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UA - Direct Attached Storage

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1. Directed Attached Storage
1. Introduction to DAS
Direct-attached storage, or DAS, is the most basic level of storage, in which storage devices are part of the host computer, as with drives, or directly connected to a single server. Network workstations must therefore access the server in order to connect to the storage device. This is in contrast to networked storage such as NAS and SAN, which are connected to workstations and servers over a network. As the first widely popular storage model, DAS products still comprise a large majority of the installed base of storage systems in today's IT infrastructures. Although the implementation of networked storage is growing at a faster rate than that of direct-attached storage, it is still a viable option by virtue of being simple to deploy and having a lower initial cost when compared to networked storage. When considering DAS, it is important to know what your data availability requirements are. In order for clients on the network to access the storage device in the DAS model, they must be able to access the server it is connected to. If the server is down or experiencing problems, it will have a direct impact on users' ability to store and access data. In addition to storing and retrieving files, the server also bears the load of processing applications such as e-mail and databases. Network bottlenecks and slowdowns in data availability may occur as server bandwidth is consumed by applications, especially if there is a lot of data being shared from workstation to workstation. DAS is ideal for localized file sharing in environments with a single server or a few servers - for example, small businesses or departments and workgroups that do not need to share information over long distances or across an enterprise. Small companies traditionally utilize DAS for file serving and e-mail, while larger enterprises may leverage DAS in a mixed storage environment that likely includes NAS and SAN. DAS also offers ease of management and administration in this scenario, since it can be managed using the network operating system of the attached server. However, management complexity can escalate quickly with the addition of new servers, since storage for each server must be administered separately. From an economical perspective, the initial investment in direct-attached storage is cheaper. DAS can also serve as an interim solution for those planning to migrate to networked storage in the future. For organizations that anticipate rapid data growth, it is important to keep in mind that DAS is limited in its scalability.

1.1. Advantages of DAS
Expand Storage Without Adding Servers When the internal storage capacity of your server is maximized, simply adding an INLINE storage array allows you to increase network storage capacity with adding the management headaches associated with putting another server on the network. Protect Your Data and Your Operations INLINE arrays feature redundant hot swappable components. Should a component on the system fail, its work is picked up by a redundant component. The failed component can be replaced or repaired without taking the system off-line. Scalable Storage Direct attached storage allows you to easily scale as your organization grows. Start out with a few hundred gigabytes and increase to 17.2 terabytes* without increasing your system. *Based on current maximum drive size of 300 GB

1.2. Direct Attached Storage (DAS) Model
The Direct Attached Storage (DAS) model can be thought of as the way computer systems worked before networks. The DAS model contains three basic software layers: Application Software, File System Software (which is part of the Unix or NT operating system software) and Disk Controller Software. The elements are usually located close together physically and operate as a single entity. In the DAS model, the UNIX or NT application software makes an I/O request to the file system, which organizes files and directories on each individual disk partition into single hierarchy. The file system also manages buffer cache in UNIX. When database applications are installed, the database software sometimes bypasses the UNIX buffer cache and provides its own cache as with Oracle’s System Global Area (SGA). The system or database software determines the location of the I/O requested by the application and manages all caching activity. If the data is not

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UA - Direct Attached Storage

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in cache, the file system then makes a request to the disk controller software the retrieves the data from its disk or RAID array and returns the data to the file system to complete the I/O process.

Fig.1.3 - Direct Attached Storage Model

1.3. Ideal Situations for DAS
When fast access to storage is required, but the newest SAN technology prices remain out of reach or are not necessary. For very cost-conscious customers, DAS will remain the least expensive storage mechanism for a long time. Of course, this is only in terms of hard physical media costs. When a full comparison with other technologies is completed that takes into consideration administrative overhead and storage efficiencies, you might find that DAS is not at the top of the chart anymore. For very small environments that just don't need anything more.

1.4. Adaptec Direct Attached Storage – SANbloc 2GB JBOD
The SANbloc 2GB JBOD is end-to-end 2Gb Fiber Channel. 2Gb Fiber Channel, the latest generation of Fiber Channel network interface technology, offers greatly accelerated performance in network storage environments, providing simultaneous transmit and receive operations in full-duplex mode as high as 400 MB/s. Each subsystem boasts simplified cabling and supports up to 14 disk drives in a dense 3U form factor. The SANbloc 2GB JBOD can be scaled in multiple dimensions, enabling flexible configuration of capacity, performance and functionality, to match and grow with virtually any application or IT environment.

Highlights
Upgradeable to RAID with the swap of a module Redundant data paths with dual-ported Fiber drives and dual Fiber Channel loops Quad Loop feature provides over 700 MB/s from a single subsystem Enhanced enclosure services (SES) monitoring and reporting Intuitive, comprehensive management with Adaptec Storage Examiner

1.5. Connectivity
Direct-attached storage refers to a storage device, such as a hard drive or tape drive that is directly connected to a single computer. These connections are usually made by one of the following methods: Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE) Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI) Fiber Channel

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EIDE connects internal Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) storage to a computer, SCSI provides a means to connect both internal and external storage to a computer, and Fiber Channel connects external storage to a computer. Fiber Channel is most often used with external storage in a SAN. Although Fiber Channel can be used for direct-attached storage, less expensive SCSI storage can offer similar performance, but works only over limited distances due to the physical limitations of the SCSI bus. When external direct-attached storage devices are located more than twelve meters away from a server, then Fiber Channel must be used. Direct-attached storage retains its high popularity because of its low entry cost and ease of deployment. The simple learning curve associated with direct-attached storage technologies is also a factor many organizations consider. Direct-attached storage also makes it easy to logically and physically isolate data, because the data can only be directly accessed through a single server. Although it is simple to deploy, there are other management considerations to take into account with directattached storage: Direct-attached storage can be more expensive to manage because you cannot redeploy unused capacity, which results in underutilization. Having storage distributed throughout the organization makes it difficult to get a consolidated view of storage across the organization. Disaster recovery scenarios are limited because a disaster will cause both server and storage outages. For data backup and recovery, you need to choose whether to attach local backup devices to each server, install dual network adapters in each server and back up the data over a separate LAN, or back up the server over the corporate LAN. Large organizations have found that placing stand-alone tape drives in individual servers can quickly become expensive and difficult to manage, especially when the number of servers in the organization grows into the hundreds. In this situation, it is often best to back up servers over a network to a storage library, which offers backup consolidation and eases management.

1.5.1. Enhanced IDE
Enhanced Integrated Digital Electronics. The current standard for hard drives. Sometimes called "Super IDE." Replaces the original IDE specification. The controller is built into the drive, and does not require an accessory card on the bus. New hard drives should be EIDE. Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics. A newer version of the IDE standard for hard drives. Enhanced IDE Western Digitals proprietary extension of the IDE interface standard with ATA-2 and ATAPI features, used to connect hard drives and CD-ROMS to a PC. Enhanced IDE An improved version of the IDE interface, used to connect hard drives and CD-ROMS to a PC. (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) An improved version of IDE, which offers better performance than standard SCSI. It offers transfer rates between 4 and 16.6 MB/sec. (Enhanced Integrated Device Electronics or Enhanced Intelligent Drive Electronics) An enhanced version of the IDE drive interface that expands the maximum disk size from 504 MB to 8.4 GB, more than doubles the maximum data transfer rate, and supports up to four drives per PC (as opposed to two in IDE systems). Now that hard disks with capacities of 1 GB or more are commonplace in PCs, EIDE is an extremely popular interface. EIDE's primary competitor is SCSI-2, which also supports large hard disks and high transfer rates. (See also IDE and SCSI.) Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics. Improved version of the IDE interface for hard drives and CD-ROMs. EIDE uses Logical Block Addressing which allows for HD capacities over 528 MB. It makes use of Direct Memory Access and can address up to four devices. Also called Fast ATA. enhanced integrated device (or drive) electronics A second take on the PC platform's IDE drive interface that increases the previous maximum disk size from 504MB to more than 8GB, speeds up the data transfer rate to more than twice what IDE was capable of, and doubles the number of drives a PC can contain, bringing the number up to four. On the PC platform, EIDE gives SCSI-2 a run for its money, and while most people agree that SCSI-2 is technically superior, EIDE is cheaper to implement, which gained it widespread acceptance. If someone were to say they preferred a serial connection to a parallel connection, most would laugh at them uncontrollably. Serial COM ports have always been known to be one of the slowest connections in modern computers. However, the newest version of Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA), Serial ATA, is set to sweep parallel ATA off its feet. PATA vs. SATA

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an update of the parallel bus architecture that provides up to 133Mbytes/sec. point to point Up to 39-inch (1-meter) cable Thin cable (1/4-inch) 7-wire differential (noise canceling) Blade and beam connector (snap in) ½-inch-wide data connector First-party DMA support Low voltage (.5. and room for expansion 1. www.5. connecting the host system to peripherals such as hard drives. PATA cables are large and bulky and can easily restrict airflow. the governing body for ATA specifications.3 Advantages of SATA over PATA Parallel ATA Up to 133 Mbytes/sec Tiny jumpers Eighteen-inch cable Two-inch-wide ribbon cable 80 conductor 40 pin and socket Two-inch-wide data connector Onboard DMA controller High 5V tolerance for legacy drives Limited (legacy command queuing) ---CRC on data only Serial ATA No master/salve. 1.1.5 Gbits/sec) Faster.Direct Attached Storage Page 4 of 123 Hardware.1. designed to replace parallel ATA technology. these longer cables are generally more trouble than they are worth. can be easily routed to not restrict any airflow at all.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. one for sending and one for receiving data. Development of the ATA/ATAPI-7 specification. computers continue to generate more heat and this can cause many problems including complete computer failure. which supports up to 100Mbyte/sec data transfers. command. which is less than 40 inches.1 PATA Parallel ATA is the primary internal storage interconnects for the desktop. Parallel cables use multiple wires for both sending and receiving and this technology uses a total of 26 wires for data transfer. SATA Parallel ATA (PATA) has been the industry standard for connecting hard drives and other devices in computers for well over a decade.1.wilshiresoft. is ATA/ATAPI-6. and removable magnetic media devices. with their longer maximum length. PATA could be a quickly dying breed with the introduction of Serial ATA (SATA). SATA cables are only 7 pins wide and. which can restrict airflow greatly. 1. Parallel ATA is an extension of the original parallel ATA interface introduced in the mid 1980’s and maintains backward compatibility with all previous versions of this technology. However.1. it is fully compliant with the ATA protocol and thus is software compatible. optical drives. supporting up to 10 years of storage evolution based on historical trends. The latest revision of the Parallel ATA specification accepted by the ANSI supported INCITS T13 committee. PATA cables are limited to only 18 inches long. This architecture overcomes the electrical constraints that are increasing the difficulty of continued speed enhancements for the classic parallel ATA bus. Configurations & Pictures 1. SATA will be introduced at 150Mbytes/sec. SATA is the proactive evolution of the ATA interface from a parallel bus to serial bus architecture. It is possible to have longer cables but. due to a few major limitations.2 SATA SATA is the next -generation internal storage interconnects. Though SATA will not be able to directly interface with legacy Ultra ATA hardware.UA . only two data channels are required. PATA cables are 40 wires wide and they block precious space.5. The change to serial transfer is what allows the cable to be so thin. was recently finalized.com info@wilshiresoft. due to attenuation. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .4.5. status SATA Advantages Ease of use Ease of Integration Improved system airflow Eliminates data integrity problems Ease of Use Ease of Integration Performance enhancement Design improvement Performance enhancement Ease of Integration/use Enhanced data protection Up to 150 Mbytes/sec (1. To compare. while SATA cables can be up to 1 meter in length.25V) tolerance Intelligent Data Handling Hot Swap CRC on data. with a roadmap already planned to 600Mbytes/sec. PATA vs. With the onslaught of better and faster devices.

5. To fully implement the SATA standard a new motherboard. some hardware doesn't have to be immediately replaced.1. As shown. the SATA connector is much smaller than its parallel counterpart. For users that are not ready to purchase new motherboards. When looking at the hardware for serial connections. can be used with existing power supplies. and most important. For those that would like to take advantage of SATA's longer and thinner cabling requirements without having to purchase new hard drives.com info@wilshiresoft.5. The last. as this will not be so restricted by the ATA connectors. one can easily see the differences between it and parallel ATA. Its unknown how soon power supplies with new SATA power connectors will be available for sale but. Finally. SATA RAID controllers are available as well. Configurations & Pictures Between the last quarter of 2002 and the first quarter of 2003. with SATA adapters. Hardware. difference is the maximum bandwidth between the two technologies. motherboards with onboard SATA adapters were released to the public market. SATA doesn't require any changes to existing operating systems for implementation.Direct Attached Storage Page 5 of 123 Another comparison is that SATA devices require much less power than PATA.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. the maximum transfer rate is 150 MB/sec. Parallel ATA Maximum Speed Cable Length Cable Pins 100 MB/s with bursts up to 133 MB/s 18 Inches 40 Serial ATA 150 MB/s Currently 300 MB/s by 2005 and 600 MB/s by 2008 1 Meter (about 40 inches) 7 15 2 250 mV Yes Power Connector Pins 4 Data transfer wires used Power Consumption Hot Swappable? 26 5V No 1. In contrast.wilshiresoft. SATA adapters. SATA is also hot-swappable meaning that devices can be added or removed while the computer is on. SATA only requires 250 mV to effectively operate. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . www. Most Hard drive manufacturers released their first SATA hard drives for sale in the first or second quarter of 2003. Chip core voltages continue to decline and.1. With the first introduction of SATA.1.5. This effectively means that motherboard manufacturers will have more room to include more on board options as well as being able to offer better board layouts. The true maximum transfer rate of PATA is 100 MB/sec with bursts up to 133 MB/sec. can be purchased to convert current drives to accept SATA cables.5. This is supposed to increase every 3 years with a maximum transfer of 300 MB/sec in 2005 and 600 MB/sec in 2008.UA . a new hard drive or other storage device and a new power supply or power adapter must be purchased. SATA is 100% software compatible and. for the time being. because of this. A side-by-side comparison of the two connectors on a motherboard is shown in figure 1. power adapters. PATA's 5-volt requirement is increasingly difficult to meet.

3v wires are included for the new devices.1 .4. 9 of the pins provided are for the positive.3 . a look at figure 1.UA .5. SATA power connectors are still the same size as current power connectors even though they have a total of 15 contacts.5.5. The reason for the 15-pin connector is so that different voltages are supplied to the appropriate places.wilshiresoft. www.5.2 shows a PATA cable on the left and an SATA cable on the right. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .Direct Attached Storage Page 6 of 123 Fig.As seen in the picture above. SATA to PATA adapters are currently available to allow existing hard drives to be used with new motherboards or controller cards and one is shown below in figure 1. Furthermore.5. As discussed earlier in this article.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.5. designating an additional two contacts per voltage for this.5.These pictures show the difference in size of PATA and SATA connectors.1.1.5. 1.5. The remaining 6 connectors are for the hot-swappable feature of SATA.5.3 shows an SATA power adapter with a 15-pin connector as opposed to the customary 4 pin connectors in parallel ATA. negative and ground contacts for each voltage.5. Figure 1. 1.2 .SATA is the undisputed champion in terms of size and flexibility of cables.1. As is easily apparent. In addition to the customary 5v and 12v wires. 1.5. the SATA cable is much more builder friendly and can be easily routed out of the way in a case due to its length and flexibility. new 3.1.1. Fig. The new 15-pin connector may sound as though it would be a hindrance in comparison to the older ones but the two connectors measure almost the same width.com info@wilshiresoft. Fig.1.

com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. To connect this to a hard drive.1. connect a SATA drive to a PATA connector on a motherboard or. made by Soyo. Finally. Also.UA . Figure 1.5.5 – Converting PATA hard disk to SATA Technology Then.1. www. simply connect the 40-pin PATA adapter to the connector on the drive as shown in figure 1. connect a power connector to both the hard drive and the SATA adapter.5.4 – SATA to PATA Adapter The package.1. 1 SATA cable and a short instructional manual.6. 7 jumpers will have to be set according to the instructions shown in the manual.7 below shows a comparison of the inside of a computer case with a PATA cable connected to a hard drive and a SATA cable connected to a hard drive.5.5.5.Direct Attached Storage Page 7 of 123 Fig.com info@wilshiresoft. Fig.Standard PATA cable connection. connect a PATA drive to a PATA connector on a motherboard using an SATA cable.5. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .6 .5.1. includes the SATA to PATA adapter. with the use of two adapter kits. 1. 1.5.1.wilshiresoft. connect one end of the serial cable to the adapter and the other end to a motherboard or controller card. Fig. 1. This device can be used to connect a PATA drive to a SATA connector on a motherboard or controller card.5.5.

It’s quite easy to distinguish the winner here: SATA takes the gold without a doubt.up to 160 megabytes per second (MBps).1.5. Advantages of SCSI It's fast -.5. 1.2. 1. It works on most computer systems www.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.UA .wilshiresoft. SCSI 1.1.7 .com info@wilshiresoft.Direct Attached Storage Page 8 of 123 Fig. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . It's reliable.2. It allows you to put multiple devices on one bus.5.5.

Direct Attached Storage Page 9 of 123 1. This type of SCSI is not common with personal computers.Ended Cables: Single . If you want to combine SE and LVD devices on one SCSI cable.SIGNAL. Single .5.2. you must use the higher-quality LVD cable in order for the LVD devices to work.com info@wilshiresoft. which is mainly used on older. and cable lengths up to 25 meters (about 82. A stub length of no more than 0..wilshiresoft. Differential Cables: Differential cables connect up to eight Differential drivers and receivers.Ended devices is very different from the signals for Differential devices. while for Single . A 50 conductor flat cable or 25 signal twisted-pair cable should be used. Impedance Requirements IDEAL characteristic impedance: www. Comparison of SCSI Technologies Name Asynchronous SCSI Synchronous SCSI Wide SCSI Fast SCSI Fast/Wide SCSI Ultra SCSI Ultra/Wide SCSI Ultra2 SCSI Ultra2/Wide SCSI Ultra3 SCSI Specification SCSI-1 SCSI-1 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-2 SCSI-3 SPI SCSI-3 SPI SCSI-3 SPI-2 SCSI-3 SPI-2 SCSI-3 SPI-3 # of Devices 8 8 16 8 16 8 8 8 16 16 Bus Width 8 bits 8 bits 16 bits 8 bits 16 bits 8 bits 16 bits 8 bits 16 bits 16 bits Bus Speed 5 MHz 5 MHz 5 MHz 10 MHz 10 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 40 MHz 40 MHz 40 MHz MBps 4 MBps 5 MBps 10 MBps 10 MBps 20 MBps 20 MBps 40 MBps 40 MBps 80 MBps 160 MBps 1. Single .conductor cable or 25 .Ended cables connect up to eight drivers and receivers.Ended devices all signals consist of one line (SIGNAL). Low-Voltage (LVD) Differential Cables: LVD SCSI cables are similar to high-end SE cables.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Single .3.signal twisted .5.5 feet).2. Requires more powerful drivers than single-ended SCSI.Ended (SE) and Differential devices CANNOT be mixed on the same SCSI cable . A stub length of no more than 0. The maximum cable length shall be 6 meters (primarily for connection within a cabinet).1 meters is allowed.2.Ended vs. For Differential devices all signals consist of two lines denoted +SIGNAL and . A 50 . The maximum cable length shall be 25 meters (primarily for connection outside of a cabinet). The designation 'Differential' generally refers to High-Voltage differential. however they must meet more stringent requirements than SE cables.pair cable shall be used. mentioned above. Differential: Allows up to 10 MB per sec. Differential The set of signals for Single . Ideal impedance match is 122 Ohms.UA . Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .except for LVD/SE. rather than the flat ribbon cable that is used for SE type SCSI. An internal LVD ribbon cable will be a twisted-pair type cable.2 meters is allowed. larger systems such as IBM mainframes.

5. both devices should be differential or both should be single .ended.40 ft (12 m). single-ended signaling means that the controller generates the signal and pushes it out to all devices on the bus over a single data line. cables with such high characteristic impedance are not usually available. and cost. These mutually exclusive alternatives are: 1. with a data high line and a data low line. For instance. SCSI Devices that do no work together The SCSI standard contains various alternatives.offs in shielding effectiveness.Direct Attached Storage Page 10 of 123 .Differential cables: 122 ohms However. Another factor in the type of termination is the bus type itself.4. High-voltage differential (HVD) .Single .5.com info@wilshiresoft. If the bus were left open. www. number of loads. 5. then the SCSI controller is one point of termination and the last device in the series is the other one. If there is only one series of devices (internal or external). SCSI employs three distinct types of bus signaling. The big difference is that the transceivers are smaller and built into the SCSI adapter of each device.ended or differential Termination power supplied by the cable or not Parity implemented or not "Hard" RESET or "Soft" RESET Reservation queuing implemented or not This means that the two devices you connect with a SCSI cable must be compatible. devices along the bus receive the signal and retransmit it until it reaches the target device. If there are both internal and external devices. LVD works in much the same way.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.2. 2.The most common form of signaling for PCs. Active termination is used for Fast SCSI systems or systems with devices that are more than 3 ft (1 m) from the SCSI controller. both should have a "hard" RESET or a "soft" RESET and so on. cables of different impedances should not be used in the same bus.. Consequently. can be made to some limited degree.UA . This makes LVD SCSI devices more affordable and allows LVD to use less electricity to communicate. Single-ended (SE) . in terms of each of the five features listed above.10% * For shielded cables: 90 ohms or greater Somewhat lower characteristic impedance is acceptable since few cable types meet the above requirements. or of the same type. This allows for much greater distances between the controller and the device. less than 3 feet (1 m). As a result. 4. Only two terminators are used. HVD uses a tandem approach to signaling. at the same time. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . When the controller communicates with the device. one for each end of the SCSI bus. which are mutually exclusive within a system (or a bus). Each device on the SCSI bus has a signal transceiver. Each device acts as a ground.Ended cables: 132 ohms . transfer rates. 3.The preferred method of bus signaling for servers. The downside to LVD is that the maximum distance is half of HVD -. Note: To minimize discontinuities and signal reflections.A variation on the HVD signaling method. Types of SCSI termination can be grouped into two main categories: passive and active. the SCSI standard requires the following: * For unshielded flat or twisted . electrical signals sent down the bus could reflect back and interfere with communication between SCSI devices and the SCSI controller.pair cables: 100 ohms +/ . Passive termination is typically used for SCSI systems that run at the standard bus clock speed and have a short distance. Signal ling is the way that the electrical impulses are sent across the wires. 1. then the last device on each series must be terminated. using a resistor circuit.2.for each of the five features above.. between the devices and the SCSI controller. Single . cable length. 1. Trade . the signal quickly begins to degrade. characteristic impedance.wilshiresoft. Low-voltage differential (LVD) . up to 80 ft (25 m). which limits SE SCSI to a maximum of about 10 ft (3 m). SCSI Termination Termination simply means that each end of the SCSI bus is closed.5.

even though the distance between devices and the controller can be much greater than 3 ft (1 m). 1.5. featuring a sustained data processing rate of 320 MB/s in a single-channel configuration. These connections typically use parallel SCSI technology.2.6. has the technology you need today to migrate to Ultra320 SCSI. Our line consists of a complete product line covering the range of Ultra through the industry's first 66MHz Ultra3 products.3.UA . when the technology becomes commercially available A Smooth.Direct Attached Storage Page 11 of 123 Both HVD and LVD normally use passive terminators.com info@wilshiresoft.1. you can plug in and get your data humming at Ultra-fast speeds in no time. we have led the way in SCSI innovation. but its really nothing more than Ultra160 with packetization. Introduction There are two popular methods for connecting storage arrays to servers for block-level access to storage – Direct Attached Storage (DAS) and Storage Area Networking (SAN). so that when the technology becomes available.3. This is because the transceivers ensure that the signal is strong from one end of the bus to the other. Since 1987. We can help you design and prepare for Ultra320 today. 1.5. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. and twice as fast as Ultra160.5. which is used internally for disks as well. “No Risk” Transition Adaptec has adopted the industries current SPI-4 standards guidelines and is partnering with the industries best server and disk drive manufactures. Bus Type PCI PCI PCI PCI PCI Bus Speed 66/33 33 33 33 33 I/0 data Rate 160MB 160MB 160MB 40MB 40MB Ports 2 2 1 1 1 Model ISP12160A ISP12160 ISP10160 ISP1040C ISP1040B 1. These two methods present contrasting storage architectures.2. to ensure your smooth transition to Ultra320. Adaptec also offers a new chip that is pin-for-pin compatible with Ultra320 and provides outstanding performance and flexibility for server and high-end workstations. which uses a direct connection between a server and its dedicated SCSI storage system. when QLogic introduced the industry's very first SCSI processor. SCSI Controllers QLOGIC SCSI Controllers QLogic's Parallel SCSI controllers deliver the ultimate in SCSI performance and reliability. A newer method places fiber channel (FC) technology and FC switches between servers and storage to create a Storage Area Network (SAN). or up to 640 MB/s.5. the driving force behind SCSI and industry leader in direct attached storage. “True” Ultra320 SCSI Others claim to have Ultra320 technology today. Fiber Channel 1. Both use the SCSI protocol and appear as local storage to servers.8. The connectivity the switches provide allows the connection of more than one www.wilshiresoft. The most common architecture or method remains DAS. like ServerWorks and Seagate. dual channel. Adaptec Ultra320 SCSI Want lighting-fast data processing speed for your server or PC? Consider Ultra320 SCSI from Adaptec Ultra320 SCSI is a PCI-X to SCSI solution. Adaptec. DAS is simple to deploy yet becomes increasingly difficult to manage as the numbers of DAS systems grow.

