of the "Sabbatical (JE). where the fallow year is called a "sabbath. but the name "year of release" is peculiar to Dt. the year must owners. of the soil. afterwards have become a fixed one. 24-26.e. present different aspects. The " sabbatical year " of Ex. 117 f. The three laws. literary style. XV. variations. is connected with that of Ex. the institution is is is it repeated (with to the aims. Early Hebrew Life. Village Communities in the East and West. for in Lev. 1314^. the object is the land [or its produce]. HWB. 77-99. or applications. 1880. as will appear immediately. 26****^). 23 fields. Wellh. while in Dt. upon which the custom arose of allowing more properly to a Deuteronomy here it must suffice to say that analogous usages in other countries (see Sir H. 25'''**'' (cf. 64-70) make it probable that it is a relic of communistic agriculture. 251-7- 20-22 (h). The land would remain periodically which is prominent in Lev. {1^^ 31'**) : in Ex. to 23'°'-. and Lev.) one varying for the different properties but even if it be the latter. pp. pp. similarly an institution limiting the rights of individual ownership it is in the interests of the community at large. year " of Lev. 4-6 the fallow year of Ex. to renounce their claims to the use. The law of Dt. J. &c. p. of the institution. of a stage of society in which the fields belonging to a village are the property of the the land to remain untilled once in 7 years belongs commentary on Exodus or Leviticus than to one on : A discussion of the grounds . perfectly clear . by the common verb bcc (though in Ex. in favour of the body of villagers generally. evident.^ p.

(cf. or extend. who. 2 K. life. his business. so far as the cultivation of the land was actually suspended during the 7th year. Whether any security was offered by the debtor for such loans. The need of protective legislation on the subject is well illustrated by the distressed condition to which the people of Attica were reduced in the 6th cent. is not stated but Neh. had not yet sprung. whose comments on the subject of debt in the ancient world are instructive).which still prevailed when it from a time when commercial relations were much simpler than they are now. Dt. the made the basis of In a provision designed for the relief of the distressed debtor. veloped state of society than that contemplated in Ex. The present law originated —dates — : : *'' Opinions have differed as to whether the n^OB' was an . and applied so as to meet the requirements of a more de. what. The loans which it contemplates appear thus to be not advances of money. 21-23. of Greece.C. and Lev. which prevailed under Solomon and his successors. it may be. s**. organized civic the interests of debtors.1 78 DEUTERONOMY same institution is In the law of Dt. and if so. and all loans were virtually charitable ones (comp. or at least the feeling. other laws designed in its benefits being extended to a class. even more in need of relief than those originally benefited by the law of Ex. it is probable. as the context and the terms of v. till the time of Justinian) even the debtor's own person might form the security. The principle of the law of Ex. the system of commercial loans. but advances intended for the relief of some temporary difficulty or impoverishment (cf. the reference to the poor in v. (" and the poor of thy people shall eat ") is thus expanded.. 2320'. the landowner and his dependents would be deprived largely of their usual means of obtaining a : : liveli- hood associated trades would also probably be slack hence it would be a time when borrowers would be less able than usually to meet their liabilities and it would be not more than reasonable that the more wealthy creditor should be restrained from pressing them for payment. they fall accordingly. B. were. practically. Hist.(i^f) 2410-13. on 23"^'*). 4^ Is. as practised in modem times. ch. Comp. and in Rome.*) no interest could be demanded on them (23'* W) . 50^) shows that the lands and family of a debtor might constitute the security for a debt . and when.up. 25^suggest at least the possibility that (as at Athens before Solon. and by the reforming measures which Solon found it necessary to introduce (see Grote. xi. under the category of deeds of philanthropy and charity. Part II.. such as might be needed by a trader to enable him to carry on.^'^ show. in the more highly and the increasing opposition between rich and poor.

The cancelling' of debts xf^'^'' a. but most modern commentators agree in favour of the latter alternative (Bahr.). I. regardless of the fact that the debtor might in the interim have recovered his prosperity. cf.). Recht. though not perhaps decisively. i8^'""^' 22^2 Ps. HWB. Symbolik. as well as by some Christian scholars . his claim upon his loan. § 151. under circumstances of extreme necessity. Hehr. contemplating.. yovv e^Bofiov ivLavToy act . Legg. Knob. is also attractive.e. in the 8 (Mangey. Orelli in Pi?^.— .. 6 179 actual remission of loans. Mishnah {Shehiith 10. 356). would seem calculated to defeat itself. or merely the suspension. or under which it was carried out in practice. but Theol. but at the same time cancelling the debts thus contracted every seven years. and by Jewish generally. it is possible that in its original intention its application was so limited by circumstances that the ancient interpretation may be the correct one. id. not to say (v. as under Solon. at Athens (Grote. for upon such conditions it is difficult to understand how any would have been found ready to lend. On the whole.^ xiii. Archaol.g. Saalschutz. 746). the opinion that a remission of loans is intended : it is remarkable. the term ticv seems to favour. interpretation has all k priori considerations in its favour are not. i). Demosth. also. sufficiently acquainted with the circumstances which the law was originally designed to meet. ii.2 168. adopted sometimes. 117 Benzinger. . Rep. moreover. de sepienario.. Wellh. and that the prohibition of interest (232*"' . Nowack. If this were so. Hist. is'') applies only The modem we — : to the money-lender's dealings with the poor (Neh. of the creditor's right to pretation ii. Riehm. A law. in view of our imperfect knowledge of Hebrew commerce and finance. and afterwards resumed. Archaol. 736 C . Timokr. Plato. Mos. On the other hand. perhaps. &c. (1894) p. Dillm. Ez. as the Greeks called it was a revolutionary measure (cf.. 1315^. . p. Others accordingly think that interest on money lent for commercial purposes was permitted between Israelites. Keil. Schultz. 350 f. Nevertheless.^ is also evidently more forcible upon the same supposition. that this is not more distinctly indicated in the terms employed the consideration in v.'xoxo'jeii. and appears to offisr a plausible rationale of the law. (1894) i.. to be able to feel perfectly confident that it is correct. XV. 570 f. The analogy of the landowner surrendering for one year in seven the produce of the land. while as a law regulating commercial loans generally it can have been a practicable one only upon the modem interpretation. Oehler. 162 f. authorities {e. likewise for one year in seven. but not one likely to be enforced periodically by law in a well-ordered community. OT. c.(p€U)/C07ri'av ela-qyfxraL it is adopted also Ges. if the creditor's rights were only suspended for a year. 5). Kara. it must be admitted that an uncertainty still rests upon the real scope of the law. and of the creditor surrendering.^) encouraging loans. : 284). 566 A. demand payment. The former § inter- is found as early as Philo. Hehr. i. for one year.

{e. 3f.— Thine 7. — ^ySa] in appos. would offer repayment of his loan. cities (lai^). 26^1 . i f. is to assist cheerfully 7-11. the latter explained in Geiger. The only notice in the OT. 14*^ mypD irxn any single hair of his head (see ad loc.— 7. Ez. G-K. while going through a form of refusal. Neuhebr.— yarn nx] of. quite general can they be limited in the manner proposed ? And it is remarkable. the annual produce of the land money.) of money.»f). B. "a — — . . (Dt.ii. was found impracticable and expedients were resorted to for the purpose of evading its provisions. cf. v. fcwi] as 2**. pp.. 77 f. in one of thy thyself] 4^.£r. 15^) T hj N'fci r'i"=rn n:rn nx (Ex.e. and Hillel (ist cent. Is giving thee] i^^. 8f..^ seems naturally to describe merely the loan itself. i. or Lex. The terms of 23^'" Ez. 18" r S.). In later times. 2'').^-^ : Writer's judgment. that this is not in some way indicated the language both of v. the law. Lev. baseness "=a base word (Dr.v. — 9.— I 80 DEUTERONOMY the effect of the present law will have been to prevent the creditor from recovering-.2410-13. or the principal of charitable loans. Nu. with § 131. s. usage 8". but also to loans contracted in commerce. 4f. in every seventh year. exempted from its operation the debtor. when commercial relations became more extended and complex. in the v. gates\ i. bearing on the observance of the law is the obligation undertaken by the Jews in Neh. "aaS cv] on word. signed before a judge. Lesestiicke aus der Mischnah. or annual produce {toxs. A^zg. 9. Levy. where an analogous Arab. 33^8 i Ch. a formal document. 42if he doeth n:nD rnxo any one of these things. For this peculiar use of jD. 23") rs^i. which was then held to apply not merely to charitable loans. rendered necessary. financial loans. WB. The year of Release is not to check liberality the Israelite. however. "'nx nnKD] any one of Hay brethren. i. field suffered to lie fallow for a year is : : : : — io'2(3i). comp. —A caution. if the reference here be primarily to interest. by the law of the benefits afforded by the year of Release are not to be neutralized by the thought of its near approach deterring the wealth)' Israelite from coming forward to assist his less prosperous brother in his The spirit in which these verses are conceived is in harmony with the philanthropic motive conspicuous elsewhere in Dt. are.^ and of v. : his brother in need. irrespectively of the year of Release (see Shebtith 10. ja IbS.i3f. VuTTa Schurer. finding that many were deterred from lending by the consideration Dt. "lai. 18^ &c. — . . 15^. In thee] as vA. was to be unproductive every seventh year. when called upon to do so. corresponds to the harvest. when the year of Release arrived. § 189. like land. Thus debts contracted upon security of a pledge were considered to be . either the interest or the principal of The analogy of the urged in support of this view the interest.e..C. Take heed to ~A base tJwught] on x-^^^^^.—In one of thy need. which the creditor. would end by accepting. in which the creditor reserved the right to call in his loan whenever . 299). and often is referred to).. instituted the Vnma {-rpoa^oXri). he pleased.

2i20. has — 10. the seventh year. 1 K.26f.53 Dt. If the without the art. isj^ jn the manner of Dt. the cor- relative of {good). 19^7 282^^. S'?Ja] i^'' i8^2. .ie contem(cf. 2520. Lev. six years shall he serve .g. unless they elect to remain with their master. 13^^ and imi K. The condition of a Hebrew slave. he Ex. 2i22. cf..] cf. The ground of the preceding injunction the poor will never cease out of the land. The law of slavery. not found elsewhere. .. -. 21^ If thou buy an Hebrew bondman. 7-II : i8i : eye he evil against] 2854. i^^). And thine heart shall not be sad\ he evil It is so I S. S"*' Givest] understood usually (in view of v. The present law is based upon the corresponding one in JE (Ex. : — : — — : '2 If thy brother. 11.). be sold unto thee. he shall shall serve thee six years . male or female. it is probable. 3? 31t3. Ex. Nu. plying cheerfulness: Dt.^^.'''^^ is meant generally the prospect of a reduced income in the near future is not to check the Israelite's liberality towards any who solicit from him pecuniary aid. free for nothing. Hebrew slaves. 3^'^ 3^D. V^i^l^l] "is sing._^l.^^-is. Tob. be envious or grudging towards (quoted by Ges. (e. 212-6). 56|^ d(f>6aXfJi. in the seventh year. and with two not unimportant modifications (see on v. &c. 21^) that. For the thought. an Hebrew.i) 2415^ cf. so 23— (21) 22^2 (23\ jij^d n Jjq ^-^ 2323(22). cf.via. ^vith parenetic additions (v. if his master gave him a wife. the wife and her children were not to receive their liberty with him. i^. s^^b 12I8 i6n) plates the case of his "loving" his master as of likely occurrence. and the law (Ex. = lendest. on 2^ 12''^.— — — XV. . 253»f.e. \(^'^ (cf. 25^6 2 S. 12-18. nitO the jn 37 (sad heart) of Pr. was relatively favourable v. 19^-^ i S. e. 17). thou shalt send and in go out ^'* him a. Lev.) so Comp.43. Shall bless thee.o<i i. are to receive their freedom in the seventh year of service. ev 4'^ tw ttouiv (T€ iXerjfxoaiJVriv. —A7td he 22^ fvi} <f>6ov€(rdT<i> aov 6 cry against thee unto Jehovah] Ex. with not The expression i8'^2j lit. and . said also of the heart.^-^) But possibly v.g^. /^ fj^gQ (xon 12 n^m)] is i^BTi S^l (jn. as 28'*''' Jud. Pr. fc?Dn vfjy. and hence it will never become superfluous. would often act as an inducement to him to renounce his right of freedom after 6 years of service.y free from thee. or an Hebrewess.r being for the purpose of avoiding shwa' after the double yod" (Dillm.—\0.

while Dt. / will not go out free. clusion that the harmonistic supposition is designed to avoid) the law of Dt. my / will not go out from thee. ^ Then pin and into the door {i. 21^ can be designed.him unto God. 15^^ is also a pointed one. master shall bring. in by himself he shall go ^ But if the out by himself. and the law v. and my children. is^^* ^^ are perfectly general . marks a husband is is significant difference from the law of Ex. belongs to an age so far removed from that of Ex. bondman say. 21^. unless some material modification of the law of Ex. Various attempts have been made to harmonize the two laws.z. (2) that the law of Dt. master shall bore his ear with an awl. does not abrogate Ex. but this would be unusual {ib. and he shall ser\'e h\m for ever. Thus one supposition is (i) that the law of Ex. had been intended by it. But the notice of the special case in v. although a woman who comes bondwoman bondmen do is into service with her to receive her freedom when he does. render it improbable that this tacit extension of Ex. 21^ makes it probable that the apod. Or an Hebrewess] this addition . . is not to go free with her husband. Ex. &c. for in Ex. because it is well for him with thee . she not to go free as (v. " Then thou shalt take an awl. so that the case of a woman sold unless (which is just the confor concubinage must be included in them. § 136 a) : it might begin at iryaE'ai. and put it into his ear wife. and he shall for ever. and he {or one) shall bring him to his tJie door or to the door-post. 21^^ is intended tacitly to include women. 14. that even a female slave married to a bondman. Beitr'dge. 'ii laia ncn] -iVK=ias. (v. I love my master. she shall not go out as the bondmen do. which would hardly have been made. springs from a more advanced stage of society than 12. iii.^.nA thy house. "P^yi] Ex. The addition "or an Hebrewess" in Dt. in cases where it cannot — . and § 124). No doubt the true explanation of the variation is that the law of Dt. Obs. I. if he say unto thee. \^'^' contemplates the case of a woman who enters servitude for purposes other than that of concubinage.^).e. that the case no longer practically occurred of a woman being sold into slavery for that — purpose. 21^"^^ relates only to'the case of a woman sold to be a concubine. . begins here (Dr. but enforces the extension thus tacitly implied in v. 7). them together).^. because he loveththee. According to another supposition (Hengst. 12. and his be a bondman to thee And shalt also unto thy bondwoman thou do likewise.^. a daughter sold by her father as a on a different footing.1 82 DEUTERONOMY he came 16 And it shall be. during his period of service. ^ And if a man sell his daughter to be a bondwoman. . But the terms of Dt. 439).

: 183 it thus regxilates usage for an age in which in the power of a father over his daughter was no longer so more primitive times. 4^t) (Jud. (cf. i^ Ct. . 2 1 3-4 respecting the wife and their which breathes the philanthropic spirit of the Deut. 161224I8. G^^ cf. sold. Gn. . •wine-press^ 16^^ : —From thy threshing-floor. 2 Hos. and on iS^o). according to the prosperity which has attended his master. also s" (see note): iqIO. As fehovah thy God fhe motive for such liber- be the thankful recollection of the deliverance from Similarly (almost in the cf. 11" Hos.—16-17. IDVd] v. grain. taken in natural sense. 73^). Whether any further absolute as it had been — difference is intended by the substitution of be . v. and family of a slave place is taken by the present — — . and wine. 106*^). 1''^). reduced. lap'D.^^) -might imply that the case was exceptional. is The slave at the time of leaving his master's service to be dealt with handsomely he he is is not to be thrown (so to say) penniless upon the world to receive presents of cattle. 14I7 18". without some present (cf. provision. \(P Lex. Thou shalt not send him away empty (Dp"'^)] i. same words) If. honourably or liberally.Vi!} to make a necklace for. 14. 15_ hath blessed thee\ ality is to cf. however. andfrom thy K.—— XV.6^ Job 22^. by misfortune or other cause. 1^ p^jyn p^jyn P^y is a necklace hence p^V is to surround as a necklace S^'' Pr.^- ing the people for into force upon the occasion of the prophet's rebukrescinding their agreement to put the law under Zedekiah. The regula- tions in Ex. at a time when the final letter had as yet no distinctive form. I2-I6 the law of Ex. 50^). 12 I s. 2 K. Lev. irx 8 e) that nrna should most probably be restored : 3 might easily have fallen out after 16. . the servitude in Egypt. or (as "^30''. legislation. fig. (Ps. 2. would imply that the purchase of a Hebrew slave was a matter of ordinary occurrence: the phrase in Dt. Thou shalt furnish him liberally\ so the AV.. properly be rendered that -which (as Jer. — . and arose only when a man was (cf. and ^ PV. excellently paraphrases the Heb. and places the two sexes on a position of equality. which is evidently here not the case. 34^4 (cf. for to load are disregarded in Dt. 31*2 i 8.e.22. is so doubtful (see on i S. 13. 48* Ps. the phrase in Ex. 25^9) selleth himself. —The verse is quoted (slightly varied) in Jer. for buy its uncertain. 12^^ i5i7_ — g^. . might also be rendered is see Lev.— in'3 rm lanK o] on 11^. to penury 4^ . "h aio '3] Nu. —13-15. Is.

addressed to the Israelite. awl (G-K. it was to take place (comp. and how difficult it was it. enjoined in Ex. V^sran m\=an i 13TK3 nnnr] the idiom as S. where is the ceremony symbolizing his perpetual servitude performed by his master. — 18. . a mere argjimentum though he does not say so.. if she elects to remain in ser\'itude. . the ceremony prescribed is a public and official one in Dt. and then led (probably by the judge) to the door or the door-post (whether of the sanctu- slave ar}-. being transacted entirely at the master's own home. would assuredly have felt it incumbent upon him to state (cf. the leg^islator in Dt. in case the to him. like "and maybe well for thee" in — 17. c. 27^2 job 4028 (41*). it is of a purely domestic character. And also unto thy bondwoman thou shall do likewise^ perform with her. reflects the usage of a time at which the judicial ceremony." i. the same cere- mony.^^ is nailing. i. § 126.his ear to the door of his master's house. It seems that the law of Dt. through affection for his master. meaning. and when the ceremony was performed earlier regulations : entirely at the master's house. ''because it is him with thee" being an explanatory it addition. In Ex. prefer to continue in his service. may do and so . had he contemplated a ceremony transacted at a sanctuary. or of his master's house. ig'^. Kleinert. hirelitig- hath he served thee six 22"-" . to enforce in practice the manumission of slaves required by To the double of the hire of an 2' Jer.. 4 «iki] on 2^^. makes the transaction in reaUty a different one the argument is consequently more than one e silentio and the Writer of Dt. This is the second material modification of the which the law of Dt.— — 1 8^4 DEUTERONOMY the slave. to the sanctuary at which judgment is administered. it**. i A slave for ever (D^iy 13y)] S. consolatory thought. pp. duty of letting his slave go free should seem hard Jer. ^^^^.19") at what sanctuary It is argued indeed by Keil that this conclusion is .e. e silentio. 21^ (see above) the is to be brought "unto God. the same ceremony as that prescribed in Ex. 58-59). contains. but his servitude must hence- forth be for life this is to be formally ratified by the well for that ceremony of V.shows how apt the present law was to be A disregarded by the Israelites. — .e. slightly varied from Ex. 21^. In Ex. 51^. or on i S. had fallen into disuse. —nViai —17. is not clearly expressed). he . 5" 19". 18" i^". But the absence of any terms to indicate this.

^ p. as in Ex. which was not accompanied. being completely impoverished. 19-23.—The firstling males of oxen and of sheep are to be dedicated to Jehovah. in some measure. (2) Hebrew slaves are to receive their liberty. the firstling have any blemish."b-iej \_\^2X the limit of service fixed by Ex. viz. The usual mode of har- by the assumption that the law of Lev. (On the analysis of Lev. The parallels in the other . T. i. Ryle on Neh. 526 f. Jehovah cannot accept it in sacrifice but it may be used by the owner as ordinary.). 25^' is greater than that implied in Ex. y^'^. see Z. and originating at a time when experience had shown (cf. as that in the Jubile was. HWB^ 1503*. 178 f. a law so circumstantial as that of Lev. and the law of Lev. If. whilst in servitude. however..) XV. But if this had been the true explanation of the discrepancy.. (or Dt. betrays as little consciousness of the law of Ex. but offers. But. would surely have contained some explicit reference to the earlier law. (1) is a third law of slavery in Lev. at the central sanctuary (v. 2^-*^. if thou lettest him go cheerfully (cf. in the There 7th year of servitude. and hence would not be benefited by a release in the 7th year of service. 19-23. 25^"** (H and P).— XV. he is to receive his liberty in it. provided care be taken to eat none of the blood (v. contemplates the case of those Israelites only who. Jer. designed without reference to the former. is have been distinctly stated. Jehovah -will bless thee^ &c. by a return (at least on the part of those who had been landowners) to their hereditary possession. however. the legislator of Lev. but in the year of Jubile. since obviously no man would be a slave if he could help it. could not maintain themselves in independence. Arch.^o). 21^? The discrepancy between the laws of Ex. Dt. and to be eaten annually by the owner and his household. work has been such had a hired labourer been engag^ed in his stead. at a sacrificial feast. I7-I8 years] because. Now'ack.) as the legisDillmann supposes lator of Dt. and the case in which it was intended to supersede it would monizing these discrepant provisions. have cost his master twice as much (Schultz). not. and Dt. 5'. can be satisfactorily explained only by the supposition that the latter is a provision for the mitigation of the servitude of Israelites. he would. as humanely as if he were a free man (cf. if the Jubile year arrives before a Hebrew slave's 7th year of service. that the law of Lev. The law of firstlings. By this law only foreigners are to be held by Israelites as slaves for life . and Dt.\ viz. In point of fact. . ^^^). Firstlings.food. lengthens the legal period of service. The law of Lev. at the rate of wages then current. Hebr. compensation for this by insisting (in phrases borrowed from H) that the Israelite slave is to be treated. could not be enforced.. is intended to provide that. his 185 that. Riehm. can it be said that the impoverishment expressed in Lev. (if this be the later) betrays of that of Lev. O. v. 21-23).

they are to be presented annually. &'c.20. But if there be in it a older usage. of the first-born the aim of the Writer is to most common domestic animals being presented properly at the central sanctuary. . cf. agree but there are some variations in detail prescribed in v. the Most probably the Passover.—20. firstlings festival. 1427) was to be invited also as a guest. —22-23. Lex. =yearly(i S. . iS^s-is Lev. rura a r\yo\ jn OID ^a] generalizing' apposition idiom. is an accommodation of the older usage to the institution of annual pilgrimages to the central sanctuary. As 12I5-16. (cf. to the provision here. on i8^ : . I'a/. : In general principle the three Codes . The law of Dt. 2726^) in P.it would seem that the Levite (as in the case of the titheYear by year] feast. iS^^-^^ (see p. 132 (P). The change a necessary corollary of the substitution of a central place of sacrifice (v. the subject has been already noticed incidentally in Thou shalt sanctify unto Jehova1i\ in agree15 QE). ^^m. 3419 (JE). not exhaustive nothing said. —20.i2. 132 Nu.\ the general rule that animals offered in sacrifice must be free from defects (17^) is here applied to the special case the law prescribing of the firstlings. be accepted in sacrifice. different altogether from that which is laid down is in Nu. on account of some natural defect. . for instance (as in both : JE and P).„ jg^ gx.): cf. In the Priests' Code. a III. — blemish. and to provide for the case of such firstlings as could not. Toan Sa] collect. 3 b. or of unclean animals insist upon the firstlings of the connexion. TJwu shalt eat From it before Jehovah. implies that an altar was everywhere near at hand at which the firstlings could be presented on the eighth day. iTf.\ for the expressions.— 1 86 DEUTERONOMY 13II-I6 2228*^ (29t) Codes are Ex. — . may be eaten. see on i2i5f-. (on ii**). &'c. '^. 187). 20) for the local sanctuaries the law of Ex. 2223(2") ^jie firstlings are to be presented to Jehovah on the eighth day from birth ("seven days it shall be with its dam on the eighth day thou shalt give it to me ") according J26. In the former of men. an entirely different disposition of the 19. slaughtered merely as food. —21. and the is dis- position of the firstlings. in Ex. see on \2^12^^'. j^^23^ iQ^ ment with Ex. is : were offered at the great spring For another similar modification of 21-23. The treatment is of the subject in Dt. in how animals.

