Valid Through January, 2004

FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

1-20
September 1999 Revised May 2003 Page 1 of 24

PROTECTION AGAINST EXTERIOR FIRE EXPOSURE

Table of Contents
Page 1.0 SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Changes .......................................................................................................................................... 3 2.0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS ....................................................................................... 3 2.1 For Fire Exposure from Buildings .................................................................................................... 3 2.1.1 Construction and Location .................................................................................................... 3 2.2 For Fire Exposure from Yard Storage ........................................................................................... 10 2.2.1 Construction and Location .................................................................................................. 10 3.0 EXPOSURE FIRES (GENERAL) ......................................................................................................... 12 3.1 Exposing Building .......................................................................................................................... 12 3.1.1 Construction ........................................................................................................................ 12 3.1.2 Ventilation ............................................................................................................................ 13 3.1.3 Wind .................................................................................................................................... 13 3.1.4 Effect of Fire Department .................................................................................................... 13 3.1.5 Length of Wall Creating the Fire Exposure ......................................................................... 13 3.2 Exposed Building ........................................................................................................................... 13 3.2.1 When Not Sprinklered ......................................................................................................... 13 3.2.2 Construction ........................................................................................................................ 13 3.2.3 Protection of Openings ........................................................................................................ 13 3.2.4 Protection Beyond Ends of Exposing Building ................................................................... 14 3.2.5 Protection of Side Walls ...................................................................................................... 15 3.2.6 Protection when Walls at an Angle with Exposing Building ................................................ 17 3.2.7 Protection for Roof When Lower Than Exposing Building ................................................. 18 3.2.8 Protection of Walls Above Lower Exposing Building .......................................................... 18 3.3 Fire Exposure From Yard Storage ................................................................................................ 19 3.4 Yard Housekeeping ....................................................................................................................... 19 4.0 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 20 4.1 FM Global ...................................................................................................................................... 20 APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS ...................................................................................................... 23 APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY ..................................................................................... 24

List of Figures
Job Aid No. 1 for Using Tables 1 and 2. ........................................................................................................ 4 Job Aid No. 2 for Yard Storage. .................................................................................................................. 10 Fig. 1. Exposed building walls are longer than exposing walls. .................................................................. 14 Fig. 2. Protection for side walls of exposed building. .................................................................................. 16 Fig. 3. Protection for exposed building when walls are at an angle (Θ) with exposing building. ............... 18 Fig. 4a. Protection for exposed buildings higher than the exposing building. ........................................... 20 Fig. 4b. Protection of walls above the exposure (English units). ................................................................ 21 Fig. 4c. Protection of walls above the exposure (SI Units). ........................................................................ 22

List of Tables
Table 1a. Determination of Separation Distance, or Exposure Category for Use in Table 2 When Exposed Wall is 1, 2 or 3 hour ...................................................................................................... 5 Table 1b. Determination of Separation Distance, or Exposure Category for Use in Table 2 When Exposed Wall is Category C ......................................................................................................... 6

©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission of Factory Mutual Insurance Company.

Valid Through January, 2004

1-20
Page 2

Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure
FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets

Table 1c. Determination of Separation Distance, or Exposure Category for Use in Table 2 When Exposed Wall is Category D ......................................................................................................... 7 Table 2. Multipliers for Space Separation ...................................................................................................... 8 Table 3. Levels of Passive Protection, P .................................................................................................... 15 Table 4. Protection for Longer Exposed Walls ............................................................................................ 15 Table 5. Multipliers for Non-Parallel Exposures .......................................................................................... 17

©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

0 LOSS PREVENTION RECOMMENDATIONS 2. Commodity Classification.1.1 When the exposing building is sprinklered. 1. This document should be used for exposing flammable liquids storage buildings that are unsprinklered. For such situations refer to Data Sheet 1-19. For various combinations of protection using masonry. Rigid Plastic Building Materials or Data Sheet 7-88. Another objective is to enable designers and architects to avoid exposure problems when laying out new buildings. unpainted or asphalt shingled wood. Criteria for Maximum Foreseeable Loss Fire Walls and Space Separation). This data sheet generally considers the fire exposure to be on adjacent property. with or without noncombustible insulation (as defined in Section 1. passive protection such as the provision of a fire-rated wall over the outside face. B. and the potential for burn through or melting as it relates to an exposing building giving off radiant heat and an exposing building resisting it. (Data Sheet 1-22.0 SCOPE This data sheet provides guidelines for recognizing and dealing with a potential fire exposure from one or more existing buildings or yard storage. This data sheet does not discuss fire exposure from flammable liquid transmission pipelines. steel faced class 1 insulated panels on steel framing. since MFL space separation assumes an impairment to the sprinkler protection. CAT. Category A materials include steel faced panels or cementitious panels. see Data Sheet 1-21. Subdivisions and Draft Curtains or Data Sheet 1-22. Category B materials include painted. any aluminum panels. where control of the exposure may be outside the influence of the owner of the exposed building. For example. Storage Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids. For discussion on that subject. . For the recommended separation from storage tanks in the yard.1.1.2 Exposed buildings should be separated from exposures according to Tables 1 and 2.1 Construction and Location 2. This document is not intended to be used for exposure protection from another tenant within the same multi-tenanted building. refer to Data Sheet 7-32. see Data Sheet 8-1. 2. if applicable. The data sheet may also be used. 1 should be used to facilitate the use of these tables. the provision of two layers of 5⁄8 in.1 Changes May 2003.1 For Fire Exposure from Buildings 2. refer to Data Sheet 1-57. The categories of construction materials used for Table 1 are not based on the combustibility of a material only. All rights reserved.1. and it can be established that the sprinkler protection in the exposing building is adequate and reliable. This revision of the document has been reorganized to provide a consistent format. This data sheet assumes that unimpaired sprinkler protection is available in the exposed building. CAT.1. This data sheet does not apply to Maximum Foreseeable Loss (MFL) space separations.1). or active protection such as the provision of automatic outside sprinklers will provide the needed protection. and EIFS assemblies using noncombustible insulation or Approved class 1 insulation over gypsum board on steel framing. Consideration is also given to the ease of ignition. If an existing building is nearer to the exposure than the recommended separation distances determined from Tables 1 and 2. applied to the wall exterior will provide 1-hour fire resistance. Fire Walls. sprinklered flammable liquid storage buildings. Flammable Liquid Storage in Portable Containers for separation of flammable liquid yard storage pads. no fire exposure is considered to exist. (15 mm)-thick Type X gypsum board faced with steel panels. Flammable Liquid Operations. 2. A. EIFS assemblies ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. It also includes FM Approved (see Appendix A for definition). Provision of automatic sprinklers in the exposing buildings would greatly reduce the hazard. The latter case is infrequent.Valid Through January. and separation and protection of detached. Job Aid No. Refer to Data Sheet 7-29. For a description of storage commodities. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 3 1. rigid plastic panels such as fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) or polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Fire Resistance of Building Assemblies. when the fire exposure and the exposed building are on the same insured property and the exposing building is not adequately sprinklered.