With internal RAID and external RAID. Improved Utilization The storage consolidation provided by a FC DAS storage solution provides far superior storage utilization. storage systems utilizing FC technology are generally more advanced and feature rich than those utilizing SCSI. Advantages of Fiber Channel Fiber Channel is an open-standard technology that provides reliable and fast communications at high speeds. there are two general types based on where their controllers reside. the Total Costs of Ownership (TCO) for the FC DAS solution will be far less than external RAID – and internal RAID in some cases – due to the far greater management and maintenance costs of supporting multiple storage systems instead of a consolidated one. Each fiber channel disk connection supports a far greater number of disks than SCSI can. This reduces the number of storage systems required but substantially increases complexity and cost due to the switches.wilshiresoft. Not surprisingly. so it could require as little as one disk to increase the storage available to four servers. Storage costs are reduced significantly by consolidating the purchase of multiple SCSI DAS storage systems into a FC DAS storage solution. FC DAS storage solutions often provide performance similar to several SCSIbased storage systems combined. Better Scalability Consolidating the storage requirements of several servers will surely increase the storage capacity requirements of the storage system in use. so FC DAS storage solutions often scale to extremely large storage capacities.5.2. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . For example. If there are four such systems in use. such as: Reduced Costs SCSI DAS storage systems are available in a broad range of configurations and prices. Moreover. 1. It is unlikely servers connected to a FC DAS storage solution will out-grow the supported storage capacity. FC DAS solutions use fiber channel and therefore share many of its benefits. FC DAS storage solutions allow adding capacity one disk at a time and allocating the new storage capacity to one or multiple servers. Fortunately. both methods provide an almost mutually exclusive set of benefits. Fortunately. each includes an independent set of disks configured for RAID protection. www. Even so. An even more basic aspect of storage utilization involves the unusable disk capacity required for RAID protection and spare disks. This white paper explores how FC DAS solutions apply the benefits of fiber channel to reduce SCSI storage costs without requiring SAN switches. Internal RAID types are DAS systems that require RAID controllers to be installed inside their server.Direct Attached Storage Page 12 of 123 server to a storage system.000 each or more depending on their configuration.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Four external RAID systems can cost the same or more as an FC DAS solution. FC DAS storage solutions can provision storage to servers as needed. It is most commonly used to network servers and storage using specialized switches into SANs. without the added benefits that fiber channel provides.3. This can result in a FC DAS storage solution providing much faster performance. This results in greatly improve performance for every server with FC DAS storage solutions. Increasing storage capacities when using internal RAID or external RAID requires adding one or more disks per system. but an intermediate solution – DAS supporting multiple servers using FC without switches – becomes a sensible and desired alternative. adding storage capacity to four servers would require a minimum of four disks when using internal RAID or external RAID – one for each storage system. Faster Performance Fiber Channel is a newer and faster technology than SCSI. each is ‘wasting’ two disks each for a total of eight disks. In any event. SCSI DAS storage systems can cost up to $10. Using RAID 5 protection results in one disk lost to parity overhead and potentially one additional disk for use as a spare. this is another area in which FC DAS storage solutions are far superior to internal RAID and external RAID alternatives.UA .com info@wilshiresoft. As such. unless their requirements are highly unusual. DAS systems with RAID controllers outside the server are external RAID types. innovative FC-based DAS solutions are now available to fill the void between traditional SCSI-based DAS and FC-based SAN.

storage capacity is more precisely allocated using FC DAS storage solutions since any portion of the added capacity can be allocated to any server. ensure all features are available for every supported server platform and operating system. Ask for documentation to support any RAS claims and avoid products without proof of five 9’s (99. Together with uptime and downtime ratings. The alternative is to add storage to internal RAID or external RAID in exact increments of one disk per server. The following questions and suggestions are a basic set of guidelines. Comparing FC DAS Storage Solutions There are many factors that are important to consider when comparing FC DAS storage represent solutions. Sufficient Performance Sharing an FC storage system among servers will result in sharing its performance as well. Fortunately. More Dependability The common measure of dependability for storage systems is Reliability. 1. configuration and monitoring.3. Number of Host Ports Identify FC storage systems that provide multiple FC host ports without requiring external FC switches or other hardware options. Management Software A comprehensive storage management suite greatly simplifies storage set-up. FC storage systems are now available where the performance provided is greater than the performance provided by several SCSI storage systems combined.Direct Attached Storage Page 13 of 123 A FC DAS storage solution would provide storage to all four servers using one set of disks configured for similar RAID 5 protection and one spare disk. Such contracts can increase the total system price of an FC storage system to levels that make these solutions impractical.UA . Moreover. Also.com info@wilshiresoft. FC storage systems with at least eight built-in FC host ports enable a transition from SCSI storage to FC storage without increasing costs. Look for these for best results.5. they provide common factors for comparing products.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. The efficiency and advantages of an FC DAS storage solution grows as the number of servers increase.3. Serviceability describes the ability to perform maintenance on the storage system without removing it from service. regardless of the effects of that failure. which creates costly barriers in the future. www. The comparison checklist at the end of this document can help with summarizing comparison ratings of FC DAS storage solutions. Supported Platforms Confirm that the FC storage system under consideration can support multiple operating systems simultaneously and can do so without requiring expensive software options. Dependability Reliability. Availability describes the likelihood that the storage system will remain usable over time. Availability and Serviceability (RAS). Ideal FC storage systems offer software that supports all popular server operating systems at no cost or low cost. Scalability Exactly what is required to scale the FC storage system? Many require substantial hardware and software upgrades as they scale. The availability of multi-pathing and load balancing software is a plus.999 %) uptime or better. Reliability reflects how infrequently the storage system will experience a component failure. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . though there is no perfect criteria list. availability and serviceability (RAS) become critical with FC storage systems since any disruption can affect multiple servers at once. The number of disks made unusable for user storage is reduced by 75% in this example. This is rather common for product families that have many outwardly similar models. so be sure to add criteria important to each environment.wilshiresoft. Total System Price Watch out for FC storage solutions requiring expensive service and maintenance agreements.

Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Another important consideration for a medium sized business or large enterprise is heterogeneous data sharing. a NAS system appears like a native file server to each of its different clients. That means that files are saved on the NAS system. FC and CIFS. NAS products have also become the perfect complement to highly capable storage area networks (SAN). conserving time and resources. as well as retrieved from the NAS system. reducing the CPU power necessary to store and retrieve data. Since resources cannot be shared beyond a single server in DAS. so there is no common storage in an environment that may include a mix of Windows. this is no easy task. Networked storage was developed to address the challenges inherent in a server based infrastructure such as direct attached storage. NAS is also based on industry standard network protocols such as TCP/IP. Multiple NAS systems can also be centrally managed. It is not uncommon for NAS to go head to head with storage area networks in the purchasing decision. On the network. A business and ROI case must be made to justify technology investments. comprised of both hard disks and management software.UA . or expanding the capacity of existing servers. The perception of value in enterprise IT infrastructures has also shifted over the years. Implementers of NAS benefit from performance and productivity gains. In recent years. NAS still has its largest install base in the small to medium sized business sector. The NAS market includes products ranging from low-end workgroup servers with limited features and few expansion capabilities to enterprise solutions that are scalable. Lower maintenance costs www. offering customers flexible solutions that allow them to stretch their storage dollars.are equally applicable for the enterprise market. a server has the dual functions of file sharing and application serving in the DAS model. First popularized as an entry-level or midrange solution. Considering the downsizing of IT budgets in recent years. 2. Mac and Linux workstations.Network Attached Storage Page 14 of 123 2. and expandable. High reliability features such as RAID and hot swappable drives and components are standard even in lower end NAS systems. NAS systems can integrate into any environment and serve files across all operating platforms. NAS also makes sense for enterprises looking to consolidate their direct-attached storage resources for better utilization. Smaller companies find NAS to be a plug and play solution that is easy to install. considering that the main alternatives are adding new servers. with or without IT staff at hand. As discussed earlier. each server is running its own operating platform. As the volume of digital information continues to grow. having found their way into the enterprise as companies look for alternatives to costly and challenging management of direct-attached storage (DAS). they also benefit from a lower cost of entry.wilshiresoft.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Network attached storage is a special purpose device.1 Introduction to NAS Network attached storage (NAS) has come a long way from the early 1990s.simplicity and value . NAS systems can provide many terabytes of storage in high density form factors. NAS has developed more sophisticated functionality. find their IP addresses. potentially causing network slowdowns. manageable. such as NFS for UNIX. NAS is an attractive investment that provides tremendous value. It is a very fast. organizations with high scalability requirements will find it much more costeffective to expand upon NAS than DAS. leading to its growing adoption in enterprise departments and workgroups. the utilization rate is high since storage is shared across multiple servers. Advantages of NAS: Plug-and-play functionality: NAS servers are designed to attach onto a LAN. With NAS. which is an expensive proposition. reliable solution that costs less: The unnecessary operating system overhead is removed from NAS appliances. Thanks to advances in disk drive technology. NAS is an ideal choice for organizations looking for a simple and cost-effective way to achieve fast data access for multiple clients at the file level. while midrange offerings provide enterprise data protection features such as replication and mirroring for business continuance.com info@wilshiresoft. which is 100% dedicated to serving files over a network. in their native file formats. Network Attached Storage 2.2. With DAS. a long and arduous process that is usually more trouble than it's worth. making efficient use of data center space. The integration of NAS and SAN has been a huge development in the networked storage world. Common Internet File System (CIFS) for Windows and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) for the Web. Protocol support: NAS boxes support multiple network file system protocols. Yet the hallmarks of NAS . deploy and manage. or become part of a NAS/SAN convergence scheme. and then appear on the network as an additional drive. systems may be using as little as half of their full capacity.

Common Internet File System (CIFS) is the standard for all flavors of the Windows operating system. Also. and they are platform-independent. What is Filer? NAS device known as filers. filers are optimized for use as dedicated file servers. 2. significantly lower operational costs.com info@wilshiresoft.” 2.A basic Configuration for NAS Filer on LAN Analysts at International Data Corporation (IDC) recommend NAS to help IT managers handle storage capacity demand. Developed by IBM and Microsoft. “Network-attached storage (NAS) is the preferred implementation for serving filers for any organization currently using or planning on deploying general-purpose file servers.2 .4. storage devices that serve data directly over a network (called Network Attached Storage or NAS devices) are far easier to connect and manage than DAS devices. so you have the freedom to place them close to where their storage services are needed. Developed and put into the public domain by Sun Microsystems. focus all of their processing power solely on file services and file storage. and thus can’t handle file management tasks as effectively as filers. One of the chief benefits of filers is that they relieve your expensive generalpurpose servers of many file management operations. They are attached directly to a network. www. Fig. and improved client/user satisfaction typically results from installing and using specialized NAS appliance platforms. There are two true network standards for accessing remote data that have been broadly implemented by virtually all UNIX and Windows NT system vendors. network standards are strong standards that are driven by system considerations. NAS filers not only improve file-serving performance but also leave your general-purpose servers with more bandwidth to handle critical business operations. General-purpose servers often get bogged down with CPU-intensive activities. to provide file-level access to data. NAS devices support true file sharing between NFS and CIFS computers. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Filers help you keep administrative costs down because they are easy to set up and manage.wilshiresoft. says IDC.3. Network File System (NFS) is the defacto standard for UNIX. Users report that better performance.UA . NAS filers can be located anywhere on a network.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.Network Attached Storage Page 15 of 123 Faster data response times and application speeds Higher Availability and Reliability Y2K compliance Enhanced Migration of existing data Scalability 2. which together account for the vast majority of all computers sold. usually to a LAN. Strong standards for Network Attached Storage (NAS) In contrast. As a result of these broadly accepted standards for network data access. As integrated storage devices. which the analysts except will increase more that 10 times by 2003.

com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. and more comprehensive view Scalability is virtually infinite Expensive to implement Complicated to configure Interoperability can be a concern Pros Cons Doesn’t alleviate LAN bandwidth issues Not appropriate for block level data storage applications www. Easy to install In short run. Storage Type Network Attached Storage Connection Storage devices connected to Ethernet LAN and shared by all other devices on LAN. comparatively cheaper than using servers for the task of setting up a SAN Takes file sharing burden off general purpose servers CPU Storage Area Network Storage devices on separate Fiber Cannel loop.5. while a NAS device is essentially just a file server.wilshiresoft. while in NAS architecture the network is located between the server and the file system.com info@wilshiresoft. The NAS solution transports files over the LAN. connected via a switch or hub to server devices on the LAN. while the SAN moves entire blocks of data over a separate. dedicated network. Alleviates both CPU overhead and LAN bottleneck Offers opportunities for storage consolidation and improved utilization Storage management solutions can allow for less management headcount. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .3 – Configuration of NAS on UNIX and Win 2. The key difference is that in a SAN the file system is on the server side of the network.UA . 2.Network Attached Storage Page 16 of 123 Fig. Network Attached Storage versus Storage Area Network A SAN comprises an entire network.

The provision of a complete data protection solution at a local level is very cost effective compared to the more centralized options. for example. NAS Plus Tape Based Data Protection In environments where the amount of data held locally is increasing rapidly and the need for the fastest time to recovery in case of data loss or catastrophic failure.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. A NAS / tape automation solution also provides the benefits of using hard disks without the cost and complexity of a fully disk-based solution. on the other hand. 2. NAS / tape automation is a good solution for those who value the time that can be lost when looking to recover from data loss as well as the value of the data itself. Streamlined Architecture NAS servers address this problem by streamlining file server configurations and operations.Network Attached Storage Page 17 of 123 Major Storage System Competitors Network Appliance EMC Auspex HP-Compaq IBM Procom Quantum-DSS Maxtor Spinnaker Connex Procom Technology Tricod Systems BlueArc Opanasas EMC IBM Sun Hitachi Data Systems (HDS) HP-Compaq Dell TrueSAN XIOTech Corporation Emerging players in the NAS/SAN landscape can be broadly categorized as developing systems that can potentially scale to thousands of Terabits. and it provides many functions that are not needed for file services. This scalability.wilshiresoft. have the featurerich software capabilities for their platforms but do not yet have the scalability that some of the emerging companies claim to offer. 2. a general file server would involve a reduced instruction-set computing (RISC) chip-based server for Unix systems or an Intel Corp. The scalable nature of the NAS / tape automation offerings means that the initial investment is largely protected – larger drives can be added. This may prove invaluable to a local retail store or brand office that aim to achieve high levels of data availability.UA . comes at the expense of available features. the ease of installation and ease of use are big plus points for the deployment and ongoing use of such a solution. far exceeding anything available today. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . which makes it a very poor investment. The NAS device acts effectively as a cache for the most recent data and provides almost immediate time to that data.com info@wilshiresoft. The ability to automate the backup process effectively removes the issue of human error and concerns over the non-technical nature of local personnel. Being a file server has everything to do with the [input/output] data path. Typically. According to a study conducted by Carnegie Mellon University most servers require 25% of available CPU cycles for file I/O. www. The general-purpose flexibility of such servers extends all the way down to the operating system. stripping away everything that is not needed to store and distribute data. not computing power. with a disk drive storage array attached to the server.7. Network Appliance and EMC. Much of the computing power of general servers is wasted in file server operations. a combination NAS and tape library solution looks increasingly attractive. however. As the NAS technology is made up of proven components. A stripped-down file-serving-specific program is a fraction of the size and runs much faster.6. and is plug and play. PC-based server for Windows NT networks. A modern multitasking operating system can have 6 million lines of code.

access volume is low. NAS is a well understood and very mature implementation such that the addition of NAS to a network is considered to be a lower data risk proposition (vs. a tape only solution). HTTP. fault tolerant capabilities or clustering functions to provide highly available solutions. With the automated procedures and available software. dissimilar clients running various operating systems can access the same data. NAS facilities can also be optimized to deliver file information to many clients with file-level protection. backup risks are greatly reduced with NAS solutions. a plug and play operation. Data Sharing – One of the basic functions of NAS is to allow data sharing via its implementation of a remote file system. Integrated Backup – The backup of a NAS device is a common feature of popular backup software. and FTP.com info@wilshiresoft. This ease-of-use results in fewer operator errors and reductions in mis-configuration and mis-management. NAS Characteristics Simplicity – The installation and usage of a NAS device is. 2. in some circles. NAS solutions can help reduce overall storage costs. quite literally.Network Attached Storage Page 18 of 123 Networked file systems originally gained popularity after Sun Microsystems' Network File System (NFS) was placed in the public domain and most UNIX-based systems adopted the protocol for networked file access. 2.10. In this type of situation. Storage Management – With NAS. NAS Applications and Benefits NAS applications tend to be most efficient for file-sharing tasks—such as NFS in UNIX and CIFS in Windows NT environments—where network-based locking at the file level provides a high level of concurrent access protection. Connectivity – NAS typically allows for multiple network connections. the databases are small. As with any storage. The administration of NAS system management is simple and handles all the storage devices connected. Infrastructures – NAS leverages existing networks and network administration skills. serialization may add risk because of cross-platform locks and the variability in application responsiveness. Two common applications that utilize the effectiveness of NAS include hosting home directories and providing a data store for static Web pages that are accessed by many different Web servers. Some NAS systems provide a translation mechanism to allow heterogeneous sharing for both NFS (UNIX® operating system) and CIFS Windows® NT®/2000 operating system) implementations. industry standard protocols. However. This enables concurrent support of multiple networks and allows more users to be connected to a common storage element. storage management is centralized for that particular NAS device which may be supporting a large number of application systems. This is a key benefit for NAS systems. 2. Some backup solutions may consume bandwidth of the NAS or may consume the local area network if utilized. NAS systems may still be referred to as NFS servers. and predictable performance is not mandatory. significant business benefits can also be realized through their use.9. High-Availability – Many NAS systems have built-in. This provides a cost advantage by allowing more capacity to be managed per administrator. Business Benefits of NAS Gateways There are direct technological benefits provided by decoupled NAS solutions. organizations can deploy NAS solutions in a limited manner for database applications.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.8. understanding and planning is important. Both can utilize the NAS device safely and securely. In certain situations. Today.wilshiresoft. Some of the solutions utilize fault tolerant RAID storage systems in addition to the fault tolerance in the NAS control function. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . even though products like E® Disk NAS support multiple protocols including Microsoft's Windows SMB/CIFS Common Internet File system. Users on different client systems can have access to the same file on NAS with the access serialization. www. Keeping files on a server in a format that is accessible by different users on different types of computers lets users share data and integrate various types of computers on a network. Some of the most significant include: Enhanced flexibility in how and where storage resources are deployed within the enterprise. Scalability – NAS systems scale easily in both capacity and performance. however. Because NAS systems use open. These situations are usually limited to applications where the majority of data access is typically read-only.UA . So it does not matter if there are Windows users or UNIX users on the network.

WAN and Internet. 2.13 Benefits of Low end and workgroup NAS storage Administrator Extreme ease of Installation No client software Uses existing security features within NetWare. LAN. Easy Management: Browser-based Java. Replication: Native utility for use over SAN. fileserving tasks and allow the Network Server to focus on critical business tasks such as application handling and email. Telnet.com info@wilshiresoft. Drawback Bottlenecks: The major issue that NAS does not address is the LAN bandwidth requirements. Remote Management www. Manage 3rd Party Storage: Turn your legacy storage into a NAS regardless of the manufacturer File Storm NAS appliances are Cluster Capable! 2. WAN and Internet.12.UA . Facilitates Sharing of Data The File Storm Series allows you to connect to multiple operating systems and share data among disparate clients and servers. Secure: 128-bit Kerberos Encryption.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. automated control. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Potentially lower ongoing costs through enhanced resource utilization and reduction in the number of discrete storage management activities. and NT. 2. By-Directional ACL Built-In Tools Snapshot: 250 snapshots per volume.wilshiresoft. LAN. Unix Management: Over 300 CLI tools.Network Attached Storage Page 19 of 123 Higher overall storage resource utilization which leads to decreased costs. Windows GUI and Command Line Interface. since enterprise storage needs can be met with fewer. Increases Efficiency of Network Servers Because the File Storm Series is designed specifically to serve files you can offload high-bandwidth.11. without the need to bring the network down. and sometimes less expensive. The File Storm Series supports both the UNIX Network File System (NFS) protocol and the Microsoft Common Internet File System (CIFS) in order to facilitate cross-platform data sharing Minimizes Staffing Costs Because of the File Storm Series simplified file serving nature the management and maintenance required is negligible compared with network server Direct Attached Storage. Unix Shell. The ability to more effectively and flexibly scale storage resources to meet the demands of business processes and related applications. Improved storage management capabilities and processes as all of an organization’s storage assets can be placed under centralized. Decoupled NAS offering an effective model/methodology for storage consolidation initiatives across the enterprise. File Storm NAS: Easy To Add File Storm Series devices can be added to the network in a matter of minutes. storage assets. Backup: Native utility for use over SAN. Unix Shell. The fact that NAS appliances are connected directly to the messaging network can contribute to its congestion and create bottlenecks.