R. 12*). with peculiar emphasis (Nu. 7^). though the firstlings. not prescribed. but only the parts specified in the comparison ." Two explanations of the discrepancy are offered. 127 f. should emphasize so strongly the secondary. may be doubted it is singular. that. i&-^^ . have consumed the flesh of them himself. is likely to have been given. the firstlings are assigned absolutely. 17-23 firstlings is prescribed. According to one (Hengst. p. were given wholly to the priest. OTJC.^ i. the Deut." Lev. the rest. and might be consumed by him in the manner prescribed in Dt. 397 f. Beitrage. Whether such an invitation. but may have been at liberty to invite the offerer to share this with him at a sacrificial meal (Keil Green. as well as the priest and as a duty should partake in the firstlings. . Moses and the Prophets.. though once accepted by Keil (Havernick. on Dt. rather than the primary. if it was the intention of the legislation that the offerer. . it is supposed. on 14^ 15*^) : the two laws regulate the practice of different periods of the history. 445). to be eaten by himself and his family. W.e.) that the priests being unable to maintain their claim to the dues which the law gave them. HWB. 2 (1856). 1 8. : . he may not.^z^Z^ The latter alternative is the preferable one. According to another explanation. Sent. (v. as the wave-breast and the heave-thigh [the parts of the peace-offering which were the perquisite of the priest who offered it.XV. p. making no attempt to reinstate the priests in their rights. they are assigned iS^^"^^) to Aaron [i. therefore. The only consistent solution of the discrepancy is that which we have already had occasion to resort to before (comp. to the priest and his . 430). and merely providing that the sacred feasts should be held exclusively at the central sanctuary : or the law of Dt. the change of custom which it implies being in itself more probable than that which is involved in the alternative theory. it is argued that the words in Numbers do not mean that the siliole of the firstling was the priest's.^ p. and it must be supposed that when the revenues of the priesthood were more distinctly and definitely formulated than is the case in Dt. and also better supported by Rel. ii. and abandoned {Comm. — — family. Wellh. see v. would belong to the offerer. his household at the central sanctuary. 406 f. (18'"''). p. it is allowed. disposition of the firstlings it is singular also. Hist. Instead of being eaten by the owner to the priests) with these words and (Nu. 7^*] it shall be thine. and the custom having arisen of dedicating the firstlings to Jehovah by consuming them at a sacred feast. Einl. is the older. was subsequently seen by him to be untenable. and the firstlings were now included amongst them (cf.). a change of custom had supervened. 155 f.). The Pentateuch. 84 Bissell. Either the law of Numbers is the older. and this solution of the difficulty. analogy. so far from this being at all implied in the terms of the original institution. and it must be concluded (Riehm. Lev. legislation acquiesced in this custom. if this explanation be correct. But the text says distinctly "their flesh" without any limitation . that Dt. Smith.i8): *<And their flesh shall be thine.

v. and the in Dt. or sacred seasons. 75-89. 23 resting on the part to be taken in them by the people. but with the Sabbath. The 1-17. 22-23 (generally). 43-49 Nu.1 88 DEUTERONOMY XVI. ervd. more . (On the Mohammedan HaJ. ings v. the last month of the Mohammedan year. and Nu. Reste Arab. New Moons are neither mentioned nor alluded to represented by "feast" in AV. Heidentumes. see esp. Mecca : the days during which the pilgrims are expected to be present at Mecca. viz.^. the stress in Lev. once in his life. and Day of Atonement). 28-29 are two priestly Calendars. more briefly the Enc. The oldest and simplest are those contained in JE.. New Year's Day. has its regulations respecting them. RV. 23 and Nu. 20 .) The in was of a joyous character. pp. 23I* njKa inn D'f'Jl ^:hd). New Moons. three annual Pilgrimages. v. 1221-27 (Passover). ^j3 1X1' sh). being accompanied by music and dances (Is. Nu. 133-w iQ^-'^' .14-20. — of every Moslem. elaborate provisions are laid down in Lev. Ex. particular ceremonies being prescribed for each of the five days. and the Feast of Booths (Ex. Brit. •JS ^vS TUST b nNT* naca D^cya) with appropriate offer- were one of the principal and most ancient religious institutions of Israel and each of the great Codes in the Pent. 28-29 regulating the public sacrifices by which they are to be marked. [Massoth) next come the regulations in Dt. 28-29 (add. 28-29. such as our Christmas or Easter. are the 9th to the 13th of Dhu-lHijja. New Year. but like the Haj (same word). Lev.^^ e^t? ^^5 nin^ pisn {ib.s. Passover and Massoth The three *' Pilgrimag-es " (Q^3C)j viz. dealing not only with the three Pilgrimages other sacred seasons (D^nyiD) as well (viz. the Day of Atonement. (Unleavened Cakes). to take part a festival consisting of a pilgrimage to a sanctuary. or great annual pilgrimage to Mecca. 2314-18 34I8. in which it is the duty 30 is usually loses sight of a distinctive element in the idea. 23 (H and P) the most elaborate of all are those of P. Wellh. i a^-i^. .^5 Qp*-. the Feast of Weeks. at which all males were to present themselves at Jehovah's sanctuary {ib. Of the moddim. or (more strictly) the sacred spots in the neighbourhood. (2'3n). and prescribing is considerably more minutely than the details of their observance chiefly : done in either JE or Dt. specified in Lev. 23 and Nu. 66. 9I-1*). — . on the Passover and Massoth in particular. Ex. but this rendering The in was not merely a religious festival..

in virtue of the season. and the Day of Atonement.e. 23^-1* [H]). were treated as com- memorative of stages of Israel's deliverance. 1" Nu. 2''(^') Is.22. more generally. or appointed seasons). Passover s^n^ Mazzoth. 33-" Lam. i6". marked the appearance of the ripening crops in spring the other two feasts. by the same secular accompaniments markets and fairs. &c. which attended the Arabian Haj (see Wellh. 23<»''. In AV. 282G [P]). of their observance. Nu. Only three can were observed by the Hebrews. and set them in a fruitful and pleasant land (comp.. if the old rendering has been retained in the text. " stated") in the RV. or.XVI. : being liable in modern English to be misunderstood. when 16^^). 189 30® Jud. to the God Who is its Owner. displays of poetical talent. or of First-fruits (Ex. usually set feasts. they acquired in addition a historical signifi- cance : the yearly blessings yielded by the soil reminded Israel of the continual goodness of Him who had brought His people out of Egypt. the true sense has been indicated on the margin (Hos. see Is. 83-86). Gn." or "solemn assemblies" (where "solemn" had the sense of the Lat. an expression of thankfulness. nyiD was often rendered "solemn feasts. 34^2 j also Lev. 2339 [H]). The Passover commemorated the sparing of the firstborn of the Israelites. on the part of the people of the land. held in the month of "young ears " (Abib). Dt. Dt. ai"'-^' cf. all In time. 23^". 104^^ (fixed by the movements of the heavenly bodies). 23) the Sabbath. 1 when was first put to the corn (Dt. and the sickle Who blesses it with fruitful- ness. 6^). cf. mentioned in this chapter of Dt.'*• "«<*). mark respectively the completion of the wheat-harvest. and accompanied by the presentation of a sheaf of the first ears of barley at the sanctuary (Lev. the interchange of wit and repartee. i* 2^). by the very names which in the older legislation they bear. this.' to fix or appoint a time). One may be permitted to wonder whether the old Hebrew Hag was marked also. 2315-17 [H]. The three CSn appear in their origin to have possessed : agricultural significance they are an acknowledgment of Jehovah's goodness at the chief seasons of the year. . in any appreciable degree. pp. and may include (see Lev. Lev. . however. or the manner. the Feast of Harvest. : — — . solemnis. i^* Ps. and the close of the vintage. 44^45" and. the formation of friendships and other alliances. viz. has been usually changed. 26^-^0) J and so the feasts. cf. those. nyio a fixed or stated season (from ij. and the Feast of Ingat/iering {Ex. For other examples oi moed. 23^° 34. is a wider term (RV. 10^" 15^ 29^8 Ez. the New Year. i. Lev. the agricultural operations of the year are ended (Dt.

In P. 1214-20 Lev. 43-49 Lev. 23^-1^ (the "wave-sheaf. yojing. the Unleavened Cakes made by the Israelites at the time of their flight (Ex. Dt. (for the Passover) in JE Ex. to the Feast of Weeks it . in the case of hospitality to be Weeks and Booths.zoth are distinct in Dt. viz. the later Jews. 1221-27 23I8 3425^ in p Ex. 1. Heb. and to treat them as parts of a single whole. 23^ H). insists are their localization at the central sanctuary. not at the Israelite's own home. i23*-39 jgj^ and the morning after the exodus (Ex. i6^. in H Lev. Archaol. In these Codes. . stj 23^5 = 34^8JE. regarded Sinai.. . and. XVL 1-8. 13* and 23^ (nearly = 3418).e. Law on Comp. each time as the period of the departure from Egypt. the provisions of Dt. 236-8 Nu.ears. on the subject of this Nowack. in P Ex. The characteristic features in their observance on which Dt. comp. 23^ Nu. In the other Codes. for the observance of and the season Mazzoth. The Passover. p j 12^7 JE . 192 to be 50 days after the exodus. Passover and Mar. the joyousness and shown at the sacred meals them. g^i Lev.oth). . delivery of the section. are accompanying an ampli- fication of those contained in JE . agree- ably with the writer's custom to designate the months by . 2817-25. — {i. 133. the month of the fresh. No historical significance is attached in the OT. —These are : to be observed at their appointed season in the month of Abib the Passover is to be celebrated. but only at the central sanctuary is to be wholly consumed on the night on which it is slain it is to be eaten without leavened bread and Unleavened Cakes alone are to be eaten during the seven days which follow. As in other cases. the years spent by them in the wilderness (Lev. and the Feast of Booths. Ex. 190 DEUTERONOMY 12^2 and the night of the exodus (Ex. Dt. see Ex.^^) Massoth. and in several instances phrases from JE are transferred entire. Observe (512) the month of Abz'b] the month of Abib the animal offered . 2I*) is otherwise mentioned only in JE. gi-i* 2810: (for Mazzoth) in JE Ex. 133-10 23" 34I8. 12I-13. there is a tendency to combine the two institutions. and Feast of Mazzoth. computing. §§ 99-100. 16^). the date mentioned in Ex. or at any local shrine. or conjecturing." presented during Afazr. as commemorating the further.

year. ^c. alluded to in the Chronicler's description of the passovers of Hezekiah and Josiah (2 Ch. But even though the authority of the Phronicler were decisive as to the usage of the age of Hezekiah or Josiah. 10-14 Jos. the choice was limited Nowack.— XVI. or on the following day (the former were voluntary. Ex. is supported called. 3422 K.6.^. year.bullocks 35^-* The supposition is alluded to in Dt. it was usual to offer on the same day as the passover. 5!^ v. the latter were treated as obligatory Edersheim. 3'^t). termed in the Mishnah {Pesdhim 6'. with pilgrimage c. pron. i). . 12^1. at least in later times. 1-2 — — 19 1 numerals.) the "first month" civil (viz. . That the three annual Pilgrimages are to be performed exclusively is a point of central importance to the and the formula expressing it is repeated by him . For in the — : or a sheep lamb (cf. D'no^ : — — further by the sing. hold) : expression.i". and analogous to the peaceofferings. in the plural. 30^'^ including. of the priestly in opposed to the ordinary or . "passovers"). which began the autumn. 34I8 ** For in the month of Abib thou earnest forth out of Egypt. 1 2'. used chiefly by priestly writers 2 a technical K. organize. and notice only a subordinate and secondary feature ? The opinion that some particular and special sacrifice is the subject of v. but the private sacrifices oifered during the 7 days of Mazzoth (which immediately followed the nig-ht of the Passover). The Temple. 217). cf. when P was written. 6i9t 3* al.22. pp. i.48 : make. 301-3-5 351-16-19 i Ezr. it is evident. for it is his habit to attribute to the period of the kings the ceremonial which was usual in his own days. 510 (all P) . this explanation must be regarded as highly questionable : is it credible that in prescribing directions for the observance of an important institution. Thou shalt sacrifice the passover unto Jehovah thy God. 2 Ch. &c.*) the Hagigah (njun). represent the usage of two different stages in the history of the feast when Dt. was written the victim might be either a bullock with sabbath Ex.*. 92. Archdol. ii. 153. its Ministry.e. 23 j Ex. The two laws. 147. 3ii''t. pp. 23^^) it corresponds to the post-exilic Nisan the passover unto Jehovah is (Neh. month of Abib Jehovah thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt] Ex. And hold [r\'*^y\) (lit. ] to the one sanctuary legislator . 2. which." By night] Ex. Nu. the Writer should be silent on its central and crucial element. 186 f. S^s Ezr. In the place which Jehovah shall choose. ("with it") in v. the month in which the Passover was celebrated is termed (Ex. Hebr. 2321. thy God] riDD ntyy 1247. as 12^ &c. to a commonly made by harmonists is that the passover not the "passover" properly so called. n. (even) sheep and oxen] in P (Ex.. 2^ Est. . 128-6) tj^g paschal sacrifice is a lamb.is Ex.

as a rule. presented as oflFerings (Lev. as inducing a species of fermentation. or during the 7 days following. 18-20 Lev. rite. p. 13® Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened cakes .). on Ex. Unleavened cakes (niJfO) alone were. and on the seventh day shall be a pilgrimage unto Jehovah. * And leaven shall not be seen by flesh which thou evening on the first thee in all thy border seven days: Ex. and P. and aught of the sacrificest in the J2i6. in P Ex. \2S^ 23^8 Lev. 1210 Nu. . Ex. Ex. 23^' Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened cakes. . 203 f. at the fixed time of the month of Abib for in it thou earnest forth out of Egypt. Ex. 34-*'' And the sacrifice of the feast (jn) of the passover shall 7iot remain all night (p^') unto the morn(Cf. and leaven shall not be seen by thee.). ' Unleavened cakes shall and be eaten the seven days leavened bread shall not be seen by thee. common to JE. 345. (Cf. 34^^ Thou shalt not slaughter the blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread.) Ex. . 2*'5 8^ «/. 23". in all thy border. 23I5). land oi Egypt. ^\) ing. Leavened bread was forbidden also as the material of any meal-offering (Lev. the ground of the prohibition no doubt being that. (nearly as the . in P Ex. Their use . in order that thou mayest remember the day oithy coming forth out of the land of Egypt all the days of thy life.. 7. 13* Remember this day when ye came forth out of Egypt leavened bread shall not be eaten. Dt. Ex.: ) 192 DEUTERONOMY (v. ('3n) 23'*'' And the fat of my feast (j'^') day shall not rejnain all night remain ing. its fhe Passover loses old character (Ex. in P Ex. the bread of affliction : for in trepidation thou earnestforth out of the. 12^. i5. Ex. Ex. 34^^ Seven days shalt thou eat unleavened cakes. 2^^. all night (p!?') shall not unto the morn- morning. leaven was regarded as a source of putrefaction and corruption (cf. in some degree. 2^1 61^(1'')). lej^ not less than six times consequently. 1221-2" jj^ JE) of a domestic ^ Thou shall not eat leavened bread with it seven days shalt thou eat with it unleavened cakes. ii. according as I have commanded thee.^ p. Sent. : . 23^^ Thou shalt not sacrifice blood of my sacrifice with leavened bread. &c.^6. and OTJC. until The prohibition to eat leavened bread either with the Passis over. Rel. (Cf.

3-7 193 . 19^ Jud. Ex. 2S^^^. 2326 2 S. called. — — m. and to lead them to a grateful recollection of their deliverance. and regulated by the same principle established in the first instance for the Passover. In the evening] the technical phrase used by P is " be6. during the anxious flight it was accordingly adapted both remind Israel of the "affliction" (Ex. was not. 4* Ps. 3''. 31^' Ex. KTOtrn K133] 2312 24I3 Jos. but the hour of the day. in ordinary life cf. the verb in Dti S. 153. 12'^ i S. 486(5). As remarked above. hvi means regularly to boil (14^^ i S. when it a — Seven meal was required speedily (i S. 3. 3. with the passive verb=iy: Gn. 23'^ 34^ al. 12®. again emphasized that the Passover not to be sacrificed at the Israelite's own home. Ex. 2^ Is. at the close of a long period of servitude. the Writer shows a tendency to treat Passover and Mazzoth in combination. also Nowack. the whole period of abstinence from leaven being treated as conditioned by the sacrifice of the Passover im- mediately preceding. 52^2^ "Haste" is not an adequate rendering: .^)] so according to tradition (Ex. Ct (««' lypnerti. The bread of affliction {^V ^D. 12" (P or H) "ye shall eat it in trepidation". 12^ iniV^N' wtd ^y. but at the any of the gates] 1^.\ upon (see below). Vdw k"?] as 722. days shalt thou eat with &r'c. nWai] cf.—^// the 5-7. Hebr. as in hzn 4. and the : moments of a hurried to allusion in Is.] XYI. tween the two evenings " see on Ex. la^*-^^ in JE). 28^*. lit. food prepared was. — Within . 14^ a/. at which the Passover was to be kept. — — S. 1310 231^). confined to sacred purposes as they could be prepared quickly. 1 2^. — 7. In trepidation (jiTEnzi)] cf. 829 (D2) I K. . 15 — sanctuary chosen by Jehovah. because. 1^2^ endured by their forefathers in Egypt. cf. xa) hirrMu. Arch. 65^ (Lex. by side the original ii.— — XVI. they were made it.) exhibits side translation. the word denotes hurry mingled with alarm 2o3 I cf. Gn.n Vv Lev. 92'* 138) of the departure from Egypt determines the hour of its annual commemoration by the Passover. is The principle is days of thy life] 4^ 62. 19-® upon \i='with it. used idiomatically with hz«. "^Sd). 9^ i S. v'?j. "{7] i S. n. it instance.. and the correction in accordance with Ex. 16^8-21). 2^^. however. 7. in the first by the Israelites. And thou shalt boil] or perhaps cook.—At the fixed time (nyio) of thy coming forth from Egypt] the "fixed time" (Ex. njno denotes here not the period in the month (Ex.

to ripen. 199 2022 * "houses" (see e. ** a survival from the time in tents . as in Dt. Still ^C2 does not in itself. To thy tents] i." and go to thy tents] the Israelite is at liberty to return home. thou shalt not do work.g. not 2^\!y) is rather a favourite word with is D (on 3I). seventh day shall be days shalt thou and on the a solemn assembly (^asdreth) to Jehovah thy God . Jud. on the morning after the Passover has been eaten. it seems. it can be fairly translated otherwise here and is it that the term employed in Dt. more may thus have been applicable to But the case is one which it is difficult to speak confidently. Gn. and the Passover (i^^^'^^l consequently roasted) K'XS ODJi'Da C'Xa riDDn) : 7t?3 is used of the Passover it is possible therefore that. six days meant are the is first six of the seven specified The seventh day to be marked by a In religious gatherfirst ing. i^^^) but the seventh day (though nothing tion said respecting absten- of the feast: from work) appears. 35^^ (at a time when it is reasonable to suppose that the law of Ex.e. JE is the day is par'. and at least in 2 Ch. ticularized as specially commemorating the Exodus (Ex. 13^ I K. roast (K'*? '5'V). but "boiled.) to feel assured that .) eat unleavened cakes. 2^ (JE. 1 eat unleavened cakes . in view of Ex. was roasted. viz. it general sense of cooking. 12^. in The expression people. to be the principal day it is marked. or boiled in water (''^'^ Q^Q3 h^^ip). belonging to an age when the Passover was not Thou shalt turn in the morning. any case remarkable the one which is used in P is in (Ex. and may have possessed the wider. 7^ 19^ S. F.— 1 —— 94 : DEUTERONOMY hence it is difficult &c. it must be admitted that a different usage may here be prescribed.. though gener- ally applied to boiling. but roast with fire"). 40IO Joel 4^^). by a hag to Jehovah. ?>\K 12I6). If hag . when it was a nomadic remained use long after the and actually lived tents " had given i place to permanent 2 S. of fruit or corn. to thy Israel home.3. what. 12^) to denote the process that is not to be applied to the paschal sacrifice ("eat not of it raw. and abstention from labour. 12^ was in operation. Turfi in (niS.x. properly speaking. The in V. express more than to mature or 7?iake fit for eating (hence. Seven days shalt tho/i and on the seventh day shall be a pilgfrimage {hag) to Jehovah..

and implying. 10. 23^5-20 (the two loaves to be presented to Jehovah. 4. of the Feast of Weeks. on account of many of the pilgrims. as 2 K. The Feast of Weeks. in H (with 20). being only able to reach the sanctuary towards the close of the seven days oi Mazzoth'. 23'''-8Nu. Jos.g. -ravriyvfn. to hold one held for a religious purpose. 5^1 : used specially (a) of the gathering of pilgrims on the eighth or supernumerary day of the Feast of Booths. 23^ Nu. 12^*. 6 {'Atrapia). offered during Mazzoth.XVI. Is. i^ Joel 1" 2'^ (all n-ny). in P.^^- JE. 28-® 2^. Hagigah. 23^ RV. in the prohibition respecting the Sabbath. in the Mishnah. confine. being the stricter and the more precise. 20^° 311*. the refer- ences to this feast are additions from — 1^- in P in v. Ant. Jud. in contrast to the barley-sheaf. HWB. 9^ f^'). iG^^ 23^^ 9-12. ii. 28^'^). the completion of the year's harvest) . Ex. 28^^. (or . The differences : between the three representations are not very important that of P. on account of the more general meaning which the word has (see esp. Lev. xnisi?). . (Jer.^5«/. Ex. HWB. The phrase naxfjO r\VV to do work or business is a common one {e. being forbidden on both. Lev. and in the Talm. on Ex. 282<'-2^. &c. cf.^ 432" Dillm. . cf. and other sacred seasons. 2^^ Nu. 1 2^^ {r\W vh r\'2^hri b) in P. Lev. 225- 9) . Lev. In P the first is represented as the principal day (Ex. 23^1 Nu.25)j all work. must be supposed is (Riehm. Chald. lo'^ (in honour of Ba'al).— In the other Codes. 13°) that this assigned to the seventh day of the feast. iii.v. 8'8 2 Ch.^o-i<') agrees with Ex. . 34^2 2 Ch. in Riehm. (c) by the later Jews. at a time when the Passover was celebrated as a domestic rite. (Levy. //«^ denotes here a festal gathering of pilgrims (analogous to the 'asdreih of Dt. of the gathering on the seventh day of Mazzoth (not so elsewhere) . 8 195 it has here its proper sense of pilgrimage. s. ..TiVJ?) means a gathering or assembly in. has the presumption of being the later (Delitzsch ^l^'i. except the preparation of food. enclose.). was held as a fact on the last day of the festival but the etymology implied in the rendering "closing festival" (Lev. Lev. Am. Nu. ntarg. BHp) 12^'' is and a "holy convocation" (xipD appointed both for that and for the seventh day (Ex. from "isj. 2^^ (both P) Neh. possibly. 16^^ 2 K. al. Jer. The name " Feast of Weeks" (v. (& tIaS/ov) is not a probable one. . 9^ l^)). Lex. Lev. 231*' 34^^. esp. however. The msy mentioned here.^ 1142^).. as also that at the Feast of Booths. prepared with leaven. f\ {b) in the present passage. Thou shalt not do work (naxfjo HB'Vn v6)] similarly Ex.

