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Agenda

1.Basics Hydrostatic, Applied Pressure, Differential Pressure 2.Buoyancy (Archimedeslaw review) 3.Hook Load and Buoyancy Factor (300.037 of field DH)

Open ended pipe Plugged Pipe

Schlumberger Private

4.Neutral Point (important when undoing a thread) 5.Changes in Tubing Length (TBG, DP, DC)

Due to Temperature Due to Stress (own weight) Due to Ballooning/Reverse Ballooning (= added Tbg pressure or annulus pressure)

6. Free Point

Basics

Pressure = Force / Area Force = Pressure x Area

Hydrostatic Pressure: Pressure caused by a column of fluid Phyd (psi) = Density (ppg) x Length (ft) x 0.052 Applied Pressure : Usually associated with a pump, or pressure from the formation. Differential Pressure: The difference between pressures acting on different sides of a body (a pipe, a piston, etc...

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3,000 psi surface

Calculate the differential pressure acting on the tubing just above the packer (10,000 ft)

9 ppg brine

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6,000 ft

10,000 ft

Solution

P annulus = 9 ppg x 10,000 ft x 0.052 = 4,680 psi P tubing = 3000 + [( 9 ppg x 6,000 ft ) + ( 16 ppg x 4,000 ft )] x 0.052 = 9,136 psi P differential = P tbg - P ann = 9,136 - 4,680 = 4,456 psi

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ANSWER

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Buoyancy

Any body immersed in a fluid will receive an upward force called buoyant force F The buoyant force F is equal to the weight of the volume of the fluid displaced by that body. The bouyancy force is proportional to the weight of the fluid.

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Buoyancy

Any body immersed in a fluid will receive an upward force called buoyant force F. The buoyant force F is equal to the weight of the volume of the fluid displaced by that body.

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DPhyd F

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Hook Load

This is the actual weight supported by the hook when a string is in the well It combines the weight of the pipe with buoyancy due to fluid hydrostatic pressure Also called : effective weight

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Given Bull Plugged Pipe 51/2 Casing 17 lb/ft Calculate the Hook Load

10 ppg BRINE

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5,000 ft

10

Solution

A = [ p x (5.5)2 ] / 4 P. hyd Buoy. Force Weight in Air Hook Load A = 23.76 in2 = 2,600 psi = 61,776# = 85,000# = 23,224#

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= 5,000 ft x 10 ppg x 0.052 = 2,600 psi x 23.76 in2 = 5,000 ft x 17#/ft = 85,000 # - 61,776 #

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ANSWER

B. Force = 61,776 #

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GIVEN

15.8 ppg CMT

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ID = 28.27 Displace with 8.5ppg Sea.W. Calculate Hook Load at the end of cement job

Sea Water

950 ft 1,000 ft

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Solution

Outer Area = ( p x 302 ) / 4 = 706.85 in2 Inner Area = ( p x 28.272 ) / 4 = 627.68 in2

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Internal Pressure

External Pressure

Hyd Force (inside) Weight in air

= 461 psi x 627.68 in2 = 289,363 # = 1,000 ft x 196 lb/ft = 196,000 #

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ANSWER

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GIVEN 5 1/2 Csg / 17#/ft @ 5,000ft 10 ppg MUD ; Open End

5 1/2 Csg 17 lb/ft

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10 ppg MUD

5,000 ft

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Solution

Area = p / 4 ( OD2 - ID2 ) Area = 0.7854 x [(5.5in)2 (4.89in)2] P hyd = 5,000 ft x 10 ppg x 0.052 Buoy. Force = 2,600 psi x 4.962in2 Weight in Air = 5,000 ft x 17 lb/ft HOOK LOAD = 85,000 lb - 12,900 lb

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ANSWER

Hook Load = 72,100 #

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Buoyancy Factor

Buoyancy Factor = 1 - ( Mud Weight / 231 x density of pipe )

with steel density = 0.2833 lb/in3

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Note 1:

-->

The buoyancy factor for different mud weights can be found in the handbook, page 300.037.