mineral wool. For additional details on exposing construction. Details include exposed wall construction type. CAT D. which are not Approved. Details include wall and roof construction type. non-Approved insulated steel panels. CAT.Valid Through January. 2. exposing wall height and width. 2004 1-20 Page 4 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets using EPS insulation or a combustible sheathing board. For additional details on the exposed wall construction. refer to Appendix A and 3. steel or aluminum faced sandwich panels with thermoset plastic insulation. 1. All rights reserved.2. Category D materials include painted or unpainted wood. EIFS assemblies having noncombustible insulation and gypsum board sheathing. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. Job Aid No. or expanded glass. For additional details on the exposing occupancy. details of unprotected openings and roof construction type. or polyethylene. .1. 1. such as polyurethane or polyisocyanurate foam. metal faced panels with thermoset insulation.2. and EIFS assemblies having EPS insulation or a combustible sheathing board. Category C materials include Approved Class 1 insulated. or other assemblies supported by wood framing that is unprotected on the interior. metal faced wall assemblies with thermoplastic insulation such as expanded or extruded polystyrene. 1 for Using Tables 1 and 2. It also includes cementitious panels or shingles over steel or wood.1. C. all rigid plastic panels such as FRP or PVC. and aluminum or steel panels that are uninsulated or insulated with noncombustible insulation such as glass fiber. 3. percent window openings (include door openings if door construction has a lesser fire rating than the wall). refer to Appendix A and 3. refer to Appendix A. 2.

≤100% 1 No minimum separation required 0%≤. All rights reserved. Class 1 or Combustible Combustible High Light or Ordinary Light Ordinary High Light or Ordinary Light or Ordinary High Percent Unprotected Openings in ‘‘Exposing’’ Wall Category for Use in Table 2 or Minimum Separation Required DNA No minimum separation required DNA No minimum separation required ≤70% No minimum separation required DNA No minimum separation required DNA Use Category 1 DNA No minimum separation required 0 . B Cat. or Exposure Category for Use in Table 2 When Exposed Wall is 1. or Class 1. ≤60% 3 0%≤ . B NC. see Appendix A. Class 1 Light or or Ordinary Combustible NC. A Cat. B SFR or Cat. Class 1 High or Combustible NC.100% 3 60% . 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 5 Table 1a. Class 1 High or Combustible NC.60% 2 DNA 2 DNA 3 No minimum separation required 0%≤. Class 1 High or Combustible NC or Light Class 1 NC or Class Ordinary 1 NC. ≤100% 1 ≤80% 3 0% ≤. or Ordinary Combustible or High NC. B SFR SFR SFR SFR Cat. Class 1 Light or or Ordinary Combustible NC. ≤100% 1 0%<. Class 1 High or Combustible NC. Class 1 or Combustible Cat. Class 1 High or Combustible NC. Class 1 Light or or Ordinary Combustible NC.5 m) 0%<. Class 1 or Combustible For explanation of Combustible. ≤100% 1 DNA 2 DNA 4 80% . Class 1 or Combustible Combustible NC or Class 1 NC or Class 1 NC. Class 1 Light or or Ordinary Combustible NC. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. ≤20% 2 ≤100% 4 0% 2 ≤100% 4 Cat.Valid Through January. Class 1 Light. B NC. 2 or 3 hour Exposed Wall Construction 3 hr 3 hr 3 hr 3 hr 3 hr 2 hr 2 hr 2 hr 2 hr 2 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr 1 hr Wall SFR Cat. . A Exposing Building Roof Occupancy NC. A SFR Cat. ≤100% 5 ft (1. A Cat. A Cat. A Cat. Determination of Separation Distance. A Cat. B Cat. A Cat.100% 3 70%<. Stable Fire Resistive (SFR).80% 2 0 . Noncombustible (NC).

or Exposure Category for Use in Table 2 When Exposed Wall is Category C CAT. Class 1 or Combustible Combustible Combustible NC or Class 1 NC or Class 1 NC. A Cat. 2004 1-20 Page 6 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Table 1b. C Cat. C Cat. A Cat. steel or aluminum faced sandwich panels with thermoset plastic insulation. C Cat. . C Cat. C Cat. Class 1 or Combustible Combustible Ordinary High Light Ordinary Light Ordinary High Light Ordinary Light Ordinary High Light or Ordinary Percent Unprotected Openings in ‘‘Exposing’’ Wall Category for Use in Table 2 or Minimum Separation Required 0%≤. ≤5% 6 0%≤.: Category C materials include FM Approved Class 1 insulated. ≤25% 1 0%≤. C Cat. A Cat. Noncombustible (NC). C Cat. ≤30% ≤50% ≤80% ≤100% 1 2 3 4 0%≤. C Cat. ≤10% 1 0% 1 7 ≤50% 2 ≤40% 2 ≤50% 2 ≤30% 2 ≤30% 7 ≤30% 2 ≤20% 2 DNA 6 DNA 7 DNA 9 DNA 7 8 ≤80% 3 ≤60% 3 ≤70% 3 ≤60% 3 ≤60% 8 ≤60% 3 ≤40% 3 9 ≤100% 4 ≤80% ≤100% 4 5 ≤100% 4 ≤100% 4 ≤100% 9 ≤100% 4 ≤60% ≤100% 4 5 For explanation of Combustible. C Wall SFR SFR SFR SFR SFR Cat. C Cat. ≤10% 1 0%≤. C Cat. Class 1 or Combustible Combustible Combustible NC or Class 1 NC or Class 1 NC. C Cat. B Cat. ≤40% ≤60% ≤80% ≤100% 1 2 3 4 0%≤. EIFS assemblies having noncombustible insulation and gypsum board sheathing. see Appendix A. Exposed Wall Construction Cat. A Cat. or expanded glass. ≤25% ≤50% ≤80% ≤100% 6 0%≤. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. or Class 1. C. Determination of Separation Distance. Stable Fire Resistive (SFR). It also includes cementitious panels or shingles over steel or wood. B Cat. and aluminum or steel panels that are uninsulated or insulated with noncombustible insulation such as glass fiber. B Exposing Building Roof Occupancy NC or Light Class 1 NC or Class 1 NC. ≤30% 1 ≤20% 1 0%≤. A Cat. C Cat.Valid Through January. mineral wool. All rights reserved. C Cat. B Cat.