(JE) And t/te Pt/grimage of Weeks thou shalt hold thee (npyn ^S). so V. where the same rule is extended to the other two feasts). which i might vary from year to year. according as Jehovah Hold] v. Ex. Nu. 3422 ") it is simply presupposed 23^^^. see below. number unto you from the morrow after " : > j the sabbath. according to the degree in which Jehovah has blessed him in the year's harvest (cf. see i27-i2^<tthe Levite")^^ 14'^ ("the stranger. . D^JJTSn (whence | the Rabb. it manifests the same interests which predominate in Dt. Ex. which thou so west After the measure of the free-will offering of thine hand [\2^\ which thou shalt give .g. fruits" (D^iiaan DV). &c. 2826 the "Day of FirstIn making. ^ the firstfruits of wheat-harvest. j i t/iee] the offering which each is to make by himself. the fatherless. \ cept that there. 158 Ob.(ex- i by the use of the term " weeks agrees with Lev. 9. And the Pilgfrimage of in the field. "5) Dt. DEUTERONOMY : . is to be fixed — / — : " 9. and as adv.no allusion to the firstfruits. standing-corn shall thou begin to 2315 (H) *' And ye shall : number seven weeks] cf. 11. DV D't^n DV. i 23I6 is left undetermined. 34. Dt."-'*.— 10. in the C* . =/n? rafiotie. NT. ttott^koott/). nsa] only here in Heb. and in Ex. Lev.] for the expressions. Seven weeks shall . as before (15'^) thy God shall bless . and the widow"). " And thou shalt hold (n'Pjn) fhe Pilgrimage of Weeks unto Jehovah thy God. instead of the beginning of harvest.attended. 23I6 it is called the '« Feast of Harvest" {•^'^'^pT) jn) and in Nu. a particular day is specified as in the that from which the computation is to commence) emphasis laid upon the social meals.» npp? (='i!). The motive for such hospitality towards the poor. 12. C . the firstfruits of thy labours.^". j harvest. ace. and the feelings with which they should be. name of the Festival. in Aram.— 196 813 (cf. 23*® < Ex. 2826 D3'ri'y3e'3) in Ex. according (=Heb.^. On the word rendered measure. from the day that ye bring the wave-sheaf [mentioned v. i j — thou number unto thee : from the beginning of the sickle in the . iS -BDJi] common to: e. And thou shalt rejoice. differs from all the other Codes In the calculation which .21' 22 (on 1'=*). sense of sufficiency. v. ] j j it prescribes for fixing" the date of the festival (which in Ex. 12* i&^ S(='a^).^^] : seven sabbaths shall there be complete U\'* the i more precise date follows in the next verse. elsewhere.

the most popular. this festival is called the "Feast of Ingathering" (TP?\l ^D). without explanation it is explained in the law of H. 2333-30J. 42. as already known. and poplars of the wady [above on 2'^]. The Feast of Booths. yc shall keep Jehovah's Pilgrimage seven days. 814.*") seven days.. 2333-36 (JE) Ex. 4525 it is also sometimes called " Pilgrimage "). . Neh. V. 42^j it was to extend over seven days. to remind them how their ancestors had dwelt in tents during their passage through the wilderness.30b Nu.^). is. in (iBOKa) from thy threshing-floor and from thy "* Seven days thou shalt keep pilgrimage unto Jehovah your God. shalt hold thee (v. Lev. The name "Feast of Booths" is adopted in Dt. speaking of Hebron. 3* 2 Ch.c. 233*). 29^2-38_ ally in the later books of the . "Feast of Booths" (v. 4ia. — 8{>a. Ex. OT.65 ( = 2 Ch.41.^^ 31^°) is the name used also in P (Lev. and boughs of thick trees. marked by an 'as^reth (above. (Zech.). 43 (p) Lcv. 23*** *^. and gener- 41b j«ju. 36. (H) Lev. fronds of palm-trees. ii. 15^ and H (Lev. In the other Codes. 34" And the Pilgrimage of Ingathering. Is. 2339b. and widely observed. i232. " The vintage is a season of hilarity the town is then deserted. viz. who. jn) at the going out of the year. 14". (v. No doubt the real origin of this feature of the festival is to be found in the custom of the villagers during the vintage taking up their abode in the vineyards in temporary booths and huts comp. 23I6 3422. Lev. 19 Ezr. at the coming round (change) of the year. Robinson. says. where the Israelites are commanded to take " the fruit of goodly trees. This fcast was held. of the three festivals." and to dwell in booths (nisp) for seven days (cf. by Jehovah's mercy. ^3. as it seems.. 161" jgp_ 2^^\ and rejoicing to all the people live among the vineyards in the lodges and in tents" and see further on Lev. 23^""*'. Lev. of the Israel's bondage Egypt. on v. from which. forefathers had been redeemed. 82. cf. In JE. "the Feast " 53 78) (or Ez. in 13-15. a supernumerary day (not noticed in Dt. 81. 4o. ^a/'Am«^ (»)*CKn when thou gatherest wine-press. 23^^ And the Pilgrimage of /«: : . . 23^^ (H) When ye gather in (d:ed»(3) the produce of the earth. according to JE. 8^3|) being. 233°. comp. and [cf. at the end of the year: according to Dt. being observed on the 22nd {lb. 8'*"^®).". . 9-13 197 towards the manumitted slave: the recollection. which are fixed more precisely in P for the 15th to the 21st of the seventh month (Lev. Neh. 2935-3S). 2339 (H) i K.XVI. Kar l^oxwy i K. ^ The Pilgrimage of Booths thou Ex. -when thou gatherest in (ibok3) thy labours from the field.

and none shall appear in Jehovah's presence empty. 142*^.ii . 342*. Ges. 42'. and that the true is "see the face of" Jehovah. — 23". 251^ Est. cult [e. nor ~k] only rejoicing'. And thoic shall rejoice. 23^^^ (H). as i K. . Cheyne. 23^^) on account of the objection felt to the expression " seeing God. 31" Is. i'^. Appear in the presence of] the standing phrase for visiting the sanctuary as a worshipper. i''^) more can hardly be said ntm (alone)=/o appear : . Ex. on Is. '' 'js Sk hk-j: Ex. —This rule of old Israel it is additions ^' accommodating to the spirit repeated from JE. 32*' Job 19". : n'n!?K Sk hk-i! Ps. -126 Ps. v. Concluding summary.g. nought hut rejoicing. 32 2 K. The phrase see the face of is used else- presence (2 S. n. n"mn^ Ex. i. . 23^". with the addition of "the God of Israel. 84*. soil. — 14. came to be substituted (with riKTO in i S. 22^^^=^^^ Afid none shall appear in my presence empty (specially of MazzotK). i6"2i7a/.e. but also besides (Is. Every male is to appear annually. esp. . i." The possibility of this view being correct must be recognized (cf. at the great pilgrimages (Ex. 23" Ps. 23" Three times in the year shall all thy males appear in the shall all thy m^ales appear in the presence of Jehovah thy God in the place which he shall choose • . T^s ^'»'V^ Ps.for riKi. {jfc. 'iS ik"]! Ex. 23^* 34^. visit Him as a Sovereign.\ 'voheii) also Lev. 42' is however diffimore naturally vocalized nixi^ and hence many scholars . with an offering such as his means enable him to bring. 34=* Dt." at the end). ni»e"j7 is The constr. with and plan of Dt. 16. a//a§r/A^r rejoicing so 28** Is. about September. Ps. Del. crit. . 112). Cf. 3423-24 Dt. Nowack on Ps. \G 19" Jer. 31I1 1 s.—— 198 : DEUTERONOMY in Palestine falls The vintage months cf. i'^: cf.* on Is. presence of the Lord Jehovah (repeated 34^'. at each of the three Pilgrimages. And Because (or — thou shall be altogether joyfut\ the festival is to be an occasion of unalloyed joy for the blessing of Jehovah resting upon the produce of the 16-17. Di. of Ex. and S*. {bis) 'JiJ nn] in presence of. nxTj I S. God shall bless Ihee] Jehovah Ihy The work of thy hands\ on 2^. So with nx-j! Ex. on Ex. for nK in Ex.e. at the Central Sanctuary. i22). Three times in the year Ex. i") think that the original vocalization in all these cases was Qal. where of courtiers or others enjoying access to the royal 313 142s. some four after wheat-harvest. It is however held by many sense of the phrase (see below) that the existing punctuation does not represent the original vocalization. 42*. for which in process of time the Nif. ii*). i. ii^ lyw 15.

i^ : . the heads of families. and delivered at a sanctuary: comp. (8f. 664^) or n'i3| (Ew. is 22. who are to administer justice with purity and singleness of motive. Ex. though probably only special cases were adjudicated by him in person (cf. but i(P-\f (on the purity of religious worship) forms an intrusive element. 2 S. ning. the subjects dealt with h€in^ fudges (16^^20 Priests (181-8). King and Prophets (i89-22). and inculcate the duty of administering justice impartially (Ex. Judges are to be appointed in the various towns of Israel. From Ex. la^-^j after the establishment of the monarchy.). Maine. appear to have been a permanent institution we hear later of Samuel and his sons possessing local authority as judges (i S. 465-^^).\ the : last clause of v. i. such as his ** hand can afford to give Ez. 16'^. The above (i7i*-20). The usual form was inj (Bo. 6f^^)''. 8^® i4*-'^ 15*' ^'•* I K. of judgment a patriarchal society." (Cf. Ancient Law. place.^^ every " (v. the king naturally became the supreme judicial authority. —lini] so Ex." and civil decisions are styled the "statutes and laws of God. is npj (but never with a suffix). 18-20.—11. 14-17 (nrn) 199 . 18 do not. or "elders" on ig^'*) thus in a modern Arab community the head man of the . chap. The body of judges whose appointment to assist Moses is narrated in Ex. . title for a convenient the section here begin17^"^^). pre- — suppose the existence of judges.6-8 Lev. ig^^. at a sanctuary occurs Is.) (cf. i. must remain undetermined. 23''') "princes.: XVI. Is. especially in difficult or crucial cases. Whether the abs." and members of the royal house. ^'S" gu. 2-') it may be inferred that in ancient Israel judgment. 231-3. was regarded as a divine decision.^s^) but they contain no provisions respecting the authority in which these functions are to In (see reside. are also alluded to as exercising judicial functions. judges local cases. 228 f. Arabia.). Every man shall give according the gift of his hand^ &fc. the Homeric conception of i'lijutris. the village Kadi ( ^li = j'Vp). .—Thy to God] i^^. or 23"=34^ Dt.^<> man 12^) is words explain the to bring with him an offering' (cf. i8'^'-^-22j where seeking a decision at law is called " inquiring of God. however. 39'iGfff Jer.). 21" 227'. I S. form whether indeed it was in use . § at all. XVI. The Office-Bearers of the Theocracy. 20" (a"]i3|)t. The other Codes in the Pent. 18-XVIII. 238 f. XVI. 22''"* Is. which originally perhaps stood elsewhere. § 2550). appeal to a higher tribunal being granted when necessary (Palgrave. assisted by two or three of the principal inhabitants. the natural guardians of justice are the men and experience in a tribe. 16"' Jer. as judgments divinely dictated to a judge (//. i.

judges in the cities of Judah. 7' Zeph. and constituting in Jerusalem a tribunal consisting of Levites. Thou sJialt Twt wrest judgment] Ex. warder.e. — 19. pix astro] cogn. 7' 8»*. in in Dt. the obligations which involves are stated more fully in the two following verses. 3*.i^ being repeated largely from the jgi5. 3^'^ Jer. Elsewhere cf. 18. in — — : or assessors. the Writer contents himself with affirming is the broad principle that provision to be is made for the administration of justice. 23' Pr. 19. &c. the organization of the courts. being the Writer's own Zc parenetic addition. and heads of families. v. 15^). those of the modern clerk. priests. . — The precise mean- . difficult appointment of judges possessing local The is. the judicature thus established by JehtJshaphat agrees remarkably with the system prescribed or rather presupposed in Dt. appointing. in all probability. 23** 13" 19* 21'* 22" (with nan) Job 12't . i=* 3^ Mic. The two are mentioned as acting together in 21^. and "judges" Hos. t5>P Pr. as Ez. Officers (D''^pb')] i. ii^) . gates {\2^"\ which JeJiovah thy ing to (i^^-^^)] God is giving thee no attempt is made to accord- regulate the details of the institution. Judges and thy tribes officers shall tJiou appoint thee in all thy (16^). were independent deputies appointed by the king. 2i'"* 22^. The details. ig^"''- "judges" are alluded to 179-12 ^^t the central court). According to 2 Ch.— 2CX) 3^^ — DEUTERONOMY al. &c. 18." whose appointment is prescribed here. 19^^^ Jehoshaphat established a more highly organized judicial system. police-sergeant. ace. 23^ "Thou shalt not wrest l^pn] Ex. m 21^ 252 (and in 232 24I): but usually (see on 19^^) the " elders " of a city appear as the local guardians of justice. or whether they were presidents. of the local councils of "elders. prescribed the Mosaic age i^e in 1']^-'^^. and that this to be done by the jurisdiction. their numbers. 45^ 2 S." qualified by their superior technical knowledge to direct. see on 1 15. possessing supreme authority in both ecclesiastical and civil cases. subordinate officials. S5a jij^ V. And is they sJiall jttdge the people with righteous judgtheir ment^ this primary and paramount duty it (cf. such as the method by which the judges are to be selected. viz. 11' i^\. 299(10X5. Mic. for instance. (cf. of the judicial institutions of the Hebrews are not known to us it is thus uncertain. 'f 13'° Is. 17*"^^ {q. whose duties would be analogous to . however. the latter. whether the "judges. In its broader features. or assist. course to be adopted in the treatment of a case however. D2 Jos.Ez.v.).20 "Book of the Covenant" (and agreeing also in thought with Lev.

see Mic. the only parallel ing. 155 2. Ex.— —— XVI. 21-XVII.2^K— Cause] words. lit. Ps. 10^'' i23 523 3I1 Ez. arguments. cf. 21-22. In the other Codes. shalt take no bribe . for a bribe blindeth the eyes of the wise. Thou shalt not respect persons\ the prin- Ex. from Ex. ciple. Dt. 530(33) gi^ XVI. — of the offences to be taken cognizance of by the "judges. ruin.] the same promise as 4^.is is the more generally worded to subvert. 16^8-20^ jt jg connected with As the subject of 178-13 js closely more reasonable to suppose that little (unless the Writer attached importance to order) the in- termediate verses 1621-177 have from some cause been displaced from their original position. that they are meant as illustrations beside Jehovah's altar. 233 (JE) Lev. 2^ the expression (^V^ "''?'?)> as i^'^ [Q-'v-). 24^" 27'^ . and only justice —justice without intermittence — is to be thy constant aim in judgment. Four Enactments designed to preserve the Religion ofJehovah from Corruption or Dishonour. 822 Pr. pervert. of the fatal effects of a bribe. Justice. igis (H). — 20. the connexion which Schultz and Keil seek to establish. to twist. 5^2 Is.) 7'' 1 before 132O)." being too forced to be probable. 2Q. statements. 18-22 — 20I : the judgement of the poor in his suit " 8^ cf. 1723. 153 Jos." That thou mayest live. as well as destitute of support in the terms of the text. pTi fni'] G-K. 2212 Pr. shalt thou follow] the repetition expresses emphasis (cf. this most 27^5 common Is. 24!^ 2 S. cf. XVI. No Asherah. Ps. pleas. except that for the "open-eyed" (Q'^HipB) is sub- stituted the "eyes of the wise. 18^ Mai. The ites destruction of the Ashdrahs and "pillars" of the Canaan- has been enjoined in 23 : here the introduction of is similar symbols into the worship of Jehovah prohibited. prob. 20^. justice.^^-^o. io2.e." An epigrammatic description For allusions to is. to be erected These two prohibitions are entirely unrelated to the subject of v. —perhaps (Dillm. source of corrupt justice in the East. i. &c. uncertain § 123 . 7. as 19'': — and subverteth the cause of the righteous] repeated verbally 23^. cf. Am. 2^") : ^^justice. or pillar (obelisk). i S. d\ . which in the aggregate are tantamount to a man's "case" or "cause". fig-.And thou 2 Ch.

"break in pieces" p??') tb. perhaps. "made" (ne'y) i K. but there are a few (Jud. used where an actual tree was not available. 21' 23*) which appear to The support the latter view. 1710. . 50 Tell-el-Amama inscriptions contain a name Abad-Ashratu {RPr v. c. 12^. quite conclusively. the Asherah expressly de- scribed as a kind of "tree. 97. 171 f. which is considered to show that there . as the abode of a deity (on ii^^). be compatible with the rendering of G aXcros (whence AV. "setup" one Ex. probably the one "made" by Ahab. R. Sem. (even) any tree (cf. 62*5 it is Here. v. when (n"i3) destroyed. Jer. which was destroyed by Josiah {ib. A famous Asherah.202 DEUTERONOMY enactment Lev. the Phoenician consort of Ba'al : in the Heb. by the unspiritual Israelites (cf. the verbs used are to "cut down" 3413. . 15^^ 18*^ 2 K. or whether there was also a deity bearing the same name. it certainly denotes simply the former. and venerated as a sacred symbol. is (a*i*n) K. 21^). which "stood" in Samaria. 17-). 23^-'^). it appears that the Asherah was a post or pole. 363 f. 14^5^/. vi. . whether of Ba'al (Jud. i3<5. Smith. and altars were built beside them and (so far as can be judged) the Asherah appears to have been the representative of the sacred tree. 1423 2 K. "wood". 21. 26'^ (H) QD^ la'pn i6 nnvoi fjDSI. and the nature of each is tolerably clear from the is terms applied to them. under Jehoahaz. but others are plainly inconsistent with it. iii. 16^3. Manasseh erected one in the Temple of Jerusalem (2 K. From a survey of all the passages in which the word is used. 6-^"^) or of Jehovah. on 18'). By the ancient Semites trees were often revered. W. 34''^. planted in the ground. i K. Schrader. beside an altar. Both the Asherah and the "pillar" ("^^sp) are frequently mentioned in the OT. Z.). Some of these references would (jna) c. Hel. especially on the "highplaces" (i K." "planted" said to be of 2 (j?l23) in the is ground. 3^ i K. like an English Maypole. in imitation of them. though not. and then. . In most of the passages where the term occurs.). is disputed. first by the Canaanites. 75. yv ^3 mrx] an Ashdrah. the two names are quite different and it is not even known that the Asherah was a symbol of Whether the Asherah was solely a sacred sj-mbol. "hew down" (jTIi) "pull down" "burn with fire" "pluck up" (otj) Mic.f. Ass. 5^^ 2 Ch. elsewhere one said to be .*. 'Ashtoreth. — The 'Ashdrah (mrx) must be carefully distinguished from 'Ashtoreth (mnry). 171*^: cf. is alluded to 2 K. Jud. p. "grove").

and both standing often beside an altar. 18 f. viz. ii. 81). presupposes by its wording" ("beside the altar of Jehovah thy God. 75 1 2^) it is alluded to as erected in. the mother of the Ash^rah " (read differently in the CIS. &c. broader at one end than the . 20^* had it been first formulated by D. 165. : Whatever the precise nature of the symbolism of the Ash^rah may have been.j^ what now would be called a menhir. near Ptolemais. as it : here stands. Hebr. lit. which thou shalt make thee ") the law of Ex. may be seen also in Rawlinson. Cyprus. Originally. For a representation of a Phoenician Mazzebah. Orient.18-22 3145. as well as (apparently) of a sacred pole. the heathen associations attachingto it were amply sufficient to explain its prohibition in connexion with the worship of Jehovah (cf. 37. or Nowack. it is : . 380 f. p. speaks of the portico of a temple built niriB'i"'? ms'Ka " for 'Ashtoreth in the Ash^rah" (Clermont-Ganneau. probable. p. 32 io26." The pillar (n^SfO. sif. The prohibition."^ s. 5^3). something set up. work.. Plate xvii. Arch. an image of . 27)^ and in proximity to Asherim (i K.\ Smith. it would probably have contained some express reference to "the place which Jehovah should choose. i. 2324 Dt. from Khorsabad. with an officiating priest. Rec.. i73«. 35I*) is mentioned as a heathen symbol of the Canaanites (Ex. 203 was a Semitic goddess Ash^rah but the bearing of this fact upon the Ash^rah of the OT.v. cf. 1423 2 K. in an inscription from Kition {ZDMG. 1881. 2. Arch. Anc.) This explanation seems to be not improbable but it must be remembered it is not more than a conjecture the emblems in question being nowhere actually styled either Ash^rahs or Mazzebahs. DB. and sometimes with a divine being seated in front. (pp. in which a priest appears to be anointing the sacred emblem. p. the Bible. In the same elaborate.). which is explained by Max Ohnefalsch-Richter. as referring. 21-22 . of what he considers to correspond to both the Ash^rah.* ii.XVI. he. 424) a person dedicates a statue (if read correctly) " to his lady. with yST} Gn. and (see the next note) the Mazzebah of the OT. and Homer.to an image of 'Ashtoreth standing in a small niche in an Ash^rah (comp. but not very critical. or near. of a natural boulder or block of stone (Gen. 142-179. : . Hebr. consisting. d Archdol. pp. Artemis similarly placed). see Benzinger. 17^ 27^ Mic. 17W iS"* 23"). partly of Phoenician origin. I. with the Plates there referred to) the former sometimes having the appearance of a tree. Is. but generally being little more than a pole. cannot as yet be said to be perfectly clear (cf. partly of Assyrian or Babylonian. (One of these representations. The name Ash^rah has (hitherto) been found only twice in Phoenician. i. Mon. may be borrowed from an it earlier statute-book as Dillmann observes. the author gives numerous representations from gems. 168. a temple of Ba'al (2 K. the mazzebah corresponded to 28^^. 13) and one from Ma'zub.