This eliminates the bottlenecks users often encounter when accessing files from a general-purpose server. For client users. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Many NAS devices support multiple interfaces and can support multiple networks at the same time. SAN architecture is optimal for transferring storage blocks.UA . and achieve a latency (connection speed between nodes) that approaches locally attached latency.16. a SAN is often the preferred choice for addressing issues of bandwidth and data accessibility as well as for handling consolidations. Unlike NAS. http. it is by no means a lazy technology. dedicated network. Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet for media access.14. Due to their fundamentally different technologies and purposes. As networks evolve. using TCP/IP for data transfer. switches. improve data availability. and the only type of networked storage that allows data sharing by connected host systems. NAS is a preferred storage capacity solution for enabling clients to access files quickly and directly. In addition. NAS is the technology of choice for providing storage with unencumbered access to files. NAS can serve both UNIX and Microsoft Windows users seamlessly. 2.15.wilshiresoft. Therefore. which often inhibits performance.com info@wilshiresoft. Typically used for client storage consolidation on a LAN. For example. SANs employ gateways. This allows you to bring both network connectivity and the potential for semi-remote storage (up to 10 km distances are feasible) to your storage management efforts. and NFS for remote file service.1 NetApp NAS Solution Solution Network-attached storage (NAS) is the most mature networked storage solution. Although NAS trades some performance for manageability and simplicity. In fact. making it possible to support a myriad of clients through a single interface. the lines between the two may blur a bit according to some analysts. 2. Ns: Think Back-End/Computer Room Storage Needs A SAN is data-centric -.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.16 NAS Solutions 2. Benefits www. sharing the same data between the different architectures. in the future. a SAN is able to avoid standard network traffic. Either or both can be used to address your storage needs. Originally deployed in data sharing environments.a network dedicated to storage of data. and simplify operations. Fiber channel-based SANs further enhance performance and decrease latency by combining the advantages of I/O channels with a distinct. AS: Think Network Users NAS is network-centric. and routers to facilitate data movement between heterogeneous server and storage environments. NAS provides security and performs all file and storage services through standard network protocols. down the road you may choose to back up your NAS devices with your SAN. Inside the computer room. a SAN is separate from the traditional LAN or messaging network. NAS will become a real option for applications that demand high performance. NetApp NAS solutions have become a preferred solution for enterprise applications and database environments where automated performance tuning and sophisticated data management capabilities can reduce costs. you need not choose between NAS and SAN. non-bottlenecked access to storage.Network Attached Storage Page 20 of 123 Low cost of acquisition & virtually no maintenance User User experience is exactly the same as accessing a standard file server Supports multiple network operating environments and various protocols at the same time Security NAS can include RAID functionality for security of data Existing client back up software will work with a NAS device 2. gain speed. or attach your NAS devices directly to your SAN to allow immediate. Gigabit Ethernet allows NAS to scale to high performance and low latency. and CIFS.

Network Attached Storage Page 21 of 123 Network Appliance NAS appliances deliver the lowest total cost of ownership of any storage approach. which provides shared file storage for all clients. However.1. CIFS. NAS has considerable advantages over direct-attached storage.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. exceptional reliability. together with enterprise-level performance. In addition NetApp NAS solutions provide true heterogeneous data sharing and deliver unparalleled ease of use. FAS250 is a universal. In a NAS environment. servers are connected to a storage system by a standard Ethernet network and use standard file access protocols such as NFS and CIFS to make storage requests. The data management needs of today's enterprise IT environments are typically much better served by a networked storage approach. The key to these capabilities is the combination of modular hardware architecture with the NetApp Data ONTAP™ storage operating system and Write Anywhere File Layout (WAFL®) software. FTP. If the clients are server systems.Filer for Remote Office The FAS250 is particularly suitable for storage consolidation in Windows and Unix environments. Performance and scalability are often limited. affordable storage platform. Local file system calls from the clients are redirected to the NAS device. Product Description NAS was initially designed for data sharing in a LAN environment and incorporates file system capabilities into the storage device. Problems Solved Direct-attached storage works well in environments with an individual server or a limited number of servers. and storage resources cannot be efficiently allocated. As a result of the combination of the NFS (Unix networks) and CIFS (Windows networks) protocols. and availability.16. The new FAS Filer series features effective storage management functions such as Snapshot. The first NAS devices were general-purpose file servers. and unsurpassed ease of use.1 NetApp Filers Product Comparison NetApp F250 . the NAS device offloads the data management overhead from the servers. scalability. HTTP and iSCSI protocols. The supplied snapshot feature set supports efficient backup and user-initiated restore options.wilshiresoft. reliability. which enable the industry's most powerful data management features.UA . Without the need for data migration the FAS250 can be upgraded to the next larger NAS storage systems of the F800 and FAS series (up to 64 TB). 2.com info@wilshiresoft. including improved scalability. availability. the NAS device provides "server less" file serving. The filer head of the FAS250 is integrated in the disk shelf and all components can be mounted in 19-inch racks. www. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Storage for each server must be managed separately and cannot be shared. If the clients are desktop systems. and performance. SnapMirror. but the situation rapidly becomes unmanageable if there are dozens of servers or significant data growth. NetApp redefined NAS storage with its "filer" appliances—special-purpose storage systems that combine high performance. enabling IT organizations to automate and greatly simplify their data management operations. Storage capacity is online scalable from 360 GB to 2 TB and therefore provides solid investment protection. SnapManager and DFM (Data Fabric Manager) and also supports the NFS.

Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Their storage capacity of up to 6 TB provides data consolidation in heterogeneous IT environments at all application levels. massive home directory consolidation and WEB serving. in a cluster configuration up to 24 TB.com info@wilshiresoft.Network Attached Storage Page 22 of 123 NetApp F270 and F270c – Midrange Filers for NAS or SAN This midrange Network Attached Storage system offers an entry-level SAN solution while providing strong price/performance for NAS and iSCSI infrastructures. ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). NetApp F920 and F920c – Midsize Enterprise Structure The FAS920/920c enterprise filer series is designed for medium sized enterprises. SnapManager and DFM (Data Fabric Manager) and also supports the NFS. NetApp F940 and F940c – Unify Enterprise Data Storage The flexibility and performance of the FAS940 Filer brings features to a broad range of Enterprise applications.UA . Without the need for data migration the FAS270 and FAS270c can be upgraded to the next larger NAS storage systems of the F800 and FAS series (up to 64 TB). The Filer is configured with the Data ONTAP Software. The model also offers the option of running the systems in a cluster configuration with up to 12 TB. The filer head of the FAS270/270c is integrated in the disk shelf and all components can be mounted in 19-inch racks. The storage capacity is online scalable up to 6 TB and therefore provides solid investment protection. Optional clustering capability provides high availability using an active/active cluster over the backplane.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. SnapMirror. CIFS. The new FAS Filer series features effective storage management functions such as Snapshot. www. a highly optimized and scalable operating system that enables them to interoperate easily and facilitates administration. including CRM (Customer Relationship Management). HTTP and iSCSI protocols. DSS (Digital Signature Standard). for a no-single-point-of-failure solution. FTP. The FAS940 can manage 12 TB of data in one system.wilshiresoft. This enhancement of data consolidation at all application levels goes hand in hand with a fail-safety that is once more noticeably increased.

The FAS960 delivers one of the lowest total costs of ownership (TCO) and highest returns on investment (ROI) in the industry. It is designed to accommodate thousands of independent users and large.UA . NAS by AUSPEX The Auspex NS3000XR Series The NS3000XR enhances the data protection capabilities of the entry-level NS3010 by providing two independent data paths to every disk array through redundant RAID controllers and dual Fiber-channel host bus adapters. the FAS980 can meet the storage demands of nearly any enterprise. It is designed to accommodate thousands of independent users and large. Software that utilizes incremental block transfers to backup data to NearStore like SnapVault provides additional benefits. The FAS980 delivers one of the lowest total costs of ownership (TCO) and highest returns on investment (ROI) in the industry. NearStore R200 is offered in configurations with 8 TB and scalability in 8 TB steps up to 96 TB.2. In a cluster configuration it is possible to use up to 48 TB in one system without a single point of failure. This Fiber-based strategy adds vital fault tolerance for any kind of missioncritical enterprise information. the FAS960 meets the storage demands of nearly any enterprise. www. the XR automatically redirects a service request to the open path. enabling customers with large capacity environment to simplify. With the capability of managing 32 TB of data in one system and 16 TB in one file system.16. If one path is blocked.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. high bandwidth applications. In a cluster configuration is it possible to use up to 64 TB in one system without a single point of failure. in a two-stage backup configuration. NetApp F980 and F980c – Powerful Enterprise Filer The FAS980 is our highest-performance Filer in the NAS market. ensuring that all data on all disks remains available to end-users. Network Appliance has dramatically enhanced how storage networks are deployed.wilshiresoft.Network Attached Storage Page 23 of 123 NetApp F960 and F960c – Enterprise Class Filer FAS960 is a high performance filer in the NAS market.com info@wilshiresoft. high bandwidth applications. NetApp Nearstore R200 NearStore perfectly complements and improves existing tape backup processes by inserting economical and easy-to-use disk based storage between application storage and tape libraries. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . share and scale their critical storage networking infrastructures 2. With the capability of managing 24 TB of data in one system and 16 TB in one file system.

Network Attached Storage Page 24 of 123 Fig 2.UA .15. redundant root drives No Direct Involvement in Data Delivery Full-featured Mgmt Environment Coordinates and Monitors I/O Nodes Compute power can be leveraged for Enterprise System and Network Mgmt File System And Network Processors Dual 933 MHz Pentium III 3 GB ECC Memory for System Cache 5 Concurrent High Speed Busses 1GB/sec Pentium Pro processor bus 2GB/sec Memory Bus Dual 512MB/sec Front side bus 4 slot 33MHz 64bit Primary PCI Bus 2 slot 66MHz 64bit Secondary PCI Bus Network Interfaces 10/100 Ethernet (4 ports per device) (up to 2) Gigabit Ethernet (up to 2) ATM OC-12 (up to 1 . Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .XR systems Only) Network Software EtherBand (High Speed Trunking for Fast Ethernet) www.com info@wilshiresoft.2 – NAS Box of Auspex NS3000XR Series Host Processor Standard Solaris Platform UltraSPARC-IIi.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.wilshiresoft. 300MHz 512MB ECC System Memory PCI expansion Dual.

and capacity you need to bring NAS to the data center-to take on even the largest consolidation challenges. scalable NAS gateway With Celerra NSX.wilshiresoft. manage. simplify your operation. NAS by EMC EMC Celerra NSX NAS Gateway Bring data center NAS to your SAN with the industry’s most powerful.16. connectivity.Network Attached Storage Page 25 of 123 NetGuard (NIC Failover for GB and Fast Ethernet) Implementation of Virtual IP Support Raid Cluster Controllers Up to 7. data center-class NAS capabilities to your new or existing EMC SAN environment. Celerra NSX is the right choice when you need to lower your costs.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. and use. and manage growth. An innovative architecture based on XBlade 60 server technology-an EMC-designed and built Intel-based blade server platform-lets you scale from www.com info@wilshiresoft. availability. and capacity Celerra NSX provides the scalable performance.UA . Scale performance.3. Celerra NSX supports both EMC Symmetrix DMX and/or EMC CLARiiON CX networked storage systems-letting you create an extremely efficient. scalable NAS gateway-to-SAN solution. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . connectivity. Now you can consolidate hundreds of file servers and NAS applications-all on one consolidated platform that’s easy to configure.1.5 TB Disk (with 73GB Drives) Full Environmental Monitoring No Single Point of Failure within the RCC Dual Active-Active Redundant RAID Controllers Dual Hubs with Dual Fiber Loops Dual Redundant Power Support for rolling firmware upgrades Rack Mountable RAID 0.5 and 0+1 266MHz Pentium II RAID Processor 256MB Battery backed DRAMM 800 MB/sec PC-133 compatible memory interface 4 Ultra-160 Channels to LPDAs shared by each Redundant RAID Controller Connected to I/O Node II with 100MB/sec FC HBAs Dual JNI Fiber Channel Host Bust Adapters with 1Gbs throughput (each) with load balancing and Failover Low Profile Disk Array (LPDA) Hot swap drives Full environmental monitoring Split bus (6 or 7 drives per channel) or open bus (13 drives per channel) operation Power Distribution Unit 30 AMP 2U Rack Mountable Included with Auspex Cabinet Support for up to 12 Dual AC Components Support for Dual Power Cords 2. you can add advanced. availability.

UA . and capabilities you need: The EMC NS500G entry-level gateway delivers high performance. And policy-based management automates file movement and archiving across storage tiers. The EMC NS704G NAS gateway offers advanced clustering. and quad Data Mover models. Centralized control lets you manage. as well as simple upgrades. With Celerra NSX you also benefit from enhanced features that present one logical view of multiple. And with Celerra NSX.Network Attached Storage Page 26 of 123 approximately 135.16. independent filesystems for a clear picture of your entire environment-simplifying consolidation and management of a large number of filesystems.000 operations per second.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. New security features-including anti-virus protection/notification. The EMC NS Series/Gateway offers single. Now you can perform single-click volume and filesystem configurations to optimize performance and capabilities. Flexible NAS solutions www. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . LDAP authentication. monitor. Expand on the fly by adding additional X-Blades-without operational delays or disruption.000 NFS operations per second to a blistering 300. and simple management-at an exceptional price. high availability. easily managed networked storage solution. and placement Celerra NSX makes it easy to leverage the powerful capabilities of data center-class NAS. All models provide extensive iSCSI support and iSCSI wizardsproviding a simple. and file-level retention capabilities-keep your enterprise safe and secure at all times. The right solution for enterprise-level challenges Celerra NSX brings you the high capacity and performance you need for high-end NAS consolidations and capacity-intensive applications. 2. you can automatically optimize your NAS solution for specific workloads. Add enterprise-level file sharing capabilities to a SANconnected EMC CLARiiON CX or EMC Symmetrix DMX networked storage system to consolidate and optimize your storage-and get the most from your investment. you can scale your management capabilities seamlessly to confidently meet future challenges-without adding costs. Automated SAN network configuration for EMC CLARiiON CX-based systems simplifies gateway installation. iSCSI wizards. highly available. The EMC NS700G offers increased performance and capacity along with the ultimate in flexibility. management. Scalable management: Simplify installation. provides transparent file archiving and retrieval. dual. cost-effective way to consolidate your file servers and application storage.wilshiresoft. reliability. EMC NS Series/Gateway NAS Solution Flexible. scalability of up to four Data Movers. Scalable management capabilities Celerra NSX includes powerful Celerra Manager Software that simplifies and speeds management-with predictive monitoring.com info@wilshiresoft. Dual power and dual control stations with redundant Ethernet connections further enhance availability. and exceptional performance-up to three times that of the NS700G-a level of performance formerly available only on high-end NAS systems. Enhanced archiving capabilities through integration with the EMC Centera platform.4. Virtual Filesystem Technology: Automate filesystem provisioning and simplify access With EMC Celerra Automated Volume Management (AVM) software. and serviceability-as does a dual-managed UPS (uninterruptible power supply). Celerra NSX features advanced N+1 clustering to keep availability at its highest. Scale from 4 to 8 clustered X-Blades. and analyze trends for multiple systems. performance. and more. easy-to-use gateway NAS solutions EMC NS Series/Gateway systems enable you to consolidate SAN and NAS storage with a single. It’s just another way that Celerra NSX protects your investment. A choice of gateways EMC NS Series/Gateway solutions let you choose the price. Unmatched availability ensures non-stop access to vital data and applications. increasing your usable capacity from 48 to 112 terabytes.

the entire filer series. With EMC Celerra Automated Volume Management software. Hardware RAID 5 and built-in component redundancy help provide data protection and high uptime.6.16. scales to 10 TB of storage capacity. The Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance easily scales to 65 TB of raw FC or 179 TB of raw SATA* RAID-protected storage. and provides file sharing for Solaris and Windows clients. Simple web-based management EMC NS Series/Gateway solutions include intuitive software that puts advanced capabilities at your fingertipswhile making them extremely easy to use. checkpointing (file copy). file-based environment. In addition. has now been qualified for seamless integration with datacenters running Oracle databases. which simplifies consolidation and management of multiple file systems. Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance The Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance is the newest addition to the Sun StorEdge 5000 NAS Appliance family. Virtual File system Technology Take the complexity out of provisioning with this innovative capability. The Sun StorEdge N8000 filer series has grown from 200GB to over 10TB of usable capacity in a standalone configuration. and simplify your NAS environment.16. Each of these filers is a great value and includes CIFS and NFS licenses and checkpointing (file copy) software. manage. The N8600. Manage your NS Series/Gateway as a stand-alone system or as part of your entire infrastructure-all from one simple. Sun StorEdge N8400 and N8600 filers Sun Microsystems has introduced the Sun StorEdge N8400 and N8600 filers.UA . Use wizards. "The Sun StorEdge N8400 and N8600 filers present a good opportunity for channel providers to provide a full line of high-performance NAS products for UNIX and Windows NT environments" High Storage Densities and Scalability The StorEdge N8600 Filer is made for storage service providers and other customers with limited floor space and rapidly expanding storage needs. Hardware RAID 5 and built-in component redundancy help provide data protection and high uptime. and installs in less than 15 minutes. The series also includes the N8400. the highest-capacity appliance in the StorEdge N8000 Series. NAS by SUN To protect your data and keep your business running smoothly. Simple to set up and manage. as well as other UNIX clients. Sun customers can now add robust NAS storage to their end-to-end Sun infrastructure and achieve a low cost of ownership with single-vendor support across the enterprise. The Sun StorEdge 5210 NAS Appliance scales easily to 6TB of RAID 5-protected SCSI-based storage capacity with hot sparing. intuitive GUIs. integrated solution. ensuring a seamless. the Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS www.wilshiresoft.16.Network Attached Storage Page 27 of 123 The main benefit of NAS gateways is clear-you can leverage your current investment in storage while adding new capabilities and improving consolidation. a midrange NAS appliance that scales to 4 TB. support for NFS and CIFS protocols helps enable customers to consolidate storage and provides file sharing for Solaris and Microsoft Windows clients. is easy to operate and effortless to manage. 2. 2. Sun's highly reliable filers are optimized for peak network file system performance. as well as other Unix clients. Designed for multiprotocol IT environments seeking to consolidate storage. clustering*. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. 2. and other enhancements to monitor. With OSCP qualification awarded in February to the Sun StorEdge N8200 filer. and fault-tolerant backend RAID arrays to deliver very high levels of availability and performance in almost any open. thanks to a highly intuitive wizard. Support for NFS and CIFS protocols enables storage consolidation. the Sun StorEdge 5000 Family of NAS Appliances combines file system journaling. NS Series/Gateway solutions are compatible with CLARiiON CX or Symmetrix DMX storage.5. remote mirroring (file replication). web-based console.com info@wilshiresoft.7. remote monitoring. one-click volume and file system configuration lets you optimize your environment for specific workloads. the filer comes with the operating environment and management software preinstalled and tuned for optimization. Sun also announced that the Sun StorEdge N8400 and N8600 filers have successfully completed the Oracle Storage Compatibility Program (OSCP) NAS test suite for Oracle database environments.

seamless integration of UNIX and Windows. seamless integration. simplifying file sharing between disparate platforms.06-GHz Intel Xeon processor with 512 KB of Level 2 cache Number of Slots : 4 GB in 6 DIMM slots.UA . thanks to its highly intuitive wizard. department. clustering. cross-protocol file sharing and cross-protocol file locking. Sun StorEdge Compliance Archiving Software Investment Protection with Common Storage Modules.wilshiresoft. remote mirroring.Network Attached Storage Page 28 of 123 Appliance supports UNIX and Microsoft Windows. including technical computing and oil and gas exploration. and installs in less than 15 minutes. Available in single and dual clustered NAS server configurations. and installs in less than 15 minutes. simple manageability. Journaled File System with Checkpoint Capability. Clustering Capability*. this powerful NAS appliance can easily be scaled to 65 terabytes of raw FC or 179 terabytes of raw SATA* RAID-protected storage. the Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance combines advanced business-continuity functions such as file system journaling. Sun StorEdge Compliance Archiving Software helps businesses address the most stringent requirements for electronic storage media retention and protection. remote mirroring. checkpointing. Key Features Easy Storage Platform to Deploy and Manage. Remote Replication/Data Mirroring and Remote Monitoring.com info@wilshiresoft. thanks to its highly intuitive wizard. or group. clustering*. and full system redundancy. Security and Compliance The safe and secure Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance provides access rights and protection by individual user. Availability and Reliability The rock-solid Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance provides such advanced business-continuity functions as file system journaling. and FTP protocols. Cross-Protocol Client Support and Management. The Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance is easy to operate and effortless to manage. effortless to manage. quick deployment.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Units: Up to 28 (7 per RAID Expansion Unit) Simplicity The affordable. Designed to grow along with your business. and flexible policy-based data services to match your unique IT requirements. checkpointing. High Performance The Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance is a powerful NAS filer with fully optimized NAS heads and a full 2 gigabits of FC RAID backend array for fast response times critical to computational or content-creation applications. and full system redundancy with a full 2-gigabit Fiber Channel (FC) RAID array to deliver very high levels of availability and performance in almost any open environment. The Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance is easy to operate. Multi-Protocol The highly flexible Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance supports Common Information File System (CIFS). registered DDR-266 ECC SDRAM Fiber channel : 1 or 2 dual-port 2-Gb Fiber Channel (FC) HBAs Capacity : Scales to 65 TB of FC or 179 TB of SATA RAID-protected storage* Mass Storage: Max. workgroup. effortless configuration. Exp. Specification Processor : CPU: One 3. plug-and-play Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance provides simple manageability. the Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance provides quick deployment. Scalability www. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . NFS. and flexible policy-based services. To protect your data and keep your business running smoothly.