. B NC. D Cat. D Cat. metal faced panels with thermoset insulation. D Cat. or polyethylene. such as polyurethane or polyisocyanurate foam. D Cat. D Cat. A Cat. B Cat. D Cat. D Cat. A Cat. Class 1 or Combustible Combustible NC or Class 1 Ordinary High Light or Ordinary Light Percent Unprotected Openings in ‘‘Exposing’’ Wall Category for Use in Table 2 or Minimum Separation Required 0% ≤25% ≤40% ≤50% ≤60% ≤80% ≤100% 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0% ≤10% ≤20% ≤30% ≤50% ≤60% ≤80% ≤100% 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0%≤. Determination of Separation Distance. all rigid plastic such as FRP or PVC. Class 1 or Ordinary Combustible ————— ———— Combustible Light NC. Exposed Wall Construction Cat. D: Category D materials include painted or unpainted wood. D Cat. D Cat. B Cat. B Cat. or Exposure Category for Use in Table 2 When Exposed Wall is Category D CAT.≤15% ≤40% ≤60% ≤80% ≤100% 9 0% 3 0% 2 0% 5 0% 10 ≤10% 4 ≤20% 3 ≤10% 6 10 ≤20% ≤30% 5 6 ≤30% 4 ≤30% 7 ≤40% 11 DNA 10 DNA 11 DNA 13 DNA 11 DNA 12 11 ≤50% ≤60% 7 8 ≤40% 5 ≤40% 8 ≤60% 12 12 ≤80% 9 ≤60% 6 ≤60% 9 13 ≤100% 10 ≤100% 7 ≤100% 10 ≤100% 13 Cat. or Class 1. and EIFS assemblies having EPS insulation or a combustible sheathing board. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 7 Table 1c. Class 1 High or Combustible NC or Class Light 1 NC or Class 1 NC. Noncombustible (NC). A Exposing Building Roof Occupancy NC or Light Class 1 NC or Class 1 NC. Stable Fire Resistive (SFR). which are not FM Approved. D Cat. D Cat.Valid Through January. All rights reserved. D Wall SFR SFR SFR SFR Cat. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. metal faced wall assemblies with thermoplastic insulation such as expanded or extruded polystyrene. B Cat. Class 1 or Combustible Combustible Combustible Ordinary High Light Ordinary For explanation of Combustible. see Appendix A.

5.55 2.05 2.66 0.44 3. For all other types of exposed construction.02 1. 20.67 1.26 1.52 1.5 3.13 4.13 2.11 1.80 2.51 0.95 0.84 0.95 6.34 2.22 5.90 1. 8. they may be used to reduce the L/H (length/height) ratio and lesser exposure dimension as applicable. For light occupancy classifications with combustible interior finish. 6.00 1.93 4.51 3.24 5.93 0. 40 or higher 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 0.51 0.54 2.64 1.56 6.67 building-to-building separation) 0.85 0.28 6. (1. While this method may be used for proposed installations.10 1.51 0.34 2.56 2.51 0.51 0.76 1. asphalt shingle or ACM.74 2.50 10.28 2. 13.41 5.0 25.15 2.93 1.73 2.44 0.71 2.61 5.31 3.95 4.80 6. If the wall and roof of the exposing building are stable fire resistive (SFR) and there are no wall openings or roof openings (such as skylights or heat and smoke vents).43 4.33 4. 2. increase the space separation recommended for Category D exposed walls by 25%.71 1. 2004 1-20 Page 8 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Table 2. All rights reserved.63 2. use high hazard exposure.66 1.33 1.71 2. 1.84 13.5 m) to obtain 0.77 4.08 2. add 5 feet. roof and interior finish are all noncombustible.30 5.89 9.65 5.34 1.94 1.57 2.19 5.55 3. 4.48 2.08 2.95 1.23 7.26 1.12 3.63 7. the space separation need not exceed 300 ft (91 m).49 0.36 0.92 6.01 5.17 3. 16. Multipliers for Space Separation L/H or H/L of Exposing Wall (whichever is greater than 1.85 1.12 3.82 5.78 7. 7.38 2.34 10.33 1.51 0.52 5.96 Separation Multiplier (multiply by lesser dimension.71 1.18 8.73 0.34 1.76 2.69 1.03 1.43 7.95 3.71 1. the space separation need not exceed 200 ft (61 m).81 3.93 2.90 0.6 2.30 2.32 3.14 1.30 2.37 1.51 1.0 Category Number 1.60 3. H = height in ft (m) 2.07 4.60 0.52 3. 10.08 2. 8.15 Additional comments regarding the use of Table 2 are as follows: 1.92 0.26 2.01 8.82 3.50 0.63 1.36 3.02 2. Where the occupancy is light or ordinary and the walls. regardless of other parameters in Table 1 and Table 2.68 6. combustible interior walls or wood floors.33 11.99 2.94 0.07 2.81 3.0) L = length in ft (m).73 1.54 3.77 6.22 1.87 3.15 11.20 4.30 1.20 3.39 1.48 0. It is reasonably accurate to interpolate between aspect ratios.70 1. no minimum separation is needed.2 4.88 0.52 1.68 1. increase the occupancy classification by one level. 5. If the exposed construction is of a type noted in Category D.11 4. .74 5.88 8. In each successive iteration the effective length must be increased until the proposed space is at least equal to the needed space. A more simplified approach is to use the entire length of the exposing building which may yield a more conservative answer.13 3. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.16 5.63 2.79 2.53 4.05 10.51 0.91 12.70 4.39 1.51 0.24 8. it may involve several iterations if the originally proposed space is less than needed.57 3.95 1.82 2.95 0.27 1.94 2.3 1.04 2.51 0.95 3.55 1. 6. This applies to buildings that have combustible ceilings.59 2.15 4. If the wall of the exposed building is asphalt shingle over wood or asphalt coated metal (ACM).64 7.56 1.Valid Through January.59 0.16 4. 9.94 8.43 3.84 3.34 1. For existing buildings where the exposing building is considerably longer than the exposed building. If adequate horizontal or vertical fire cutoffs exist in the exposing building.95 0.22 1.50 9.79 0.72 4.12 5.33 1.34 1. 3.13 7.79 2. For exposing buildings that are multistory with wood floors.46 0.29 6.58 1.95 0.36 4.74 1.48 3.34 1.05 2.93 4.42 1.88 3.78 6. 32.18 2.60 5.17 1.51 10.24 5.40 0.08 2. L may be effectively taken to be four times the actual separation distance if that distance is less than the actual length of the exposing building.32 1.76 0.54 2.85 2.51 0.23 1.02 1.94 0.77 2.91 7. the height of the storage can be used to determine the L/H ratio.37 3.