Note 2:

The buoyancy factor can only be applied when using the same fluid inside and outside the pipe, so there is no differential pressure between annulus and tubing.

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Given 5000.ft of 17 #/ft Casing 10.ppg Mud

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-->

Solution

=1- (0.01528x10) = 0.8472 = 17#/ft x 0.8472 = 14.4 #/ft. = 5000' x 14.4#/ft= 72,000#

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In deviated well we have to take into account the fact that the pipe is in contact with the wellbore

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q

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R T W

W = Bouyant weight of the string R = Reaction against wellbore T = Tension in the string = HL

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Static Condition Tension T = W cos q R.I.H q

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P.O.H Tension T = W cos q + Friction

R T W

Only a pull test RIH can confirm the R = Reaction against wellbore T = Tension in the string true Friction drag force

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Hook load of a static string is equal to:

Weight in air -- buoyancy -- weight supported by the hole

Static hook load + drag forces ( + while POH / - while RIH )

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Drag will change when buckling/helical buckling occurs in the well Confirmation of the exact drag can be done only by doing RIH/POH tests prior to the job

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Neutral Point

Hook Load

Neutral Point:

It is the the point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression.

25

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Neutral Point

Neutral Point:

It is the point in a string which is nor under tension nor under compression.

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Neutral Point

Neutral Point: It is the UNIQUE point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression.

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If we slack off 10,000lb to set the packer the neutral point will move up

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Neutral Point

Neutral Point:

Is the point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression If we slack off 10,000lb to set the packer the neutral point will move up

10,000lb

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NEUTRAL POINT ??

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Neutral Point

Neutral Point: Is the point in a string which is not under tension nor under compression

10,000lb

Hook Load

Tension

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NEUTRAL POINT

If we slack 10,000lb to set the packer the neutral point will move up

Compression

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Calculate the effective weight of the pipe (lbf/ft effective using the bouyancy factor table)

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Divide the weight required on the packer by the effective weight of the pipe (lbf/ft) That result is : the length of pipe required to effectively have the required weight on the packer.

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GIVEN 5 DP - 19.5#/ft, in 10ppg fluid PKR @ 10,000ft set with 15,000# CALCULATE the position of the Neutral Point

5 DP 19.5 lb/ft

10 ppg MUD

Schlumberger Private

15,000 lb 10,000 ft

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Solution

Buoyancy Factor DP effective weight DP total Weight in Fluid = 1 - ( 0.01528 x 10 ) = 0.8472 = 19.5 x 0.8472 = 16.52 lb/ft

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Hook Load

Neutral Point Depth

= 150,200ft / 16.52#/ft = 9,092 ft

We can also calculated the Neutral Point position from the Packer:

Neutral Point Depth= 10,000ft - 908ft = 9,092 ft

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33

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GIVEN 3000ft of 5 DP - 19.5 lb/ft 500ft of 6 DC - 79.4 lb/ft PKR @ 3,500ft set with 15,000#

10 ppg MUD

5 DP 19.5 lb/ft

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6 DC 79.4 lb/ft

15,000 lb

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SOLUTION

DP effective weight DC effective weight = 16.52 lb/ft

10 ppg MUD

5 DP 19.5 lb/ft

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= 67.27 lb/ft

DC total weight = 33,635 lb Hook Load = 68,195 lb

6 DC 79.4 lb/ft

As the Hook Load is > than DP weight, the neutral point is In the drill collars section Neutral Point depth = 3,277 ft

15,000 lb

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Example 3

Due to emergency situation in off shore , the well has to be shut down temporarily. 9-5/8 in DLT Packer + 61/8 in Storm Valve planned to be set around 1000 ft depth. At the same time client wants to have the bit 500 ft off bottom when the packer is set.