ADIC / Network Appliance Solution Overview ADIC has extended the benefits of SAN consolidation of enterprise backup by launching a joint certification initiative with Network Appliance. ADIC and Network Appliance are also offering their customers a solution that takes advantage of both the NAS and SAN environments. protect.wilshiresoft. SAN connectivity technology has been recognized as providing a standardized mechanism for Fiber Channel connectivity on the “back” ends of NAS systems.16. and increased reliability through simplification. ADIC's StorNext software and AMASS for UNIX software products manage some of the largest and most challenging open systems data storage environments. these trends have shaped the practice of deploying Storage Area Networks. Non-disruptively add storage capacity as you grow this appliance to as much as 65 terabytes of RAID-protected storage. the powerful Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance is easily expandable and highly scalable. www. Backup software vendors also utilize these solutions with NDMP protocols and SAN resource sharing – practices that have become commonplace in non-NAS data storage environments. The result is reduced management expense through automation. With the ADIC-Network Appliance jointly certified solution. direct attached configurations.1. the StorNext solution enables organizations to access. ADIC storage networking libraries provide certified data protection solutions for all models of Network Appliance dedicated file servers. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . NAS by ADIC ADIC's data management software provides enterprise-scale access and protection for critical digital assets throughout their lifetime. SAN technology allows IT directors to consolidate and automate data protection operations from multiple NAS systems. stand-alone autochanger tape devices. IT directors are demanding larger centralized storage. This trend has led to a rise in the number of large NAS deices that need to be protected.8. 2. Benefits of Using a SAN Behind a NAS Storage Network The Network Attach Storage (NAS) market has grown in recent years. This is done by leveraging Fiber Channel technologies.16.8. Over time. and reliability. cost savings. Thanks to NAS vendors.2. The result is a fully qualified. This solution allows customers to consolidate backup operations from multiple Network Appliance filers into one tape library. this solution takes advantage of ADIC’s clear technical advantages in storage networking support. NAS systems have expanded within corporate environments both in number and in size. Using SAN technology behind a NAS network provides greater efficiency. or SANs. the primary demand was met by connecting tape devices into NAS devices through the standard SCSI interface.16. effective organizations need advanced storage technologies. The capabilities of an SCSI solution are exceeded by the demands of NAS in the enterprise data center. This has worked well for situations where there is a limited amount of data stored on a single NAS device. As data increases in both volume and value.UA . Used in 1000 organizations worldwide. reduced equipment expense through consolidation. It also provides unified data across a wide range of server/OS platforms.8.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. increasing the demand for creating comprehensive data protection solutions. Until recently. a point-to-point SCSI solution is no longer appropriate. This growth can be attributed to the limitations IT directors have encountered when purchasing small. However. it is critical that automated data protection services are provided. To meet these needs. jointly certified solution. 2. and more flexible than traditional. Additionally. these benefits are made possible.Network Attached Storage Page 29 of 123 Designed to grow along with your business. Customers no longer have to attach a tape library directly to each filer because all filers are visible to all tape devices in the SAN. more cost effective. 2. ADIC provides a streamlined backup solution that is easier to manage. In this environment.com info@wilshiresoft. The ADIC-Network Appliance Certified backup Solution provides reliable and adaptable backup. Today’s high-data growth environment demands a more comprehensive and consolidated storage system for data and resources. also known as filers. using SAN technology. and retain multiples classes of data on various storage media based on their value to the business.

and retain multiple classes of data on storage media appropriate to their relative business value. These policies determine where data will be stored (on RAID. Backup reliability: The ADIC-Network Appliance NAS Certified Backup Solution ensures dependable backup through hot-swappable tape drives. Increased flexibility: The ADIC-Network Appliance NAS Certified Backup Solution provides backup configuration combinations of up to 64 tape devices in as many as 16 different media changers and up to 15 Network Appliance filers on a 16-port fabric switch. protect.UA . Qualified IT professionals are difficult to find and retain. 2. 2. whereas SCSI attached drives require rebooting of the filer. StorNext SM unifies data and storage technologies to enable centralized management and improve storage utilization over the lifetime of the data. The result is a reliable.com info@wilshiresoft.2 – NAS Configuration behind SAN 2. Decrease in network bandwidth requirements: By taking advantage of the inherent efficiencies of a SAN bandwidth.8.16. the ADIC-Network Appliance NAS Certified Backup Solution supports distances of up to 500 meters between elements for configurations when connecting data and centralized tape libraries. such as file replication or vaulting. Increased backup efficiency: Time and money are saved by having up to 8 concurrent backups to shared tape devices.3. automated system that: Frees up staff time Optimizes storage resource utilization Protects data integrity Increases data safety IT management time is valuable and limited. FC attached tape devices may be dynamically added. removed.15. requirements become smaller and performance remains high.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. automated policies. and whether additional protection steps.17. Benefits for ADIC-Network Appliance NAS backup solution to an enterprise: Cost-efficient tape sharing: Save time and money through dynamic tape sharing and optimal utilization of tape resources with Data ONTAP ™ and NDMP software applications. With limited staff sizes and budgets. Plus. StorNext Storage Manager (StorNext SM) enables organizations to access. Outstanding availability: by implementing backup tape library configuration changes behind the NAS. the ADIC-Network Appliance NAS Certified Backup Solution increases Network Appliance Filer availability.wilshiresoft. IT managers need to free up time currently spent on manual and complex storage www. are needed. or tape) over time. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .Network Attached Storage Page 30 of 123 Fig. Greater adaptability and efficiency: When backing up a NAS system. or replaced on the filers. StorNext Storage Manager With user-defined. ATA disk.8.

2. By using StorNext SM's policies to manage data movement between disk and tape systems.com info@wilshiresoft.Policies of StorNext Storage Manager 2.2. the pressure on enterprises to better utilize storage resources is increasing. StorNext SM provides vital data protection options. such as versioning. Through user-defined policies.UA . The result is a system that scales easily. IT managers can fully support enterprise data access and protection needs. and media copy. and Linux clients to access SAN files and devices simultaneously.17. enterprises can plan out the life cycles of different data classes. centralized and automated control that StorNext SM provides. Fig. file replication.1. All data is "critical" when it's needed.16.wilshiresoft. based on Quality of Service (QOS) levels needed over time. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Data growth continues to soar. As data volumes grow. By taking advantage of the simple.16 . protects enterprise storage investments by enabling seamless data transition to new tape drive formats Ensures long-term accessibility to data through a published format Manages data stored outside of library or off-site 2. Windows. Features of StorNext Storage Manager www. and allows you to handle growing volumes of data with maximum flexibility and minimal disruption. IRIX. Improves data movement by choosing the optimal resource across shared libraries/drives Maximizes the available disk space by relocating files from disk to tape Improves system performance on large file reads Ensures extremely fast file system recovery and failover Ensures high availability Allows users to manage their data according to their own policies Provides instant recovery of deleted files Ensures data integrity during the life cycle of the data Allows rollback to previous versions and maintains a change history Duplicates data without disk staging. Benefits of StorNext Storage Manager Allows Solaris. For data integrity. StorNext SM balances access needs with available capacity by storing critical data on high-performance media and lower priority data on slower media. Enterprises want to know that their critical data is always accessible with reliable data integrity-despite any resource constraints.Network Attached Storage Page 31 of 123 tasks.

Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .wilshiresoft.com info@wilshiresoft.Network Attached Storage Page 32 of 123 High-Performance Data Access Support for heterogeneous SAN clients and data Control of media. drive and library functions File truncation Partial file retrieval Robust file system journaling Failover Long-Term Data Management and Protection Automated real-time policy engine Trashcan (undelete) Multiple copy file replication Versioning Media-to-media direct copy Self-describing tape format Vaulting www.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.UA .

In this type of system data is transferred over a storage loop to the various peripheral devices on the SAN. In other words. There is also a switching technology available that will allow over 15 million devices to be addressed and configured within a single switched fabric network. any user can gain access to any storage device of the SAN. Organizations working on LANs consider NAS the most economical addition to storage. free from the rest of the computer network. SAN's are often contrasted with NAS's. storage devices or servers can be added or removed from their respective networks without affecting each other. The most popular physical connections are based on high-speed Optical and Copper Fiber interconnects and can be shared via a hub or switched. and the NAS is network attached. thus liberating the storage devices from the ownership of the servers. moving storage-related functions and storage-to-storage data traffic to the SAN relieves the front end of the network. This is essentially a private network whose bandwidth is 100MB/sec and that can support up to 128 devices.UA . a SAN removes the storage from the servers. regardless of the physical location of the storage or the user. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Fig.Storage Area Network Page 33 of 123 3. Storage devices can be added to the SAN without any worry about a server's configurations. but the full specifications for this standard have not yet been formalized. In effect.wilshiresoft. any server can gain access to any storage device. 3 – Basic SAN configuration The creation of an independent SAN further enhances the workflow of information among storage devices and other systems on the network. Since storage and servers are independent from each other. In such a setup where no server has ownership of storage subsystems. In addition to offering any-to-any connections. Additionally. Isolating the potential disruptions of the servers from those of the storage reduces potential for interruptions. but NAS is actually under the "storage network" umbrella. the Local Area Network (LAN). a SAN creates a scaleable environment.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Storage Management Solutions www.Optimized for high-volume block-orientated data transfers. The storage medium for SAN is based on SCSI disk and tape drives or on the newer Fiber Channel interface drives now entering the market. DAS or SAN . of time consuming burdens such as restore and backup. NAS -Primarily designed to provide access at the file level. Storage Area Network Introduction of SAN A Storage Area Network (SAN) is an independent network for storage subsystems. SAN (Storage Area Networking) is designed around and encapsulated SCSI protocol. much like the more common networking protocols.com info@wilshiresoft. The major difference is that the SAN is channel attached.

access to the data can still be accomplished because other servers will have access to that data through the SAN.data traffic does not traditionally travel over the LAN twice. Devices connected using Fiber Channel can be setup in point-topoint.wilshiresoft. Storage Pool .1.SAN technology breaks the physical distance limitation by allowing you to locate your storage miles away as opposed to only a few feet.Storage Area Network Page 34 of 123 Traditionally. Scalability .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Network Performance Enhancement .a storage pool can be accessed via a SAN.and long-term return on investment (ROI www. if a server were to fail. Cost Effectiveness .SANs allow data transfer rates of up to 100 MB/s full duplex and initiatives are underway to further increase this throughput. computers are directly connected to storage devices. Manageability . including: More effective utilization of storage resources through centralized access Simplified. Advantages of SAN over DAS The most effective SANs provide a wide range of benefits and advantages over DAS. or switch topology. loop. This technology allows devices to be connected to each other over distances of up to 10 Kilometers. 3. A SAN is usually built using Fiber-Channel technology.provides a higher data transfer rate than conventional LAN/WAN technology.in a SAN environment. Advantages of Storage Area Networks (SANs) Fault-tolerance .SAN technology allows the total capacity of storage to be allocated where it is needed. Data Transfer Performance . Higher bandwidth and greater performance Modular scalability allowing for pay-as-you-grow expenditures Maximized hardware utilization High availability and fault tolerance for expanded business continuance Manageability Ease of integration into existing infrastructure Better access to information by sharing data across the enterprise Freedom from vendor dependence through the use of heterogeneous hardware and software 3. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . reducing administrative workload to save time and money Increased flexibility and scalability through any-to-any storage and server connectivity Improved throughput performance to shorten data backup and recovery time Reduced LAN congestion due to removal of backups from production network Higher data availability for business continuance through a resilient network design Excellent scalability and investment protection allowing you to easily add more storage as your business needs demand Superior security for storage environments Non-disruptive business operations when you add or re-deploy storage resources Proven short. Only the computer with the physical connection to those storage devices can retrieve data stored on those devices. A SAN allows any computer to access any storage device as long as both are connected to the SAN. and over greater distances.UA . which reduces the total extra storage needed for projected growth.com info@wilshiresoft. reducing the network traffic in half.Storage Management in a SAN environment allows off-loading the responsibility of maintaining the storage devices to dedicated groups.2. centralized management of storage. Disaster Recovery . allowing backups or recovery to/from remote locations to be done during a relatively short window of time.

Existing storage management applications can be ported onto these SAN configurations since Fiber Channel networks encapsulate the legacy SCSI protocol. SAN topologies are providing increased performance.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. SAN-attached devices appear to be SCSI devices.wilshiresoft.Storage Area Network Page 35 of 123 3. Most early SAN configurations fit into one of the following topologies: www.UA . distance. However. Today’s SAN Topologies Many of today’s SAN topologies are fairly simple. and connectivity while creating a first generation SAN platform. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .3.com info@wilshiresoft. As a result.

UA .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.com info@wilshiresoft. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .Storage Area Network Page 36 of 123 www.wilshiresoft.

Running management software typically requires a separate terminal (typically an NT server) connected to the SAN.4. Difference between SAN and NAS Storage Area Networks (SAN) and Network-attached storage (NAS) are both storage technologies attached to a network. 3. Zoning techniques and tools vary widely at this point. NAS products. SANs are designed to handle large amounts of data traffic between servers and storage devices. A SAN is a dedicated network of storage devices and host systems. and represent the convergence of storage and networking technologies. such as Network Appliance Filers and Auspex servers are storage devices. masking. A SAN Manager enables systems to utilize a common pool of storage devices on a SAN. connected to the network. and centralized data management A NAS is a specialized file server.com info@wilshiresoft. mapping. and not shared over the LAN. and are attached directly to the messaging or public network. the Fiber Channel network looks like a simple SAN configuration to the host storage management application. and reduce costs by leveraging existing this equipment more efficiently. How do I manage a SAN? There are two basic methods for SAN management: SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): SNMP is based on TCP/IP and offers basic alert management. 3.UA . reducing bandwidth. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Difference between SAN and LAN Storage versus Network Protocol: A LAN uses network protocols that send smaller "chunks" of data with increased communication overhead. without being tied to a specific server. entry-level environments and systems. A SAN uses storage protocols (SCSI). but also offer a lower throughput rate than switches. giving it the ability to transmit larger "chunks" of data with reduced overhead and higher bandwidth. 3. allowing central management of Fiber Channel hosts and storage devices. A SAN allows storage resources to be added directly to the network. What is a SAN Manager? A SAN Manager is proprietary Storage Area Network management software. as well as backup and restores functions.5. smaller virtual SAN topologies. NAS devices will continue to perform their specific functions.7. a Hub? Hubs: Hubs used in small. allowing any server to access storage resources anywhere on the SAN.6. allowing a node to alert the management system of failures of any system component. By doing this. with each server owning and controlling access to its own storage resources. These configurations are made possible by using a technique commonly called “zoning” in which the Fiber Channel network is partitioned to create multiple. limiting accessibility. and fault management.wilshiresoft. However SNMP does not offer proactive management and lacks security. 3. but the general consensus is that SANs represent the future of storage connectivity. preventing the device from being confined by the limitations of SCSI technology. but are available from virtually every Fiber Channel vendor. such as zoning (security).Storage Area Network Page 37 of 123 The most complex topologies use one more Fiber Channel switches with multiple storage management applications. and keep the bandwidth-intensive backup traffic separate from the normal LAN/WAN traffic. Any added storage is attached directly to a server. Connecting this terminal to a SAN enables additional capabilities.8. but trends indicate that data-centric organizations are migrating towards the SAN model. When should I use a Switch vs.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. It uses traditional LAN protocols such as Ethernet and TCP/IP. www. They typically cost less than switches. Each approach has its merits. NAS products tend to be optimized for file serving purposes only. Server Captive Storage: LAN-based systems connect servers to clients. enabling SAN administrators to take full advantage of storage assets. 3. Other benefits of a SAN include improved connectivity from servers to storage devices. Proprietary Management Protocol: There are a number of manufacturers that provide SAN management software (see SAN Management). separate and distinct from a company's LAN/WAN.

INLINE Corporation differentiates itself from most other vendors by offering independent paths from two different controllers to the same disk simultaneously. however. Flexibility in mapping the ports on each controller makes management infinitely easier. there is also an incredible risk associated with it. or Any-to-One. which provides higher speeds and greater distances. the single most important factor for any storage system is how well it makes use of higher speed cache memory to enhance disk IO operations.UA .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.1. With INLINE TruFiber you know you are getting Fiber Channel throughout.2. FC-SW also allows host to better identify subsystems connected to the switch. In fact. TruCache insures high-performance and data integrity when you operate in an Active/Active (multi-controller) mode of operation. Increased Manageability: Switches support the Fiber Channel Switch (FC-SW) standard. TruCache When it comes to performance. high-bandwidth applications such as backup. to the drives. SCSI devices. can function on a SAN by utilizing a SCSI to Fiber Bridge. 3.com info@wilshiresoft. and provides superior fault isolation along with high availability. 3. 3. redundant controller configurations. you are assured cache integrity because the system simultaneously mirrors all cache and maintains complete coherency. www. even in their high-end solutions.3. TruMap When offering multiple ports to hardware RAID controllers.wilshiresoft. bandwidth provisioning (QoS). On the SanFoundation and MorStor product lines you have up to 128 two-gigabit host connections. A LIP typically takes 0. 3. For this reason. Superior Performance: Switches facilitate "multiple-transmission data flow". A hub offers a single data flow with an aggregate throughput of 100MB/sec. and document scanning. Availability: Switches support the online addition of subsystems (servers or storage) without requiring re-initialization or shutdown. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . You can choose the appropriate mapping scheme based on your needs such as security purposes.5 seconds and can disable a tape system during the backup process. Many other Fiber Channel storage providers take you down to slower SCSI.Storage Area Network Page 38 of 123 Switches: Used in data-intensive. Scalability: Interconnection switches provide thousands of connections without degrading bandwidth.9. One-to-Any. INLINE Corporation utilizes our TruCache technology in high availability. Cache is used to increase the speed of read and write operations as well as allow dual operation writes in applications such as mirroring. Functions and Network segregation. making addressing independent of the subsystem's location on the fabric. A Hub-based environment typically fails if a single hub on the loop fails.9. switches are used in with large amounts of data in high-availability environments Are there reasons to use Switches instead of Hubs in a SAN? Switches provide several advantages in a SAN environment: Failover Capabilities: If a single switch fails in a Switched Fabric environment. one often-overlooked feature is port control. video editing. This allows you to maintain bandwidth for mission critical and sensitive applications as well as insure minimum or maximum data rates to a specific LUN. Hubs require a Loop Initialization (LIP) to reacquire subsystem addresses every time a change occurs on the loop.9. A hub-based loop is limited to 126 devices. TruFiber We call INLINE Corporation's Fiber Channel storage TruFiber because they feature Fiber Channel technology from the host connections. File system corruption and lost data can result if the cache is not managed and maintained properly. While the use of cache provides an incredible performance gain. TruTechnology Most SAN storage area network solutions utilize Fiber Channel technology.9. When you deploy a dual controller system from INLINE. other switches in the fabric remains operational. TruMap gives you the ability to map each port on a controller using one of three methods: One-to-One. in which each fabric connection can simultaneously maintain a 100MB/sec throughput. Due to the redundant data paths and superior manageability. through the controllers. while supporting reads and writes from both controllers.

management complexity and cost. 3. Additional devices. SANs are the best way to ensure predictable performance and 24x7 data availability and reliability. INLINE Corporation. Because today's storage implementations are often on a network.downtime.UA . or SAN. can be viewed by individual hosts and storage management applications. storage arrays must have their own level of security to insure data integrity and privacy. complex cabling. By dynamically balancing loads across the network.9. Availability/Performance: The use of storage data transmission protocol. INLINE Corporation utilizes our TruMask option to protect your valuable data. including SCSI. data storage systems and other peripherals. 3. This is especially important for bandwidth-intensive applications such as database. DAS. In a SAN infrastructure.Storage Area Network Page 39 of 123 3. the storage array looks at each computer connected and instantaneously determines which LUNs a computer can see as well as access. The importance of this is obvious for companies that conduct business on the web and require high volume transaction processing. a specially trained engineer and worst of all .4. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Fiber Channel is ideal for moving large volumes of data across long distances quickly and reliably. SANs have built in a wide variety of failover and fault tolerance features to ensure maximum uptime. System Flexibility/Cost: A SAN is a storage-centric network. TruMask is a key component in successful SAN installation. TruMask gives you control over which arrays. Features of a SAN Backup Capacity: Increasing data storage requirements and the need for 100% availability of applications have overwhelmed SCSI backups across the LAN. The distributed architecture of a SAN also enables it to offer higher levels of performance and availability than any other storage medium today. and even LUNs. Without the distance and bandwidth limitations of SCSI. separate from the local area network. mainframes. realizing this need. even when it comes to maintenance. With INLINE Corporation's TruSwap you stay online while you replace the necessary component in less than 5 minutes. permits the transfer of large amounts of data with limited latency and overhead. gigabit interconnect technology that enables simultaneous communication among workstations. RAID arrays or tape libraries are connected to servers using Fiber Channel. which is optimized for data sharing at the file level. in addition to being directly attached. Because TruMask works down at the LUN level you have the ability to mix different data security classifications within a single array. SANs are traditionally implemented for mission-critical applications in the enterprise space. SANs : High Availability for Block-Level Data Transfer A storage area network. is a dedicated. With their high degree of sophistication. During normal operation. Capacity Growth: Both IDC and Gartner Group estimate that data is growing at a rate of over 88% annually. high performance storage network that transfers data between servers and storage devices. SANs provide fast data transfer while reducing I/O latency and server workload. Our TruSwap technology allows hot-swap removal and replacement of components while the array is operational. Another example would be contractors that are bound to service-level agreements (SLAs) and must maintain certain performance levels when delivering IT services. servers. including disk arrays and tape backup devices can be added to the SAN without disrupting servers or the network. has designed all of our data storage arrays to be truly user friendly.com info@wilshiresoft. TruSwap Today's data storage solutions need to be not only highly available and highly reliable but they also need to be easily maintained.10. To answer this need.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.5. In contrast to DAS or NAS. storage devices such as NAS.9. Most of the servicing can be performed quickly and easily by untrained personnel. Every component involved in data integrity is hot swappable and can be removed and replaced in less than 5 minutes. They also offer excellent scalability for large www. To put this in perspective a 750GB enterprise in 2000 will require 5TB in 2003. allowing servers and storage to be added independently of each other. an INLINE array can be serviced and maintained without ever shutting down the array and interrupting data access to the users.11. Fiber Channel is a highly reliable. The benefit is that large numbers of users can simultaneously access data without creating bottlenecks on the local area network and servers. TruMask Network security has never been more important than it is now. INLINE solutions are quite different from other arrays because they do not require special tools. the strength of SANs lies in its ability to move large blocks of data. 3.wilshiresoft. When TruMask is invoked. imaging and transaction processing. providing easy scalability.

under control of a backup server. SAN approach for connecting storage to your servers/network? Fault Tolerance Each server in a traditional network can be considered an island of data.12. Since access to data attached in this method is only available if the server is operating. Since storage devices are accessible by any server attached to www. is the ideal candidate for acting ads a Data Mover. or requires a proprietary approach for data replication. if a server were to fail. 3. but also providing intrinsic segmentation of data transported on the SAN. Disaster Recovery SANs allow greater flexibility in Disaster Recovery. restoring data from system backup can be a major issue. when used as a connection point for tape libraries.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. LAN-Free backup allows multiple servers to directly access and share multiple tape libraries without transporting data over the LAN. They provide a higher data transfer rate over greater distances than conventional LAN/WAN technology. Also. as the server no longer has the memory usage and double copies of data across the systems busses and storage interfaces. excess capacity in SANs can be pooled. The benefits are obvious.com info@wilshiresoft. completely fault-tolerant access to data requires mirrored servers. CD ROMs. all backup methods are supported. In a SAN environment. backups or recovery to/from remote locations can be done during a relatively short window of time. which then performs the actual data movement. A Storage Router. Processor workload is also substantially reduced. building a memory image of the data to be backed up. resulting in a very high utilization of resources. Additionally. by accessing the operating systems file allocation tables.Storage Area Network Page 40 of 123 enterprises that anticipate significant growth in information storage requirements. because other servers will have access to that data through the SAN.14. Tape Drives. This includes file and image backup and restores. to receive data and commands. With the advent of Fiber Channel SANs. The device responsible for moving the data on the SAN must have several key characteristics. Server-Free Backup and Restore Backup and Restore are one of the major headaches for most IT departments today. This is a costly proposition to many organizations. And unlike direct-attached storage. The data mover devices must play several roles in fulfilling the functions required. as management of the data movement and file system conversions are simplified. a mirror server approach places a large amount of traffic on the network. as well as to read and write data to and from disk and tape. Predicated on LAN-Free backup. 3. In the event of data loss. compatibility between backup sets is maintained. In Server-Free backup. is a hardware interface that enables a single expansion board in a computer to connect multiple peripheral devices (disk drives. Therefore. This dramatically decreases server and network loads and can greatly increase device utilization of backup storage devices. so that tapes created by one backup architecture can be read by any of the other methods in use. This list is then transferred to the data mover device. due not only to the excessive time to restore data. not only providing the base capabilities required. a potential for a single point of failure exists. Backup Architecture Comparison Regardless of the backup architecture used.UA . Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . If the server is unavailable. resulting in less server utilization and greater backup bandwidth. The key to Server-Free Backup is a Data Mover device. access to the data can still be accomplished.13. Server-Free backup expands on these capabilities by using the Storage Router to take over data movement operations on the SAN. it must be able to act as both an initiator and target device. In traditional networks. most storage devices are physically connected to servers using a SCSI connection. and then transfer that image to the backup device. In LAN/WAN environments. In addition to being an addressable device. Constantly increasing storage and bandwidth requirements result in increases in backup time that often exceed the capability of available systems to move critical data to a backup device.). Traditional backup applications copy data into the server. then access to the data on that server is not possible. an acronym for Small Computer Standard Interface.wilshiresoft. new methods of managing data are possible. SCSI. etc. 3. but also due to the compromises made in the backup process that can result in inconsistent or incomplete file sets. This has immediate benefits. the server only has to build a list of devices and blocks related to each file.