7 Combustible materials should not be stored or used within the separation space.1. Where the exposure and space separation is such that a Category C exposed wall is needed.5 Where the exposed wall needs to be of a type outlined in Category C of Table 1. smoke or other nonthermal damage.1.1.1. They should be arranged for automatic operation. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.1. c) Where the occupancy below the roof is susceptible to water.1.5. When combustibles are stored within a space between buildings. All rights reserved. 2.1.1.4 Where the exposure and space separation is such that a 1-hour fire rated exposed wall is needed. See Data Sheet 1-22 for an explanation and details of additional protection that may be needed for the roof. Door openings should be protected by Approved.6 Where window or outside sprinklers are needed. adequate space separation should be provided between the yard storage and the buildings on both sides (see Section 3.4. listed minimum 3⁄4 hour fire rated glass should be installed in window openings in accordance with area limitations of the listing.11 When the exposed wall is longer than the exposing wall.1. Approved minimum 11⁄2-hour fire rated doors that are normally closed (equipped with a door closure) or automatic closing and latched should be provided in door openings (blank steel doors suitable for a class D opening).12 When the exposed wall is shorter than the exposing wall.10 Exposing buildings that are of noncombustible or fire resistive construction and that are vacant or contain only noncombustible contents do not necessitate space separation or other protection for adjacent buildings. Window sprinklers can be considered an alternative to upgrading the type of glass. Roof Deck Securement and Above-Deck Roof Components.1. The doors should be normally closed (self-closing) or automatic closing.1. and latched steel doors that are either blank or have vision panels made of fire rated or tempered glass. doors on the exposed wall should be normally closed (self-closing) or automatic closing.1.0). .or 3-hour fire rated exposed wall is needed. window openings need to be filled in with masonry or protected by automatic closing. 2. 2.2. shutters comparable in fire rating to that of the wall. in the following areas: a) Where they are within a distance of 150 ft (46 m) from a building constructed with a wood roof. protection for the end walls of the exposed building should be provided according to Section 3. place a minimum of 4 lb/ft2 (20 kg/m2) of pea gravel in a flood coat of hot asphalt or coal tar. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 9 2. see Data Sheet 1-21) and automatic window sprinklers. based on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test standard E 108.1. 2. glass block or wired glass that has passed a hose stream test. large stone ballast or concrete paver blocks should be provided as outlined in Data Sheet1-29.Valid Through January.5 m).1. When the roof of the exposed building is lower than the exposing building.1. protection beyond the end(s) of the exposing building should be provided according to Section 3. 2.2.8 Exposed roof coverings. 2. or portions thereof.1. or combustible yard storage. walls or floors. b) For single-ply roof coverings. an alternative is to provide listed (tested by a nationally recognized laboratory) fire rated glass (such as ceramic glass.1. NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 1996 Edition.9 When any significant exterior fire exposure exists. 2. except where 2-or-3 hour fire rated exposed walls are needed and listed fire rated glass and sprinklers must be provided. the fire department should conduct prefire planning taking into consideration protection of the exposed property. If the space separation provided is at least 5 ft (1. windows should be tempered glass. The storage of fuels or chemicals near the interior side of an exposed wall should be avoided. and latched.1. minimum 3⁄4-hour fire rated fire doors (suitable for a Class E exterior opening). 2.1.3 Where the exposure and space separation is such that a 2. 2.1. protection for the roof should be provided within 50 ft (15 m) from the exposure as outlined below: a) For built-up roof coverings (BUR). b) On the entire roof of buildings subdivided by Maximum Foreseeable Loss (MFL) fire walls. should have a Class A roof system. they should be installed according to Data Sheet 2-8N. Combustibles should be kept away from the inside of the exposed windows by a distance at least equal to the largest dimension of the window.

1. Precautions for such demolition operations are outlined in Data Sheet 1-0. 2.1.1. automatic closing dampers should be provided on outside air intakes.1.16 In some cases the potential for non-thermal damage to the contents of an exposed building will be significant.2. 2 to facilitate the application of recommendations in this section. outside air intakes should be located as close to grade level as practical.1.1 Construction and Location 2.1 Refer to Section 3. protection for the higher portions of the exposed wall should be provided according to Section 3. Job Aid No.8.1. All rights reserved.1.1. 2.15 If a combustible (see Appendix A) canopy or overhanging eave is provided on the exposed building. protection for the exposed walls should be provided according to Section 3. For the exterior protection of the roof systems.2. 2.Valid Through January. Use this document to supplement those or where no other specific data sheet exists. 2004 1-20 Page 10 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 2.1.3 for a list of various outdoor storages that are covered by other data sheets.14 When the exposed wall is higher than the exposing wall. 2. and the separation distance between the two buildings is less than needed according to Recommendation 2.1. 2 for Yard Storage.8.13 When the exposed building is not parallel to the exposing wall. regardless of the type of wall construction. For new construction. the separation distance between the exposing building and the outer edge of the canopy or overhang should be based on Category D exposed construction.2.2. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.1.1. Alternatively.1. Safeguards During Construction. see Section 2. 2.2 For Fire Exposure from Yard Storage Use Job Aid No. Alteration and Demolition and should be followed.1. If so. 2.2. separation which is adequate for the wall construction is acceptable provided the combustible canopy or overhang is sheathed with a material having fire resistance at least equal to that of the wall.6.2. .17 The most likely time for a major exposure fire to occur is during the demolition of adjacent property.

consideration should be given to a sprinklered enclosure over them.07√ LH or (Equation 2) S = 16 H where: S = minimum recommended space separation. ft (m) Use Equation 1 when L ≤ 24 H Use Equation 2 when L > 24 H Use Equation 1 and 2 only for yard storage of high hazard materials exposing combustible walls. this maximum length should not be used to determine building-to-building separation. unless the exposed walls are of blank masonry or concrete construction. For ordinary or light hazard yard storage with all types of exposed walls. Treat the yard storage as an exposing building. and provision of a protected enclosure for the yard storage is not practical. Because of other factors such as re-radiation. Protection Against Arson and Other Incendiary Fires.2.2 When large quantities of high-value products are stored in the yard. 2. 2.Valid Through January.4 Relocating the yard storage so that separation distances are adequate is preferable to special exposure protection.5 Unpaved yards should be mowed so that the height of grass and weeds does not exceed 4 in.6 Dumpsters (rubbish skips) should be located at least 35 ft (11 m) from exposed buildings. Hydrants should be provided just outside the ends of spaces between buildings and at intervals in between not exceeding 300 ft (90 m). respectively. Installation and Maintenance of Private Fire Service Mains and their Appurtenances).2. ft (m) H = Height of the yard storage. with 100% openings in the exposing wall and using the applicable details of the occupancy and exposed walls. Where adequate space separation is not available.7 Loaded trailers stored in the yard should be treated as a building separation would.1.2. . it is reasonable to assume that the maximum length (parallel to the exposed wall) across which a fire in any commodity will burn at its maximum rate of heat release is about 400 ft (122 m).2. Consequently. 2. the maximum length (L) used in determining the needed separation distance is 400 ft (122 m). All combustible trash should be removed from the premises.1.3 Yard hydrants should be provided when combustible materials are stored outside the plant buildings (Data Sheet 3-10. ft (m) L = Length of the yard storage in the direction parallel to the exposure.) ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.2. In other words. (See Data Sheet 9-17. and for high hazard yard storage with all types of exposed walls except Category D (Appendix A).2. This will a) protect the products themselves from fire. For such situations the following formula should be used: (Equation 1) S = 3. more rapid fire spread could be expected throughout the entire fire cutoff area of a building. 2. use Tables 1 and 2 to determine needed space separation. with an adjacent aisle space between it and yard storage to prevent direct access by vandals.2.1.8 Metal chain link fencing should be provided around the yard. and b) reduce the hazard of exposure to nearby buildings. 2.1. Tables 1 and 2 should not be used to determine space separation between yard storage classified as high hazard and exposed Category D walls. All rights reserved. 2.1.1. taking into consideration the contents and construction of the trailer. (100 mm). 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 11 2. When storage is in a yard.1. assuming the wall and roof of the exposing building are a Category A type and noncombustible. provide water spray protection for the exposed building as outlined in Data Sheet 2-8N.