). 1894.) that in the idolatrous sacrifices with which the author was familiar. &c. Ex. broad. 15^) with him. As. 25." 'J3i 'S. — Which Jehovah thy Godhateth\ XVII. it both sides. i. 59). In H. about i\ ft. a NasD. — — often stood beside an altar it (cf. 1877. x. efi^vxoi 183-188: the Phoenicians are said to have venerated and honoured by them with libations of milk. Gn. no corresponding law in JE.). 44). 157 ff. the maszebah was employed freely as a religious in the . erected over a tomb (cf. 58. Journ. 12^'^. high by i ft. seems. There Lev. 6 see Journ. now in the British Museum ( Vienna Orient. and an enumeration of disqualifying faults is given. — From the context (which. is 2217-25^ 22. heathen Semites as the abode of a deity XiOoi). All animals offered in sacrifice to Jehovah to be without blemish. 5if it 24* Is. 1. the parallel is where the physical conditions that must be satisfied in order that a sacrifice may be accepted (H^?) are particularized. about 5 feet in height (see the photograph in the volume of plates in the CIS. i. on 7^^). 28^^-22 ^i*^. p. i9^9j but ultimately. honey. 44* 46^ 57^ 58^ [all from Kition Cyprus]. Hos. made of marble.204 other. In an Inscription from Palmyra. an artificial obelisk took the place of the natural boulder the term occurs in this sense in Phoenician and Palmyrene (see below) and the lofty stone obelisks in front of the temple of Turn (the sun) at Heliopolis one of which is the so-called "Cleopatra's Needle" are An referred to by Jeremiah (43^^) under the same name. 44 shows what a n3so was for it is inscribed on the pedestal of an actual obelisk. is described as erected by the donor N3a NnSx nstic'? in : \rhz nn"a in na tj »tn' n "to the good god Shadrapa (Pausan.e. but once (No.\ mostly of a commemorative obelisk (nasa D'na. oil. however. with a bearded warrior. symbol worship of Jehovah its (cf. 116^ [Athens] al. Smith. No. on may perhaps in- ferred (Dillm.a. In process of time. that he might be a guest (Cheyne on Ps. Mic. which was regarded by the (cf. (CIS. Gn. 3* lo^- ~). DEUTERONOMY erected perpendicularly. and : . be is directed against the practices of idolatry). 11 flF. came to be 5^^). no importance was attached to this point. Rel. vi. like the Ash^rah. 18^*). 35^ 2 S. I. in Phcen. figured upon it. probably. of an obelisk erected to a deity. he and all the members of his family. "obelisk" was the disting-uishing mark of a holy place. nasD] naso occurs oft. Sent.reni: .)." Nos. proscribed on account of heathen associations (cf. and the use of the term "abomination" (comp. " cippus inter vivos.rfa. At one time. holding a spear and shield.

— 2-4. regarded in itself. .) that the animal offered in be "perfect" (Q^pJJi). the question of the relative priority of the two laws can thus be argued only upon independent considerations. is the earlier the former. its position here cannot be naturally explained as affording an example of a capital offence likely to come for trial before . ]r\ nan] "evil thing." of a physical disfigurement. the "judges" of 16^8-20. Both in subject-matter and phraseology. i. — 132(1)21!. ^V . the present section is closely allied to c. it is impossible to determine whether the law of Dt. of the principle stated generally in Dt. 2220 (pyi^ ^ ^3 nnpn k'p DIO U nC'K ^3 Uzh t\''T\'''). The phrasing of the law here is Deuteronomic ("Jehovah ^hy God" (i^^) the generalizing asyndeton *'any WJierein is a evil thing. . : is extended to sacrifices 2-7." see on 18^. "abomination. . s. § 115. 1. 2. 1 8^° 22^2 24'^. dir'c. on 12^. in detail 22^"^'^^.. From a mere comparison of the two parallel laws. in general. .] as 16^: see In evil in the eyes of Jehovah\ on 4^^. 23'* of something conventionally unbecoming 2 K. 4'" Ps. ^nb? D-in> D'nSs^^ n2f. — blemish (C1»)] cf. but less explicit. — (Even) cf. might.lo on the subject. 4l^ of what is physicttu ally harmful Ps. any evil thing\ ^53. for instance.).e." 7^5). The same restriction has already been laid down 1521.— — XVII. be a sum- mary of the more latter detailed provisions of Lev. . transgressing his covenant] Jos. . — In JE there the more categorical. In any case. generalizing the idea of "blemish": 1521 jn D1» An Israelite. where lameness and blindness are instanced as examples of disqualifying "blemish " here it in the case of firstlings. enactment (Ex.v. yihl\\ "who doeth . . . nam and hath gone and it be told" (Dr. is convicted of idolatry. sacrifice is to &c. : . In one of thy gates. . unblemished. but is a standing principle (Lev. 7ii. . and (followed as XYII. 13 and perhaps (as suggested on 1621) once immediately preceded it. Lev. . as c. to be stoned to death. 1-2 — : 205 it In P there is no explicit regulation i^. or that of H. That which (l3J?^) is If there be found in thy midst] cf. . 64* 141* of what is morally harmful. 22^^20)) i^a^' r\)ryh The punishment of death has already been decreed (i3"^") for the bare attempt to seduce into idolatry hence it is not more than consistent for it to be imposed in the case when idolatry has been actually practised. .^^ . . TTN Obs. or the might be an expansion .

Then thou is . all. Jer. to be brought out city. comp. &c. y^^ 19^ thee. in execution 24I* Gn. 1526. — 7. also Acts 75s Heb. i?iquire.is) K. 3B'n] 9^. And it be told the expressions as shalt bring forth 3^5 . For the penalty of stoning-. 8-13. 35^° (P) is same protection accorded to the person charged with murder. 382^) to the gates of his its that the execution in may take place outside precincts (comp. of the Theocracy {resumed from On the a case jurisdiction of the supreme central tribunal.). in — H Lev. Gone and 2g25(26) served other gods. to be obeyed implicitly by The paragraph. to be put to death on the testimony of a single witness. Jos. and 1 . i3^*><9\ 13^^^^. P Lev. &'c.— 7%e sun. — 3. as 7*. lead in carrying the sentence into effect: shalt exterminate the evil note. .— 206 here by go DEUTERONOMY and : serve other gods) Jos. 32^5^ also 722. 1312).] I 23^*' (D^). connects immediately with 16^8-20^ From v. dr'c. . 6. 18*^ 33*. . whose decision is to be final. and thou hear it. 28* Ez. however. 20^ (for Molech-worship). 6. 26^9 — commanded. (viz. 9. it is difficult to be adjudicated by the local courts to be referred to the tribunal of the central sanctuary. It is to be the duty of the witnesses to take the cf. So thou from thy midsi\ as where see XVn. it appears that the supreme tribunal here contemplated is conceived by the Writer as composed partly of Levitical 4. Nu. For the litotes. 22. — 5. No accused person is. it is evident. and whose verdict. or the p2) moon. The provision secures the application to a particular case of the same safeguard against the disastrous effects of dishonest or mistaken testimony. (on so 22^ 2 S. The Ojffice-Bearers i6^*'^). 23^6 the same phrase as I 137- 14(<5. arises. nan nov] with the cognate ptcp.\ simiorder larly 2224. which the is enunciated more generally in 19^^. of God. 17^ Is. 8-XVin. too (16^^). unto thy gates a7id thou shalt stone them. or the host of heaven\ 4^^. — : 15-) expressed 'Ji noK njm] 13". under penalty of death. (14)^ in a similar connexion. "have not so S. Which I have not commafided] the first person. : when convicted. for 'phg offender. 96 (Deut. compared with 19^^^.^ — 4. —When is whether in criminal or civil law. — . in Nu." cf.

even on secular issues.e. however. to has been if so. If a matter be too difficult for thee (IQO ^. 198- by Jehoshaphat at Jerusalem (p.e. 1822-26 Dt. and the nature of the 19^°). — Within thy often has : 8" n^n] in loose appos. was thus similar in 1^. 22^*^-). appointed expressly for the purpose of dealing with difficult or serious cases. . with -on. power to unravel or decide . XVII. and. in what degree. 30^1 (beyond one's power Gn. iS^^. : over either the local "elders. blood. It is to be observed. whether. —whatever (cf. Not the word used in Ex. ig^^-i^ supplies an example of a case so referred to the central tribunal. partly of lay 207 it "judges". lit. viz. which. 21^ Is.20 (Dt. judgment in ancient Israel. culpably negligent or not. 35 4=8 eiob may be 2 Ch. The general principle in the of referis ring serious or complicated cases to a higher authority in harmony with the provision made instituted case of the judicature by Moses. a constr. (even) the subjects of pleadings^ the diflficulty be to deter- for mine under what law a particular case is to be judged. For priests taking part in the administration of justice." or the ordinary lay judges. As remarked on 16^. according to 2 Ch.. 44^. 21^^-^^). and between plea and plea. if stroke and stroke. pleadings (on both sides) 8. ii' {r\\:?^. Ex. i^'^''). and its supposed to be known the law of Dt. or with having 21^^"^-. 200). 4-8 priests (i8^). especially at a time when Hebrew law was still imperfectly codified. S.. or whether a man charged with theft or embezzlement. a man be guilty of murder or only of manslaughter (Ex. that this supreme tribunal is not here instituted for it is represented as already existing. and between i. caused some personal injury (Ex. ''hard"). Hence they would be properly represented on a tribunal. a charge of false witness. 18^^ Jer.11" 20> 22« 2715 28 «•" 29«--. 32^''^ (beyond one's power to effect) to master) Job 42^ (beyond one's power to comprehend). and specifying the class of cases of the first time : constitution is : which it is to take cognizance. comp. what penalty he nun is liable. would naturally give them an advantage 28^ Ez. D 2^ . on \&. seems often to have been administered at a sanctuary the priests would thus possess an hereditary knowledge of civil and criminal law not less than of ceremonial law. constitution to the court appointed.—Between blood and too exceptional (or wonderful) for thee. which g'l. in judgment\ beyond thy comp. example ("between blood and blood"). cf. is limited to defining its powers.<f^) i.

and a secular prince in civil cases (2 Ch. Go up] the expression used of or Jerusalem Levttes] i. of the body of lay "judges" mentioned in 19^''. 21. acting shall be in those days\ for the expression. 198. S. of the authoritative direction given by the priests to the laity (see e. ffir. And thou slialt itiquire. see on 5^. visiting Shiloh (i (i K. i. — — — " DEUTERONOMY — Thou shalt anse. in the sense of declare. who. (on I somewhat wider and Deut. (Sr'c] the persons implicitly difficult for addressed (as appears from the words "too in thee judgment ") are the local judges. on matters of ceremonial observance \&^ Ez. in a technical sense. here and v. Jer. The court instituted by Jehoshaphat had similarly a double presidency. being addressed. Lev. And unto the judge that Yf^"^ comp.^i). 1227.^^ 5^. AndtJiey shall declare to thee the word ofjudgment] i. 23 2 K.e. the high priest acting as head in ecclesiastical cases.^. Israel. ii« 1359 145* 1532 Nu." niin is to direct (Ex. Unio the priests tJie to the Levitical priests (on 18^). it appears reasonable to infer that priests and laymen sat together on the tribunal referred to the "judge " mentioned here being the foreman. 248 33^0 Lev. — 10. It 26^ Jos.g. —both words being used especi- ally. examine the case (19^^). have central tribunal. then applied. in Dt.. in such a contingency. 2^ 18^^ 529 621 &c. 24I6] 1713 2i3 228- .28^ a^id often). Observe to do] v. 3^^.). 19^). The decision of the central tribunal is to be implicitly to obeyed. &€.— — 208 g-ales] 12^-. 22^6 4423 Mic. and may be correct.e. 20^ (D-). For shew (AV.e. "and they shall inquire (itmi). i7 23« K.). just as the "priest" in 1712 must be the president of the "priests" mentioned in v. ^^•'^% idrah ("law") is properly direction.22^^ are to refer the case to the tribunal at the central sanctuary. RV. (as in the context the 10-13. : — in the persons of its representatives for the time being. According all that they direct thee (^^"iv)] so "according to the direction where- with they direct thee. writers (as Jos. lo^i i4« [Dt. seems evident that the "judge" is not identical with any of the "priests". and as in 19I'' "the priests and the judges " are mentioned together in a similar connexion." which 2nd person denotes the local judges) is easier.] i. the sentence (2 Ch. 7. Sam. torah is In a i^).^on. or president. — 9. here the members of the however.e. jS. sense.

§ 10.^* show.—— xvii.] comp. Israel. . 17'' 2i2s] 9^*'): it was David's great merit to have placed it upon a religious basis. 37(84. The monarchy became ultimately a necessity in Israel. The present law 14 is peculiar to Dt. .^o). but only permitted. And thou shalt exterminate the evil from Israel] the same formula as 13^(^)17''. on account of the fact that the verdict of the supreme tribunal came with the authority of priests as well as Turn aside. 9-13 2224. sc) name of 2 the Pentateuch generally Neh. See further OTJC. 14-20. being used. (Sr-'c] on 2^7.). and to have shown how its power could be wielded so as to promote the truest interests of the people hence he became to later ages the ideal of a pious and . 3i3). — — if one be elected by . The character and duties of the King. sometimes by its civil president have varied according to the nature of the case under conCh. Or unto the standeth to minister there to JehovaK\ see on 10^. 12. . Ninn B"Krr roi . : finally. 4. That ecclesiastical president of the tribunal. Hex. By or\t seems to be implied that the verdict was delivered sometimes by the ecclesiastical president of the the procedure may board. 2.^. 25jer.^. 13.. : 209 the exposition of an Israelite's duty con- tained in Dt. has Jehovah's is approval he is to be a native Israelite he not. jiidge\ v. is to be a man who . Here it refers (unusually) to decisions on points of secular law (comp. Kuenen. his appointment is not enjoined by the legislator. 299 ff. sideration.. (cf. follows the judges — no doubt. Ex. 16"). 13'. 3^ Is. 11^ 14^ &c. comp.(^^). noble-minded theocratic king (Hos. on v. S^f. as the terms of v. §§ 123a. in his court-establishment. where see note. i8*^. it. nrx cxni] Dr. probably. f. 197 Obs. And all the people shall hear andfear. 425 . The king. 55* i K. it becomes the iqSS. &€. 372 ff. —The king. In estimating it is 12. still more generalized. 8^."f. to imitate the great despots of the East and he is to rule in accordance with the principles of Israel's in spite (16^8-20^^ religion. to — — ..20 [contrast Jud. of his obviously superior dignity. 382 f. The priesi\ the of lay judges. — . on account of the monarchy being an institution not essential to the theocracy it) (which as a matter of history subsisted long without accordingly. for the better administration and consolidation of the nation (i S.^.^ pp.

and he not to be a foreigner. though the nucleus of the law may be ancient {y^^)i in its present form it is doubtless designed as an attempt to check the moral and religious degeneracy which the monshalt archy. relation with the %n It thus stands entirely out of dsk^.— a Thou m. : about is is cf. cf. a 3 Judah.—— 2IO DEUTERONOMY its important to notice that of the king in provisions are entirely theocratic : they do not define a political constitution. as a fact. 9I-S. Israel's neighbours (? Gn. the law is to show how the monarchy. 9^^^- Both Saul and David were : appointed under the authority of the prophet Samuel for the N. rS] as 7^. — 14. ?fie] 6^* : i. or nabsn CBpc.^^^\ — 15. 2 S. A foreigner would not only be deficient in national feeling. S^. (1220). may be most eifectually averted. —wn yn*. David) also. S. 18^ (also And I will set over me a king like all the nations that are round about me] comp. is to and Israel's faith. and how the dang-ers with which it may threaten Israel's national character The aim of lished.ayest not ptit a foreigner over remarkable one. cf. ii29ff- i6i-*-7 19I6 2i2it 2 K. the motive of the provision is a religious one. Kin 3 0). <5r'c. as it thee\\)c\& prohibition is is difficult to imagine what attractions the rule of a foreigner can have possessed for Israel. Is.—15. if estabconform to the same theocratic principles which gfovern other departments of the community. 213. been examples of foreigners rising to despotic power among Not improbably. and 14. 7®.] 26^. ^aw I . 20 10^^) see further p. being Possibly there may have nar '1] on 14**. (of Saul) I I — W/iom Jehovah "whom &c. kingdom. v. . and there are no traces in the history of either establish it kingdom of a in desire to (the supposition that the project to make Tab'el king in place of Ahaz. 8^ ** now set us a king to judge us. At the same time. 6^1 lo^ 2 S. i S. Lex. io2* Jehovah hath chosen". I S. however.). 168-10 (implicitly). vh tpk] so 20" (Dr. § 198 Obs. 36^7 Dillm. The two conditions which the king to satisfy he is to be one whom Jehovah approves. 7^ for the general thought. met with support an uncertain inference from Is. thou art come say into the land.^ io25. of i S. or limit the autocracy civil matters. i K. Round like all the nations" (cf. 8*'). too often displayed. When 6^*^). i4"ff: thy God shall c/wose] (of S.

and were consequently often (Jos. Isaiah. hath said": a circumstantial clause (Dr. It is difficult not to think that there is in his words a covert reference to the policy inaugurated by Solomon. 2i8-36). 565). 17^5).^^''- he is not to multiply horses. esp. own beside the nations of age of Solomon. scribed in who : satisfies the conditions pre. Ye more that way] the same saying is referred to again 28*'^.^ Hist. p.^'31^ 36^). Nu. //. to have houghed the horses. the cavalry of Egypt was an important factor in the calculations of 15*. 1881. prior to the from the i8th dynasty (Wilkinson-Birch. Even. discounten(Is. 2^ 2)^^\ cf. at least nevertheless. 9)^ the actual words were read in some part forbidden to in war. loi its .). Hos. 13"*) . The horses. it is not to be found in our present Pentateuch. ii.. Eg. as afterwards in that of Zedekiah (Ez. and the multiplication of horses and chariots (Is. Seeing that Jehovah hath said. are. . the politicians of Judah. i^® unable to hold their S. 16. 383 f. — shall henceforth return no 1 1 20). — king has been appointed. like the prophets. more than once. was celebrated for horses Rawlinson. ix. 8. into this . 144(3) Mic. extant at the time when Dt. Nor cause the people to return to Egypi\ 16. § 159). Egypt. (cf. The prohibition may well be an old one (Dillm. 3oi-5-7 ^ii-s j ances both dealings with Egypt jer. ZKWL. is plainly represented in the context as contrary to the It is Divine intention. . 17^^ Jud. which the Israelitish king multiply. 4^^ of the narrative of JE. such as were intended for use Canaan The I Israelites were deficient in cavalry. 14'' i. probable that. 206. 13^^ 14^3 jg similar. v. 1880. was comis posed. 5io(»> &c. of course. . 215). captured by them in war (Jos. on i22 10I-3. and the proposal of the people to return to Egypt. I4-I6 2 1 I be liable to rule tyrannically. however. ii. of Eg. i/^^"^ (cf. v.^5^ hJs liberty is not absolute and there follow now three limitations of it. 5^ [4^] lo^**^'*) and Solomon procured cavalry thence on a large horses and chariots are often mentioned subsequently as a standing component of the army in both kingdoms in the time of Hezekiah (30^.— XVII. and burnt the chariots. but the thought of Ex. when a Israel's distinctive nationality. i !*• *• " 2 S. scale (i K. Ex. Del. however. The legislator. 1DM . repeated by D from one of his sources. or riches. Anc.-nn*l] "when (or seeiftg that) J. they do not appear to have made any attempt to supply the deficiency. as in other cases still (cf.). 16-17. 74. but he would be likely to endanger by introducing a heathen element most important dignity. or wives. 8*). and are even recorded.

Jos. in order that its principles life. Sn Dt. quest of cavalry. ffi 28*' cf.^^j -^jth arrogance. neither shall he greatly multiply himself silver and gold\ two other practices.—20. That his heart be not lifted up (S^^) ahmje same principles of loyalty towards God. 30^"^). ii^-S. from the standard copy of which.— n:rs] copy. 18. "flDj (whence the name of the Book). 14*) : the meaning* is not to act counter to Jehovah's intention in or his ambassadors thither in to forbidding. the an3i] 'JsV . The king. '3£3^D 1*? In one. 18-20. at the central sanctuary (31^-^®). are to rule the life both of the king and of his subjects his . TO hvTipovifiiav roZro would require nxn for nKin. to study habitually (comp. as uniformly in this book (on i^). he is not therefore to treat those who after all are "brethren" (v. it S^c] 1423b. Jehoiakim's abuse of his position. <Sr'c. it is to be ever at his side. tfc.. 17^). in which likewise an evil precedent by Solomon (i K. repetition. to transcribe for himself a copy of the Deuteronomic law. calculated to impart a sensual and worldly tone to the character of the king-. 27): the influence of a was set harem is was likely in other ways also to be pernicious to the State.his mer- chants (i K. duplicate Jos. Mai. 31*8. ioi*-25. 65") might signify "under the eye of. which Dt.e. ever inculcates so warmly. the Deuteronomic legislation. . '3S^D (cf. 526(29) That he may learn to fear. This ^^ told in two narratives." e^^^^^'^^. (Is. lyi*-** to the account is in I Sam. in the custody of is to study daily.the people to return to Egypt. of the establishment of the monarchy in Israel.g. 8^). the king's transcript was to be made. self. : 36^. or to forget the obligations towards them which his office involves (comp. (cf. Jer. which he may become the and that he may govern his subjects in the just and equitable spirit which it everywhere commends. // shall he is with him. and of sympathetic regard for men.—20. Neither shall he multiply wives him- that his heart turn not aside (Jer. which on 4". — to 17. denounced by Jeremiah. when established upon his throne. in the keeping of" and '33'?D ana is said on the analogy of '3sSd np"? Ex. i. e. This law] i. 18.\ 4^° his brethren] the 62.—Prolong days] 426.e.] v. by sending. It remains to consider briefly the relation of Dt. lo^s). 22^^-^%— Turn not aside. the older narrative (gi-io^**"^^ ii^'" 13-14). — 19. rule of his — the Levitical priests.40. and he i^).— 2 — I 2 DEUTERONOMY literally (as not to be understood that the king is Nu. 3^ Is. lit.