DLT + SV At 1000 ft

10 ppg MUD

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Questions : 1. What is the total hook load before you set the Packer? 2. Is the 6-1/8 in Storm Valve able to perform this job? Why? 3. What will be the Hook Load you need to have before unscrewing the Storm Valve (after the packer set)? 4. What will be the total tensile load supported by the DLT Packer? 5. Is the 9-5/8 in DLT packer able to support this load? Why?

5 DP 19.5 lb/ft

10,000 ft

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Solution

Q1 Bouyancy Factor = 1 (0.01528 x 10 ppg) = 0.8472 Total DC length = 600 ft Total DP length = 10,000 ft 500 ft 600 ft = 8,900 ft Total DC eff. wt = 0.8472 x 79.4 lb/ft x 600 ft = 40,360.6 lbs Total DP eff. wt = 0.8472 x 19.5 lb/ft x 8900 ft = 147,031.6 lbs Total Hook Load = 40,360.6 lbs + 147,031.6 lbs = 187,392.2 lbs Q2 Yes, because tensile load max of 6-1/8 in Storm Valve is 363 klbs

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Solution

Q3 Total DP length = 1,000 ft (from surface to SV depth) Total DP eff. wt = 0.8472 x 19.5 lb/ft x 1,000 ft = 16,520.4 lbs

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Q4 Total DC length = 600 ft Total DP length = 9,500 ft 600 ft 1000 ft = 7,900 ft Total DC eff. wt = 0.8472 x 79.4 lb/ft x 600 ft = 40,360.6 lbs Total DP eff. wt = 0.8472 x 19.5 lb/ft x 7900 ft = 130,511.2 lbs Total Hook Load = 40,360.6 lbs + 147,031.6 lbs = 171,141.8 lbs

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Solution

Q5 Yes, because hang off weight max of 9-5/8 in DLT Packer is 375 klbs

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Factors that can affect tubing length:

Temperature Stress Ballooning / Reverse Ballooning

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Changes in Temperature

Temperature will change due to : Production Injection If Temperature Increases => Decreases =>

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Changes in Temperature

Temperature Effect:

DL = Lo x x DT

where:

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Lo = original length of pipe = temperature elongation factor (6.9 x 10-6 /F) DT = change in average temperature If both end of the tubing are fixed a force F will be generated F = 207 x A x DT

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GIVEN 15,000 lb weight on Packer Pumping Fluid @ 70o.F CALCULATE Force left on Packer when string Temperature is down to 70o F SOLUTION Area = D Temp = Force applied =

BRINE

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15,000 lb

150 .F

43

A = P/4 ( 3.52 - 2.7642 ) A = 3.62 in2 Temp. Average = ( 150 deg F + 70 deg F ) / 2 = 110 deg F DT = 70 deg F 110 deg F - 40 deg F F = 207 x A x DT = 207 x 3.62in2 x (- 40) deg F F = - 29,974 lb

44

Schlumberger Private

GIVEN 15,000 lb weight on Packer Pumping Fluid @ 70o.F CALCULATE Force left on Packer when string Temperature is down to 70o F SOLUTION Area D Temp. Force applied = 3.62 in2 = 40o F = 29974 lbf - 15000 lbf = 14974 lbf BRINE THE PACKER IS UNSET !!

45

Schlumberger Private

15,000 lb

150 .F

L Due to Stress

The stretch caused by stress is calculated with the Hooke's law:

FxL S = ----------ExA

Where: S = Stretch (= elongation) (ft.)