Category A or Category B. promptness of detection. guidelines in this data sheet can be used to determine if separation distances between the exposing and exposed buildings are safe for the degree of protection afforded by the construction and sprinklers in the exposed building. etc. tires. In the vast majority of cases. The growth of a building fire will depend on a) the nature and quantity of combustibles in the building construction and occupancy. the horizontal distance from the fire. If a wall is fire resistive but tied to unprotected steel framing.’’ in which case water is applied directly to the exposed building during a fire. the type of construction.’’ in which the exposed building is coated or shielded with a noncombustible or fire resistive material. the framing and the exposing exterior wall (must be blank) are at least adequate for the expected exposure fire duration (so as to contain the exposure fire).Valid Through January. Combustible walls may consist of wood or rigid plastic building materials.1 Construction If the exposing building is fire resistive such that the floor and/or roof deck. percent wall openings and occupancy of the exposure should be considered. c) external factors such as wind velocity. unsprinklered structures. Protection may be ‘‘active. eventually allowing the exposed wall to feel the full effect of radiation. Wood walls with ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. In many large exposure fires. 1. It is necessary to consider fire exposure protection (to buildings) from a fire in adjacent buildings or yard storage when: a) Separation distances are close enough so that a hazard to the exposed building is judged to exist. Plant buildings also have been exposed and damaged by exposure fires starting in yard storages such as lumber. for example.1. and the position of the exposed portion in relation to the fire. roll paper. Category B groups exposing materials that may burn through with a significant fire exposure. corrugated iron or cementitious panels on steel frame. For applications simplicity. Protection needed for the exposed buildings depends on the size and intensity of the exposure fire. Recommended separations are based on estimated portions of the exposing flame height that is unobscured by smoke.1 Exposing Building 3. or has sprinkler protection that is inadequate or is not considered reliable. it may partially collapse as the steel fails early in a fire and is not considered ‘‘stable’’. 2004 1-20 Page 12 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 3. and b) Any one of the exposing properties is unsprinklered. Once a fire exposure hazard is judged to exist. 3.0 EXPOSURE FIRES (GENERAL) When evaluating the magnitude of the exposure fire. or ‘‘passive.. All rights reserved. or a large space separation is provided. Table 1 combines construction and occupancy to give various degrees of fire exposure classification. or in separate. or if protection for the exposed building is needed. and assumes that conditions are favorable for a free-burning fire. water and smoke damage may be considerable. it is reasonable to assume that there will be sufficient ventilation air to feed the fire. Automatic sprinklers and firefighters usually control the fire and keep it from spreading throughout the exposed building. plastics. concrete block or stone. Consideration is given to the fact that some breakage or opening of panel joints may occur during the fire. Noncombustible (NC) walls have less fire resistance and are curtain walls constructed of panels such as protected metal. exposing wall or storage heights are used for input. Category A groups exposing materials that have some fire resistance or a high melting temperature that will not burn through. and available water supplies. Consideration should also be given to the type of wall and roof exposed to the radiant heat. although heat. Exposing walls are categorized as either stable fire resistive. the origin of the fire has been on neighboring or adjoining property. A fire that results in ignition of or radiant heat damage to nearby buildings or other property is an exposure fire. . area. no separation is needed for the exposed building. Such an assembly should be treated as Category A. Masonry walls may be brick. proximity of the local fire department. b) the amount of ventilation air. or may melt at fire temperatures.

but in need of sprinklers. combustible construction burns.). It is assumed that the fire department and site conditions are adequate for the fire conditions. The presence of cementitious shingles over exposed wood walls lessens space separation needed. etc. skylights.Valid Through January.2. 3.0 and 2.3 Wind When the exposed building walls are combustible. Table 2 reflects the effect of the relative size of the flame front. however. the separation distances determined from Tables 1 and 2 still apply.2.5 Length of Wall Creating the Fire Exposure The relative exposure categories given in Table 1 are determined from the nature of the construction and occupancy in the exposing building.0.1. however. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. etc.3 Protection of Openings Category D Walls. masonry. Installation of fire doors and fire rated glass windows would serve little purpose. An additional factor.1 When Not Sprinklered The exposed building will usually be sprinklered. If unsprinklered. the building exposed by the longer wall will experience the greater fire exposure. etc. Where separation distances are adequate for noncombustible construction. sprinklers should be recommended.4 Effect of Fire Department The exposure categories (as determined by using Table 1) are based on full flame front at the exposure fire.1. Category C Walls. steel panels buckle. When outside automatic sprinklers are not provided. while openings in the roof (vents. is the aspect ratio of the potential flame front or the length/height or height/length ratio of the exposing wall. 3. self-closing or automatic closing steel doors that are blank or have fire rated or tempered glass vision panels may be considered equivalent to the wall in fire resistance. heat and smoke vents open. 3. Exposed walls having a combustible exterior surface are about as vulnerable to fire exposure as ordinary doors and windows. There is normally enough air within a building to feed a fire in the early stages.2 Construction Construction types and categories are described in Sections 1. however. 3.2. Ordinary windows can also be tolerated if they abut a corridor of noncombustible construction and occupancy. All rights reserved. provided both walls are the same height and are fully aflame. aluminum panels melt. Consequently it is safe to assume there will be adequate ventilation for an exposure fire in the vast majority of cases.1. When not in need of sprinklers.1. 3. brick.2 Exposed Building 3. are considered to be Category B (Table 1) when considered as the exposing building (fire exposure from its interior). but is fire resistive when exposed from the exterior. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 13 an exterior veneer of stucco. 3. and that only a brief delay between ignition and fire department set up will be experienced. fire rated glass is preferred in window openings. Openings or spaces in the building wall are necessary to admit combustion air. while the presence of asphalt shingles over exposed wood walls increases the space separation needed. 3.2 Ventilation The exposure classifications given in Table 1 are based on well ventilated fires in the exposing buildings with adequate air supply to support the fire growth. When the separation distance is adequate for Category D exposed walls. When two buildings are exposed by a rectangular building. tempered glass may be tolerated. . ordinary doors and windows can be tolerated. Typically openings are present or will develop in the early stages of a fire (windows or skylights break. it is assumed that wind will carry a spark or ember to the exposed wall and pilot-ignite the surface.. long exposures to combustible materials could still cause ignition. and the construction in the exposed building.) will discharge hot gases and allow entry of additional air to aid in the fire development.