It is ironic that a company's most crucial resource. and again when the server sends the data to the user who requested it. Data Transfer Performance Current SCSI specifications only allow for data throughput rates of up to 160 MB/s. When the data request is complete. the data would have traveled over the network twice. If requirements change. you will often find a Network Manager or Network Group. each type of system administrator is required to monitor the storage attached to their servers. The storage cost for environments with multiple servers running either the same or different operation systems can be enormous. Since the data travel between server and storage device is no longer seen on the same network as the general user population. an immediate benefit to users who travel the LAN. They maintain the installed base of hubs. SAN technology allows an organization to reduce this cost through economies of scale. Storage Management in a SAN environment could offload the responsibility of maintaining the storage devices to a dedicated group. This puts double the traffic load on the network. generally may have no formal group to manage it effectively. However SCSI has physical distance limitations that could make it impossible to connect the necessary storage devices to the servers. the demand for large amounts of high-speed storage is increasing at phenomenal rates. This increased traffic may lead to poor network performance. All of these Administrators have two things in common: they all use a network to communicate to the clients they serve and they all require disk storage. This demand brings new problems to IT departments.Storage Area Network Page 41 of 123 the SAN. storage can be reallocated from devices with an excess of storage to those with www. SAN technology breaks this physical distance limitation by allowing you to locate your storage miles away as opposed to only a few feet. first when it is transferred from the CD-ROM to the server. Take the example of a corporate intranet in which a user can request access to data.com info@wilshiresoft. The server takes this request and accesses the data via a network attached CD-ROM tower where the data is actually stored. data storage. Few organizations have groups whose responsibilities include managing the storage resources. This reduces the network traffic in half. Parallel connections can be used in SANs to increase performance. perform backups and plan for growth. Many applications today are created in multi-tier configurations. Network Performance Enhancement Gaining access to data in a network without SAN attached storage requires data transfer over a traditional network. Of major concern is the physical location of the storage devices. switches and routers. The group could allocate disk space to any server regardless of the type. The SAN managers could actively monitor the storage systems of all platforms and take immediate corrective action. whenever needed. This group can perform backups over the SAN. The traditional connection of storage is through SCSI connections. Cost Effectiveness Each server requires its own equipment for storage devices. Multiple servers with different operating systems can access storage in RAID clusters. Initiatives are underway to further increase this throughput. This means that the effective transfer rate between devices can reach 200 MB/s (100 MB/s in each direction). Manageability Many organizations have groups whose tasks are dedicated to specific functions. SAN technology allows the total capacity of storage to be allocated where it is needed. the CD ROM tower is the NAS device). As is. Scalability In today's computing environments. SANs allow for data transfer rates of up to 100 MB/s full duplex. a secondary data center could immediately recover from a failure should a primary data center go offline. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . the data traffic does not travel twice over the LAN. It is common to find NT Administrators. For an organization's networking needs. A SAN would allow off-loading of the traffic between servers and the Network Attached Storage (in this case. This is truly the next generation data transfer mechanism. the data would travel over the network only once.wilshiresoft.UA . Novell Administrators or Unix Administrators all in the same company.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. If the CD-ROM tower were connected to a SAN. The Network Manager ensures the network is operating effectively and makes plans for future growth. alleviating LAN/WAN traffic for all type of servers.

SAN backbones can support 1.025Gbps throughput. In order to promote and adopt universal SAN standards. As new standards and technologies emerge. (See "What is Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop?") As a result of these standards. heterogeneous platforms can only share the physical storage space within a SAN. equipment manufacturers and developers. these groups co-develop universal hardware and software protocols. loop.UA . Fiber-optic cabling transmits data through optical fibers in the form of light. without risking loss of infrastructure investment. The Future The potential of SAN technology is limitless. FCIA (Fiber Channel Industry Association). Users looking to invest in SAN technology are advised to implement FCAL topology. which reduces the total extra storage needed for projected growth. As bandwidth becomes a commodity. Although Switched Fabric SANs have been successfully implemented. fault tolerant access to data. including SNIA (Storage Network Industry Alliance). Each device in the FC-AL SAN must arbitrate for access to the loop before sending any data. Currently. Despite the delay in producing a fully supportable set of Switched Fabric standards. Unlike any other existing data transport mechanisms. they currently do not have a complete set of standards agreed on by the industry. or switch topology. Storage Pool Instead of putting an extra 10GB on each server for growth. prospective users need to be informed and kept current on specific industry standards and when they will be adopted and approved by industry associations. and are setup either in a point-to-point. and FCA (Fiber Channel Alliance) represent the SAN industry. With any emerging technology. The SAN industry has universally adopted Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) as a protocol for exchanging data within switched and non-switched environments. fiber-optic technology offers a substantial increase in bandwidth capacity. and other open systems will enable data sharing through a common file system. Fiber Channel provides a superset of commands that allows the orderly and efficient transmission of data. in that a LAN/WAN is solely a communications highway. to enable faster backups. they are connected to the SAN.Storage Area Network Page 42 of 123 too little storage. Summary SANs connect storage devices and provide high-speed. at least until standards have been set for Switched protocol. users can still benefit substantially from the performance gains within SAN architectures by using the FC-AL topology. Future offerings include "serverless" backup technology.15. Advances in both cabling and Fiber Channel technology occurs on a regular basis.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. UNIX.com info@wilshiresoft. and ensures its integrity. A SAN is different than a LAN/WAN. The available bandwidth of the loop is determined by the amount of traffic generated in the loop. and continue to do so. www. data exchange will be liberated from size constraints. 2Gbps throughput are going to be available shortly. Several hardware. To meet the demand for fiber interfaces. FC-AL allows more than two devices to communicate through common bandwidth. controllers and disk modules. software and industry consortiums. Switch manufacturers are currently releasing products that are FC-AL compatible. Currently. and are fabric upgradeable. storage vendors are now designing their products with fiber backplanes. Many top-tier firms have successfully installed SANs.wilshiresoft. which liberates the traditional server interface from backup libraries. A single hair-thin fiber is capable of supporting 100 trillion bits per second. Some major vendors in the SAN field are presently developing products designed for 4Gbps throughput. from which all devices gain access to the data. SANs can be effectively deployed within an enterprise. and exponential leaps will occur in more frequently in the next few years. Evolution of SANs Today Today. 3. Storage devices are no longer connected individually to a server. FC-AL accounts for the majority of implemented SANs today. and allows greater flexibility and support than other topologies. and storage will soon be measured in petabytes (equal to 1000 terabytes). Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . NT. SANs are usually built with Fiber-Channel. or compromising the integrity of the stored data. a storage pool can be accessed via SAN.

if a particular server is slow or completely unavailable. It also provides alternative paths from server to storage device. Fig. Fiber Channel supports several configurations. 266Mbytes/sec. And.0625Gbits/sec. IP. hubs can be added. This setup allows for any-to-any communication among all devices on the SAN. external network that's connected to the LAN but acts as an independent network. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . due to its inherent ability to deliver any-to-any connectivity among storage devices and servers An FCAL configuration consists of several components.2. storage can be managed as a single entity. rather.com info@wilshiresoft. and as SANs grow further in size.wilshiresoft. Fiber Channel is compatible with SCSI. SANs based on Fiber Channel may start out as a group of server systems and storage devices connected by Fiber Channel adapters to a network. and Link Encapsulation. Fiber Channel was developed by ANSI in the early 1990s. additional drives do not need to be connected to a specific server. Fiber Channel supports data rates of 133Mbytes/sec.UA . As the storage network grows. The HBA is actually a Fiber Channel port. which allows SCSI-based devices to connect into the Fiber Channel-based storage network. as storage devices can be placed offsite. including servers. which has been used as an alternative to SCSI in creating high-speed links among network devices.Storage Area Network Page 43 of 123 3. specifically as a means of transferring large amounts of data very quickly. Fiber Channel switches can be incorporated. A SAN also makes it possible to mirror data. Currently. Another component that might be found in an arbitrated loop is a Fiber Channel-to-SCSI bridge.16. high-speed storage network. This not only preserves the usefulness of SCSI devices but also does it in such a way that several SCSI devices can connect to a server through a single I/O port on the server. This is accomplished through the use of a Fiber Channel Host Bus Adapter (HBA). The technology supports distances of up to 10 kilometers. In a SAN environment. storage devices. The high-speed interconnection that links servers and storage devices essentially creates a separate. 532Mbytes/sec. and 1. storage devices such as Tape Drives and RAID arrays are connected to many kinds of servers via a high-speed interconnection. Another reason SANs are making big waves is that all the devices can be centrally managed. IEEE 802. another server on the SAN can provide access to the storage device. ATM Adaptation Layer for computer data. The Fiber Channel-to-SCSI bridge multiplexes several SCSI devices through one HBA. A proposal to bump speeds to 4Gbits/sec is on the drawing board. when more storage is needed. making it easier to deal with storage networks that could potentially consist of dozens or even hundreds of servers and devices. they can simply be added to the storage network and can be accessed from any point.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. There are a number of advantages to SANs and the separate environments they create within a network. the Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FCAL) is used most often to create this external. 3. Comparison of SAN with Available Data Protection Technologies In a SAN environment. including point-to-point and switched topologies. Instead of managing the network on a per-device basis. SANs allow for the addition of bandwidth without burdening the main LAN. making multiple copies available.16 – SAN implementation on LAN The interconnection of choice in today's SAN is Fiber Channel. www. and it can be used over copper cabling or fiber-optic cable. and a Fiber Channel switch or hub. such as Fiber Channel. SANs also make it easier to conduct online backups without users feeling the bandwidth pinch. In other words. which makes it a good choice for disaster recovery.

However.17.17. Fig.1.com info@wilshiresoft.17. since data is stored in isolated systems throughout the network.Network speed and performance suffer as backup traffic increases. difficult to configure and costly to manage. SAN’s are expensive. www. freeing your network for critical business transactions while reducing backup times significantly.Distributed backup becomes costly to manage as data grows. However. the cost to manage and scale this model raises as data demands increase.1. SAN Backup Includes Best of Both Worlds ADIC's Open SAN Backup offers all the benefits of traditional models—with none of the drawbacks.2. branch office or retail. This is particularly true in a centralized Data Center type environment. Traditional Backup over the LAN Backup over the LAN offers centralized data storage and control.1 . In fact. 3. The costs of SAN implementation would make them prohibitive in a geographically diverse. ADIC SAN Solutions Traditional Distributed Model Distributed backup offers high speed and network performance however. Backup data is consolidated in a library of shared tape drives. .Storage Area Network Page 44 of 123 The FCAL provides not only a high-speed interconnection among storage devices but also strong reliability. environment.1.1.1. 3. Fig.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. The major benefit of SAN is its ability to share devices among many servers at high speeds and across a variety of operating systems. SAN Hardware Solutions 3. particularly in organizations that provide 24x7 network data services.17. 3.1. SAN Backup moves large backup data transfers off your LAN.UA . where you can centralize data control and scale storage easily and economically. SAN Solutions 3.wilshiresoft.17. you can remove several devices from the loop without any interruption to the data flow. network speed and performance decreases as network traffic increases. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .

reduce training requirements. simplify management. simple or more challenging. www. and driving down total cost of ownership (TCO). Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . improve utilization. Plus. SAN by SUN Introducing the SUN StorEdge Open SAN Simplify your Storage Area Network (SAN) with the Sun StorEdge Open SAN Architecture. 3.UA . Low Total Cost of Ownership The Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture enables storage consolidation.1. and manage a massively scalable SAN.SAN backup protects LAN performance and scales easily and cost-effectively. The comprehensive. increase efficiency and improve reliability. deploy.Storage Area Network Page 45 of 123 Fig. Sun is able to deliver simple to use heterogeneous management software as well as enable third party software vendors to provide additional choice for our customers.17. The architecture provides a common full-fabric SAN infrastructure combined with high-availability storage products to help ease SAN management and allow you to consolidate storage resources on the network. Manageability Sun has taken a leadership role in designing. Taken together with existing management interfaces and tools. 3. and increase availability while lowering TCO. All of these benefits can reduce costs. improve performance. The Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture delivers on the promise of SANs by simplifying SAN management. multi-host high availability.com info@wilshiresoft.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.wilshiresoft. optimizing resource utilization. and improved backup and recovery solutions. yet IT departments have to manage more data with constant or declining resources.2. Whether your SAN needs are small or large.1. Sun helps you meet this challenge with a comprehensive set of products and services that eases storage area network (SAN) management and consolidates storage resources on the network. Overview Storage growth continues to escalate.17. Solutions built around the Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture can simplify management. disaster recovery. Flexibility The Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture has flexibility designed in to allow it to meet a wide range of customer requirements.3. local or worldwide. and adopting open standard based SAN management. unified SAN architecture scales from the workgroup to the data center and enables you to optimize storage utilization. the Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture can support your design today and grow with you in the future. What's more. shared file systems. And the open SAN management software provides a centralized management platform for viewing and managing the SAN storage environment. the Sun ONE software strategy makes it easier to design. it's optimized for Sun environments and supports heterogeneous operating systems. promoting. .

com info@wilshiresoft. Failure Detection and Switchover Failover Support for Explicit LUN Failover (ELF) Heterogeneous load balancing. and load balancing on hosts are some of the means to provide a powerful set of building blocks to construct a SAN capable of world record performance. Eliminate single point of failure on non-Sun systems.17. Allows better storage utilization for data consolidation and large cluster configurations. This is particularly important in regulatory environments where records may be retained for a number of years.3. Common building blocks and rules allow customers to build their SAN to best reduce complexity and management costs.1. Provides ease-of-management and better return on storage investments Gives customers the ability to choose key SAN components with the confidence that everything will work together. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Availability The Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture enables extreme levels of availability. High-performance SAN file system 3. a high performance shared file system. openness is a key design goal and practice throughout the architecture.Storage Area Network Page 46 of 123 Compatibility The Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture has as a particular focus implementing and taking advantage of open standards.2 environment.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.UA . Allow customers to avoid SAN problems and protect system availability. Flexible configuration optimizes performance for your specific environment helping you to attain the best return on your SAN investments. Performance The Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture offers very high performance. The Sun StorEdge Open SAN architecture supports heterogeneous hosts. the architecture is capable of meeting your availability requirements. No single point of failure. Whether through early adoption of management standards. From the component level through best practices.4. Features of SUN StorEdge Variable disk allocation unit (DAU) and I/O schemes 2 Gb infrastructure support. using SCSI and Fiber Channel standards or ensuring that switches interoperate. The architecture supports 1 and 2 GB Fiber Channel today and will incorporate 10 GB Fiber Channel in the future. Backward compatible with 1 Gb products Brocade or McData operability in a SAN 4.1. Use Sun Cluster to further improve system availability.wilshiresoft. Improved throughput for data-intensive applications offers better utilization of servers. Allows greater flexibility when creating larger SANs. Benefits of SUN StorEdge Flexible architecture allows application requirements to dictate SAN design.17. Trunking capabilities between switches. Sun StorEdge Traffic Manager software reduces system administrator costs by simplifying the process of adding bandwidth to a server. 3. Increases SAN design flexibility and reduces total cost of ownership (TCO) through storage consolidation and data management. www. Helps lower system management costs by simplifying the process of adding bandwidth to servers. Provides the assurance that your data can be restored regardless of the retention period and the environment in which you need to restore it.

In today's rapidly changing business environment. and uninterrupted in the even of a disaster.2.17. and database backup. departments. backup. Data Protection VERITAS data protection solutions deliver robust. complex to install. Improves total cost of ownership (TCO) as large amounts of data can be accessed from lower-cost media.com info@wilshiresoft. reliable. VERITAS products safeguard the integrity of all corporate data on all platforms and in all databases. 3. and automate backup throughout your organization. As you build your disaster recovery plan.2. VERITAS high availability solutions protect the user experience from servers to storage. VERITAS solutions allow storage administrators to take full advantage of SAN infrastructures. IT departments are being challenged to manage more data within shorter time frames. Dramatically reduces risk of data loss in the event of an outage and greatly improves mean time to recovery. Provides enhanced productivity and faster information distribution. And you'll never have to rely on end users to copy critical corporate data from desktops and mobile laptops onto a networked file server. The VERITAS VERTEX Initiative delivers alternate backup methods using frozen-image or "snapshot" technology. VERITAS can provide you with a layer of protection at every stage. even at levels once thought too expensive. scalable storage management. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . VERIAS disaster recovery solutions are based on software products that work together efficiently and seamlessly across all platforms and applications. VERITAS solutions enable storage infrastructure performance to meet application requirements--and ensure the survivability of your data. external organizations.17. Reduces the cost of server memory and storage capacity. Lowers TCO by consolidating resources simplifying system management and minimizing administrator training. enterprise-wide backup and recovery.2. Performance can be scaled easily while ensuring availability. It's the future of data protection. and individual end-users.1. And our solutions are flexible enough to grow along with your business. Disaster Recovery Disaster recovery is a business essential.UA . High Availability Maintaining high levels of access to information across heterogeneous environments without compromising a quality user experience can challenge any IT organization. Organizations of every size rely on VERITAS for comprehensive data protection.wilshiresoft.Storage Area Network Page 47 of 123 Highly scalable performance. Veritas SAN Applications www. accessible.2 SAN Management Software Solutions 3. there's no need to use multiple backup products of UNIX. The VERITAS VERTEX Initiative The VERITAS VERTEX Initiative includes a wide range of solutions for use with NetBackup™ DataCenter that can translate into business success for your corporate IT environment. SAN by VERITAS VERITAS empowers IT personnel with the heterogeneous SAN software solutions needed to meet the storage requirements of applications. Companies large and small need their data protected. The result of more than ten years of storage virtualization expertise.17. or difficult to manage. Our SAN solutions speed recovery of applications and data after a fault and let you quickly and easily manage storage capacity requirements. 3. VERITAS is the world's most powerful data protection solution for fast. With our data protection solutions. IT staff can use VERITAS products to build higher levels of availability throughout the data center. Windows.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. and recovery--from the desktop to the data center--for heterogeneous environments. VERITAS data protection solutions streamline. scale.

This can be a challenge. As existing SAN-attached peripherals become saturated. Software tools are used to allocate portions of an enterprise RAID to a server in a secure and protected manner. external RAID controllers can be used to isolate configuration changes from the host maintaining application uptime. free space on any RAID can be allocated to a hot server putting the storage where its needed most. Using tools to monitor disk quotas and free space. Second. and the automation of manual storage tasks to avoid re-active management. As noted. With traditional locally attached storage.wilshiresoft. administrators can detect when a server is about to run out of space and take action to insure storage is available. SAN-attached. 1999 Dataquest survey.com info@wilshiresoft. The most obvious way in which SANs helps reduce costs is by facilitating sharing of sophisticated peripherals between multiple servers. This avoids unnecessary downtime for tasks such as installing a new I/O card in a server.Storage Area Network Page 48 of 123 Reducing Total Cost of Storage with SANs SANs reduce costs by providing a better management infrastructure for storage in a centralized data center.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. An enterprise RAID system or automated tape library can be 5 to 10 times more expensive than a single server. the cost equation is often not attractive. SANs promise three techniques to achieve this: multi-server availability clusters. flexible many-to-many connectivity using Fiber Channel hubs and switches improves the fan-out capabilities of a peripheral. they estimate an IT manager in a distributed storage environment can manage only one-third the storage capacity managed in a centralized environment. External RAID controllers. Fiber Channel-based storage networking provides three key features to facilitate peripheral sharing. facilitating nondisruptive addition of new peripherals or servers. running of out disk space means that new storage must be physically added to a server either by adding more disks to an attached RAID or adding another I/O card and a new peripheral. First. Virtualization of Physical Storage to Minimize Application Disruption Minimizing disruptions to applications while storage configurations change is key to achieving near-continuous availability and performance. Using storage allocation software. external storage can be added to Fiber Channel hubs or switches and portions of the new storage can be mapped to one or more servers. new peripherals can be added to the SAN hubs or switches in a non-disruptive way allowing free space to be allocated as needed. and leads IT managers to deploy large amounts of excess capacity on servers to avoid downtime due to re-configuration or capacity saturation. The characteristics of Fiber Channel allow these new www. Two examples of cost savings due to centralized SANs are peripheral sharing and capacity management. and sophisticated peripherals are generally used to provide high performance and availability. Fiber Channel hubs and switches support improved isolation capabilities. SANs allow many on-line storage peripherals to be attached to many servers over a FC network. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Finally. Peripheral sharing According to a June. which comes at a premium to JBOD. as new storage must be added to keep up with capacity demands. This is a highly manual and reactive process. Increased Availability without Exponential Costs Delivering high levels of availability without exponential costs is a key requirement for the new internet-driven data center. allocating a tape drive in an automated tape library to one of many attached servers during a backup session on an as needed basis. External storage is commonplace in data centers. allowing multiple servers to be attached to each channel. downtime still has to be scheduled to add new RAIDs. making it prohibitively expensive to use a one-to-one devices attach approach. virtualization of SAN resources to minimize application disruption. allowing servers to be located up to 10Km from the peripheral. Storage management software also can also provide dynamic resource sharing. However. the increased distance capabilities of fiber optic cables break the distance restrictions of SCSI. However. 56% of respondents reported using less than 50% of RAID capacity due to the inability to share the devices among many servers. avoiding data corruption and unwanted data access. Even with multiple channel controllers in the peripheral. storage management software is also required in combination with Fiber Channel networks to deliver true SAN functionality. and map the new storage to applications. or storage configurations must be changed to optimize performance or improve availability levels. As a result.UA . Capacity Management With traditional locally attached storage.

in which an IT manager assigns high level rules to storage management applications and storage resources. Performing extensive re-configurations results in a loss of productivity as use of the application servers is suspended and a significant amount of administrative labor is invested in the process www. and availability attributes. while the total cost of managing these new systems does not increase as additional levels of complexity are introduced. Example for Increasing Availability Using Clustering A new promotion for an eCommerce site requires that the organization’s data center facilitate additional business processes for a short time.2. For example. Allowing administrators to dynamically reconfigure and tune storage while applications are on-line improves application performance and dramatically reduces the likelihood of unplanned downtime. twenty new servers must be brought on-line to deal with the short-term increase in demand. With logical volume management. performance. IT managers can ensure that the benefits of SANs are fully realized.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. providing more flexible and robust implementations. thus creating a more complex storage environment.17. The policy agents running on the SAN would detect the new storage. Data must be replicated to many servers and storage configurations have to be tuned for each server. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Storage virtualization software. automatically map the volumes to the hot server. However this increases the cost of storage. an application volume can physically exist in one more peripherals or peripheral types. a data protection application can define that every time a file system grows to a certain size a backup is performed to the highest performance.3. Available storage will vary in terms of cost. 3. Traditionally server clusters with replicated data sets have been used to ensure that when failover software restarts the application on a new server.Storage Area Network Page 49 of 123 storage peripherals to be added without breaking a SCSI chain. such as advanced logical volume managers. Advanced clustering tools allow fail-over between multiple servers. and then slow down until the next promotion. When an application fail-over occurs. SANs will also allow a large number of varying types of storage to be available to a server farm. can allow an existing application volume to dynamically grow to include the new SAN attached storage. both internally and externally via the Internet. Automation of Manual Tasks using Policies Several of the examples already discussed demonstrate how storage management tools. In addition. can lower the administrative cost of application availability. However the server application is still unaware of this new storage since it must be stopped and re-started to access new volumes. an up-to-date copy of the data is readily available and the application can be quickly re-started. it is possible to implement increasing levels of availability without significantly increasing storage costs. combined with SANattached storage. Fiber Channel networks facilitate many-to-many connectivity between multiple servers and multiple peripherals. as every server must have a copy of the data locally attached. a path from the new server can be provisioned to the failed servers’ data. As a result.UA . even though the additional storage capacity will peak after a period of months. This means that each server can have a physical path to the storage of each server in an availability cluster. By using policies to automate storage management. In support of the campaign. Re-purposing servers to accommodate temporary peaks in data access can be very labor intensive and potentially costly. and grow the application volumes to include the new capacity. Virtualizing physical storage into logical volumes is key to minimizing disruptions. This completes the process of adding new storage to a server without disrupting application up-time. Similarly. the data center manager must be prepared to do two things: re-purpose application servers and plan for multidimensional growth. most-available tape library attached to the SAN. as well as to policy agents which enforce those rules. location. By virtualizing physical SAN-attached storage in terms of its attributes. Reducing the Cost of Availability with Multiple Paths to Storage Implementing high levels of availability require that server applications recover from failures as quickly as possible. a capacity management application could define that 50% of all new storage added to a SAN is allocated to a hot application. and the application can be re-started. Increasing the automation of these tasks will keep a lid on management costs. SANs provide many more resources to monitor and configure data.com info@wilshiresoft. these attributes allow administrators to set policies that automatically allocated unused storage to servers and applications where necessary. Since the storage does not need to be replicated behind each server.wilshiresoft. administrators will be able to add and re-configure storage based on its properties rather than performance configuration through device level mapping tools. Policy management refers to the use of a policy administration tool.