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F = Force pulling on tubing (lbf) L = Original length of tubing (ft.) E = Youngs Modulus (30 x 106 psi)

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L Due to Stress

Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and zero at the bottom

Hook Load

47

Schlumberger Private

L Due to Stress

Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and nil at the bottom

Hook Load

48

Schlumberger Private

L Due to Stress

Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and nil at the bottom

Hook Load

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49

L Due to Stress

Hook Load is Maxi at the top of the string and nil at the bottom

Hook Load

Schlumberger Private

Average Stress

10,000 ft

50

GIVEN

3.1/2 tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal

Schlumberger Private

Hook Load

SOLUTION

Average Stress

10,000 ft

51

= 0.8472

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Pipe Weight in mud = 12.8 #/ft x 0.8472 = 10,84 #/ft = 10.84 #/ft x 10,000 ft = 108,400 # Hook Load / 2= 54,000 #

= 4.99 ft

52

GIVEN 3.1/2 Tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal Calculate the change in length caused by stress

Schlumberger Private

Hook Load

SOLUTION

B.F. (from handbook) =0.8472 Pipe Win mud =10.84 #/ft

Average Stress

Hook Load

Stretch DL

=108,400 #

=4.99 ft

10,000 ft

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Internal Tubing Pressure will create

External Tubing Pressure ( Annulus ) will create

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Depth

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Ballooning

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???? ft

Pressure

Depth

56

Ballooning Reverse Ballooning

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Pressure

???? ft

Depth

Pressure ???? ft

57

If tubing is free to expand or shorten we will have to deal with Ballooning Stretch: DPtb - R2 DPan DL = 2L x 10-8 x ----------------------------R2 - 1 Where :

DPtb DPan

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If the tubing is not free to expand or shorten we will have to deal with Ballooning Force:

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Where : Ai = Internal Section Area Ao = External Section Area

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Ballooning - Example

GIVEN 3.1/2 Tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal

Schlumberger Private

3000psi

SOLUTION

10,000 ft

???? ft

60

Solution

If the string is allowed to shorten : L = 2L x 10-8 [ ( Ptb - R2 Pan ) / ( R2 - 1 ) ] R = 3.5 / 2.764 = 1.2663 R2 - 1 = 0.6035 L = 10,000 ft Ptb = 3,000 psi Pan = 0 L = 2 x 10,000 ft x 10-8 [ ( 3,000 ) / 0.6035 ] L = 0.994 ft = 12 in ( shorter )

61

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Ballooning - Example

GIVEN 3.1/2 Tbg / 12.8 #/ft Mud = 10 #/gal Calculate the change in length or force due to Ballooning SOLUTION If pipe Free DL = 12 in shorter If pipe not Free F = 10,800 # tension 10,000 ft ???? ft

Schlumberger Private

3000psi

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Free Point

Definition: Free point is the point in the string above which a stuck pipe is free (drilling incident)

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Determination: Apply an upward force, F1, to ensure that all the string is in tension. Mark a reference point on the pipe. Apply more upward force, F2, ( below the yield strength of the pipe ). Measure the stretch S in inches. Calculate the Free Point from Hooke's Law.

63

The free point can be calculated from Hooke's Law as: EAS L = ----------------12 DF Where: S = Pipe Stretch ( in ) DF = F2 - F1 ( lb ) L = Free Point (ft) E = Young's Modulus ( 30 x 106 psi ) A = Cross sectional area ( in2 ) For steel pipes of linear weight = W (lb/ft) L = 735 x 103 W S / DF

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Schlumberger Private

10,000 ft of 3.1/2" Grade E D.P. ( 13.3 #/ft ) are stuck in a hole. The driller obtained the following data, after pulling on the pipe: F1 = 140,000 lb F2 = 200,000 lb S = 4 ft QUESTIONS : 1. Check that F1 is above the string weight. 2. Check that F2 is less than the yield strength of the pipe. 3. Calculate the Free Point position.

65

Schlumberger Private

SOLUTION 1. String weight = 13.3 #/ft x 10,000 ft = 133,000 lb

2. Yield strength of 3 1/2in, Grade E Drill Pipe > 240,000 lb 3. Free point:

Schlumberger Private

66

Module Summary

1. Review Hydrostatic Applied Pressure Differential Pressure 2. Buoyancy 3. Hook Load and Buoyancy Factor Open Ended Pipe Plugged Pipe 4. Neutral Point 5. Changes in Tubing Length Due to Temperature Due to Stress Due to Ballooning/Reverse Ballooning 6. Free Point

67

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