2004 1-20 Page 14 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Fire Resistive Walls. When space separation is minimal. 3. 1. Exposed building walls are longer than exposing walls.3. ‘‘X3’’ and ‘‘X4’’ are based on the angle Θ. except as noted in Section 2. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. protection beyond the ends of the exposing building is needed. All rights reserved. Fig.1.1. the level of protection needed is reduced.Valid Through January. Protection for the distance ‘‘X2’’ Figure 1 beyond the end of the exposing wall should be the same protection that is required directly in front of the exposing building (‘‘X1’’ in Fig. . 1).2. For more specific details.4 Protection Beyond Ends of Exposing Building When the exposing building is shorter than the exposed one. As Θ increases. No additional protection is needed when Θ exceeds 45°. see Tables 3 and 4. window openings usually need to be blocked in with material equivalent in fire resistance to that of the exposed wall. measured from a line perpendicular to the adjacent walls at the corner of the exposing wall. Levels of exposed wall passive protection are ranked from best to worst as outlined in Table 3. The distances ‘‘X2’’. such that fire resistive exterior wall construction is needed.

When separation is inadequate for the exposed construction and passive protection or outside sprinklers are recommended for the exposed wall. Outside sprinklers will protect the front wall. 1 Distance Protection is Needed For Level of Protection* Directly across x1 L P Θ ≤ 15° x2 0. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 15 Table 3. The protection of openings should be as outlined in Section 2. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. c) Subtract from this the actual separation distance (d) to arrive at (X). respectively. P-1 and P-2. Levels of Passive Protection. 2). but having openings. X2 or X3) that passive or active protection is needed for openings should be based on ‘‘S’’ and not ‘‘d’’. P = Level of passive protection needed per Tables 1 and 2.2 m) provide a level of protection P. For details on protection of openings or alternative sprinkler protection. protection will also be needed for some portion of the side wall of the exposed building. b) Multiply that figure by 0.5 S.2. if it is at least 5 ft (1. no side wall protection is needed.0 and 3. P-2 = Two levels of passive protection less than needed per Tables 1 and 2 for the separation provided. 2).0 m). Protection for Longer Exposed Walls Location of Exposed Wall with Respect to Exposing Wall Designation on Fig. P 3 Hour Fire Rated 2 Hour Fire Rated 1 Hour Fire Rated Category C* Category D* * see footnotes to Table 1 For example. To determine this distance: a) Using Tables 1 and 2.2. see Section 2. or passive protection including the protection of openings. determine the needed separation distance (S). 3. see Fig.5 Protection of Side Walls When the separation between buildings is adequate for the type of construction available. L = Length of the exposing building. the length of the side wall that needs outside sprinkler protection (Fig.0 m) and 20 ft (6. When the exposed building is fire resistive (such as masonry). The result is the distance out from the face of the exposing building to where filling in or other protection of the openings in the exposed side wall is needed. of at least 10 ft (3.2.1 m). having adequate separation for the wall.25S P-1 30° < Θ ≤ 45° x4 0. openings need to be filled in with material of sufficient fire resistance along the front wall (or comparably protected) and possibly for some distance along the side wall.3 for the respective level of passive wall protection. 2). no additional protection is needed for the exposed wall or adjacent sidewall (exterior wall perpendicular to the exposed wall.5. Table 4. If the actual separation distance (d) is at least equal to 0. the distance (X1. If ‘‘S’’ is less than 40 ft (12. In such cases: a) Determine (using Tables 1 and 2) the safe separation distance (S) needed for that construction. . 10 ft (3.5 m) away from the exposure. beyond the end of the exposing wall.5S P-2 S = Separation distance needed per Tables 1 and 2.0. The result is the distance out from the face of the exposing building that protection is needed for the exposed building side walls. as outlined in Section 2. b) Multiply that figure by 0. P-1 = One level of passive protection less than needed per Tables 1 and 2 for the separation provided.25S P 15° < Θ ≤ 30° x3 0.5.3.Valid Through January. c) Subtract d from this to determine X (See Fig.0 and 3. All rights reserved. If the actual separation distance ‘‘d’’ is greater than ‘‘S’’ for the type of exposed wall construction provided. Category C is one level down from 1 hour fire rated. and the exposure is longer than the exposed wall.

Protection for side walls of exposed building.Valid Through January. 2. . 2004 1-20 Page 16 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Fig. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. All rights reserved.

When heat radiation falls on a wall whose angle Θ is greater than 15° with the exposing wall. the reduced intensity of radiation may be taken into account. so the multiplier is 0.58 0. For a given situation.92 0. Since the west wall is between 15° and 30° of being parallel to the exposure. In that situation the exposed wall feels the most radiation. From Table 5. The same procedure may be used to determine how far out from the exposing wall that fire rated glass alone should be installed by calculating the needed separation from this exposure for Category C exposed walls.6.2. It is necessary only to adjust the separation by using the multiplier. Multipliers for Non-Parallel Exposures Θ (This is the angle between the exposing wall and the exposed wall.50 Example 3.2.75 0. the distance out from the exposing wall to the point where protection is needed may be determined as follows (assume Θ is between 15°D and 30°D for the west exposed wall and between 60-75° for the south exposed wall): Assume the exposure is such that the masonry walls are adequate.92 for the longer west wall and 0. Similarly the south wall is between 60° and 75° of being parallel to the exposure. All rights reserved. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 17 The same procedure can be used for determining how far beyond that more fire resistant glass alone is needed (See Section 3. 17 m) and south wall (40 ft. which varies with the angle Θ. respectively.Valid Through January.3). Table 5.) 0–15° 15–30° 30–45° 45–60° 60–75° 75–90° 90° M 1. .1 m).92. the separation distance within which openings (currently tempered glass) need bricking in or fire rated glass and window sprinklers is 30 ft (9.66 0. But if the exposed walls were parallel to the exposing wall.84 0. Multiplying 60 ft (18 m) by 0. assume that figure is 60 ft (18 m) if the walls are parallel.66. where tempered glass would be acceptable.92 and 0. the multiplier per Table 5 is 0.00 0.6 Protection when Walls at an Angle with Exposing Building The safe separation distances determined from Table 1 and 2 are for cases in which the exposed and exposing walls are nearly parallel. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.2. by multiplying 0. 3.1: In Figure 3.66 for the shorter south wall. This may be done by use of the multiplier (M) shown in Table 5. the multiplier (M) is 0.66 will yield the distance out from (as measured perpendicular to) the exposing wall in which fire rated glass is needed along the west (55 ft. 12 m).5 times S needed for combustible exposed walls (point beyond which plain glass windows are acceptable).