3. Some key capabilities applicable to SANs are: Create. Capability to assign ownership of disk groups to a single server. For higher read performance access to data.com info@wilshiresoft.2.Storage Area Network Page 50 of 123 Fig. and is developing the volume manager bundle for Microsoft’s Windows 2000.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. VERITAS SAN Solutions Online Storage Management: The SAN Virtualization Layer Virtualization of physical storage is necessary to ensure that SAN applications remain on-line as storage configurations change. If more processing power is needed.wilshiresoft. synchronize and fail-over to a Remote Mirror while the application remains on-line. a single copy of data can be shared between multiple application servers removing the necessity of replicating data. more servers can be added to the SAN to provide better access to stored data. Dynamic growth or shrinkage of application volumes allowing non-disruptive addition or deletion of SAN storage Performance optimization to allow hot disk locations to be moved or RAID configurations to be changed while the application remains on-line. VxVM has many intrinsic features that allow it to immediately take advantage of SAN configurations. thus eliminating bottlenecks to a single disk.17. VERITAS has been delivering enterprise class storage virtualization with VERITAS Volume Manager (VxVM) for UNIX for over ten years.1 – Overview of SAN Clustering However. And because this can all be done while applications are online.2 – Implementation of SAN SAN architectures can also accommodate multi-dimensional growth. Fig.3.2.3. For read-only applications.17.4. implementing a SAN can allow server farms to share access to a storage farm.UA . as shown in the diagram above. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Capacity management techniques can be used to ensure new storage can be added continuously. preventing unwanted storage access from another server on the SAN www. 3. multiple copies of data can be created on the SAN. With storage management tools applications can be moved to different servers and still have access to their data. so server applications always have storage capacity they need.2.17. 3. productivity losses are minimized.

since data is backed-up and restored via a 1Gbps Fiber Channel-based SAN rather than across a 10/100 Mbps Ethernet network. Storage Migrator is implemented as an add-on product to VERITAS NetBackup.Storage Area Network Page 51 of 123 Dynamic Multi-Pathing to provide non-disruptive path-level fail-over and load balancing over multiple Fiber Channel links between a server and storage peripheral. This includes other VERITAS applications such VERITAS File Server. many internet-centric organizations rely on the availability of data to acquire and retain their customers. By building applications on top of VxVM. these intrinsic virtualization features can be made available without the server application being aware of the physical SAN configuration. When disappointed by downtime.com info@wilshiresoft. as well as costs between both backup and restore and HSM applications. To implement a VCS SAN installation. Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) is a technique common in mainframe environments in which infrequently accessed data is automatically migrated to lower performance peripherals or removable media. VERITAS Cluster Server (VCS) provides the ability to create multiple 32-node application fail-over clusters today in a SAN environment for Solaris and HP/UX. Removing backup traffic from the LAN also increases performance by reducing the backup window. but the storage isn’t explicitly mapped to the server application unless it has ownership of the data. and other thirdparty applications. This can be done in two ways. VERITAS Storage Migrator/Shared Storage Option for UNIX allows multiple HSM servers to share automated tape libraries. In effect. VERITAS' LAN Free Backup products increase automation by intelligently scheduling backup jobs dynamically sharing tape libraries based on specific backup policies. LAN-Free Backup: Reducing the Backup Window Improving backup and recovery performance. Applications must be able to fail-over from one server to any other in a server farm and re-map the application data to the new server. VxVM permits all servers to see the storage on the SAN. and tape drives in those libraries. that customer will go elsewhere and rarely returns. Improving availability through clustering while containing costs is also a key capability of SAN architectures. The first is to use VCS in conjunction with VERITAS Volume Manager (VxVM). This is sometimes also called “LAN Free Backup” since most backup data is now transferred to tape using a SAN topology instead of a LAN. Although HSM has traditionally been seen as expensive to implement. Clustering for Improved Availability As an example. LAN Free HSM to shared tape libraries amortizes the costs of sophisticated tape libraries over multiple servers. It also minimizes disruption to client-server traffic on the LAN as more HSM traffic is transferred over the high-speed www. is often considered the “killer app” for this first generation of SANs. intelligent scheduling can optimize the use of shared drives. Foundation Suite Editions for Oracle. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . The second technique requires VCS to be aware of how to configure SAN equipment to setup the new path. leveraging VERITAS NetBackup SSO SAN installations to provide even more SAN capabilities. LAN Free HSM to Shared Tape Libraries One key element of managing storage costs is optimizing the use of expensive storage.2 SSO for NT and UNIX (enterprise applications) There are four benefits of LAN Free Backup.UA . making it much more affordable for mid-range UNIX or NT servers to have direct access to a library. between multiple servers. VCS for Solaris and HP/UX are available today. and multiple 64 NT node clusters to be managed all from one common cluster console. VxVM can perform all of these operations for both JBOD and RAID peripherals on a SAN today and even mix and match between peripheral types. VERITAS provides two LAN Free Backup solutions using the VERITAS Shared Storage Option add-on feature: VERITAS BackupEXEC SSO for NT and NetWare (department and workgroup application) VERITAS NetBackup 3.wilshiresoft. SAN configurations can be used to lower this barrier. Tight integration between VCS and VxVM allows VCS to quickly re-map the failed servers’ storage to the new server. It also minimizes disruption by removing backup traffic from the production LAN and onto the SAN. and minimizing disruption to applications. A customer stays as long as the site is available and responsive. LAN Free Backup amortizes the cost of that resource over multiple servers. and VCS for NT will be available by the end of 1999. Since tape resources can be dynamically allocated to backup sessions on each server. Storage Migrator provides LAN Free HSM. avoiding the necessity to replicate the storage to every server. avoiding saturating the client-server LAN with backup traffic and allowing normal LAN operation to continue. Just as in LAN Free Backup. In addition. the application must be able to configure paths to all storage on the SAN.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Since the many-to-many connectivity of Fiber Channel allows a tape library to be shared by multiple servers. The most often requested capability is to share tape libraries.

Lastly. Building on storage management standards as they evolve. increasing the overall information availability of the data center.com info@wilshiresoft. virtualization. timely and accurate. and tape. Embedding intelligent storage management functions into new types of SAN devices. Features: Flexible Storage Architecture Open and Interoperable Solutions Exploit Data Assets Rapid Access to Data Growth and Capacity Management Business continuance benefits Data protection: Reduce backup window and increase tape utilisation Faster. increase automation. some high performance applications will benefit from distributing applications over multiple servers and operating on shared read/write data. Providing a common service layer will allow all VERITAS applications to exploit SANs over multiple operating systems. Plus. In fact. Tivoli Storage Manager When it comes to enterprise storage management for heterogeneous computing environments. For example. TSM offers automated backup that is not only consistent.2. VERITAS SAN 2000: The Next Generation To create the next stage in the evolution of SAN. TSM supports the broadest range of platforms. VERITAS is creating new technologies to improve the ability of SANs to virtualize storage resources.Storage Area Network Page 52 of 123 SAN. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Creating central. optical. you are able to dramatically reduce costs.17. or using embedded SAN fabric copy agents to move data directly between on-line and off-line storage. 3. Creating clustered versions of VERITAS Volume Manager and VERITAS File Server products to realize multiserver shared data access in a SAN. Like LAN Free Backup. With TSM you can schedule backups to take advantage of off-peak times. VERITAS Volume Manager can be used to provide virtualization functionality in a RAID controller. For example.2. devices and protocols in the industry. SAN-wide management applications that can improve visualization of SAN resources and increasingly automate storage management. or replication. Using secondary hosts to backup snapshots of a production application server’s data. VCS will be able to dynamically re-configure SANs to provision paths to storage. With the many-to-many connectivity of Fiber Channel networks and the increases in processing power. and adapt to change. no other solution can match IBM Tivoli's Storage Manager (TSM). it greatly eases administrator and user tasks with intuitive graphical interfaces.UA . priorities the order in which various data is backed up. new types of devices can implement storage management functions such as storage migration.6. and store only new or changed files to reduce network traffic. With TSM. With TSM's HSM feature.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. VERITAS is focusing on the following areas: Creating a standard services and API layer that will make existing storage management applications SANaware. will minimize the disruption to application clients during a backup operation. and offers highly reliable.17. Create extensions to VERITAS data protection products that maximize application availability in a SAN. more effective restore process www. TSM simplifies data recovery so users can easily restore files without administrator involvement.5. HSM over a SAN also increases automation by intelligently scheduling HSM sessions to shared tape drive resources. you can automatically move data to the most costs-effective media in the storage hierarchy including disk. automated backup and recovery. 3. but flexible. Optimizing performance and availability across multiple servers and storage peripherals in a SAN requires a centralized management application to co-ordinate functions such as capacity management and automatic capacity allocation.wilshiresoft. hierarchical storage management (HSM) and disaster recovery. Or VERITAS Volume Manager will be able to discover performance and availability attributes of SAN-attached storage to determine the best software RAID configuration. archiving.

other Tivoli SANergy-enabled thirdregardless of the number of computers connected to www. Tivoli SANergy even enables the transparent sharing of the exact same files at the same time across platforms.across platforms. Solaris. customers can efficiently centralize their disk storage resources to reduce administration overhead. And if the applications running on those computers are capable. Red Hat Linux and DG/UX to all share the exact same disk volumes at the same time . including automatic path selection/failover Enhance load balancing Business efficiency benefits: Storage consolidation: Improve storage asset utilization Provide capacity-on-demand Reduce management cost Data sharing and access: Allow any-to-any access with a single view of data Increase return on assets Improve reliability. MacOS. Tivoli SANergy enables users implementing storage area networks (SANs) to transparently share access to common storage. eliminating the expense and bottleneck of dedicated file servers Use industry-standard file systems and SAN and local area network (LAN) protocols Work with almost any SAN and LAN product. Tivoli SANergy transparently enables multiple computers to share single disk volumes on the SAN-storage.2. Windows 2000. The resulting high-performance shared storage environment can significantly reduce IT costs by consolidating storage space and eliminating the replicated data common to multihost environments.UA . Centralized disk storage volumes and files can be shared by multiple computers running UNIX®. SCSI. Tivoli SANergy helps you reach your full SAN potential because it can: Simplify SAN storage centralization and administration through the power of heterogeneous sharing at the volume.17. including Fiber Channel. Tivoli SANergy With Tivoli SANergy. SSA. In fact it allows many combinations of computers running Windows NT. and InfiniBand Enable storage centralization without the performance limiting overhead of server-based file sharing Increase data availability by eliminating the single-point-of-failure potential of server-based sharing Reduce the total amount of storage required in a SAN by eliminating redundant or replicated data Reduce the number of disk volumes required in a SAN and improve the efficient deployment of unused space Increase the server-to-storage scalability ratio.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. AIX. iSCSI. and achieve greater ROI.Storage Area Network Page 53 of 123 Decrease server CPU utilization Disaster tolerance: Offer remote vaulting/mirroring over 10 km Provide no single point of failure (SPOF) Increase availability. and files. Irix. file. Tru64. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .7. regardless of hardware and software Tivoli SANergy eliminates the one-to-one relationship between the number of SAN-connected computers and the number of disk volumes needed by those computers.wilshiresoft. improve network bandwidth performance. Features Advantages Benefits Single file system Uses native file system on MDC or any Eliminates the need to manage multiple file systems. Mac OS® and/or Microsoft® Windows® to provide higher bandwidth and lower CPU overhead than server-based sharing over an IP network. and byte level Extend industry-standard networking to utilize the high bandwidth of any SAN media. availability and serviceability 3. volumes.com info@wilshiresoft.

extending the current SANergy support for NTFS. 3D modeling. developers can leverage Tivoli SANergy by adding new MDC platforms and additional file systems. It leverages the distributed data sharing capabilities embedded within the Windows NT.UA . carry on without interruption. Metadata sharing also enables the continued use of all the network-access security mechanisms already built-in to today’s operating systems. at full SAN speeds. As a result. The MDC manages access to common storage by providing the necessary file system metadata when requested by the client computers. MDC dependent Tivoli SANergy hosts running Windows NT. This could enable NAS servers to provide faster and more efficient file sharing to their hosts. This MDC manages the access to storage across the SAN by the computers running Tivoli SANergy client software. and video and film editing and compositing programs. or EXT2 FS or any other file system that supports the SANergy open API. in addition to the already existing SANergy Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) APIs for administration and configuration.2. or Red Hat Linux® file server to act as the metadata controller (MDC) for shared storage. animation and multimedia creation packages. simplify workflow. SAN-connected storage media is formatted in either NTFS. Tivoli SANergy is implemented as a file system extension. In a heterogeneous sharing environment. Tivoli SANergy can improve collaboration. If a Tivoli SANergy MDC for Windows NT or Windows 2000 fails. One API allows file system vendors to enable a SANergy MDC to share access to their volumes and files. Sneaker net is eliminated because the network is fast enough to handle bandwidths of dozens of megabytes per second to each workstation. and design. Tivoli SANergy redirects the data portion of standard network file input/output off the LAN and to the SAN. SSA. including database servers. multiple high-bandwidth workstations run file sharing capable applications all sharing the same application files simultaneously. UNIX. sneaker-net has been faster than any wire network. Web servers. The data itself flows at a much higher bandwidth over the more efficient SAN. LANs suffer from the bandwidth-crippling overhead of network protocols. Enterprise-ready Availability Tivoli SANergy High Availability is an add-on feature to the Windows NT and Windows 2000 versions of Tivoli SANergy. Hosts can then access the storage directly through their SAN connection. UFS. Tivoli SANergy extends the standard Windows NT. and increase productivity.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. to add Tivoli SANergy MDC support hosts to their products. this metadata sharing is critical to ensure the coherency of files being used across the SAN. SAN-speed sharing for Application Files For many high-bandwidth applications in collaborative work environments. like those that make NAS servers. Sun Solaris. Windows 2000. Tivoli SANergy High Availability is an essential component for SANs supporting corporate databases. Most network-aware applications.17. SCSI.wilshiresoft. UFS. and digital printing. It ensures that critical data remains available in the event of an MDC failure. the spare MDC running SANergy High Availability seamlessly assumes the duties of the failed MDC. and other business-critical applications. Inside Tivoli SANergy Using patented techniques. and Macintosh operating systems. Normal networking protocols (CIFS or NFS) establish access to shared files across a standard LAN.8. These applications include CAD. Windows 2000. and any Tivoli Ready for SANergy-certified third-party file system. With the addition of two new application programming interface (APIs). The other API enables operating system vendors. With Tivoli SANergy. These two APIs are available through the Tivoli Ready program. Windows® 2000. EXT2 FS. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . graphics. iSCSI or InfiniBand SANs with components from any manufacturer Works with the mix of computers and operating systems used today Enables immediate control through most SAN management consoles LAN-flexible SAN-flexible Heterogeneous operation Enterprise Management Utilizes any LAN hardware and software Utilizes any SAN hardware and software Supports true file sharing across heterogeneous networks Enables management control through the Web and SNMP 3. www. and UNIX automatically remap their drives.com info@wilshiresoft. RIP engines.Storage Area Network Page 54 of 123 party file system the SAN Continues using your existing LAN to handle metadata traffic and low-bandwidth data Works equally well with Fiber Channel. enhance operational flexibility and efficiency.

1 – Point-to-Point Topology 3.aspx/system_nas_san_pointtopoint_lg. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .2. Here we consider three basic topologies for Fiber channel.aspxIn a point-to-point configuration.1.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Fiber Channel runs at 200 MB per second. HP OpenView.18.wilshiresoft.1.com/hardware/nas_san/view. The additional benefits of Fiber Channel include increased bandwidth.UA . Point-to-Point This topology uses Fiber channel without a loop overhead. the total bandwidth is increased 200 MB per loop. Eight loops means 8 x 100 MB/s or a total bandwidth of 1600MB per second. Advantages of Fiber Channel Cost Effective Designed specifically for storage Protocol independent Greater bandwidth Not host dependent Highly scalable in Storage Area Network Framework Greater distance between devices 3. A custom SANergy management information base (MIB) is included to support the use of consoles. administrators can use any SNMP management console to manage Tivoli SANergy.2.3. 3. there are only two devices and they are directly connected to each other. Fiber Channel Topologies There are basically many ways to set up your Fiber channel network.18. such as Tivoli Netview. 3. Fig.18. Fiber Channel 3. Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL) www.Storage Area Network Page 55 of 123 Enterprise-ready Management In addition to using native and HTML based interfaces.18. so applications can access data quicker and run quicker. Because it is an open standard that is protocol independent.18.3.aspsys. Fiber Channel works equally well regardless of operating environment. or SunNet Manager. or loops.18. http://www.18.3. scalability and distance. Reasons for this type of configuration could include security or environmental concerns. This is used in instances where it is necessary to locate the physical storage in a different location from the server. 3.com info@wilshiresoft. to increase performance and simplify cabling between a RAID storage box and a host.3. 3. Introduction of Fiber Channel Fiber Channel is a high performance serial interface that was developed by the computer industry specifically to address data storage needs. By using multiple Fiber Channel connections.

N_Ports (Node Ports) are connected to F_Ports (Fabric Ports) on a FC Switch. Switched Fabric In this topology.UA . as well as providing scalability.18. Fig.18.com info@wilshiresoft. It is capable of accessing data at speeds 100 times faster than current networks. www.5. 3. high-bandwidth connection within a storage area network. Should a device on a FC-AL fail. fabric switches may be interconnected to support up to 16 million-plus N_Ports on a single network. Each point represents a device on a Fiber Channel Loop. It connects all of the pieces of a SAN.4. The switch internally provides the functionality of a FC-AL.3. Each port uses a pair of fibers for two-way communications. low latency and high availability.2 – FC-AL Topology 3. 3.Storage Area Network Page 56 of 123 This topology allows you to attach up to 127 nodes without hubs and switches. picture a circle with several points around it. In this configuration. connectivity. distributed topology where each port includes the minimum necessary connection function.18. In a switch configuration.18.3. and provides high throughput.wilshiresoft. It is what connects the different components of a SAN.3 – Switched Topology 3. Depending on the distance requirements. Fiber Channel connectivity requires a Host Bus Adapter (HBA) be attached to every server and storage device on the SAN. How do SCSI tape drives connect to a Fiber Channel SAN? Because virtually every SAN implementation uses Fiber Channel technology. FC-AL is a time-shared. to the device after it. Devices connected in this manner are said to be in a Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL). 3. This connection allows for a large number of devices to be connected together.3. then no devices on the FC-AL will be able to transmit data. Fig. a device called a switch is the connection point for all devices attached to the SAN. The main advantage is the ability to bypass and isolate a failed device. To understand a loop configuration. What is an Interconnect? An Interconnect is the physical pipeline used for high-speed. fullbandwidth. each device is connected to the next device and is responsible for repeating data from the device before it. an industry standard network interface is necessary.3. Depending on switch vendor support. with the transmitter (TX) connecting to a receiver (RX) at the other end of the Fiber Channel cable. performance and availability. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . workstations or servers can be connected to a single disk or a disk loop with either optical Fiber or copper media. I/O buses and networks are both example of interconnects.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.18.

and Fiber Channel enhances IT departments' ability to access and protect it more efficiently.Fiber Channel's credit-based flow control delivers data as fast as the destination buffer is able to receive it. which is crucial in high-end and heavy-use server systems where there is little or no downtime.com info@wilshiresoft. High Efficiency . Multiple Protocols .Storage Area Network Page 57 of 123 3. reliable Fiber Channel technology.8. is specifically designed for highly efficient operation using hardware.UA . collaborative projects and CAD/CAE. Congestion Free . and scaled switched topologies meet application requirements.Fiber Channel delivers data. Gigabit Bandwidth Now . Today's data explosion presents unprecedented challenges incorporating data warehousing. When it comes to cabling. Reliable .From single point-to-point gigabit links to integrated enterprises with hundreds of servers. Fiber Channel delivers unmatched performance. hubs and switches can be used to create Fiber Channel storage networks. shared loops. or raw data can all take advantage of high-performance. Solutions Leadership . Fiber Channel also allows for distances of up to 10km between devices when using fiber optics.Real price performance is directly correlated to the efficiency of the technology. Instead. A Fiber Channel device does not have to be connected directly to a host. Multiple Topologies . Fiber Channel is the fastest option available. cost-effective information storage and delivery at blazing speeds. Fiber Channel can maintain data integrity through significantly longer cables. sustains an enterprise with assured information delivery. Fiber Channel has very little transmission overhead. imaging. This means that extremely high storage capacity is available by adding devices to the loop. Scalable . Fiber Channel is simply the easiest. Features of Fiber Channel Hot-pluggability – Fiber Channel drives can be installed or removed while the host system is operational. Each loop supports up to 126 devices on a single connection. including Fiber Channel RAID. Speed – In its intended environment. SCSI. Loop resiliency – Fiber channel provides high data integrity in multiple-drive systems. which can be expensive. Fiber Channel is the mature. Both have a small diameter allowing for more flexibility when running cable in tight spaces.7. Fiber Channel is inexpensive because it does not require special adapters. most reliable solution for information storage and retrieval. Corporate information is a key competitive factor. With development started in 1988 and ANSI standard approval in 1994. Scalable Fiber Channel Devices Fiber Channel is easy to install and scale. 3.wilshiresoft. ANSI standard compliance for serial port interface – Fiber Channel does not require special adapters. the Fiber Channel protocol. Fiber Channel gives users a choice of copper or fiber optic. economically and practically meets the challenge with these advantages: Price Performance Leadership . To contrast. a most reliable form of communications. Fiber Channel.18. video. real-time computing.Fiber Channel delivers cost-effective solutions for storage and networks. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. 3. networked storage.Gigabit solutions are in place today! On the horizon is two gigabit-per-second data delivery. Why Fiber Channel? Fiber Channel is the solution for IT professionals who need reliable. Cost effectiveness – Relative to other high-end solutions. www. a powerful ANSI standard.Fiber Channel provides versatile connectivity with scalable performance. Most important. SCSI buses can only handle 16 connections.Dedicated point-to-point.18. integrated audio/video. safe solution for gigabit communications.6.18. TCP/IP. This makes configuring multiple devices easier. Longer cable lengths – Relative to LVD.Fiber Channel.