8 . and the author of Dt.O.24 ^2^6.e. Comill. 219 f. by the tribe coming. as he wrote. i7"-2o be supposed to have been influenced. 166-168). be regarded as containing the ipsissima verba of either Samuel or the people it rather gives expression to the fears and doubts which Samuel. when the evils which the monarchy had . Israelites to and of the first-fruits Jehovah. pp. XVIII. v. brought with its it its encroachments on the liberties of the people (8^^"'"). the supposition (which would admit of the law not being unknown to him) that Samuel condemned not the request. in view of a great constitutional innovation. or if per impossibile he did this that the people should not have appealed to the law. the the priests of the tribe of Levi. 1-8.i5a ^5^^ j S. 10^""^* 12 appears to be pre-Deuteronomic {L. . 8* 10^ (cited selves keenly felt. "the priests the sons of Levi.''^^. but the temper in which it was made. will therefore have been known to the author of the narrative of Sam. either to Samuel. The second of these narratives (which alone has points of contact with Dt. the resemblance of Dt. having been known mfact. the other alternative be adopted. : .^^^.T.— The priestly tribe is to receive is no territorial inheritance in Israel . no doubt.O. 10""''* 12) it is treated as a grave offence against Jehovah. — T/ie priests the Levttes] priests. i7"'>. by his recollections of the narrative of Sam. its inheritance offered to consist of the altar-dues. occurring . tendencies to idolatry. the ominous anticipations in 12^*'^'') had made them- — — This narrative. or to the people who demanded of him a king had such been the case. As the nucleus of i S. A member of the from the country to officiate at the central sanctuary'. which in differ some 1. On the other hand.e. and its reluctance to listen to the warnings of the prophets (cf." are alluded to (Ex. shall share in these dues equally with those In JE. p. indeed.T. on various grounds (cf. : — — above) seems too great to be accidental the law of Dt. priests.voluntarily Levi. % 17. P they are respects the subject of very precise regulations. being not borne out by the terms of the narrative. 17— XVIII. the latter alternative is not the least probable one. Richter und Samuel. L.) cannot. as such. as a sufficient justification of their request . Einl. and "sons of already on the spot.. (so Budde. see p. I.XVII. 183 f. in a form moulded by the experiences of a later age. shows no indications of the law of Dt. 4). actually felt. . The revenues of the Priests.. now. and the two phrases referred to will be reminiscences from it unless. i. the Levitical in standing designation of the priests Dt. and fraught with danger for the nation's future (8""^'). (17^-^8 24S 279 : cf.is viewed without the smallest disapproval or censure in the other (7""" 8. widely from those of Dt. 1922. are laid isy^ but no provisions In down respecting" their duties or rights.). I 213 proposal to appoint a king." 21^ 319). it is incredible either that Samuel should have resisted the application of the people as he is represented as doing. v.

1 repeated more emphatically. 220). — 2. . besides Jos. i. In the midst of his brethren] cf. 5^ (preserving probably the true reading. 131* 1 S. 38 8^3 (both D^). Jos. and 1 S. so Ez. 122).e. 33a ^^1 (^n D2) and in P. 228. By "and Jehovah's) inheritance" must be meant other sacred dues. 26^2 Jqs. (2^"^ 3*^- an Such ^^19 1^. i82oi>. and his inheritance^ they eat] live upon . may i. the priestly Heb. any." explanatory appositions are frequent in Dt. not included in the "fire-offerings.29^ cf. no territorial possession. i5. this is their substitute for a landed inheritance: comp.]). 43^9 44" i Ch. The wording of the verse implies (what is consonant with the language used elsewhere) that in Dt. Jos.21). (23).e. 1820 (of the priests).e. lo^ Neh." . . thank-oflFering specified parts (32). e. first-fruits (v. in P (Nu." rendered to God. Fire-offering \s a technical term of the priestly legislation. 8*. 33I8 2 Ez. Jer.3. i89'). In P the priesthood is limited strictly to the descendants of Aaron. v. otherwise only here. of which one or more representative items have been specified in the preceding words.35(23. — (Even) all the tribe of Levi] explanatory apposition to "the priests the Levites. 1029. i9). io9. Nu. 6621 Ch. 2-^. Jehovah is his inheritance. in D2 Jos. and priests are accordingly always styled "the sons of Aaron" Lev. i. his {i.g. 131*. 3). the guilt-offering in all of which 23 7<*-i9 were the perquisite of the priests (Lev. 8. The principle of v. occurring 62 times in P. 44*8) of the priests He is said to be the inheritance of "Aaron. Jos. 143 Nu. the meal-offering (7^). 2318302't (Is.34) ii20 are different. all office is not confined to the descendants of Aaron. like the rest similarly lo* i2i2b 14275. as he spake unto him] Jehovah is here said to be the "inheritance" (see on lo^) of the entire tribe (cf. and being omitted). be exercised by members of the tribe without distinction (see p. in the persons of His representatives. 1314a. the conj. sentences the becomes in Engl.24 (of the Levites).of I K. but Shall have no portion or inheritance -with Israel] of Israel . 23. it is thus the used of the burnt-offering (Lev.5 &c. -JehovaKs fire-offerings. is 58 1521 i62i 17I 20I* 2320(19) 25I6 299(10) [in neg. and 1621 there is no of in the Heb. (of the whole sJiall tribe). 11 22 32. 131*- S3 i87) . and denote regularly the entire group.e. 92 Ezr. p. the priestly tribe.— — 214 — — DEUTERONOMY (cf.

39^') signifies a sacrifice (cf. or payment of dues Gn. And this shall be the right of the priests from the people. cited above and note the art. (reading with ffiS^T and many moderns. . principal items included in the ** — 3-4. . the two kinds of offering most frequently and regularly rendered by the people at large. This. 215 shown on lo^. . "/A^ priest. 43 f.XVIII. the peace. Nu. also i S. Ant. cf. Eg. are not otherwise mentioned in con- nexion with with Lev. Lev. to say nothing of the fact that a law requiring portions of every animal slain.^. 3. § 3. The passage referred to. sacerd. the fourth stomach of ruminants —a favourite dish at Athens. Priests. 2-3 alone. — = lettfa. but to animals slaughtered at home for domestic use (12^'*). iv. the rightful due) of the priest sacrificed from the people: when any man a sacrifice. oyn HKO pan) "the sons of 'Eli knew . . them that to the first whether ox or sheep : he shall give priest the shoulder. under the conditions implied in the preceding sentence) he shall g^ve " but in our idiom simply " he shall give" . viz. as does not occur in our existing Pentateuch. [even) from sacrifice the sacrifice. "so (viz. A specification of the fire-offerings " and "inherit- ance" of v. Mishnah. {Lex. prcsm. — 3. i so Curtiss. feast. 235 ence in Dt. p. 27^^ &c. 1179). : used idiomatically (in preference to express on the part of. . II. with a gen. where 12*^). 47^ Ex. 4 Ph'ilo. 732-34 (pj^ thigh as the priest's The passage is in direct contradiction which prescribes the breast and the right due of the peace-offerings. The : shotilder is mentioned Nu. 7^). 46^" Ez. distinction needed. Aristoph. riKD] JD alone) to : . not Jehovah. and a/a/ajj/^ (including the fig.— pji] lit.. 2". is the priest's servant used to come. Mangey. sacrifice. and the maw (not elsewhere ewa-rpov. and &-^ called. Various attempts have been made to remove the discrepancy.or thank-offering (on (lit. 2^2f. may be illustrated from i S." points to the particular priest in attendance on the sacrificer (cf. By the sacrifice the most ordinary and usual kind of sacrifice. nor the right [i. the two cheeks. Lev. passages Is. (of the ram offered ffir by the Nazirite) the cheeks. is an incredible explanation of nain 'na? njj occurs some 160 times in the OT. would evidently be impracticable.. the priests' share in the peace-offerings and first-fruits. Hullin 10. however. (i) According to the Jews (Jos. in natn) the sing. is not to sacrifices at all. to be sent to the central sanctuary for the consumption of the priests. (2) Schultz .) the referii. 4^'*.e. (12") meant accompanied is by a religious ami) . XYIII." &c. 4. 34" Jer. in whatever part of the country. nx 4 b). in reference to the granting of rights. and the maw] the part of the V. . 356. : .

p. or to invite him to the sacrificial feast which. I. not to the peace-offerings properly so called. at which firstlings (i2^''* 15^). as a matter of course. cf. the right leg and the breast (cf. (7^3J. 31^). were eaten. 18^^. relates to an early stage in the history of sacrifice. The first three items form also part of the revenue of the priests in P (Nu.). 68). mode first : — : 4. viz. or the substitute for the tithe (14^). to have it when.6 2 1 DEUTERONOMY and Espin consider that the dues here prescribed are not in lieu of those assigned in Lev. 7^'^. it might be a demand for something in excess of what was allowed by law whether the law of Dt. 18*. 2 Ch. followed : Eli's sons claimed more than this.e. Wellh. the fourth is mentioned only here (so " the first (fruits) of honey'' . being retained from v. The exact nature of the abuse is not clear treated in itself. and as. moreover. though here.^. could lift out of the pot with his prong. but in addition to them. Wellh. they pleased. in order that they might roast it (which was esteemed a choicer S. 2^^"^® of preparing food : cf. and the custom was for the worshipper to offer him what he himself chose. "fire- offerings " and specify what parts of these are due to the in v. (3) Kell. from the nature of the case. 153 f. it is said. and a larger and choicer share was allotted to them. supposes the reference to be. and (2) demanded further their share of the flesh raw.^''. shall thou give unto him] "i.). But the expression " sacrifice the sacrifice" is too general and distinctive to be legitimately limited to such subordinate species of sacrifice as these. p. the sing. The law of Dt. but to the festal meals held at the central sanctuary. The first (fruits) and the first of the fleece of thy of thy com. But it is not improbable that the passage of Sam. this would surely have been indicated more distinctly: as the verse stands ("and this" not "and this also") it can only be legitimately understood. and of thy oil sheep.*. and perhaps intended as a com(p. is named for the people's instruction The only reason732-34^ able interpretation to treat it as parallel to Lev. or of Lev.* to prescribe something additional to what had been usual. they were again fixed upon a new footing (Lev. 7*"'"^). as explanatory of v. The verse must refer to the commonest kind of the priest. of thy wine. when the priest had no legal claim to definite dues of flesh. But had it been the intention of v. fixes the priests' dues definitely at a still later date. shows that in old times the priests received a share of the and it is mentioned as an abuse that they flesh offered as a "sacrifice" (i) claimed whatever pieces their servant. are included in the "fireoffering's " of v. it must be meant collectively " (Di.e. 7^"^ (which. w'hile the sacrifice was boiling. before the fat was burned and the sacrifice properly completed. to the priest. like v. adopting a modification of (i). Hist. 59) pensation for the loss sustained by the permission granted in 12^^ to slaughter for food without sacrifice.^). and claimed.^. ^nd consequently as fixing the priests' dues at a time when the regulation there laid I down was : not in force.

Pr. 5. 23!^ further (lit. 6-8. 2^^. like all his brethren the Levites. was not considered proper (cf. si^ Neh. any member of the tribe of Levi come from one — of thy gates (15" 16^ 17^ 23^^ (^^)) out of all Israel i. On f. Sem. i K. to eat of the new of the year. The : an ancient and widely-spread custom in Israel it is prescribed already in Ex. he and they shall share alike in the dues received from the people. Out of all thy tribes] the plur. — To stand Him and to minister] see on lo^ (p.. his sons continually the expression points plainly to an hereditary priesthood. (4*^)] and cf. Besides his sellings according to the fathers] . Hist. which stand there before Jehovah (10^). And if a Levite i. 123). they shall eat (v. though as "priest. ( 1 and come with his all the desire of his soul (12^). also lo^. he is God's specially appointed minister and representa- For hhn hath Jehovah chosen. 31^ [yet offering of first-fruits is cf. 4-8 —— — — — 217 are mentioned only 2 Ch.e. 3^ 2 Ch. and p. 12^^. to receive these p. .^^-^aj a permanent inheritance. in the parallel passage. fir'c. prescribed. 12^ (see note) : also 2920(21) i S. Lev. is restricted to a particular family in the tribe. see v. is ^^t 1511J of Israel where he sojoumeth (Jud.^^) like portions —he shall not be at a disadvantage as compared with those already on the spot. (as v. Ez. coarse meal) Jer. For other allusions to the rSshith first (5 cnTapyy]) of the year's prois duce.^^]). 2^ (alluded to as sacred). it was a mode of acknowledging Jehovah's bounty in blessing the increase of the earth it . J?el. 23^^ 34^6 (JE). 20*0 48^* Neh. The sing. until it had been fruit offered. the priesthood. 8^^. in it does not imply necessarily that the conception of the Writer. 21 5. its presentation). see 26^- *• 10 (where a liturgical form Lev. 44SO Neh. Lev. see Wellh. to is^of- accompany 11^^).). 2^8 (just quoted). 5).e. 228. is used collectively (see above). — not possessing (v.— — XVIII. 23^05 .inisters in the name ofJehovah God (v.*) is meant collectively: cf. Ez. io'^8(37)^Qf n^. Provision made for the rights of a Levite coming from the country to officiate at the central sanctuary. Like the tithe. io38(37).] similarly 21^ i S. from any one of the cities (12^2. 157 : — The reason why the priest is dues tive." the antecedent of the pron. the distinction from bikkurim. (Rom. cf. 2^^) to the place which Jehovah shall choose and m. 17'^ 19^). 222 f.

is Jo t3^ (not t3^ alone) e.* to property owned by Levites." i. The " Levites " are represented in this verse. distinct from what he that can be said is that the receives as a priest officiating at the central sanctuary. 19 i^W. by "beside the possessions belonging. 14 26"- !»•)." of v.. selling the dues (tithe. not as resident in their appointed the word (nia) is used of temporary'. but since apartfrom. had this been the case. and are earnestly commended to the Israelite's charitable benevolence — — . Priests. and the widow ") in a more or less penurious condition. In P. in which the country Levites appear (beside the "stranger. Lev.e. 35^'^ Jos. M. without fixed habitations. the representation (or which thou shalt give them). (I2l2. in P and Dt.. ni3Kn Vy V"j?Dp la^] v-jjdd must come from a subst. they can have been framed by one who.). worded as they are. besides.) rendered to Mich. D. 625 al. 21). he would part with at the time of leaving Dillm. if the received view of the Pentateuch be correct. and the terms of v.* would have run. 29 . they are usually understood to realized selling- The words are very obscure mean "apart from what he has RV. 3' it is clear that we must vocalize v-jj^e (from njj).) to those Levites who have sold their houses and wandered to other cities. 48 f. families. are in no respect incompatible with such an institution. p.8 — DEUTERONOMY :: 2 1 or ^^ fathers^ (houses).g.611.^and the allusion in v. not of cities. Surely. &c. but as "sojourning-" permanent residence in the cities of Israel without distinction." Either explanation questionable: words describe some private source of income possessed by the Levite. "besides what he has realized by him is at his particular families. the fatherless. To refer v.to him in virtue of his family descent" (paraphrased in AV. The truth is. Schultz) explains. v. 35^"^ being disobeyed and it is incredible that. supposing it to have been imperfectly put in force but the provisions of the law are absolute. (after J. — . . "from one of the cities which I have appointed them On the other hand. "ijdd.. they are not limited to the contingency of the regulations of Nu. Hence the institution of Levitical cities cannot well have formed an element in the condition of things contemplated by the present law. it is supposed. 48 cities are allotted to the tribe for residence (Nu.® (Curtiss. that which cometh of the sale of his patrimony ") —possessions home by all which. had only six months previously assigned to the Levites permanent dwelling-places. ni3Xn beingf an abbrevia- tion for mnxn by n^3 (Ex. the country for the central sanctuary.* harmonizes completely with other passages of Dt. involves the improbable regfulation that a Levite is not to go directly from a Levitical city to the central sanctuary he must become a "sojourner" elsewhere first! V. the tribe of Levi stands upon 8.^ are difficult to reconcile with that institution.

describes his services there in terms which reserved in Nu.2b tribe are qualified to exercise priestly functions: assign to the whole tribe the altar-dues . 1820 for the priests alone to the priestly duties. firstlings. would doubtless rank above their less fortunate brethren but no exclusive right is recognized in Dt. those members of the tribe of the priests '^ who are officiating for the time at the central sanctuary. and iS*'-^. as tithes. has ** a different meaning from Levite" in P. the descendants tribe. P it denotes the members of the of Aaron . which had the custody of the Ark. in a ritual connexion. which had secured a position at the central sanctuary. enjoyed the pre-eminence. this sharp distinction between priests and the common all Levites is not recognized . they are represented as is homeless and destitute. though there is a difference in Dt." it is not the difference recognized in P in P the priests constitute a fixed minority of the entire tribe. In Dt. viz. it Is implied (18'*) that members of the 18^^. tribe.XVIII. in Accordingly. The term " Levite. viz. in been shown (i) Their revenues are the notes on 142^ 1523 igs they receive in Dt. when used : ." it must always be remembered. Levitical priests" (see on Naturally the eldest of the families descended directly from Aaron. as just said. as belonging to the descendants of Aaron. they are a elsewhere. between '* priest" and ** Levite. Their organisation In different. Dt. but are peremptorily forbidden to intrude upon the office of priest (Nu. 8 219 two fundamentally different: as has different footings. with the Tabernacle (Nu. and this is recognized in 10^. relating "Levite" coming from the country to reside at the central sanctuary. The " P are inferior members of the who are assigned various subordinate duties in connexion iS^-"). . the descendants of Aaron in Dt. in Dt. having cities specially allotted to (2) them. instead of . materially smaller dues in and sacrifices and." but "sons oi Levi" or v. 3-4. denote regularly Thus. the distinctive title is not "sons of Aaron. allied families. of the tribe. exclusive it of the priests. 4^0 iS^'^n-'W iS*^). . fluctuating minority. in contradistinction to other members also. in Dt.i). denotes all members of the Levites " of without distinction.. tribe. compared with P.

e. it who were set apart for the purpose).O. was chosen to discharge priestly sistent with offices in the persons of a fixed minority are. were not admitted to the exercise of priestly functions at the Temple (cf. might be attributed to the relaxation or neglect of a system once stricter . with i K. that prior to the age of Ez. : 18^"^ is to limit it the exclusiveness of the Jerusalem priests provides that a sanctuary. forming a tolerably close corporation at the Temple of Jerusalem others. 49") tribe as scattered in different parts of the land (cf.. but that he made priests who were not of the sons of Levi. the " Levites" generally [i. at least after the abolition of the high places disestablished priests (who yet are styled the "brethren" of those at Jerusalem). 44^°"^^. . as a whole. and especially with Ez. '* Comp. it Jerobo'am's offence —not as. though they would not in themselves establish this view (for it might be said that the tribe. though they were allowed the inaintenance due to them as priests by the law of Dt. 12^1. also Ex. officiate at the central to share in the dues received there equally with the priests How far this provision was acted upon by Josiah. 23^). some acting as priests to private families or . individuals [ib." cited on v. in K. so 18^^). '* sojourning " in the country. where ought to have been. Levites in the sense of Dt. or finding a home where they could. The it is allusions in the earlier literature. 446-14.T. 4I* (where the Levite " appears as an official title) and the other occurDt. 10^ 21^ 33^"^*'> rences of "Levitical priests. 2 received from the people.g.nd esp. agrees with e. j others officiating at the local sanctuaries [ib.). the by the Jerusalem priests. according to P. . 23^ shows that. but all dependent one way or another.). Ez. and see L. iS^o- for their livelihood. 146 f. is country Levite. p. the regulations of Dt. the most prosperous. Treated by themselves. in fact. i7''-s 19I. we do not know: 2 K. exactly as is represented in Jud. T'. upon what they a. picture the members of the Gn. 2 20 DEUTERONOMY position thus assigned to the tribe in Dt. p.) enjoyed — the priestly right of sacrificing. perfectly con- We must. coming to resident on the spot.^. 18^. it. 132 f. that he made priests who were not of the sons of Aaron. 1710-13 27. The aim of Dt. which implies unambiguously (seeZ. is plain.O.

not less than nine superstitious usages practices separately specified. 28^^) —the purpose of Heaven. Kuenen. those cravings of humanity to critical unlock the secrets of the future. pp. — 9. —All forms : 465 ff. Abhandl. W. is to take in Israel the place of the heathen soothimplicit obedience is to be rendered to him. 192^ observation of omens and 20^. and seems designed prevalent these to be practically exhaustive. as compared with those of P. in Israel. and at the same time placing the prophet in his true position in regard to them. See. Hist. When . nations to the arts of the diviner. especially How were during the period of the in the Kings.. 383 f. or to discover in some situation — as. A law prohibiting them in entire in detail. Priesterthum. is and The position assigned in this law to the prophet a noticeable one. 280-284. The prophet. 121 IF. more fully Addit. of divination and magic are to be eschewed by Israel the prophet sayer . OTJC.\ as legislation. 78-96. Arch. AT..27 soothsaying. it as the representative in Israel of the heathen diviner he is presented as the appointed agent for satisfying. Smith. would be harmony with the scope of the Deuteronomic thou art come into the land. (in Lev. §§ 88. further. &'c. 9-22. 1878). 1 821 2o2-5 JE) Ex. becomes thus a bulwark against the encroachments of heathenism. p. in so far as they are legitimate. XVIII. He appears in . ii. 22^'(is> the sorceress. to tike Libel (Edinb. pp. 29-51 Wellh. which gave birth in other. and to the exclusive pre-eminence which the family of Aaron ultimately secured for itself. Answ. will be apparent from the passages referred to notes.worship. and kindred super- stitions. 89. . 358-361.^ pp. consultation of ghosts and familiar is Here the enumeration being fuller. 1931 spirits. p. R.io^-. that of Saul before the battle of Gilboa' (i S. is decidedly more probable that. The other Codes have nothing on the subject of the prophet but they contain laws which are parallel in part to the prohibitions of v. they represent the usage of an earlier age . 9 221 it but in the light of allusions occurring" in other books. for instance. viz. Baudissin. as conceived by the Writer. the system of P corresponds to the greater privileges which the priests after- wards acquired.. 94. The position and authority of the Prophet. (in H) Molech. Nowack.

an omen was derived from observing whether the victim passed through the flames unscathed or not. 16'^ 23^. is alluded to. not be (i) There shall allusions found in thee (17^) any one that maketh his son or his viz. 2 K. 1 2^ on the other hand. 7^ 19' 32**) cration . from the time of Ahaz. The spot at which the rite was principally carried on was the "valley (k'|) of the son of Hinnom. 14) to possess extraordinary efficacy in averting calamity (comp. Lev. 16^ (in the Canaanites). Sic. Smith. Ev. or which was resorted to for the purpose of securing good fortune. but specifically as a superstition. xx. The enumeration of forbidden practices follows. in K. Ez. 18^^ c. or the object. — 10. Dt. that the victims were put to death first. 2310 Jer. "j'^^ 19^ [omit "for burnt-offerings to Ba'al. hardly accounts for the use of the peculiar and characteristic expression "to cause to pass through the fire.Is. for instance." It would be in better agreement with this expression to suppose that the rite in question was a kind of ordeal. 4. resorted to by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians at it it — times of grave national danger or calamity (Porphyry ap. is la^i. i& i82i Jer. 1621 2337. Ez. The . 12^^. 17^7 the compiler's : summary cf. kingdom). or conseby fire. as the context indicates. — The practice it . for the word "bum" is used in Jer. i6-^^. The standing expression used to describe it ma). . 3235 "to cause to pass through the fire" (n^ayn with csn omitted Lev. cf. of 6") the history of the N. in Judah." on the S. Prcep. (in Israel." with C5. imitation of esp. Jer. as a climax of Canaanite enormity and mention frequently made 2 of it as prevalent. 32^5 (cf.— 2 22 17^*. 64. 2026. to Molech. 2o2-5. Lev. p. It 32^5. on the strength of the term "slain" (Ez. and burnt upon a pyre or altar afterwards. are not sufficient to show distinctly either the nature. iv. with "to Molech" added is 17^7 216 2310 Ez. OT. 106''). 57^). in which. 21^ (Manasseh 2310 (put Mic. of the practice referred to but it is mentioned here. Sem. is prohibited in emphatic terms in H. the view. 20^1 2337 (cf. either (Ewald) because because was used for the purpose of obtaining an oracle. i82i 2 K. must have been more than a mere ceremony of lustration. side of Jerusalem (2 K. of. 57' Ps. 32"). 7^^ 19'. Euseb. to daughter to pass through the fire] in the Molech. : DEUTERONOMY The abominations of those nations^ cf. not as a form of idolatry. 2 K. 23'° Jer. 2o3i. Rel. Diod. adopted by many modern writers. or was supposed like the sacrifice of children to Kronos. down by Josiah). Is. cf. 353]).