(See Data Sheet 1-29.8 Protection of Walls Above Lower Exposing Building When the height of the exposed building does not exceed the height of the exposing building.92 = 17 m South Wall 60 ft × 0.Valid Through January. 18 m × 0. and the separation between buildings is not adequate according to Tables 1 and 2. When the height of the exposed building exceeds the height of the exposing building (Fig. however. For built-up roof coverings (BUR). protection for the portion of the exposed wall that is above the height of the exposing wall should be provided as outlined in Figures 4b and 4c. 4a).66 = 12 m 3. West Wall 60 ft × 0. placing a minimum of 4 lb/ft2 (20 kg/m2) of pea gravel on the roof in a flood coat of coal tar or asphalt is recommended.7 Protection for Roof When Lower Than Exposing Building When the roof of the exposed building is below the top of the exposing building.66 = 40 ft. For single-ply membranes. for the distance defined in recommendation 2. large stone ballast or paver blocks may be used. 2004 1-20 Page 18 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Fig.2. the remaining portion of the roof should have a Class A rating. 18 m × 0. 3.) It would only be necessary to provide this protection within 50 ft (15 m) of the exposure. A burning brand. The type of protection needed should be based on the severity of the exposure (Tables 1 and 2) and the horizontal separation distance between buildings. .8. use Tables 1 and 2 to determine the safe separation distance or needed protection for the entire exposed wall. large enough to cause pilot ignition. the exposed roof may receive sufficient radiant heat to be ignited.2. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.92 = 55 ft. may also fall on the roof. All rights reserved. Protection for exposed building when walls are at an angle (Θ) with exposing building. 3.

Wood Processing and Wood Working Facilities. 8-27.1 below. windows on floors one through seven need to be bricked in (or have sprinklers and fire rated glass). with wood walls and plank-on-timber floors.2.65. Rubber Tire Storage.400 m2) per floor. respectively. the aspect ratio of the exposure (for use in Table 2) is 2.1 m) for 3 hour walls and 215 ft (66 m) for wood walls.1 m) provided is adequate for the brick walls. Separation distance is only 30 ft (9.6 m). Idle Pallet Storage. 8-21. weeds and bushes are hazardous. a nine-story sprinklered building with 12 in. 8-7. 3. Storage of Wood Chips. Baled Fiber Storage. Roll Paper Storage.48 and 4. metal fencing.000 ft2 (1.Valid Through January. Flammable Liquid Storage in Portable Containers. Consequently. 7-85. 3. 7-28N.1 In Figure 4a. 8-24. respectively (for exposed 3-hour fire-rated walls and exposed Category D walls). but not the plain glass. According to Figure 4b. 7-29. When using this document. These hazards may be reduced by yard paving. The seventh floor and the eighth floor should have protection comparable to a 2 hr (blank wall or fire rated glass plus sprinklers) and 1 hr (fire rated glass) exposed wall. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. those on the ninth floor should be tempered (or fire rated). 8-10. the level of protection of openings may be decreased one level for each story height above the distance of needed protection according to Figures 4b or 4c.1 m). so the occupancy should be treated as ‘‘high’’ regardless of the exposure. yard storage should be categorized as outlined in Appendix A. protection comparable to a 3 hr wall rating is needed for the first six floors. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 19 When there is considerable height difference between a significant exposure and the higher exposed building. The fire resistance of the exposed brick wall is in excess of 3 hours (see Data Sheet 1-21).3 Fire Exposure From Yard Storage Combustibles stored outdoors may create an exposure hazard to nearby buildings. the height above the exposure needing protection is at least 36 ft (11 m).7 m). There are a number of data sheets that consider this problem and discuss protection for yard storage. 8-3. Coal and Charcoal Storage. 7-88. Pulpwood and Outdoor Log Storage. (300 mm)-thick brick exterior walls and plain glass windows is exposed by a three-story unsprinklered building. Storage Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids. 8-22.8. three up to the top of the exposing wall and three above it. stored either in the yard or on nearby property. The respective recommended separation distances are 27 ft (8. As in example 3. . however. Metals and Alloys. use this document to determine the separation and protection. Since the length of the exposing wall is 112 ft (34 m) and the height of the exposure is 45 ft (13. separation would need to be adequate for exposed wall Category D for plain glass windows to be acceptable.2.4 Yard Housekeeping Unpaved yards with grass.6 m). All rights reserved. What protection is required for the openings in the exposed building? Solution: The exposing building is multi-story. Combustible yard storage may be vulnerable both to incendiarism and to fire spread from adjoining properties. since the story heights are 15 ft (4. especially to buildings with combustible walls. These include 7-10. 7-52.5. The exposing building is a plank-on-timber fully occupied furniture warehouse having wood walls and a fire area of 15. Storage of Baled Waste Paper. and the maintaining of an aisle space along the fence. 8-28. Oxygen. For outdoor storage that is not covered by any of the above data sheets. Example 3. The length of the exposing wall is 112 ft (34 m). those on the eight floor should have fire rated glass. The separation distance of 30 ft (9.8. Explosive Materials. add to the hazard. The story height in both buildings is 15 ft (4. The ninth floor should have tempered or fire-rated glass to provide protection comparable to Category C. Piles of combustibles. The corresponding multiplier from Table 2 for category 1 and 13 is 0.

Alteration and Demolition Data Sheet 1-19. Roof Deck Securement and Above-Deck Roof Components Data Sheet 1-57. 4a. Fire Walls. 2004 1-20 Page 20 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Fig. Installation and Maintenance of Private Fire Service Mains and their Appurtenances Data Sheet 7-28N. . Safeguards During Construction. 4.Valid Through January. Flammable Liquid Storage in Portable Containers Data Sheet 7-32. Criteria for Maximum Foreseeable Loss Fire Walls and Space Separation Data Sheet 1-29.0 REFERENCES 4. Protection for exposed buildings higher than the exposing building. Subdivisions and Draft Curtains Data Sheet 1-21. All rights reserved.1 FM Global Data Sheet 1-0. Fire Resistance of Building Assemblies Data Sheet 1-22. Explosive Materials Data Sheet 7-29. Flammable Liquid Operations ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. Rigid Plastic Building Materials Data Sheet 2-8N. NFPA 13 Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems 1996 Edition Data Sheet 3-10.