18.8 – Overview of Enterprise Fiber Channel Switch 3. and switches. A port bypass circuit provides the ability to hot swap Fiber Channel disks and Fiber Channel links to a hub. 3. Fiber Channel is a fast. Fiber Channel is ideal for reliable. video.18. Fiber Channel network. Fiber Channel switches provides scalable systems of almost any size.Storage Area Network Page 58 of 123 In fact. real-time networking. Fiber Channel is ideal for these applications: High-performance storage Large data bases and data warehouses Storage backup systems and recovery Server clusters Network-based storage High-performance workgroups Campus backbones Digital audio/video networks Fig. Aerospace developers are using Fiber Channel for ultrareliable. and many other applications. Host bus adapters are installed into hosts like any other SCSI host bus adapter. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . installations range from small post-production systems on Fiber Channel loop to very large CAD systems linking thousands of users into a switched.UA .wilshiresoft. networks.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.com info@wilshiresoft. reliable data transport system that scales to meet the requirements of any enterprise. high-speed transport of digital audio/video. www. storage. Hubs link individual elements together to form a shared bandwidth loop.9. multiple terabytes of Fiber Channel interfaced storage are installed every day! Fiber Channel works equally well for storage. Disk systems integrate a loop into the backplane. hubs. Today. Fiber Channel System Fiber Channel systems are assembled from adapters. data acquisition.

Fiber Channel is the best technology for applications that require high-bandwidth. scalable.24 Gbps Yes Gigabit Ethernet Network Point-to-point hub.06 Gbps 2.UA . It was designed by the computer industry for high-performance communications. Class 4 Fiber Channel provides guaranteed delivery and gigabit bandwidth as well as fractional bandwidth quality of service. As shown in Table below. the architects provided flow control.wilshiresoft. Technology Comparisons Fiber Channel is a product of the computer industry.18. video. In addition to providing scalable gigabit technology. networks. ATM was designed at a wide area network with the ability to provide quality of service for fractional bandwidth service. gigabit communications technology today. switched 1. and no other technology matches its total system solution. Fiber Channel Technology application Storage. However. Fiber Channel's ability to use a single technology for storage. Topologies Baud rate Scalability to higher data rates Guaranteed delivery clusters point-to-point loop hub. 3. network. Gigabit Ethernet is designed to enable a common frame from the desktop to the backbone. Fiber Channel was specifically designed to remove the barriers of performance existing in legacy LANs and channels.18. High-performance. Fiber Channel is the most reliable.12 Gbps. Users can expect their most cost-effective. self-management.Storage Area Network Page 59 of 123 Fig.10. highest-performance solutions to be built using Fiber Channel. Fiber Channel is designed to be a transport service independent of protocol.25 Gbps Not defined No ATM Network. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . switched 1. For the more demanding applications. 3.com info@wilshiresoft.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. 4. and ultra-reliability. audio/video. Fiber Channel's use in both networks and storage provides a price savings due to economies of scale associated with larger volumes. The feature of fractional bandwidth with assured Quality of Service is attractive for some applications.24 Gbps No www. or to move raw data is superior to the common frame feature. reliable solutions that scale from small to very large. gigabit Fiber Channel meets this requirement.9 – Fiber Channel systems are built from familiar elements IT systems today require an order of magnitude improvement in performance. video Switched 622 Mbps 1.

The first method. there have been two basic ways to back-up data on a group of systems. Chaparral’s FS1310 router.5 management software.com info@wilshiresoft. The second method. host bus adapters (HBAs) and management software. Fig. Brocade. and protect your critical data without congesting the LAN easily eliminates bottlenecks associated with storage operations over the LAN. LAN Free Backup is the ideal solution for backing up and storing mission critical data without utilizing valuable LAN bandwidth. Video Yes Variable. Using SAN configurations such as LAN Free Backup to move. through the single server. and technical support. 3.11 – Implementing LAN free backup 3.18. which includes an installation guide. 0-1. known as centralized backup.1.5KB Rate Based Copper and Fiber Network Yes Fixed. 0-2KB Credit Based Copper and Fiber Network. Adaptec. involves attaching a central backup device to a single server. It combines the benefits of high-speed transfer rates.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. This LAN Free Backup solution comes complete with a recipe book.18.UA . involves directly attaching a backup device to each system. to the central backup device. 53B Rate Based Copper and Fiber Network. and ADIC’s FastStor 22 tape library.Storage Area Network Page 60 of 123 Congestion data loss Frame size Flow control Physical media Protocols supported None Variable. known as local or distributed backup. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .11. Chaparral. Distributed Backup www. Brocade’s Silkworm 2050 Fabric switch. LAN Free Backup solution is a SAN configuration that connects storage elements directly with backup devices using Fiber Channel switches. LAN-free backup involves attaching a central back-up device to a Storage Area Network (SAN) which all attached servers share. Working together. and cost effectiveness into a single solution. LAN Free Backup using Fiber Channel Introduction The continuing growth of managed data creates frustrating and costly storage management problems for IT managers and network administrators. easy management.wilshiresoft. and Veritas have performed rigorous testing to ensure interoperability and ease of use. LAN Free Backup solution consists of Adaptec’s AFC-9110G Fiber channel HBA. Today there is now a third approach emerging that is generally referred to as LAN-free backup. ADIC. manage. The leaders in the Fiber Channel industry have joined together to deliver a completely interoperable solution. video 3.18. With corporate data amounts doubling every year one of the most difficult challenges facing IT managers is backing up of continuously expanding data volumes. Scheduled down time or slow time for data backup is no longer being tolerated. In the past.11. SCSI. The LAN Free Backup solution has been certified with Veritas Backup Exec v8. Backups for all other systems are then directed across a local area network (LAN).

www.18. 3. If the server data exceeds the tape capacity. It is interesting to note that data has to travel through two servers before transferring to the tape unit. Figure below shows a group of systems in a typical distributed backup configuration. So.wilshiresoft. This method is known as local or distributed backup. discrete. The first problem is the cost and a second and far more serious problem is managing the backup process. as seen above.Storage Area Network Page 61 of 123 The fastest data back up method for a server’s internal disk drives is to attach a backup device directly to the server. backup operations 3. Total data to be backed up ranges between 200 GB and 600 GB. distributed backup is not viable due to the lack of centralized management and the high administrative cost associated with the management of multiple. the problem isn’t managing a centralized backup repository: rather the challenge is getting the data to it. centralized backups often overflow into user uptime . This results in long backup cycles that exceed the scheduled backup window.8 MB/sec. Conventional centralized backup solutions rely on an IP network as the data path. As the number of servers requiring back up increases. With transfer rates ranging anywhere from 1.com info@wilshiresoft. Fig.UA .18. The problem with this solution is the TCP/IP processing associated with transporting the sheer volume of data completely consumes the server CPU.1 – Distributed Backup Model For small environments. This time does not include daily incremental backups. it is believed the sweet spot of the backup market is a 2 to 4 drive tape library backing up 6 to 10 NT servers. distributed backup starts exhibiting problems.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.2. The problem with a centralized backup method. distributed backup works very well.11.11. Centralized Backup Centralized backup limits the management overhead to a single storage repository. This is sometimes referred to as the centralized backup two-copy problem.resulting in poor network response and generally unacceptable server performance. a full backup of a 500GB site takes anywhere from 29 to 87 hours. Figure below illustrates a typical centralized backup scenario where the Ethernet LAN is the transport mechanism for the backup data. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Distributed backup requires IT technicians to touch each system physically to perform backup operations. In larger organizations. is poor LAN performance. Currently.6 to 4.8 MB/sec the server attached to the tape storage device must be an extremely high performance machine. Here. then the IT individual must monitor the operation and reload new tapes at the proper time. To achieve 4.

com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Advanced backup management products allow scheduling multiple backups in advance. SAN Backup A third system back up method uses a dedicated storage network for storage operations. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .2 – Centralized Backup Model The major advantage of a centralized method is the ease of management. conventional centralized backup is probably the most cost effective and easily managed backup method. 3.18. For small to medium environments that do not have heavily loaded LANs.wilshiresoft.1 – SAN Backup Model This concept of a dedicated storage network is known as a Storage Area Network or SAN.3. SANs allow storage to decouple from the server.3. 3. Fig.UA . SANs offer great promise but are relatively new to the market. Figure below illustrates a typical configuration. Decoupling storage from the server allows IT www.com info@wilshiresoft.Storage Area Network Page 62 of 123 Fig.18.11. In addition to increasing backup operations efficiency. 3.18.11. which can proceed without operator intervention. Backup methods based on SANs offer all of the management advantages that centralized backup solutions offer coupled with high data transfer rates generally associated with directly attached or distributed backup solutions. Backups can generally occur during slower weekend periods.11.

The high bandwidth of Fiber Channel also allows sharing external storage.3. This has the advantage of not requiring servers to copy data from the storage element and send it to the backup device.11. 3. this enables using of legacy SCSI tape libraries. the limiting factor or SAN backup performance is now the tape drive transfer rate. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Since backup data does not traverse the network stack. a backup operation involves copying data from internal server storage and writing it to the tape library. the ability to scale storage independently.UA .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.com info@wilshiresoft. A full discussion of these advantages exceeds this document’s scope. Since native FC tape libraries are relatively new. The backup device then becomes a SCSI initiator and copies the data directly from the storage elements. Figure below also shows a Fiber Channel to SCSI Router. 3. Figure 5 shows a SAN configuration with external storage and an attached tape library. In Figure below. Currently the only practical interconnect for a SAN is Fiber Channel. Fig.3. A FCbased SAN can fully backup a 500GB site in about 15 hours using a two-drive tape library. Figure below shows a LAN-free Backup implementation based on a Fiber Channel SAN.3 – Server with FC HBA’s Having storage external to the server introduces the possibility of performing a server-less backup. the CPU utilization is much lower than with the centralized backup method. there is more than enough backup application bandwidth. There are numerous advantages to having storage external to the servers that include storage sharing.5 hours. The server is not part of the data movement and can therefore devote all its’ compute cycles to serving applications.2 – Servers storage and FC HBA’s With Fiber Channel providing 100 Mbytes/sec today (moving to 200 Mbytes/sec in the near future).Storage Area Network Page 63 of 123 individuals more flexibility in controlling storage resources. www. In a serverless backup. the backup can be done in about 7.wilshiresoft. easier manageability storage. In this case. Using a four-drive tape library. etc.18.18. data copies occur only once before data is written to tape.11. Given that the maximum transfer rate for 1 Giga bit Fiber Channel interconnect is around 100 Mbytes/sec. Fig. the server issues a SCSI third party copy command to the backup device.

tape backup.Storage Area Network Page 64 of 123 3. which also acts as a hardware buffer for incoming data.13. Stage . and maintainability.com info@wilshiresoft. and disk-based storage all attached directly to Fiber Channel infrastructure as shown in the diagram below.18. LAN-free backup solution offers all management advantages of a centralized backup scheme coupled with the high performance of distributed backup. system throughput by eliminating many of the bottlenecks.18.wilshiresoft. The tape library is attached to the Fiber Channel network by using a bridge device. Fiber Channel-based LAN-free and Server-less backup. www.the industry leader in host storage business Brocade . Applications such as storage centralization.18. scalability. 3. Installation and technical support are available through a single point of contact.now and in the future. 3. such as the ATTO FiberBridge.1 (LAN Free Backup) LAN-free backup is the application of Fiber Channel technology to the tape storage sub-system to increase performance in the overall storage system by eliminating the need to pull data over the LAN and through a file or application server.14. LAN-free backup using Fiber Channel is an excellent solution for environments that have a heavily congested LAN and need to perform system backups without impacting LAN performance.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Flexibility of design As storage demand grows component selection is not limited to one brand. Conclusion A Fiber Channel.providing industry leading performance in Fiber Channel to SCSI connectivity ADIC . Two new architectures. network engineers. Ease of installation Recipe book that includes an installation guide and users manual makes installation easy. Fiber Channel Strategy for Tape Backup Systems The basic architecture for tape backup and archive systems has remained unchanged since the introduction and subsequent wide-scale implementation of the LAN nearly over 15 years ago.14.the industry leader in Fiber Channel switching Chaparral . tape library. Fiber Channel technology allows for the implementation of new tape backup system architectures that will greatly benefit systems administrators. virtualization. achieve large increases in overall.12. Best of breed components Adaptec . and clustering allow IT environments to reach new levels of reliability. and reliability . LAN Free Backup Solution Benefits Assurance of an interoperable solution All products are rigorously tested for interoperability with all types of Fiber Channel devices and configurations to deliver the utmost in compatibility. Fiber Channel hubs are less expensive than switches but do not scale well for configurations that involve external storage. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .the industry leader in tape auto-loaders 3.18.UA . LAN-free backup is a first step into SAN technology. Typically.1. a Fiber Channel hub can replace the switch. and ultimately the customers that rely on these systems. performance. it is deployed using a tape server. With the addition of external storage. the true power of SANs can be realized. For cost sensitive solutions.

Storage Area Network Page 65 of 123 Fig. Time to implement is also significantly shortened.14. By removing the Ethernet bottleneck (2 .2. an immediately realizable gain in efficiency.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.com info@wilshiresoft. This enables higher overall service levels in the LAN and better application response times. LAN-free backup helps ensure that backups are complete without disruption to other systems. which leads to more immediate benefit to the system and reducing the overall cost of implementation.20M/sec. Stage . usually between 12 . keeping cost of entry to SAN architectures low.1 – LAN Free Backup Model In this design. This in turn reduces adverse effects of backups on normal business operations. LAN-free backup brings with it service increases that will positively effect end-users.UA . thereby extending the lifetime of those assets. Besides the obvious financial benefits. hence shorter backups.5 to 10 times.).wilshiresoft. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . and the realized throughput of the tape server itself. By having the ability to deploy existing assets in a new manner. the performance envelope is most affected by the throughput of the tape units themselves. www. Since the LAN is not involved there are no longer heavily loads placed on the LAN or on application servers during backups. a greater ROI is realized on these assets. LAN-free backup can also leverage existing assets. Thus LANfree backup can be viewed as an upgrade to the existing tape storage sub-system. the tape server is delegated to the role of system coordinator rather than data mover. rather than as an entirely new installation. In this environment.8 M/sec.18. This improves performance by 2. A copy device such as the ATTO FiberBridge takes on the task of actually moving data from the disk storage to the tape library.2 (Server-Less Backup) Server-less backup takes the LAN-free solution one step further. the tape server can stream data directly from the storage to the bridge device at 85 to 90 M/sec. 3. 3. Advantages of LAN-Free Approach The advantage of the LAN-free backup approach is increased throughput to the tape devices and. The only bottleneck is the speed of the tape library itself. Use of tape RAID software can also be used to boost performance by aggregating tape device bandwidth in the same manner as disk RAID.20.

Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . In general the market has looked to bridge devices since many of them. the backup server's performance is directly related to the memory. results in a lower Total Cost of Ownership for the backup sub-system and system infrastructure as well. the device must provide a software interface that allow it to interact with software applications that wish to control. Finally.UA . gains may be found from server-less backup that are not available in any other architecture. high-end servers and their replacement with relatively inexpensive copy devices such as the ATTO FiberBridge and low-end control servers.2 – Server Free Backup Model Typically. The copy device must also support connections to other device that may be involved in the movement of the data. A tape server is still necessary.Storage Area Network Page 66 of 123 Fig. Second a bridge device such as the ATTO FiberBridge capable of acting as a copy device or independent data movement unit is needed to actual move the data. A general-purpose server that requires significant administration and maintenance is replaced with a standalone device that need virtually no maintenance and can be replaced quickly in case of failure. In the case of a copy device for server-less backup the copy device needs to have enough compute power and memory to support the movement of large blocks of data. Finally. which issues commands to the copy device and insures smooth operation of the system. including the ATTO FiberBridge. 3. The copy device follows a similar philosophy to network computing devices sometimes referred to as network appliances. the dedicated tape server may be eliminated altogether for additional savings.20. in this case disk drives and tape libraries. This architecture also makes possible the ability to stream the same data to several tape libraries at once even if geographically separated without the necessity of copying and moving the tapes themselves. This. Currently. Removing the remaining bottleneck in the system will create performance gains in an important area: The tape server.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. the system becomes simpler overall. since software such as Celestra can usually share space on another server. Advantages of Server-Less Approach to End-Users There are a number of major advantages to this approach.com info@wilshiresoft. This provides an effective element in a disaster recovery plan. coupled with the aforementioned cost savings. optimized for data movement. cost savings may be realized by the elimination of expensive. It is a specialized device with sufficient and specialized resources to perform a specific rather than general activity within a network or SAN. there are several major elements to a server-less backup solution. www. Even in LAN-free backup. the Extended Copy Command interface is the most popular interface for these type applications. With server-less backup. First is the hardware infrastructure deployed for LAN-free backup. I/O. Finally. special control software such as Legato's Celestra. and CPU performance of the backup server itself.wilshiresoft. manage. In fact. and track the movement of data in the SAN. While not as dramatic as the advantages of LAN-free backup. have these attributes. rather than through a generalpurpose computer bound by multiple needs and a non-specific architecture. but acts as a place to house the control software more than as a system device dedicated to moving data. This inhibitor to optimal performance is eliminated as the data moves through the high-performance copy device.

wilshiresoft. they are meant to solve or diminish the problems. 3. end-users and companies will be served better by experiencing less disruption to their overall systems and hence regular business operations.Storage Area Network Page 67 of 123 3.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. this provides a method of achieving this functionality at a low incremental cost with little risk.and LAN-oriented backup systems toward a Fiber Channel based shared tape system. a better return on investment will be realized. The SAN based on the FC has some disadvantages. Finally.by deploying a bridge device and other Fiber Channel components. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Upgrade Existing Systems to Server-less backup . so will the overall efficacy and performance of the tape backup sub-system. 3. Since this is likely done through software updates to the bridge device as opposed to hardware additions. For this reason alone. This has the advantage of proving out the hardware infrastructure before moving to server-less backup. At present there are some initiatives.upgrade the LAN-free systems to serverless where desired. inexpensive copy devices such as the ATTO FiberBridge are added. It is advantageous to start here because the step forward is not as radical and yet provides an immediate enhancement.as the speeds of tape devices themselves increase. By implementing a migration strategy away from the current server. Add Capacity . Since the tape devices themselves are the bottleneck. add more inexpensive copy devices and additional tape libraries.1 Introduction of iSCSI With the release of the Fiber Channel and SAN based on it the storage world staked on a network access to storage devices. current systems can be upgraded to a LAN-free backup architecture. which are being standardized.14. Instead of having to add additional servers (that require extensive administration) and upgrades to the LAN. iSCSI 3. parallel SCSI-based solution to a serverless backup solution for new customers Upgrade Existing Systems to LAN-free Backup . Any risk is also mitigated by the ability to fall back on the existing LAN-free backup system.as need for more backup capacity grows. which are the price and difficulties of access to remote devices. Almost everyone announced that the future belonged to the storage area networks. increases in performance will be immediately realized when the performance of the tape units is increased. Fig. LAN-free and Serverless backup architectures shift control of bandwidth and hence system performance to the high-speed Fiber Channel network.19. The most interesting of them is iSCSI. high-bandwidth copy device.3.19.18. implementation of this strategy is worthwhile. improvements in overall system performance and reductions in total cost of ownership of the system will be achieved. Suggested Deployment Strategy This is a suggested deployment plan that migrates from a non-shared. By extending the lifetime of existing assets while increasing overall system performance and reducing operating costs. and tape library. For several years the FC interface was the only standard for such networks but today many realize that it's not so.19.1 – iSCSI www.UA .com info@wilshiresoft. The current architecture places control of system performance with the LAN and server rather than the tape unit itself. It is at this point that the cost effectiveness of this solution becomes apparent. Add faster tape units .

It allows access from any server or client inside a building. across a campus. even if some lines go down. improves disk capacity utilization. over an existing IP infrastructure or across a dedicated IP infrastructure for storage traffic.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.UA . eases storage management. different sources have very different views. 3.19. throughout a metropolitan area. and consolidates data backup. www.3. Ethernet. SCSI. and Ethernet.2. IP. However.e.Storage Area Network Page 68 of 123 The word iSCSI can often be seen in newspapers and ads of leading storage device makers. iSCSI enables the deployment of cost-effective storage area networks based on technologies already supported and understood (i. 3. iSCSI overcomes the distance limitations posed by traditional direct attached storage solutions.com info@wilshiresoft. Scalability The switched architecture of SANs enable IT managers to expand storage capacity without shutting down applications. Maximize Storage Resource Investment SANs allow you to share disk and tape devices across heterogeneous platforms. Advantages of iSCSI on SAN: High Availability Multiple paths between servers and storage enable a constant connection. and some consider the iSCSI an indisputable leader for data storage systems in the near future. hosts and clients.19. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . iSCSI (Internet Small Computer System Interface) is a TCP/IP-based protocol for establishing and managing connections between IP-based storage devices. Advantages of iSCSI iSCSI provides storage consolidation. SNMP).. TCP/IP. others have already given it up for lost yet before it was born. iSCSI is extremely interoperable technology built upon time tested underlying standards including SCSI.wilshiresoft. or the around world.