xiii. Baethgen. .^^O'c&. both in their mother-country and in their colonies. .^ s. Smith. word nz'a shameful thing (Geiger. Rel. 32' Saad. p. ti^en ffi usu. Sem. the similar worship of Adrammelech and 'Anamnielech (2 K. when transliterated into Greek or Latin exhibit this form {e. i. Rel. i.fl!^a»v-oj. has not hitherto been found in Inscriptions . . 23'' ^') and I K. p. 375 f. 237. 32^ always.) is derived from the same root. "=M/Xx. 37-40). 37-40. p. . ZATW. distribute (Gn. Hibbert Lectures. Wellhausen. . : . PRE. with headless arrows {^azldm. 89 see more fully Baethgen.. . for ddVd [(& Tu fiaB-iXi? a L 7^)1=03^2.^) is properly an appellative (hence the art. 353. further. has in conj. see above) is probably a mere clerical error cf.v. R. s. pp. xiv. (2) Or one that ohtaineth oracles (D''ODp Qp'p)] properly. pp. the term means to obtain an oracle from a In Heb. the yitvta of the NT. R. by drawing lots at a sanctuary. Cf. and is used in particular of procuring a divine decision. (Baethgen. 66^^^) gave of the name which meets us in the djh'j of the later Jews. Carthage. 84. two denoting. p. Smith. lo the horrible associations connected with rise to that application it (cf. Smith on stitions "The in forms of divination and magic 273 ff. 352-357. ^^. 126-128. Arab.e. 223 the allusion in Is. Baethgen. and the one which first fell out was supposed to express . Qor 5*) the arrows. 85). word most commonly used to express the idea of divining in general. divination. On the terms employed see especially the study of W. pp. 15. Gesch. in Dt.^ s. jno^D. JPh. 1883. p. names compounded with Milk show that the god was worshipped particularly by the Phoenicians. I.different forms of magic. ii3ff.). to divide. with the art. were placed in a quiver. "Milk has given. 11' 2 K. and whirled about. the name. It is true. 609 f. I. v. Konig. Sel. Gesch. 301. .^] See.. 273 ff. (Lev. Wellh. &c. Sem. The many Phoenician Stade.v. and on analogous super- ancient Arabia. 37). I. 124. . as v. 23^" Jer. ii" in theyP/i. 18-' 20^"® : i K. or award. Cyprus. iS^". In Arabic (Ges. . ii^* ^ al. i. except I K. 1 1^ -^c (without the art. 610 38 n. The name of the 'Ammonite god Milcom (i K. . . but the form is different and the two deities are probably not to be identified at Jerusalem they were worshipped at different spots (2 K. W. (with the reff. 167) qasama. Brit. as Arabic shows. it is the god by some method of drawing lots. Sem. . as that of a god. Very probably it ought to be vocalized Milk. Held. Thes. but it forms part of many proper names.v.. Einl.g. Encycl. There follow three terms descriptive of various methods of and three relating to various modes of consulting the world of spirits. '^\onX. M»x«. Reste Arabischen Heidentumes. 168-170.^-^^. X {'istagsama) the sense of to get a part allotted to oneself. pp. inscribed with the possible alternatives contemplated.e. Urschrift. . as in ^W?) meaning the King.XVIII. 1 1'. xiii. The name Molech — . which. It is thought by many that the vowels of "^n are intended to suggest the Heb. pp. 135-153. 177) Stade. CIS. 17^'). Smith.

is uncertain. 6. 1 S.'" i." 10. kasa/a is to cut .^* Lev.) . or whisper (Ges. waswasah. u Jer. 33'') a hoarse nasal sound whence Smith denoted properly the murmurer. " the oracle 'Jerusalem. kis/\s a. G (3) Or a soothsayer (PJ^P)] this species of divination (D"'3:1V0 is alluded to besides in v. Is.23 21"'* P) 22^ Is. from cm serpent. ig^c 2 K. 57^1. |3i>2] Ar. : : .) occurs v. an extremely similar procedure is ascribed poetically by Ez. piece or fragment {Qor. 3. who is represented (2i^'*('-^-)) as standing where the roads to Jerusalem and Rabbah of the 'Ammonites diverge. 22'^ 23^ (both JE).7. 13^ (P of Bala'am). probably by hydromancy.. represents by the general terms /JMvn. (Bochart) the word is a denom. is ghanna : to emit . zamzarnah. or whisper. languages. cnm] the meaning hiss. 15^ Zech." Nu.Mic. 14" 27^ 29^ Ez. whence Smith conjectures that D'spa may have denoted primarily the " herbs or other drugs shredded into a magic brew. No. 44'-^t. to Nebuchadnezzar. supposes that jiijo may have — : — .is (of Joseph's divination with the "cup. 445.(among the Philistines). it is used disparagingly of the oracles given by "false" prophets. usu. 33^ (practised by it).7. i&'^ Efic-aa iSa 'nsc *?]. In the OT.e. 17I" 21^ ( = 2 Ch." (Smith).e. 36. Is. for the purpose of determining which he shall attack first he holds in his right hand the result of his inquiry o'jenT ccpn." i. 2 K. The heathen Arabs often resorted to this mode of divination before any important or uncertain undertaking'. 27^ The etymology is obscure . all the Sem. ff' "Soothsayers' Terebinth"). In most of the passages from the prophets. 'jcao] the deriv. Jos. and especially before a campaign. the arrow marked "Jerusalem. 7). or hoarsely humming soothsayer "the characteristic utterance of the Arabic soothsayer is the monotonous rhythmical croon called saj". Is. the word (verb or subst. futtTiva/taty ftatnla. Manasseh). (4) Or one that observeth omens (t^•^3p)] Gn. properly the cooing of a dove . One meaning of Ar. the king-'s decisions have the character and value of a divine oracle). 17®^ 52''^ a/. was obtained by the aid of serpents. or watching the play of light in a cup of liquid).e. the belief being a widespread one in antiquity that the power of divination. 12^ 126. and consulting. ominous) : nahisa. Elsewhere in the OT. 5^^ Jer. 21" = P^X the 2 Ch. and the precise kind of divination intended uncertain." The passage supports the conjecture that the Teraphint were employed in this form of divination the two are also mentioned together in i S. ig^^ Jud. \f-'' Pr. 10^. ccg V3 "pyo' vh {i. and a low murmur. 2" (the Philistines noted for is Mic. 28^ (of divination 31X3 see below. /iavriTef. is similarly ascribed to the Kdhin" or seer. or of understanding the prophetic speech of birds. Lev.9.: : 224 DEUTERONOMY the decision of the gfod. though it is some objection to this view that " while cm to divine seems to be common to In Arab.) for cnj is very insufficiently supported more prob. 2 K. to be inauspicious or unlucky. the root is applied in a bad sense (cf. cm serpent is peculiar to Heb.the idol (n'Sina !?Nc) by shaking the arrows to and fro (n'sna hpip).

appears to show spells. or (7) (Smith) one who composes spells or incantations. 33^ Dan.^ 8^^* "). or the [astrological] complexion of the times. The cognate subst. 114. 27^! the subst. aiignr.3' (put down by (ms rbvi XW^ "a woman commanding 2 ghosts 19^* (in Egypt). Is. Mai. &c. pass now from methods of divination to those of magic We or sorcery. 283*. serpent-charmers: (of Babylon)!." i. oltavi^ofmt auguHum.. magical effects (Cr usually ingly enchanter or sorcerer. and (8) ?N"{^ Or one that consulteth a ghost or a familiar spirit (3iS the nis I ••aijn^l)] (pi.] not to : be permitted to live). io"t passages marked . were something material. 5" (" And Nineveh). nias) is mentioned besides Saul). "and instituted ghosts and familiar persons professing . from which it is inferred that one thing is good and another bad. is divination by the flight of birds : (oia»vo5. 2i*5*=2 Ch. auspicium cf.12 The expression may signify properly (cf. and that a man should push on or desist accordingly " (Smith. 30^7 i K. and the like. also (by the side of Q^B^'3). igsi* 2o«*-27» s. 47^. (6) Or a charmer (I3n I3n)] so Ps. 148 f. Manasseh. 29* K. down by Josiah). signs that consist in words. 3* (in Is. or binds by a spell KaTaSew). 2^\ . p. eru omens which Bala'am sought on In Syriac the word means divination "from an omen. such as drugs. 33*^* (D'JIJJTI 31S HB'jn. or actions. or the cries of birds.XVIIL the verb is II 225 also used in the derived sense of take or observe as 20^31. or rain.). D^')3n. D^QB'3 named Jer. 232^* (put "•Jjn"'. or fire. 58*5 (D3no D^-ian -inin) in parallelism with D'K'q^O whisperers. Gn. Nah. 2323 24I . . term denoted similarly all those 2341). 2340. to deal with them). (5) Or a sorcerer (^K'bp)] this species of magic is mentioned Ex. Mic. 479. ^B'ap will — mean accord- 11. herbs. Ar. col. sorcerers are 7^^ (in Egypt). Arab. of which the most familiar example . 9^2 Mic.e. tdayyafai tatayyara. occurs Nu. PS. species of divination from natural omens. 3^ 2 Ch.^^ (in Babylon)!. D'BB'a 2 K. one who ties magic knots. used superstitiously for the purpose of producing tpapfxaKo. that D''ED'3 I will cut off sorceries out of thy hand 5^^ ").8 Is. Heid. or atmospheric changes.). 15 in the the i Ch. of spirits. 22^^^ (the sorceress [fem.e. in Lev. Probably the Heb. always by the side of the ms. Wellh. i. (of the the hill tops).

667). S renders by sakkuro. i. The word is usually understood to signify knower (i.") that those who followed the art professed the power of calling up from the underworld the ghosts of the dead. &c. the yidde'oni ma. is doubtful more Is. of oracles of the dead — 12. 65*). of "jiyT "wizard" appears to be incorrect: see Lev. Is. ZDMG.e. were in vogue: for instance. and imparts to him of its superior knowledge. at particular spots.20^2. Whether this etymology be accepted or not." (The AV. 8^^ of "inquire of. or the establishment. 20^ (" a man or a woman.e. wise spirit: Ewald. a spirit which is at the beck and call of a particular person (cf. 28^''. the Whether any particular D''3jn^ method of necromancy is denoted by it. In what respect the yidde'oni differed from the ob is uncertain. vielwisserisch) but W.— 226 : DEUTERONOMY From Lev. or from the stomach of the : oracles of : soothsayer (see PS. the terms of the prohibition whatever other forms of the same superstition. Acts 16^®). . the "abominations. 81^ either of nns and : probably it is a comprehensive term. the practice of "incubation. p. 29* shows further that the an ob were uttered in a twittering^ voice.\ cf. Lev. 28^^) to call up any ghost." as in Is. col. Nold. By the Arabs such a spirit is called ra'iyy. There those is thus a distinction between the 21N and the "'3ijn* who divine by the former profess (i S. a ghost. where. the "jinn" who shows himself to a soothsayer. Smith suggests the meaning acquaintance. which seemed to rise from the ground the narrative of the witch of 'Endor shows (i S. quoted above. intended to bring within not already mentioned. (ve/cuo/xavTcta). R. . those who divine by the latter consult only the particular spirit which is their "familiar. gliding him in the practice of his art. nearly always represents six by iy>'«<rT/>/ai/^a/ = ventriloquists. This rendering no doubt contains the true explanation of the operation of the :ix the n'?y3 31K " pretends to see a ghost which she describes. speaking ostensibly either from the underworld." on account of which the Canaanites are 725.") ' (9) Or one thai " inquireth of the dead (Q^nsn px ^"^j] is in ' to inquire of the dead consultation synonymous with. but her dupes only hear : G a voice which by ventriloquism seems to come from the ground. Here ob smd jyzdde'oni a. his companion and attendant. or at least includes. An abomination nnto Jehovah\ on Because of these abominatioyis is fehovah dispossessing {^a^^ 9^). 1874. however. 20^7.y be not unreasonably understood of a "familiar" spirit. 182*^." or passing the night in tombs (cf.re both the objects of *'consulteth." The 31K may be fairly represented by the English ghost. ivhen there is in them an ob or a yidde'oni") it appears that an ob was considered to declare itself in the body of the person who had to do with it Is. i. 1122.e.

with so D. are. so far as Israel concerned. —15-18.. the sing. i826(25) al. — From the midst of thee.on rTTlSl) so K. S^^ ii^«/.e. superstitious practices. the heathen to resort to diviners for the purpose of unlocking the secrets of the future and as the prophet is to supply the it must be a similarly recurring need which (so far as Jehovah permits it) he is designed to satisfy. (^^^-^ .18. as occasion may demand (cf. RV. not i. read "from the midst of thy brethren" (Tns 3"ipio). Israel's duty. almost towards: comp. all but entirely. as V. various forms of immorality. hath Jehovah thy God granted unto thee] is such practices are not in accordance with His appointment.without blemish (comp.— 14. in dealing or in converse with. is devoted wholly to a ^''^- — With 861 ii4 (oy)] i.—But asfor thee. and which would be a blemish upon the character which Jehovah demands of it. fflr 22^*^ Is. Ps. His will. prophet can be it was a constantly recurring need which prompted : . 229). Like unto me] the context limits the sense . —13-14. &c. as occasion behalf.^K' I 182^(23) (ij^y Q'.. the physical application of the same word. is to be blameless : — 17I Ps. though this is represented in AV. who will act on God's and communicate to them. in contrast to the who were Sam. not. v. 13. disfigured by no imperfection or unsoundness. Thou shall he perfect with Jehovah thy God] perfect (D''1?JJ1). arise. by the same English equivalent: D^OD denotes a person without moral blemish. on and without reproach in its converse with its God it is not to adopt practices which are heathenish in their tendency. denoting Moses' representative for the time being. a^^. D^B' (always in this connexion used with reference to the heart) implies one whose heart single object. so far as may be needful. not to a particular individual prophet (see p.e. from thy brethren] diviners. often of foreign origin (comp. implying.1^). Possess] 12'^. noticed on 17^). as here. Israel is to be provided. the contrary. as Gn. or intention. Jud.i* Nu. or particular. The idea expressed by D^on is not quite the same as that of D7B' (i K. may — thee] viz.). The context intended shows that no single.. A prophet will Jehovah thy God raise up unto with a prophet. It follows that the reference here is to a permanent place of such diviners in Israel. 12-15 227 expelled. institution. 2^).— XVIII. 15.

is inconsistent with the context 16.). 38*. i^ 5I* (comp. my words in his mouth] Jer. 51I6 5921 (both of Israel. And v. as to be "like" : which." . here the future. i^-^: cf. It is not that the promised prophet in other V.) do not express the special form of revelation : Moses in every respect. responding to the people's own request. Not ''let me not hear" (RV. The idea is of course not substantially different from that expressed by such phrases as TWn'' DS3. the terms of his commission in v.—I -mill no more hear. contradictory. but only the form which was common to prophets generally (Jer. . 4^^ 2 S. 52if-(24f. but . 18." so frequent in the "The word of Jehovah came unto .1^ Ezr.— 228 in — DEUTERONOMY — which this expression is is intended. The answer in 528(31) jg worded differently. also. D^b'. In appointing the prophet as the authorized exponent of His will. adopted by many of the . under its ideal character. or be equal with him he is to be like him. Gn. 14s.). . them all that I shall command him] comp. See): more commonly with Nu. They have well said that which they have spoken] as 525(28)^ the first part of Jehovah's answer being here omitted. 72 Jer.Jehovah's representative with the people. 17. 8^^. 16-18 words to show. writings of the canonical prophets. 34. 2328^.^^). Ex.Ez.^'"^^. Dim] 10^'.^^) " hearkened to soothsayers and oracle-mongers. according to Nu. 2238 235. and has been deservedly abandoned by the great majority of modem com- The exclusively Messianic reference of older expositors Acts 3^* 7^). 44* on'try -irx cmyn. mutually supplement each other there is it is Moses who is to in speak on God's behalf. <Sr'c. To him shall ye " hearken\ unlike the nations of Canaan. (cf. the commission being limited to Moses himself: — — — the two declarations are not. \2^-^ Dt. —16-18.^^ (**I will put my words in his mouth._23^^ day of the assembly^ 910 \o^. which would require /'S. 341°. —17. in theyizc/ of being.. it Moses' representative And I will put ("TinJl) lof.3i)). Jer. Ex. as the organ of divine revelation) comp. Is. 12. however. but not necessarily in being" His representative in the same degree in which Moses was as Keil points out. lie sJiall speak unto i^1'^. 16 (of Balaam). . preferred by Jehovah is but them at Horeb (520-28 (23. on v.] cf. for the idiom." &c. distinguished Moses from other prophets. who (v. "Thus saith Jehovah. nan "wx la'tj'n] 5»: cf.

L ii2fr. Is. was. The argument of the passage shows that the "prophet" contemplated is not a single individual. Ez. : — .to a distant future. 22iif. &c. Jer. The prophet who shall act presumptuously (17^^) in speaking a word in my name. p.a permanent channel of revelation. the Ez. gee also I K.). 29^^ 35^^. The promised prophet is to meet a conKonig-. Ts. belonging. The indef. des AT.e. to the arts of divination (v. is The office of the prophet. t6-20 — 229 mentators and theologians (including. freedom from invasion. a/.^! emx] will require. a speedy return from exile. (even) that which I have not coTnmanded him to speak] the sin of "speaking falsely in Jehovah's name" may be readily illustrated from the book of Jeremiah e. and Who should exhibit the characteristics of the prophet in their fullest perfection (so Hengst.. 132 f. The existence of such an order in Israel. 2^^ (Jer. of course. after they are settled in Canaan he is to supersede the necessity either of God's addressing Israel (v. it of him (23-) here with the coUat. that the reference is not to an individual prophet. whose office it would be to supply Israel. Hearken unto my words] Jer. Keil. Espin. : . To judge from : passages quoted.) will require it of him] i. § 161. Oehler. whenever in its history occasion should arise.^^"^*). Offenb.'***) enabling. forming. 131). Orelli. 20.-"-). in Whom the line of individual prophets should culminate. idea of punishing'i^ whom or exact. tintwus and permanent need of the people.the Israelite to distinguish the true prophet from the false (v. upon the offender. a sig^nal mark of distinction between Israel and other nations of antiquity. 2^1 3^^) the prophets opposed preached "peace when there was no peace" (6^^'''^^). Theol. Keil. Hengst. as Jehovah's representative. ^^\y^ is at once more closely defined 19. Or who shall speak in Jer. Who should be "like" Moses in a pre-eminent degree. OT.'s KVf nrn). they led the people on to false tracks by elating them with vain hopes of affluence. or of Israel's having.23 21-27. 122-* 13I-23 Lam. but to a prophetical order. 33* 34'". 9* Ez.'s (Jirn) phrase in this connexion is usually li'B' N33. who hear him. .recourse. I will exact punishment of him for it (see below).— XVIII. Christology. but which. which claims obedience on the part of those if abused or exercised wrongfully. nK 'Dca nai nan"? isn] render as above. a high one. OT. Proph. with needful g^uidance and advice in other words./(emph. 30-33 279f-H-i6 28^5-17 298^21-82 3719 . but Moses' representative for the time being. for instance.s. At the same time the terms of the description are such that it may be reasonably understood as including a reference to the ideal prophet.*) directly Himself (v. entails a strict retribution — — : 14U-15 23I6. ii.. so with 'fl T!P Gn..g. 30^" Mic. 20. : 19-20. such prophecies were mostly prompted by the desire for popularity (cf. Espin. like their neighand a criterion is even added bours.

is manifestly incomplete. 257-263. as Jeremiah expressly teaches (18^"^*). ?] "f^. contained in these verses.. of the non-fulfilment of a prediction uttered truly in Jehovah's name. The statement of the criteria for distinguishing true and false prophecy. i. been dealt with previously (13^'* W) . of difficulty or delay. those name of other gods\ two classes of false prophets are thus who falsely (and deliberately. or even as the result of an effectual intercession.) (Ges. addressed to Jehovah on their behalf (comp. — Ninn vczyn "when" Gn. 19 In Canaan three cities any one who has killed his (totk nit is &c. The prophet who comes forward in name of other gods is condemned ipso facto (cf. 26^® also Ex. The case of the fulfilment of a prediction uttered in the interest of " other gods " has. not noticed. XIX. OT.^o). — — 21. XXI. Jer. The by the J J Cities of Refuge. but the case of the fulfilment of a prediction alleged falsely to have been uttered in the name of Jehovah is Nor is any consideration gfiven to the still more important which nevertheless. Schultz. There is no occasion either to regard him with deference. — the for distinguishing the false from the true prophet of Jehovah. are to be set apart as a refuge for definite obj. 22.. XIX. 26" Jud. or to shrink from pronouncing sentence against him (v. 4-1 jmo Dn^ ' Dpi) i K. case. . which can be ascertained without material Thou shalt not stand in strong contrast to the attitude true prophet awe (i^^) of him] in demanded in presence of the (v. 28^. which . The law contemplates a case both more likely to occur -and more difficult to detect. Probably. 3" nsi] the sentence 17'^—22. in consequence of a moral change in the character of those to whom it is addressed. 13^(5)): criterion is given . And if thou say in not. however. 21-22. . 32^* Am. formulated exactly as {Lex. . or ''that . If the thing folloia nor come to pass\ the cases contemplated are therefore such as failure.— 230 the DEUTERONOMY distinguished. . it is true. Jer. accomplishment. 5^' 7*' ^ Joel 2i3f. 1-9. How (na^x) . Cf. not through claim to speak in the self-deception) claim to speak in Jehovah's who name of ** other gods " name.^^). author. is liable to occur. with nn: jgsi is^ y6 gs 14. nrn 8d).). 1-13. the Cf. the occurrence of cases such as these would be otherwise made apparent. Theol. or belong to the near future. a the prediction which does not its come to pass has not Jehovah for thy heart.i8 Jonah 3^''). Criminal Law. and those both agree : in that they affirm a divine origin for the imaginations of their own heart. new] either " (Dillm. as Jos.

cf. and P has a law on the Nu. without knowledge: so 4*2 Jos. Nu." Ex. The circumstances under which the cities thus appointed may be applied for the benefit of the manslayer. though according to the present text of Dt. the three trans-Jordanic cities had been appointed by Moses. And whoso goeth] ^^ as when one goeth" is a 20''^ . and at the same time the accommodation to a later historical situation. . thou posoff the nations] verbatim as 12^^*. 4. p. inadvertently (RV. as Lev. Three And — — (P). Separate] ^^^. — 21— XIX. The technical term "Cities of Refuge" (t^^pD ny). 20^. 4*i-*3 (^f.22 Nu. "^^JC'li lit. Unawares (Djn v33)] Ht.—And he hated him not in time past] cf. . same subject. There it is said that Jehovah will appoint an asylum for him who has slain a man by accident. 20). 5 — : 231 if Israel's is neighbour accidentally. 4-6. that the cities may be safely and rapidly reached from all parts of the land. not so elsewhere. Nu. agree (so far as they cover common ground) in substance.^ (the technical expression used regularly by P. i^ When Jehovah thy regulations for their use are laid down. 35^^. Thou shalt prepare thee the way] in order. the provisions of which. 42.] see Jos. 2. 2o3-5 (D2).— »ia kS mm] on 4«. unwittingly). . i"? . viz.— XVIII.. is not found in Dt.e. —The law border be the expansion. in error^ i. 3522f). 35^'^*. God cutteth sessest cities] them.^^ Jos. namely. the idea is expressed by a different word. . and differing remarkably in expression. The actual appointment of the Cities of Refuge is ascribed by P to Joshua (Jos. fixed cities are appointed for the purpose. .^^ 228) the altar of v. yg). nan mi] is". 4. Divide into three parts] so that each city may form the centre of a corresponding district. used in Numbers. but that the wilful murderer is to be taken from His altar that he may . 3523b. extended to the full limits promised. and three more. From is the context it appears to follow that the asylum of v. die. — — — probable emendation.—3. Nu. of the briefer law contained in the "Book of the Covenant.^* (in agreement with i K. 21^2-14.). alsoG^of-. i^" but in Dt. &c. 1229c. 152*. but the text cannot be so rendered XIX. 5. while considerably fuller and more minute than those in Dt.26-29 al. In the law of P. The case of accidental homicide illustrated by an example (cf.