Protection of walls above the exposure (English units). All rights reserved.Valid Through January. . 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 21 Fig. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. 4b.

Valid Through January. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. . 2004 1-20 Page 22 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets Fig. Protection of walls above the exposure (SI Units). All rights reserved. 4c.

The exterior coating for the EPS is a thin (about 1⁄8 in. Storage of Wood Chips Data Sheet 8-28. Oxygen Data Sheet 7-85. APPENDIX A GLOSSARY OF TERMS Actual Separation Distance (d): The existing or proposed separation distance between adjacent buildings or between yard storage and a building. rigid plastic building materials that are not Approved. and plaster/stucco (not EIFS). thick (13 to 19 mm). which is a guide (non-mandatory language) and not a standard. Storage of Baled Waste Paper Data Sheet 8-24. Storage Tanks for Flammable and Combustible Liquids Data Sheet 8-1. This category includes concrete (tilt-up. Rubber Tire Storage Data Sheet 8-7. Some credit. EIFS often use expanded or extruded polystyrene insulation (EPS). (13 mm) thick when used as a veneer in EIFS systems). 3 mm) layer of proprietary plaster-like material which may be only 50% cement and 50% polymers. This data sheet goes into more detail and gives recommendations. Combustible: Combustible includes painted or unpainted wood. Class 1: Class 1 includes Approved ‘‘plastic panels’’ and ‘‘plastic building panels’’. concrete block. metal sandwich panels with a gypsum board core. precast.. for the prevention and reduction of the spread of fire. All rights reserved. Protection Against Arson and Other Incendiary Fires The subject is also covered in NFPA No. Idle Pallet Storage Data Sheet 8-27. brick (but not ‘‘quarter brick’’ which is only about 1⁄2 in. Well maintained concrete or masonry walls without openings generally need little or no separation or protection against fire exposure. 80-A. This tends to weaken the wall as well as permit the passage of heat and flame to the unexposed side. refer to Data Sheet 1-21. Otherwise. expansion of the steel frame under heat exposure may open up the mortar joints. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company. using the separation distances for noncombustible construction will provide a very conservative estimate of the needed separation. that rating may be used to determine the separation. to 3⁄4 in. Baled Fiber Storage Data Sheet 8-10. It offers considerably less thermal resistance than stucco (lath and plaster) which is typically 1⁄2 in. Approved ‘‘insulated steel deck roof’’ assemblies are also considered Class 1. Commodity Classification Data Sheet 8-3. Concrete Block on Exposed (From the Exterior Side) Steel Frame: When any portion of the steel framing is on the exterior side of concrete block. glass block or ceramic glass that has passed a minimum 3⁄4 hour fire endurance test and hose stream test. Fire Rated Glass: Glass such as wired glass. can be given to this type of wall to act as a fire barrier under reduced exposure. Roll Paper Storage Data Sheet 8-22. 2004 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets 1-20 Page 23 Data Sheet 7-52. Fire Resistance of Building Assemblies. If an exterior grade fire resistant coating (such as an intumescent mastic) is applied to the exterior side of the exposed steel to provide a comparable rating to that of the wall. however. There are some differences between this document and NFPA 80-A. poured-in-place). and Class 2 insulated steel decks. Metals and Alloys Data Sheet 7-88. Fire Resistive: For more information including specific hourly fire ratings. Coal and Charcoal Storage Data Sheet 8-21. Approved Foam Insulated wall/ceiling constructions which utilize a polyurethane or polyisocyanurate foam core and steel or aluminum-faced panels are considered Class 1. . Exterior Insulation and Finish System (EIFS).Valid Through January. especially regarding yard storage. Pulpwood and Outdoor Log Storage Data Sheet 9-17.

8 m) high. The exposing wall must be constructed so that it will not collapse in an uncontrolled fire. Panels may be painted or galvanized steel. Stable Fire Resistive (SFR): SFR walls are constructed of materials having a fire resistance rating at least adequate for the exposing occupancy. ©2003 Factory Mutual Insurance Company.8 m). Light Hazard Occupancy: Manufacture of noncombustible products in which small amounts of cutting oils. rubber tires and storage of any material judged to have a comparable or higher hazard. and storages of Class 3 palletized commodities to one tier high or a maximum of 6 ft (1. or other combustibles are used. or any occupancy where there is a moderate amount of combustible material. retail store.’’ Ordinary Hazard Occupancy: Manufacture of Class 3 and Class 4 commodities. This classification can also be used for the palletized storage of Class 1 or 2 commodities to one tier high or 6 ft (1. This includes freestanding fire walls. . Assume a light hazard occupancy for use in Table 1 when the exposing building is a hospital. Storage of Class 1 or 2 commodities. Noncombustible panels also include ‘‘protected metal panels’’ and ‘‘fiber-reinforced cement panels’’ Approved and listed under ‘‘Exterior Roofing and Siding. dwelling. insulations acceptable for use in this category include glass fiber. It does not include fire walls that are laterally supported by structural framework that does not have adequate fire resistance. the hazard may be reduced to Ordinary. plastics. mineral wool and expanded glass. metal-working in which significant amounts of cutting oils are present. the March 1979 version was completely revised. Safe Separation Distance (S): The distance recommended per this document to prevent ignition of a building or its contents due to an exposure fire in an adjacent building or yard storage.8 m) high. or when the exposing building is occupied as a hotel. For other types of insulation. or crack under fire exposure. or other building having a comparable occupancy hazard. garage. office (with minimal combustible furniture and limited books and papers in the open). APPENDIX B DOCUMENT REVISION HISTORY In September 1999. When palletized storage of Class 3 commodities are no more than one tier or 6 ft (1. see Class 1 or combustible categories. flammable liquids. or when any portion of the exposing building is combustible and the building is vacant. 2004 1-20 Page 24 Protection Against Exterior Fire Exposure FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets High Hazard Occupancy: Storage of Class 3 or 4 or greater hazard commodities. The panels are light in weight. All rights reserved. they may buckle and open at their joints. corrugated iron. Since heat will easily conduct through thin steel and ignite combustible insulation. and unless protected or adequately separated. or corrugated cementitious supported on a steel frame. roll paper. storage of flammable liquids.Valid Through January. Noncombustible (NC): Noncombustible walls usually consist of panels over steel framing. school.

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