"Innocent blood. the city to it.'. and so vindicates the rights of the murdered man. . 41") and the D'nn ?^^i is the one who enforces this claim upon the murderer. he is the "avenger of blood.e. while his feelings are aroused (cf." Gn. &c."* seems clearly intended not to annex a fresh case. § 115.^*^') he is to state his case at the gate of its elders. And if (Q^l). according was and vested the right. 11. . comp. (Sr'c] 1220.*^. See To walk in his ways] 8''. All the land which he promised. and he that goeth 1220. 21^ lit. v. i's (AV. is '^) Nu. and the duty. Dt. 2 S. service of its God. Ps." as 21^ 27^5 Jer. 26"*". 14^^ 78). 10. ncx). .^.] as it would be. " take his (thy) life"). 37-^ Jer.— — — — — — — 232 see below. 22^ cb: i^s^^ (G-K. has been killed (in whom. Cf. The first condition of this expansion of Israel's territory. wield).\ 8.. s. . is 1 122-24^ fhe introduced by then thou shall phil. cf.^. 20^: as said above (on to enforce . he was guilty of no capital offence so Jer. to the Deut.T. {i.-w\x\] Gn. — 9. (v. Sun] ^*'^.e. on i2-'^) so V. if a man."— 10.. he shall flee. 'Ji nmji vti mam] lit.Tni . 5^). : : . impelled): live] ace." 8-10. enunciates a condition subordinate to v. Israel's devotion to the part of the verse. viz.v. 23^1 342*. ""S.e. —And 20 driven. see on i7e7id (<<to the Euphrates"). while i.O. 7^ al.e. . his heart is hot] lest the nearest kinsman of the person who to ancient usage. who are then formally to receive him into — 6. . the life cf. 40"-^'' (paraphrased in A. 24i'*-'**&c. That innocent blood be not shed. — . were slain by the avenger of blood. § 117. not guilty of deliberate murder.— 6. a case of death -EC xSi] as 7^'.* for v. &c. If Israel's territory be enlarged to the ideal limits promised (i" — ii23f. "and he had no case of death. DEUTERONOMY Fetcheth a stroke] a very idiomatic rendering' of the active " impel" in 20^^ nniJ (lit." i. "and smite him as regards (the) soul" {i. 14**. . *'• is was an named also it accident. ." &c. (Dr. p.)j three additional cities are to be set apart for the same purpose. — Enlarge thy border. "when there is in a man a sin. 4*-8. Lest the avenger of blood pursue the manslayer. 39**) he is not sufficiently calm to reflect that of blood" (D'^n bxil) 5. . ir\n n3T o] 5. Dt. The "avenger (cf. a claim blood shed wrongfully calls for justice (Gn. — : . As he sware. of avenging his blood) pursue the manslayer. note on To . 35^^-27 Jos. But prob. a capital crime). Comp.^: add Ihe apodosis to love] 6^. «i. (Sfc] cf. insertion {L. ^ijSa.— niD dbcd pn 1^1] lit. Ex.V. 105) in Jos. nc-jts aj? ivhen should be read for "ib-ki and he that in v.e. but to ilhistrate v. " He that smiteth . cf. i.

to in i' ii^'*. 2215-18 25'-^. 20*. i K. him by the elders of his own city. acting on their behalf on important occasions. 4""*^. i S. 337). 3^7 5=* i K. and more fully (P) Nu. . cm. (cf.. The elders of his city] cf. 21^ (reading-. S^c] 4^^ And upon thee\ 2 S. they are represented as exercising judicial functions district or city. the rights of the family: comp. is not there contemplated.®"^" (Wellh. v. even in v. p. especially in the trial of capital charges. Comp. to the three cities E. who. 4=' 8^ 2 S. on 16'*). Cotnp. Arch. 4*^"*' is a subsequent insertion in Dt. and. the murderer. 8" (Succoth). in all). and the duties expected of them. if it be correct. Heh.**". after he has fled to a city of refuge. . is to be delivered up. 212-4. .*"^ referring to the three cities in Canaan. igi^f") (Judah). and the appointment of the three trans-Jordanic cities by Moses is antedated (cf. of Jordan. as the person authorized to put the murderer to death but the particular case of the murderer. Ex. 35^^'^^ (where different cases of 11. with (5. 8"^" will contemplate three others If 4*i-»3 The meaning of these verses will depend upon the view taken of was placed where it now stands by the author of Dt. Saul and upon his house there blood [D^OT nh^3 bsi]") also 2 S. 21^^.. 11-13. that no allusion is made. who constitute the local authority. is "upon . If. 30^8 and 2 S. The terms of v. or the king. S^-^ 20"-) sometimes as the leading inhabitants or representatives of a particular as Jud. 218-" (Jezreel). 10*. and cases affecting /^-'*'^ i K. Is giving thee.— 12. intentional homicide are illustrated). {e. these alternatives at the same time it is remarkable. Joshua. being fetched thence and delivered up to dr'c] the 35^^'2i : And deliver him. lo*-" (Samaria). already (according to Dt 4*^"") appointed. 3--" 9" P5) aisQ illustrate their official status. of Jordan v. by whom. But the privilege of asylum is not to be extended to if he flees to one of these cities. avenger of blood is specified in Nu. three trans-Jordanic Cities of Refuge will be presupposed here . three in Canaan v.g: Ex. 233 blood be v. to justice. Rise up against Mm] Gn. Ru. a royal commission is executed. the (making nine promised be added in case Israel's territory reach the limits on the contrary. ii""" (Gile'ad). The "elders" figure in almost every period of Israelitish history.". 5«'(23) 27I 299 (i«) 3i9'«8 Jos. 6-12 .— —— XIX. and three on the E." favour the first of 207 Benzinger. 1215.^'^. In Dt. 76 24I I S. 3^^* ^^ 4™ 24^* " Dt. 78). ii^ (Jabesh). or public business affecting the locality is transacted. 21*"" Ezr. without compunction. Is. Thus they appear sometimes as the official representatives of the people generally. &c. cf. accompanying or conferring with Moses. v. then only six cities in all will be contemplated by D. 168 Hos. 48. 16^ (Bethlehem). and in D^ Jos. for instance. 2 K.

^7. 27^' Hos. 20*** (D-) the manslayer : — 14. But in Hebrew law no such compromise is permitted Politics. § 287". Gn. 2228 ("i^niax \^v ic'N zh\v ^n: aon Ss). is substituted the judgment of a cool and impartial tribunal. Hom.ilienrechts. in Arabia.^ 2 S. Compar. 510 Pr. Among other nations." is permitted only in the case of a man being killed by an animal (Ex. in Nu. Germ. the general rule in Dt. 22 f. And shall be well for thee In ("]^ ^IDl)] 5^° (^^>. and the Romans even deemed 24* Jer. Freeman. also.8eis /at/tc oiKtiov ttoXltov yetVovos /^i/t' it ordains kivcito) . But in a primitive society the case here what a manslayer has to fear is not public prosecution. I4''*^^. 21^ in JE.— 234 13. pp. 19^) by one immediately interested. i8*^^* Tac. V" "] 2 K. 22»7f : allowable 13. to judge from allusions else- where.T. The "avenger of blood" figures in many primitive or semi-primitive In a completely civilized society. The landmark of a neighbour not to be removed. as a satisfaction for his life (see e. 842 E). many countries a money-compensation (a -ronri. executes justice on the murderer (v. § 128. 9''.**®).is. the right of punishment is societies. or -wergild) is accepted murdered man. 35^^* (P) the case between him and the avenger of blood is subject to the decision of the " congregation " . Job 242 (named here. Dt. restrictions are placed in the acting hastily or in passion (v. Kinship. 275-278). Lev.g. Plato {Legg. 21 among. 2310 [uhw isn: aon ^s NOn ^X D^Din^ nB'ai). ig"-^^.the Saxons. y^s opia o/xoTtp/ioi'os. by the death of the murderer the stain it removed (cf. is a stain upon a land (Nu. was not uncommon in ancient Israel : comp. 35*^ comp. 2 R\ . is different but the personal vengeance of the relatives of the slain man (comp. they were under the protection of Zeis opios . Post. probably repeating an older law. 21^). see Ew. or "ransom. as Knobel : reminds us. pp. A.k. H. 27^" see v. is under the protection of the elders of the city of refuge . for instance. K. H. assumed by the State for the revenge that might be inflicted in haste or passion (Dt. as in Dt. is 35^3) .. and not the State. and the murderer is to be put to death only on the evidence of more than one witness (Nu. . R. 21**). by the : : : . — species of encroachment which. 1 13-137. W. boundaries were treated as inviolable among the Greeks. so long^ as it is unavenged.T\ viii. 53). way of his according to Jos. \i. 35^®'^): but his authority is limited. Hebrew law is still in a relatively primitive stage the Go'el. — A DEUTERONOMY 7^^. relatives of a . in illustration of the custom of blood-revenge. Smith. See further. 19 —by — the side of other acts of aggression perpetrated upon the unprotected). ss^'^^in P): aiES. 24" in H.Nil. G-K. murder can be atoned for only by the blood of the murderer (Ex. Nu. Thine eye shall not pity him\ Thou shall exterminate (136(0)) innocent blood from Israel] blood innocently shed. 19^^). Ent-usichlungsgeschichte des Fam.

which in the is laid is down in 17*' and Nu. a witness of violence (DDH 1J?).e. . 22^8 "thy fathers"). the being evi- dently not the Canaanite predecessors of the Israelites. in its present wording. here reaffirmed as a general principle in the administration of criminal law. 235 to move them (Dion. inherited by the poor occupier from his ancestors (comp. priests and shall be in those days. ancestors (Lev. 74 and celebrated the annual festival of the Temiinalia in honour of the god Terminus (Ovid. be treated as valid (Nu. The law of witness. Numa neighbour. Which they of old time have set] lit. a witness — who either meditates some covert violence himself. and a malicious witness is to be punished in accordance with the Lex talionis. ii. la7id.e. 13-19 — — . the dispute.] the same — precautionary rule. 3520 (P) case of capital charges. 15-21. or who assists by doer: so Ex. true. if his dishonesty be clearly proved. 35^^. 26^^).alicious "witness] lit. as perhaps also in Is. When a malicious witness accuses a person wrongfully. Holdings of land. fection] VIZ. Shall a matter (subjectively) be established] or "a word be confirmed. but the Israelitish ancestors of the present possessors. presupposes the D'itJ'K"! occupation of Canaan by the Israelites. a'ln cnV tck] 2 S. the former ones 639 fF. At the mouth of two witnesses^ <Sr'c. The law. No person is to be judicially condemned on the testimony of a single witness . i5*-'*. 15. 59^^." 6- i. 16. in Pr.). formula (i^o 12I). i. his false testimony the high-handed wrong23I Ps.e. i.e. shall stand before fehovah 17. Fastiy ii. who Then both the men who have (12^). ('Jtrsi). —16-21. of from law and right. would have brought upon the person whom he accused. the witness suspected of dishonesty and the the judges person tJie whom he accuses. the accuser and the accused are both to appear before the central tribunal (17^) and the witness. before i. Elsewhere the term ('^'^9) is used of defection from God in a religious sense (on 13^) but here it appears from the context to be used more generally. shall .e. db'c.— — XIX. To testify against [e^^"^) him de- —17-19. is to be if punished with the same penalty which his testimony. i. are not to be encroached upon by a wealthier to slay those who attempted 16). Hal. 305- s). Plutarch.. A m.] In the the usual Deut.

: "These laws their aim. p. thy midst\ the in other similar cases (on 13^(5)). however.— 236 — DEUTERONOMY — appear at the central sanctuary. raia is rsj] the a is the -i pretii (ye^): Ex 21^ Lev. to bring as far as possible. ^ul see on 1 2^. The spirit of trustful confidence in presence of the foe. and to secure recognition for the claims of humanity and moderation " (Dillmann. Antiquities. with the note) . while 2jio-u^ 1-9. And those similarly 13^2(11). c. then shall ye do unto him as he had purposed {Zech. cognate with Perhaps its original place was after 21^. men fighting together. So shall thou exterminate the evil from. 24'*'* nnn " instead of" used. and fear. The question is treated as belonging to the class of more difficult cases. is not to regulate the entire conduct of war. 314). — which retnain shall hear. where it stands. —21. viz. Three Laws designed to secure Self-control and Forbearance in the Conduct of War. No compunction is to be felt in executThine eye shall not pity\ v. : (Hj . . especially by the Assyrians.. in dispute . Life (shall eye for eye. before the supreme tribunal there constituted (17^. on the other hand. in his neighbour some bodily harm. and oj the Judges. where it would form a suitable introduction to zi^^-"^^ &c. sitting \wX. 18. but only to check the barbarity and cruelty with which it was carried on by it. same concluding formula as —20. reserved for the jurisdiction of the central tribunal (see on i^st). 1^ Jer. The chap. 212* (JE) Lev. but each time for a different offence in Ex. in the special case of the struggle a the case of a Life is lit. ing the sentence. are peculiar to Dt. the question and if the result of the inquiry be to show that the witness has spoken untruthfully. and injuring in child . under the influence of the higher moral of Israel's religion.o there. 20 life. 51^^) to do unto his brother. rj:ni]="and if" (13"). after Ewald. many spirit ancient nations.^^ 7^^.] similarly Ex. murder). separates 19 from 21^-^ (both of which deal with cases connected with it is itself. &fc. XX.\ 21. fr'c. be g\y en) for 2^18. shall inqtdre diligently (1315(14) iy4. by accusing him falsely upon a criminal charge. quite generally. woman with man doing : in Lev.

at least as a standing custom . Let not your heart be j^q. it is true.\ the priest. 51**5. The presence of a priest (or priests) with the army. is not otherwise expressly attested. Permission is fight for you. — . subordinate military officials (i^^) it may be presumed that these kept the register of those who served in the army and hence it would naturally be their duty to know who had received authorized leave of absence. viz. Nu. which characterizes the author of Dt.\ and thereby were well provided. for the purpose — : — of performing the necessary sacred functions. 5 — 237 for the circumstances and interests of individual which a military expedition is to be undertaken 1-4. &fc. 2. field might These provisions are a remarkable illustration of the sympathetic regard for the interests and feelings of others. And seest horses and of regard soldiers. i S. that Jehovah is ever beside them.e. 20 —— —XX. §61. 3" Jer. gave evidence of His power to help thee comp.—2. further to be given by public proclamation through the host. 5-7. 13* Joel 48). 7^ Jer. and from the expression to consecrate (B^^p) a "war (or warriors). 3. ^^ 14^^ lish a rule — — 11" (the ark taken into the field). and with which. &c. 10^ 31^ (both P) 2 Ch. alarmed i^^. and for the ptcp. also by the priest accompanying the host. in particular. 5. Who is it? let the man that hath built a new house. D??-3fJ?] q6robkhdm: G-K. O Israel] 5^. The Israelite is to reflect. and not dedicated him go and return. 28 2 S. and to be reminded by Israel. but it may be inferred though some of the instances are. Hear." . the Egyptians and Assyrians Who brought thee up.8 Is. not of a character to estabfrom such passages as i S. 7^'^"^^. who is in attendance upon the host.— —— XIX. 6* 22' 512T. to return home. (iiann ^5X1)] cf. &fc. &€. Is.) 1 : cf. v. in — and chariots] which -weve always formidable to the Israelites. i R. for those — who have engaged recently in certain important antici- domestic undertakings. as their champion and ally. . and enjoy the pated satisfaction or pleasure of which death in the otherwise deprive them. on 63. 4^ [omit *' there" with ffi]. which refers apparently to the sacrifices offered at the opening of a campaign (Mic.] the dedication of the temple l^PDfj] XX. Neither be affrighted (lyiyn to ^Xl) Is he that goeth with you. 7^'* 13''* (sacrifices before an engagement). 1.^ ^^ soft] or tender (^T.] cf. 8^*-i^. on8^«. That the priest shall approach. The officers (ontSlJ')] i. 13^^"". 3^2.

see i Mace. Soft-hearted\ (^1 33?ri)] cf.e. 32. and shall serve thee] "tributary" (RV. cf. faned it (the Not used the fruit tJiereof? vineyard). 20^® Ex. Jud. 18) but the expression is an unusual one (cf. 31 5). Lev. (cf. I Ch. 17^' i K. and the numbers of those who intend to remain at their post are accurately known. treated it as common 6. D^*|i5Sn (see philol.Ti] on 12". cf. &c. 19^2-25^ 7^ That hath betrothed a wife. like dk. 2 S. In attacking a hostile city (provided it be not one belonging to the Canaanites). is not used by the owner: — — — the commanders. I K. : . first produce of the vines being" reserved as sacred. which implies 8. Shall be forforced labour unto thee (DD? 1p Vn^). a formal to be first offer of peace is always made to it.3). however. The subject of "shall appoint" will hardly be "the officers" (Keil). where exemption from military service is granted to those who are newly married. invite it to — 10. under their respective That they shall appoint captains of hosts] probably the captains of hundreds.e. jyoV. 8^3). for the space of a year. 9. 21'. are as a rule followed immediately by the . 2^. The faint-hearted are also to be allowed to return home. those whose business it was to appoint them (Dillm. private house. for the duty of appointing commanders is one that is likely to have been entrusted to a to be marshalled in divisions. which may be right. 10-18. for the ^ i S. 17^'. lest their presence should have a demoralizing effect upon the other soldiers. the indefinite. 11. \s. express dd. "they. alluded to elsewhere.\ comp.). Tiot pro- —the (so 2%^^ Jer. aaV riK db: n'?i] constr. &c. to it] i. of an altar (Nu. — (i??n)] lit. For an example of this law being acted upon.— 238 (i is * — DEUTERONOMY — — — and of an image (Dan. and comp. 13^: above. Then proclaim peace n. 2 Ch. subject is Engl. a'hvS . uhv ." Heb. Only when this proclamation has been made. 'o.T. . . 2i^3. but not surrender peaceably.. often mentioned elsewhere (p. " call to it with reference to peace " . and it is to be treated with severity only in case this offer be declined. as 12*".. 710). and thousands.tIJk rmnpi] lit. 24^. 8. 10. ijyn mVr dn] — — — words verb V. the special ideas associated with the Heb.^ Melt\ i^s. : army more responsible authority: more probably. (Sr (7»« c^n iuXiinf) Sam. note on 152). is here prefixed for emphasis cf.T . i. i^). 3^6. 273). mas. on v.) expresses the general sense. but not the dedication of an ordinary K.

no such for- — bearance is to be exercised 72-^. expression Jos. together with the cattle and spoil. : their inhabitants.] on Commanded thee] 72 comp. Gn. io«> iiiii*(D2) Jos. : it: this is in nDB^'3. But the women. then the siege to be proceeded with and slain if the city be captured. But 15. r.). accommodating the sentence to k^ ttk] 17". Eat\ i. idiom cf. of peace be declined. Ps. 1529 (Deut. Gn." "and if shall serve thee" here]. . The Hittite. which is seems that only human beings are denoted accordance with the predominant usage of applied to the breath of life in man. perpetrated. g2i [the "forced labour of one doing" service.^ i. 6-17 — — 239 liability to forced service. &c. i^-is Hos.—±5. the law implies no sanction or excuse for such 14I (13^^) 2 K. and on 2 S. 12-13. 34I*. And : Eng. after the offer of more refused .i** 2^4 &c. § 149.. 478 f. the case not being one for the application of Take for a prey unto thyself i^ Thri)] 2^ the herem (on 72). . and Dr. 202*). in accordance all with the provision are to be put to the sword.e. 16-18. standard. Ex. K. Anc. lest —Aught From by I they should lead the Israelites into immorality and irreligion. of the nations of Canaan.— — — XX. 37. being reserved as a prey for the captors. in the case of cities belonging to the Canaanites. <Src.). devote see on : 72. when. use for thine own sustenance and profit. 2^ Job 273 72.in . and other cruelties.). j k. 42^ 57I6 722. is But the offer .] so AV. that breatheth] lit. 1 1^* it the same any breath (nDB':"?3) i K.e. enjoy. (i) Such treatment of a conquered city. —12-14. but is used only once of : animals. on S^^"". the women and children. all the male population may be with the sword. 16^0 cf. Utterly destroy] lit. &c. Of these nations] i. . own monuments declare. measured by a modern may be deemed severe but it must be recollected : that it is only ex hypothesito be resorted to. as their (comp. Monarchies. RV. . — 17. 14. 1506!. Rawlinson. or for the torture of prisoners. monarch wont to exact of his subjects Jos.^ the women and children are to be spared (contrast v. favourable terms has been distinctly made and (2) that it is lenient as compared with the barbarities often practised in ancient warfare upon a con- and quered people 8^2. by the Assyrians atrocities as are alluded to in Am. 1717 Is. is or tash-'worJt^ such as an Eastern (cf.— mot] 16^^.

cf. removes loi'. and cut down the palm-trees. The fruit-trees belonging to the territory of a besieged city not to be wantonly destroyed by the besieger. Ez. Smith. mjS] mx p G-K. p. to root out the people of Medina. Until it fall] lit. Wiist. to the assaults of a besieger Israel's namely. in Greek warfare (Keipeiv or re/ivav rrjv yr]v. which here yields no appropriate sense see below. 42 Mic. the present would be a very extreme instance of it. at Elisha's tree. chap. Ps.' * and for recent times Palgrave. stigation. is it . 13. practice with invading armies. is —19. the field Tnan. 1. that it sJwuld be besieged before thee (lit.]cf. Anc. the ancient versions.^ — into siege from before thee)?] i. who compares 24^ Ez. 18. enter Mon. Kin 2c. 474. \^^^ {Lex. ed. Ez. 20. wn] resuming JT: cf. that it like the walls of hostility. with the illustration).. "man the tree of the field. often. : : — 18. as 2 K. 43. jpo*?] as 7^. &c.i^: cf. mean " man consists o/the who paraphrases men \y tree of the field. 2).e." Kin he lives on Dnxrr '3] can explained to (so Ibn 'Ezra whence AV. —20. 475. 293. and so ye sin.e. — A common mentioned In 2 K. implies the alteration of a point (O'^^^l for D']^l|') in the Massoretic vocalizacion. R." which i. 241° 25." "cut down every good " In Arabic warfare is the destruction of an enemy's palm-groves exploit a favourite {OTJC. 19^." note). which is that and nearly all modern commentators. . 19.. Enter into siege. come down (28^2 Is.^ p. 2 R. .* — 'ji only be rendered. Travels in Arabia. Schultz. who of are national adversaries. onKtsm . but not against trees capable of it The rendering.). esp. supplying all with sustenance. 19-20. the date-palms (Rawlinson. But though this idiom occurs in Heb. and the rend. may be directed excusably against men. and on 13^— nj^p mn tck] as Gen. v. 12^° [corrupt] Eccl. was also an Assyrian custom at least after the capture of a city —to destroy the valuable trees in the vicinity. the same word ("li^'P) which is rendered "siege" in v. Dr. all difficulty. 369). : a city. 4. for example. § 189. should be subjected. (Dr. Bulwarks] rather siege-works. . in- 319-25 the Israelites invading Moab. He was resolved . § 114. .. &c. onitn for DTJtn "n '3. . iqI^. leaves the clause msc3 7320 na"? unexplained.— 240 2331-33. 4!-* Is. § 199 Obs. 9* Nu. 7* la^i 18--. Vsnd j-j?] Lev. Jer. 15^2^ Ibn Hisham. see for ancient times 4 Esdr. 12").). 32!^). MS. For is the tree of i. - — — DEUTERONOMY That they teach you not to do after all iJieir abominations . It (W.

. is nor sown] XXI. The rite prescribed of an archaic character. and there be no indication elders of the city which who the murderer is. cl. it] Smith. 1. Doubtless in the Hebrew law 1. is —3-4. Aq. (see Field. the people of the place had to swear that they were not the murderers (Smith. &'c. ix. are to procure a heifer which has never been used for any work. ad loc. hence S kT3 (do. at the same time solemnly avowing before God that their city is guiltless of the murder. for the due performance of the expiating its "elders" acting naturally on •wrought •with behalf (on -with. note). The law it. rii3 K^] designed a circ. those of the surrounding cities is on 19^2 16I8).e. though the feeling which underlies viz. is peculiar to Dt. passive. 178.e.— XX. the nearest to the spot where the corpse was found. — na known" (Dr. in which it is here embodied. k^ tck] . 16^" 53^ Nu. to wash their hands over it. R. 15* 251^. — If a man is for the expiation of an be found murdered in the open country. If there he found\ 172 24^. is often expressed elsewhere. Thy (cf.). Hind as arbiter between the two tribes to prevent the recrudescence of war between Bakr and Taghlib. and is certainly much older than the is law of Dt. The its city which nearest to the scene of the murder to be held responsible rite. This is part of the arrangement made by 'Amr b. i. cf. And shall break the heifet's neck there] the heifer. i8— XXI. Is giving thee to possess 19^^. U asperam atque saxosam. — Which hath not been Nu. is manifestly 1. Kinship. as v. until one which is some recognized atonement be offered for it. i629 (on 2 S. 263). .* ("wherein it is not tilled"). Tyn] construe as 12" (where see note).. The 16 135. 14* "the hard labour ^3 njy •wk wherewith (cogn. p. elders and thy judges] i. 'y\ is an uncultivated spot.'3 ^OJ (uncultivated). Symbolical ceremony untraced murder. 151^ ever-running water] i. 4. 25 ff. that the shedding of innocent blood defiles a land or people. 4 — 241 XXI. AV. 17^^). § 162). when a man was found slain. accus. "In the Kitab al-AghdnJ. 19^.—4.rm .) x^''t^<^(hs irrtfti. — 3.] cf. rough. MS. in this rite. also the original object was to preclude blood-feud " (W. and entreating Him to forgive His people for the crime that has been committed in its midst. ]n'H VmJ © ^ipay^ Tfttpf^tJce. 1-9.) it was worked with thee" cf.. Is. — 2. the responsibility for a homicide is thrown on the nearest homestead {ddr). to take it to a running stream. in presence of the priests. and having there slain it. 3. Onq. In Arabia.n impers. — Unto a valley (wady) see below. = "«V not being "wherewith it hath not been woried"—a. — Which neither plowed 19^^).

24^1 Jer. which has not been used for any profane purpose. shows that a certain : sanctity is conceived to attach to it. of water . &c. 4iff). rough (comp. Rashi. s^* Ps. and It is as a substitute for the bears the penalty which ought properly to be his. 13^^ ^420 Js. (comp. observes. &c. 219). 10^ i8^ (lit. in an uncultivated spot. In Ex. and accordingly it is not slaughtered with any special ritual (Lev. pointed out that the root must be the Arabic watana. 66^) at the same time. dr'c] cf. Stade. the corresponding formation in Arabic denoting the comparative or superlative degrees of an adjective in Hebrew it fell out of use. 1C'»<. Nu. as Arabic began to be studied systematically. and compared with Hebrew. Job 12^^ (of men firmly seated. of Gen. 5. the members of the priestly tribe resident in the locality (i8<5) cf. Ibn 'Ezra. more or . 74^' Pr. the real meaning ofjn'Nat once revealed itself. § 162''. hence jitk Vm Am. 49^ Ex. As soon. In form.e. except in a few instances. to be constant. 74" jn'K is construed as a subst. Qimchi. whose numbers never dwindle or fail). 49^^* of a bow. the AV. the fact that the animal is to be a young one. 8. such as strong. the stream in which flowed continuously. The priests here : meant may possibly be those of the central sanctuary but more probably. §§ 255. however. 82.— 242 DEUTERONOMY unknown murderer. The priests the sons of Lev{\ 31^: that the blood may any which falls — usually **the priests the Levites " (18^). Schultens. AV. . unfailing. : Baudissin. esp. i. without the risk of being uncovered at some future time when the soil is disturbed by the plough. (whence less agreeable with the context. as Gen. sure. or established. I^or t/iem. and that upon the earth may sink into it. 5^* a perennial." i. ilrt*. in order doubtless be carried away by the torrent. \^ Ps. 19?'*' (^w. as Dillm. 13^*). 5^' (a nation. 15'^. as 3J3!<. Priesterthum. hard. that it possesses to some extent the character of a sin-offering 192). the word is an " elative. enduring. not regarded as a proper sin-ofFering. 14" Nu. and. to denote permanent. — A?ui dispute it according to their sentence i. = "continuous flow" : elsewhere it is used fig.e. in a position of dig^nity). it has an intensive force. by an inexactness of language (p. 24^^' (a dwelling). And it is to be slaughtered by an ever- flowing stream. or ever-floTving torrent (wady). 256'').) by conjectural renderings. 84. word is one of those of which the true meaning was lost by the Jews and was accordingl)' represented both by the ancient versions and by the mediaeval Jew^ish commentators. The opposite of j^'X is 3j?K Jer. here of a torrent-valley (see on 2^). Nu. but merely put to death by having its neck broken (Ex. mouth) shall every and every stroke be] they are to have a voice in . mighty. in his Origines Hebrcece (1724). Jer.

4325 4422). as it does in Jer. 425-6. for the cases in which the verb is in the impf.\ thereby expressing symbolic- crime (Mt. have a 3 pi. Hebrew (Strack u. and Eth. n3£58' «!?] (cf. generally the subj.. being that of obliterating or cancelling cases where the obj. jn3 to lay upon^ Jer. igof. ** in the ceremony (which it elders " of the city concerned). ZDMG. 8. hast ransomed WJiich thou See further pp.. S-8 every legal decision — .— XXI.g. which from Egypt. 2^^ 22^ Ps.). 411. p. (7^)] the appeal is grounded on the gracious their deliverance — between Jehovah and His people. not for the purpose of taking" part personally performed throughout by the acter.) collectively. i?. of importance 178-10). the fern. i*.^ 438 f. which they represent is innocent of the Ps. is Jer. Clear pSi?) thy people] the root-idea of kappsr is either (from f. der Neuhebr. with i)j. is OT. is or (in the rare In the 6^ a person) clearing the sinner. (as Ps. cf. to the animal in — 7. — . the verb being used absolutely in the sense oi perform an obliterating {atoning^ rite. supposes these forms to be isolated examples of the same form in Heb. Nold. 16^^ (with i as here). however. Siegfried. 1889. The correction is. v. God. 26** 73^^). 335 Syr. — the Arab. Ps. in is n^B?'. 2724 of it : cf. — in either case. 4^* Ps. Set not innocent blood in the midst of thy people] let it not remain. infecting and relation subsisting was sealed by incriminating thy people 7. Hebraica. p. Here the is presence of the priests appears to be required. as i S. i823 Ez. 1^). § 37^^ al. § 145''). e. p. 1887. The QrS ('3?'?) substitutes the more 317" ordinary construction. see. and on Lev. as 32*^ cf.. unnecessary . Sprache. however. with the plural (or dual) understood (as Arab. § 91*. 37'') are sufficiently numerous to show that the construction is genuinely Hebrew. 8. in a: hence Peters.) to wipe off (see rin?0 or (from the 2 OTJC. (Ew.e. Jem. 1884. : the pass. nssj] a Nithpdel form. nor have we any knowledge who is the murderer. 243 (cf. 26^^ i:n' the Kt. 22^* Pr. blot out Is.^^ S. performed. 73-''. sing.) to cover (see Wellh. and transferring the guilt representing the murderer. 16" in P the subj. .). (Aram. Comp. Lehrb. ^^ Is. — 6. 65^ 7838 79^. Ill. with double reflexive prefix. very common in post-bibl. And all the elders of that city their hands over the heifer^ ally that the city wash &c. . but rather for the purpose of imparting to a religious charproperly shall and of securing that the prescribed rites are . 18^ G-K. mostly the priest. the general sense sin. (more briefly) 381 . Answer (l3y)] it] a liturgical sense (27^*- Neither have our eyes seen i.

is responsible for the crime committed in midst. but he must not sell her into slavery. He may afterwards. arities of terminology. relating chiefly to Civil and Domestic is Life. home with him a female captive. for his offence. "originally la'^K. T31k] perh. The Miscellaneous Laws.^o " when thon goest forth " &c. with whom no intermarriages are to be contracted 'D?pri3. 2^*^ i??J (G-K. —An Israelite is at liberty to bring On marriage with a female captive taken in war. if this is impossible. from older sources. 20. § 16^^). When thou goest forth to battle though the only other example in the OT. as Is. until the murderer has been 35^^). in agreement with un: and 'V2V so 28^" : . The case contemplated matter with is is manifestly that of warfare with foreign nations. When thou shall do that which is right [6^^) in the eyes of JeJwvah] in obeying — Jehovah's behest. DEUTERONOMY The community. Stade. might readily liberty to act as deem himself its at he pleased.). — 10. 22" (Pu'al). brought to justice (Nu. The law (which is peculiar to Dt. but he may not formally treat her as his wife until he in which to mourn for her lost if he ceases to care for her. ii4). — 9. until some expiation has been offered. section beginning here marked by several peculifor. ?'7|Nti)). which are to be accounted probably. § 559 . 20. and with less modification of form than in other cases. or. with h. elated by victory.) shall exlerminale Ihe iniwcenl blood from thy itself midst] thus shall Israel perform the duty of clearing from the stain of murder (comp. XXI. lO-XXV. by the fact that the laws contained in it (which are often more concisely worded than in the previous chapters) are taken more directly. not with the nations of Canaan. The constr. It is connected by subject- c. (7^).— 10. warrior. 10-14. 19^^). And thou (emph. is Ez.244 Jon. and accepted. and perhaps (as remarked on 21^) was once immediately preceded by c. its as a whole.) inculcates thoughtfulness and forbearance under circumstances in which the Israelitish has allowed her a month parents. Israel will clear itself of the guilt resting upon it. after Israel settled in Palestine (v. permit her to leave him.

38»-" i S. 34^ (for is Aaron and Moses). as the woman is not represented as being actually a widow. Comp. Gn. 16^*) . The object of the provision evidently (Keil. 58^ (before clause). Ew. however ony". 28^ Ps. abundant. widow passed the year after her husband's death without washing or otherwise attending to her person : and she would terminate her period of mourning by some formal act. of water. Wellh.) conj. genit. (of water). cf. § 192. to surpass. make (ntt'J?). 34^^.— Ch. 1 cf.— 11. not less than ns'. : 19^5. though. //ast a — She 12. the *' Pare " is lit. m^] so 2 K. . Arab. And shall remain in thine house (Gn. she may lay aside the marks and (v. c. and to accustom herself to her new surroundings. cf.—1'3» 28'. -H. cf. or held in suspense. The raiment of her captivity] her captive's garb (Is. d'O' enn Gn. Thou to her soul (or desire. on 32. 21^ (JE) for the case 21^ Jud. na TSi'nn vh\ is to cf. to submerge. 156 . 241^). 24' naoi ghamura iii. ghamara to plunge into a fight. 348. and pare her nails] a symbolical expresis sion of the fact that her forsaken condition at she has found a husband is who will care for her. Held. but the gen. such as paring hernaih. dress cf. 2409'' . but in appos.. — month's mourning of Nu. by the introduction of the parallel ns'. if^. ghamara is to rise above ia TDynrnf. Gn. nsj' —nxn tipk] for the upk. into which she has been brought against her will. prob. The p. ghamrah is a sub' . desire unto her (nn npKTll)] "f lo^s as here. &c. i. 45^^^^°)). delivereth — — 245 And Jehovah j thy God him into thy hand] as 20^^ . shape aright. G-K. i5^^t . dignity.—13. or plucking out the hair from her face (Lane. 5" Ps. Smith. . e. Lex. . 2o29 Dt.e. in seclusion. 1 1^.r«/ (in stature. an end. with HT D'D' : d'D' is i . D'D' ^-r\w (Dr. n'aeo] cf. 178 present injunction is based probably on such a custom. shall shave her head.) to give her time to become reconciled to her separation from her parents (Ps. of the 13.^if . fig. 2 c). 9-14 against thine enemies] exactly as 20^. i S. OTJC. —H. Nu. laid down st. as soon as her prospects of a husband and of a home are assured. not a § 131. and the common phrase is determined by "iNn (cf. attack in conflict. 38^^). r\-S\ra nrom] cf. nac] a na nVina. . 2 S. § 2890. 68'^.^^) the garb of her forlorn state. . which determines it is deferred. 3^^). beard. Let her go whither she will] lit. 14. .— XXI. G-K. .) 32'" 2 rel. ncN. be copious or The meaning is uncertain. . that and that she about to begin In ancient Arabia. Dillm. in Ex. and her own people. and bewail her father and her mother for a month of days] cf. shall not sell herfor money] the restriction is in virtual agreeaccording — ment with the provision (Di. a life again under new auspices. 29" Nu. Arab. see Jer. Arab. Kinship. .^ 368). S. in close relationship with the people of God. § 130'.

manum ei admovit violentius. means analogously to treat as a subject or dependent. iv. 19^). or deprived of his legitimate share of his father's property. le'-**". &'c. 15" Ex. 20^) but it was . and possessing" rights above his brethren. paraphrases. make or treat as ff. ^^aTnouthof two" ip^lT^ ^3).). und uy in den Psalmen. Ex. p. 20^. to dishonour. 67 my — in Heb. viz. of the case which. to obedient (Qor. the one beloved and the other hated\ as happened. . 15. But him what he is. it is The law is desigfned to g-uard ag^ainst arise. Because thou hast humbled her (nn^sy)] n3J? of dishonouring" a woman. Peculiar to Dt. may be at all inferred : : G 28"- ** al. RV. recognise (Gn. of a woman. evident. in the interests of the son of a favourite wife : he is to receive a share twice as large as any of his brothers. as being" . — — —— — — DEUTERONOMY who has taken his female bond-servant to wife. 428).e. In so far as the from these data. for example.—— 246 of a man. 13^2 al. Gn. to humble. and tJie desires afterwards to part with her. or liberty. 342 2 S. cf. or recognized rights: cf. esp. below). i S. mergingfood. § 64). (cf. would have some such fig. 24^^ 25^ 2 S. 16. If a man have two wives. 16" (|| "to do what is right in one's own eyes: so Jud.] Arab. cf. . in the case of : Jacob (Gn. conj.^r(cAac»/. 17. The rights of the firstborn. 2^ ("let a share of two in thy spirit fall to me. Nowack. 13^ The beginning of his he shall acknowledge the firstborn\ properly. "Ck nnn] 22* powers so Gn. as 222^. 31^ Jud. — an'jj. — limited by custom and law (""^S!) (cf. 17^3 2 K. 1892." i. 'and ('a«a'") is to be submissive. —The firstborn son is not to be disinherited. i^). treat with disregard of her womanly rights. a share twice as large as any of thy other disciples may I rank as the firstborn among them). Ps. Gn. 'JB Vy] in front of= in preference to II — : . with the acquired idea of treating irresponsibly. the reflex. Thou shall not play master over her\ on "Doynn {2\^\). to serve or to enslave Gn. play the master (cf. Rahlfs. The same idiomatic expression recurs 2 K. '3 nnn /^^. specially to 16. 49^ (of The right of the firstborn is his] meaning in Heb. 15-17. see below. 20^^"). by depriving of independence.^ Gn. by becoming a '3p captive. to maltreat.21 cf. a captive (see esp.\ a certain testamentary power was thus possessed by the ancient Israelite (cf. ii'-" (cf. 78^1 10536."). 24' jtatTaSuvaffTiuVaf) Ges. In the day that he causeth. ^31' K?] "j^. Gn. By giving him a share of two in all that he hat?i\ lit. might readily a man's abusing" his paternal prerogative through the influence of a favourite wife. v. irruit in aliquem. 2^^^^. sense as deal despotically. strength] the first-fruits of his virile Reuben). Zech. cf.

22^5 2^ Ruth 41-2-11." 2 S. carried on. 21). e. w?^) and in H (Lev. 1275. 247 the position and privileges of the firstborn were highly valued (cf.—— XXI. ffi " the men of his city " (as v.— 20. Palest. though from the nature of the case they will not be meant except as an example of what 20. and stoned to death. And unto the gate of his place\ in : and where the law was administered comp." drnnkard\ the same combination (>5?bl ??ir) Pr. forih\ it — 19. Gen. The Land and the 27fF. family right: see on 19^2. Job i. 182^). 2531. : here. 20^). as also. And shallbring him duty Unto the elders of the city\ whose was to take cognizance of offences against social and 17^ 222124. 523 Ps. The words are manifestly intended to hint at the ground of the young man's obstinacy. that drink wine. i5 Js. 27^'' he that "setteth light by his father or his mother " is pronounced accursed. — — . father or mother: in Dt. (S. including bodily correction (22^^ 132* 22^5 22^^^. and doubtless seats along each side is thus the Oriental forum and it is often alluded to as the place in which the which the elders sat.^2. 15-20 — . is to be arraigned by them publicly before the elders of his city.— Chasten {r\f)] gs Pr. A son who persistently refuses to obey his parents. on 436.34 2736). This particular law is peculiar to Dt.291^). and see Pr. Thomson. administration of justice 2921 was Cf. but respect towards parents is inculcated in the Decalogue death is prescribed in the Book of the lished usage. 5^°. The "gate" more properly the gateway.g.) — "be not among those . ^S^. however. with a depth corresponding to the thickness of the wall in which it was constructed. 2321 (cf. The present law does not institute the right of the firstborn. which. having a gate at the inner and outer ends (hence "between the two gates. for cursing. : Covenant (Ex. 211^) as the penalty for smiting. — . 28^. . 3121 Ps. The elders of his citj'] Sam. 19I3 29I7 cf. appears here (Being) a glutton and a to be less suitable than "elders. but invests with its sanction an estab- and guards it against arbitrary curtailment. that squander flesh upon themselves ") ^1 (properly a squanderer) also Pr. 18-21. v. both in the same Code [ib. The incorrigible son. Am. probably. Stubborn and rebellious (nniO!| l^iD)] Jer. m 1:33] on 5^. 20 Book.

and Hebrew moralists did not hesitate to commend the rod as a salutary instrument of education but the father's authority though. down the 1310(9). but thou shalt bury him on the same day] cf. but after execution. § 28. nio God 4" Dt. As shown above. 30'' disobedience to parents is cited as a thing which brings a man to a bad end. he could sell his daughter into slaver}' was not despotic he had not. ^'AH" because it is to the — common wrong: interest for all to take part in puttingcf. end). 272^) resting BBco Kan] a case of apposition. upon a tree. § 189. as at Rome. Archaol. All the men of his &c. His body shall not remain all night upon tJie tree. p. have been often carried into practice "in Pr. a public proof that the adequate penalty had been paid by him for his offence. Hebrew law insisted on respect being paid to parents. . The present law will hardly. Ex. Jos.him. 23.e. Sent. and thou shalt iwt defile thy land. (Sr'c] — probably the exposure of a malefactor's corpse by hanging was resorted (Gn. to be taken down and buried before nightfall. 3^ nrp? n^2_D. power of life and death over his son where (as in the case here contemplated) vice and insubordination became intolerable. he must appeal to the decision of an impartial tribunal (cf. Nowack. at least in an earlier age (Ex. — — : . 22-23. Jos. &c (Dr.— 248 —— DEUTERONOMY — :: city. So 'i'?n cnVx n^!?? 'a] "a curse of God "=accursed of God (Dr. a current dictus a Deo). and thou hang. sin. So thou slialt exterminate. however. 4^2^ . as an And additional disgrace (comp. The body of a malefactor. he be put to death. \i was exposure before God and man.—23. 60). Aq. as an understood thing. in the case of a criminal charge. he could not take the law into his own hands. Is. and virtually all modems. 21. § 188. 1311(10) 1^5 222*. to only in the case of heinous offences : it could be taken therefore as significant of the curse of 22. Theod.\ comp. 'd 'd limiting and defining the sense of Ken: cf.\ if (P). for the purpose of being executed. (xecrifa hev [see Field]). Nothing- is said of any investigation on the part of the elders into the truth of the parents' allegation no doubt this is passed over. i). not as a thing punished by law " {^Rel. a judgment of death (19^)] i. on a tree] the malefactor was hung. might be said on such an occasion. however. as with us. 24" c'D^sr D'nsi. 2).