UA . Experts working on iSCSI address the problem of latency with a careful attention. 3. which had already 50 members in half a year.4 – Overview of Ethernet Technology 3. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . In IP packets are delivered without a strict order. iSCSI develops quite rapidly. all packets must be delivered one after another without delay. iSCSI describes: Transport protocol for SCSI which operates on top of TCP New mechanism for encapsulating SCSI commands on an IP network Protocol for a new generation of data storage systems that natively use TCP/IP But it's known that rules of packet delivery differ for IP and SCSI. the iSCSI technology is positioned for middle-level systems.com info@wilshiresoft. It can be a crucial problem in High-End systems in case of simultaneous access to thousands of files. what is so attractive in the iSCSI for majors of the IT industry who do not even consider contradictions of this standard? Here are the most important applications and functions which can be realized with data storage systems used: www. And although there are a lot of means developed to reduce influence of parameters. According to a senior system engineer of a Utah's university. brings ambiguity into practical use of the iSCSI technology.Storage Area Network Page 69 of 123 Uses Well-Understood Ethernet Technology Fig. In January 2001 IP Storage Forum was created within the SNIA (Storage Networking Industry Association). The specification of the iSCSI requires a longer packet's head. The need in a new standard was so strong that during 14 months after the proposal on the iSCSI by IETF in February 2000 we got a lot of devices demonstrating capabilities of their interaction.19. The engineers developing the iSCSI managed to solve this problem to some degree.19. which cause delays in processing of IP packets. So. which takes more resources. At the same time. it is also in charge of data recovery. and breach of the order may result in data losses.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. according to some experts. which speeds up packet assembling by a great margin.wilshiresoft. and a product released in April 2000 soon won the Enterprise Networking Product Prize. the only obstacle for popularization of the Ethernet as a base technology for establishing storage area networks is a relatively great latency (close to 75 microseconds) because of the peculiarities of the TCP/²Ð stack. The head includes additional information. today there are devices that prove its viability.4. In spite of the fact that this problem. The Draft 0 on iSCSI published in July 2000 initiated realization of the technology. in SCSI. as a channel interface.

19.UA .19. separating the SCSI commands and request. expanding the usefulness of this data to E-commerce applications. Any application can now take advantage of data from remote sites that are accessible over an IP network. IP frames to the integrated processor. 3. That is why it is recommended using special network cards which support mechanisms of CPU unload before TCP stack processing. How iSCSI Works When an end user or application sends a request. 3. such cards are produced by Intel. iSCSI can run over existing Ethernet networks. it is decrypted (if it was encrypted before transmission). But it is followed by considerable expenses of processor power on the client's side which uses such card. 32M memory and transfers calculations related with iSCSI and TCP/IP and calculations of checksums of TCP. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . the software iSCSI realization can reach data rates of Gigabit Ethernet at a significant.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. It contains a powerful Xscale processor. servers and clients within LAN. new storage area systems with the iSCSI being native for them provide more advantages: A single technology for connection of storage systems. including Cisco. CPU load.Storage Area Network Page 70 of 123 Within the frames of those which can effectively be realized using modern methods: Consolidation of data storage systems Data backup Server clusterization Replication Recovery in emergency conditions Here are new capabilities which can effectively be realized with the IP Storage: SAN geographic distribution QoS Safety In addition. Fiber Channel over IP (FCIP). Storage backup over an IP network enables systems to maintain backups online and always be ready and available to restore the data. the protocol can also be used to return data in response to the original request. and disassembled. The SCSI commands are sent on to the SCSI controller. SAN · Great experience of industry in Ethernet and SCSI technologies · Possibility of substantial geographic remoteness of storage systems · Possibility to use management means for TCP/IP networks.wilshiresoft. When a packet is received. the other method. WAN. the operating system generates the appropriate SCSI commands and data request. in comparison.5. about 100%. At present (June 2002). According to the company it can be as efficient as 500Mbit/s at 3-5% CPU load of a host system. and from there to the SCSI storage device. translates Fiber Channel control codes and data into IP packets for transmission between geographically distant Fiber Channel SANs. The Intel PRO/1000T IP Storage Adapter is offered at 700USD.com info@wilshiresoft. www. Applications that can take advantage of these iSCSI benefits include: Disaster recovery environments for stored data that needs to be mirrored/recovered in a remote location can take advantage of the distance extensions that iSCSI enables over an IP network. FCIP (also known as Fiber Channel tunneling or storage tunneling) can only be used in conjunction with Fiber Channel technology. To transfer data to storage devices with the iSCSI interface it's possible to use not only data carriers.6. Storage virtualization and storage resource management applications can create a shared storage environment for all users on a global IP network. if necessary. which then go through encapsulation and. communicators and routers of existent LAN/WAN but also usual network cards on the client's side. and Nishan have introduced iSCSI-based products (such as switches and routers). Because iSCSI is bi-directional. iSCSI is one of two main approaches to storage data transmission over IP networks. According to the developers. Fiber Channel server and storage extensions. encryption procedures. A packet header is added before the resulting IP packets are transmitted over an Ethernet connection. A number of vendors. IBM.

3. IP routers and Ethernet switches are used for network connections. for example.1 . workstation and storage device support the Ethernet interface and a stack of the iSCSI protocol.2 – iSCSI Protocol Levels Model The iSCSI protocol controls data block transfer and confirms that I/O operations are truly completed. Commands which are sent by the client and processed by the server are put into the Command Descriptor Block (CDB). iSCSI under a microscope Fig. potentially unreliable medium of IP networks.wilshiresoft. but over TCP/IP networks. The Internet Small Computer System Interface also provides a block data access. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .7.Storage Area Network Page 71 of 123 3. The SAN makes possible to use the SCSI protocol in network infrastructures. each server. providing high-speed data transfer at the block level between multiple elements of data storage networks. for example.IP network with iSCSI devices used Here. which allows us to get an idea of an encapsulation order of SCSI commands for their delivery through a physical carrier. Below is a model of the iSCSI protocol levels. A client. server or workstation. Fig.7.19.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. it is provided via one or several TCP connections.18.18. Architecture of a pure SCSI is based on the client/server model. 3. Encapsulation and reliable delivery of CDB transactions between initiators and targets through the TCP/IP network is the main function of the iSCSI.7.com info@wilshiresoft.server. which is due to be implemented in the medium untypical of SCSI. thus. initiates requests for data reading or recording from a target . www. a data storage system. In its turn. The server executes a command which completion is indicated by a special signal alert.UA . iSCSI Session Management. The iSCSI has four components: iSCSI Address and Naming Conventions.

ustar. Address and Naming Conventions As the iSCSI devices are participants of an IP network they have individual Network Entities.9. which is formed according to the rules adopted for Internet nodes.com. each separate read or write command will be carried out without a necessity to trace each request for passing different flows. 3.8 .Model of Network Entities An iSCSI node is an identifier of SCSI devices (in a network entity) available through the network. www.storage. Each iSCSI node has a unique iSCSI name (up to 255 bytes). The iSCSI protocol together with iSCSI names provides a support for aliases. An iSCSI name provides a correct identification of an iSCSI device irrespective of its physical location. For example Fqn. If more than one TCP connection was established the iSCSI requires that each command/response pair goes through one TCP connection. the login is not confirmed and a TCP connection breaks. As soon as the login is confirmed the iSCSI session turns to the FULL Feature Phase.19.UA .wilshiresoft. Fig. However. Session Management The iSCSI session consists of a Login Phase and a Full Feature Phase. It is used to adjust various parameters between two network entities and confirm an access right of an initiator. which are reflected in the administration systems for better identification and management by system administrators.Storage Area Network Page 72 of 123 iSCSI Error Handling. If the iSCSI Login Phase is completed successfully the target confirms the login for the initiator. 3. which is completed with a special command. different transactions can be delivered through different TCP connections within one session. Thus.19. At the same time in course of handling data transfer between devices it's more convenient to use a combination of an IP address and a TCP port which are provided by a Network Portal.com info@wilshiresoft.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. iSCSI Security. The Login Phase of the iSCSI is identical to the Fiber Channel Port Login process (PLOGI). Such Network Entity can have one or several iSCSI nodes.18. otherwise. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Such name has an easy-to-perceive form and can be processed by the Domain Name System (DNS).itdepartment.161.8. 3.

Such encoding means as IPSec. but the opposite can happen. an iSNS server can be used as a repository of keys. do not require additional matching because they are transparent for higher levels.19.a TCP connection which transfers a SCSI task can have errors. Such situation requires that all TCP connections be closed.9 .19. The iSCSI logout command is used to complete a session . Kerberos or Private Keys Exchange. where the iSCSI can work. Next level .wilshiresoft. for example. under fulfilled SCSI commands be completed.19. especially WAN. So that error handling and recovery can work correctly both the initiator and the target must be able to buffer commands before they are confirmed. It can also send information on what connection should be interrupted in case of a connection error.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.com info@wilshiresoft. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Termination and recovery of a session are usually not required if recovery is implemented correctly on other levels. Each terminal must have a possibility to recover selectively a lost or damaged PDU within a transaction for recovery of data transfer.identification of an error and data recovery on the SCSI task level. Here is the hierarchy of the error handling and recovery after failures in the iSCSI: The lowest level . which confirms that data are transferred successfully.12.iSCSI Write example At the end of a transaction the initiator sends/receives last data and the target sends a response. Various solutions can be used for authentication.19. Security As the iSCSI can be used in networks where data can be accessed illegally. the iSCSI session can be damaged. which use lower levels. 3.Storage Area Network Page 73 of 123 Fig. In this case there is an attempt to recover the connection. in order to close troublesome TCP connections. Adaptec iSCSI www. At last. 3. and for the iSCSI as well. 3. and the session be restarted via the repeated login. for example.UA . repeated transfer of a lost or damaged PDU. all tasks. Error Handling Because of a high probability of errors in data delivery in some IP networks. the protocol provides a great deal of measures for handling errors.10. 3.it delivers information on reasons of its completion. the specification allows fpr different security methods.11.

database and e-mail deployment. and reap the benefits of SANs Ideal for environments where storage consolidation. LAN-free and server-free back-up.19. Unlike NIC based implementations the Adaptec 7211F (fiber optic) offers ASIC-based complete TCP/IP and iSCSI offload enabling lower CPU utilization and the best price-performance. 3. Ideal for building iSCSI-based networked storage infrastructures for remote offices. And the iSCSI will make possible to use advantages of the SAN in the spheres.1U 1. and remote replication Benefits Delivers outstanding iSCSI performance using familiar.19. email and other databases. Adaptec 7211F (Fiber Optic) The Adaptec 7211F (fiber optic) delivers high performance. as well as remote replication and disaster recovery.2. WWSAN provides for an infrastructure which will support a high-speed access and storage of data www.6TB .13.1.3.3. and remote replication are required. or as primary storage for data that doesn't require the high performance of Fiber Channel SANs. With the FCIP and iFCP protocols data storage networks will be geographically distributed. At the same time the IP Storage protocols will make possible to use effectively storage area networks in those applications for which the FC can't provide an effective realization. affordable technology Ideal for environments where storage consolidation. The Adaptec 7211F (fiber optic) provides best-in-class interoperability and is ideal for applications like storage consolidation. Storage Systems Snap Server 18000 . The rapid development of data storage networks is what the conception of the World Wide Storage Area Network based on. increase data availability. LAN-free backup.1Gb ASIC-based iSCSI copper adapter with full protocol offload Adaptec 7211F (Fiber Optic) . increase data availability.1.S.19. 3. Conclusion I'm quite sure that in the near future the Fiber Channel won't disappear and the FC SAN market will be further developing. and reap the benefits of SANs Enables low latency SCSI "blocks" to be transported via Ethernet and TCP/IP 3.13. P. they provide a high-ROI storage option for businesses of all sizes.6TB iSCSI-enabled IP SAN RAID solution Snap Server 4200 .19.Storage Area Network Page 74 of 123 iSCSI Snap Servers. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .30TB iSCSI-enabled IP SAN RAID solution Snap Server 4500 . which are still not or ineffectively realized within popular technologies. storage arrays and HBAs are flexible.1U 640GB iSCSI-enabled IP SAN RAID solution Adaptec iSA1500 Storage Array .2U 2TB . cost-effective and easy-to-manage. e-mail.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. HBAs Adaptec 7211C (Copper) .UA .12.wilshiresoft.1Gb ASIC-based iSCSI fiber optic adapter with full protocol offload 3. Fully offloads protocol processing from the host CPU High-speed iSCSI SAN connectivity with minimal CPU utilization Enables any enterprise that uses standard Ethernet technology to consolidate storage. Database.1U. LAN-free backup.12. interoperable connection into iSCSI SANs in Gigabit Ethernet environments.12.19. Highlights The premier choice for connectivity High-speed iSCSI SAN connectivity with minimal CPU utilization Fully offloads protocol processing from the host CPU Enables any enterprise that uses standard Ethernet technology to consolidate storage.com info@wilshiresoft. 4-drive iSCSI to SATA RAID solution 3. and disaster recovery and perfectly suited for iSCSI SANs with iSCSI HBAs.

Protocol Data Unit. which is under the IETF protection.com info@wilshiresoft. Terms and abbreviations: SAN CDB PDU SNIA DNS PLOGI iSCSI FCIP iFCP iSNS WWSAN Storage Area Network command descriptor block.UA . FCIP .2. Domain Name Server. iFCP . One of examples is servicing a manager who travels around the world with presentations. Fiber Channel Port Login. For better understanding of positioning of these three protocols there is a diagram of networks based on them. Others (iFCP. iFCP. Storage Networking Industry Association.a tunnel protocol based on the TCP/IP. 3.wilshiresoft. Internet Small Computer Systems Interface Fiber Channel over TCP/IP Internet Fiber Channel Protocol Internet Storage Name Service World Wide Storage Area Network Quality of Service (usually describes a network through latency QoS and band of a signal). it has the following directions: iSCSI (Internet Small Computer Systems Interface) FCIP (Fiber Channel over TCP/IP) iFCP (Internet Fiber Channel Protocol) iSNS (Internet Storage Name Service) In January 2001 IP Storage Forum was established within SNIA (Storage Networking Industry Association).13. he will always have a high-speed access to the data he needs. www. The conception is very close to the WWW but is based on different services. Therefore. each representing a protocol.Storage Area Network Page 75 of 123 distributed all over the world. The conception of building the World Wide Storage Area Network excellently fits in the development of modern IP Storage technologies. iSCSI. FCIP) The IP Storage (IPS) work group was created within the frames of developing network storage technologies in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). WWWSAN provides for transparent transfer of "mobile" data according to how their owner travels all around the world.19. 3.19. and an operation with them won't require a complicated ineffective synchronization via the WWW.14. wherever such manager can be. which is designed for connection of geographically far FC SANs without affecting FC and IP protocols. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Today the Forum includes three subgroups: FCIP.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.TCP/IP based protocol for connection of FC data storage systems using the IP infrastructure together or instead of FC switching and routing elements.

Here is the stack of the FCIP protocol: Fig. 3.Diagram of IP Storage networks 3. Fiber Channel over IP The most revolutionary protocol among these three is Fiber Channel over IP.19.19.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.1. This protocol is entirely transparent for existent FC SANs and involves usage of infrastructure of modern MAN/WAN networks.wilshiresoft. A geographically distributed www. The main idea of this protocol is to make functional integration of geographically remote storage networks. It doesn't bring in any changes into the SAN structure and organization of storage area systems. So.14.UA .19.com info@wilshiresoft.14 . 3.Storage Area Network Page 76 of 123 Fig.Lower levels of the FCIP protocol FCIP helps to effectively solve a problem of geographical distribution. if you want to merge geographically remote FC SANs with new functionality enabled you will have to get just one FCIP gateway and connection to MAN/WAN networks. and integration of SANs on large distances.14. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .1 .

Here are some applied problems which can be successfully solved using the FCIP protocol: remote backup. In this protocol an FC transport level is replaced with a transport of the IP network. which is a more flexible scheme in comparison to the SAN-to-SAN. For example. Here is how an iFCP protocol stack looks like: Fig. Dynamically creates IP tunnels for FC frames An important feature of the iFCP is that this protocol provides an FC device-to-device connection via an IP network. data recovery and a shared data access. storage networks are becoming more affordable for organizations of all sizes. therefore.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. FC services of message delivery and routing are overlapped in the iFCP gateway device. integrity of data and a data rate issue. 3.19. and it is seen as a usual IP traffic for a MAN/WAN network it is connected to. if the iFCP has a TCP connection between pairs of N_Ports of two FC devices such connection can have its own QoS level which will be different from a QoS level of another pair of FC devices. but you will have the immediate advantage of remote. iFCP Internet Fiber Channel Protocol is a protocol which provides FC traffic delivery over the TCP/IP transport between iFCP gateways. www. 3.14. The iFCP protocol allows connecting current FC data storage systems to an IP network with a support of network services which are necessary for these devices.2. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . 3. if you can get by with your existing direct-attached storage that's more of an inconvenience than a problem? But don't discount a SAN so easily: With the advent of iSCSI. Rules of using encapsulation for creation of a virtual connection between FC devices and elements of an FC network.14.15. centralized storage. network structures and components of the FC do not mix in one FC SAN but are managed by the TCP/IP means. TCP/IP environment for support of creation of a virtual connection and support of FC traffic tunneling through an IP network including safety. the traffic between FC devices is routed and switched by the means of TCP/IP.com info@wilshiresoft.wilshiresoft.3 . the thinking goes.19.Storage Area Network Page 77 of 123 SAN based on the FCIP is taken by SAN devices as a usual FC network. How to Build an iSCSI SAN Not all organizations can afford to build a storage-area network.19.3.UA . You won't get all the benefits of a high-end Fiber Channel SAN with iSCSI. 3. FCIP IETF IPS Working Group Draft Standard specifies: Rules of encapsulation of FC frames for delivery through TCP/IP.19. With high-speed MAN/WAN communications one can also use synchronous data doubling and a shared distributed access to data storage systems.14. Why spend hundreds of thousands of dollars and lots of management hours.Lower levels of the iFCP protocol According to the specification iFCP: Overlays FC frames for their delivery to a predetermined TCP connection.

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ISCSI sends SCSI commands over an IP network. As long as the machine requesting data and the machine serving the data both understand iSCSI, the requesting machine will see drives and data on the server as "local." This lets you expand the data in your data server (or group of servers) and not throw disks into every network app server. In iSCSI parlance, an initiator is a device or software that maps SCSI into IP: It wraps SCSI commands in an IP packet and ships them to an iSCSI target. The target machine unwraps iSCSI packets from IP and acts upon the iSCSI commands. It returns an iSCSI response or multiple responses, which are usually blocks of data. The server is your application server, and the storage box is the machine serving up iSCSI drives. (We're using storage box to represent anything from a Linux software iSCSI target to a full-blown SAN with iSCSI support.) You need a gigabit copper network for an iSCSI SAN. If you try running iSCSI over a 100-Mbps network, you'll be disappointed. Assuming your network connection maintains 100 percent utilization, 100 Mbps is roughly equivalent to 5 MB per second of disk transfer. Because iSCSI has a request/response for every packet transferred and network performance degrades before 100 percent saturation, the best performance you'll get is 6.25 MBps of throughput. That's a rough estimate that includes time to wrap and unwrap data packets and responses to each packet. Bottom line: 6.25 MBps of data transfer is not good, considering that most drives run in the 40- to 320-MBps transfer range. Besides, Gigabit Ethernet is affordable: Gigabit adapters start at $60; switches, $120. And Gigabit Ethernet has the throughput for treating iSCSI as a local drive.

Fig. 3.19.15 – iSCSI over Ethernet Network

Don't put your iSCSI SAN on your regular IP network, either. There's plenty of traffic running over that, and iSCSI is bandwidth-intensive. Also consider whether your servers have enough CPU power to handle iSCSI. Unwrapping and reassembling iSCSI packets can take a lot of CPU time. The iSCSI standard assumes packets are received in order, while TCP does not (plus iSCSI adds load from intensive TCP/IP processing). So if your server CPU is moderately utilized, you'll need an HBA (Host Bus Adapter) or TOE (TCP Offload Engine). These devices take care of some, or all, of the iSCSI and TCP processing without burdening the CPU. HBAs are storage-only cards that connect your machine to a target using iSCSI. TOEs are TCP-only cards that off-load TCP processing for the CPU. TOE is useful in iSCSI because of the high volume of packets transferred, while HBA processes SCSI commands--another data-intensive application. HBAs costs $600 to $1,200 each, so add them only to machines that need more CPU. And check with your HBA vendor to ensure that its product supports regular TCP/IP communications (most don't). If it doesn't, buy a separate gigabit NIC for that machine if it will handle any management for your storage network. Ideally, the NIC should sit on a separate machine on the gigabit SAN--but not participating in storage work--for network management.

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3.19.16. Setup
Part of iSCSI's appeal is you don't need specialized networking knowledge--like you do with Fiber Channel SANs-to set it up. It's relatively simple to build and configure. First, set up your IP network. Install Ethernet cards or HBAs, and remember to put one in your storage server if you have a target that requires a card or blade to make it iSCSI-ready. You have several options: At the low end is the UNH-iSCSI open-source project that builds a target for Linux. You can install it on any Linux machine, customize the config file and have an iSCSI target. Fill the box with drives and use it as your storage box. Alternatively, you can buy premade storage boxes that are iSCSI targets with plenty of room for drives. This is a good place to start if your budget is tight. You'll need to choose the number of drives, the type of drive (SCSI, ATA or Fiber Channel) and how much expandability you need in the device, as well as the amount of throughput. Another option is to make your existing Fiber Channel SAN and NAS equipment iSCSI-compatible, with iSCSI cards for SANs and iSCSI gateways for NAS products. Next, run cables to your gigabit switch. Remember, you're creating a separate IP network from your backbone. IP networking is much the same no matter the medium--configure the network using your OS guidelines.

3.19.17. Pain-Free Initiation
Configuring iSCSI differs from product to product, and it's different for the initiator and the target systems. Once you've got your storage IP network running, devices can ping each other, and setting up the iSCSI portion is easy. Just enable the iSCSI functionality. Using the UNH Linux target software, you can modify the target configuration file to set up drives, portals and targets. Windows and dedicated storage devices have interface tools for this configuration. Once you've defined the targets and drives they offer, set up the initiators. If a given server doesn't have an HBA acting as an initiator, you'll have to install one, like the Microsoft Initiator. This adds value even if you have an HBA installed. Some HBAs can't use the Microsoft Initiator, though, so check with your HBA vendor. Some vendors have written their own iSCSI initiators that are delivered with their cards. There are initiators and targets for both Windows and Linux available. Windows has an "iSCSI Initiator" icon in the Control Panel for automatically discovering targets, and you can set up undiscovered targets, too. Linux has a config file you modify manually to set up iSCSI, and there's a handy how-to for this purpose. If there's an HBA on your storage machine, check your HBA vendor's documentation for help. Once the initiators are configured, try to contact the targets. Beware: If you set up the targets after the initiators, you have to rescan the iSCSI network at each initiator to see the targets. To check that both TCP/IP and iSCSI are working, the iSCSI protocol maps a command to do an "iSCSI ping." It's a SCSI command wrapped in an IP packet that doesn't request any operation from the target--just a response. Next, select the drives you want each initiator to use, which should be visible as local drives. Format them and begin using them like any other new drive in the system. Over time, you can augment or replace software initiators with HBAs or TOEs, and you can swap out your lowerend target with anything up to a full-blown SAN. You can even upgrade to 10-Gbps Ethernet for greater throughput, if necessary.

3.19.18. SAN Components
Fiber Channel Switches (SAN Fabric) SAN Fabric Management and Monitoring Software SAN Fabric Security and Access Control Software Storage Devices Hosts and Host Bus Adapters (HBA) Cabling and Cable Connectors Gigabit Interface Converters (GBICs)

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4. SAN Setup by WILSHIRE
4.1. Hardware Details
Components of a SAN comprises of the following: JNI FCE – 6410N 64-Bit HBA (Host Bus Adapter) Brocade SilkWorm 2800 Switch ATTO FIBER-BRIDGE 2200 R/D SCSI Tape drive and a SCSI disk subsystem.

4.1.1. JNI FCE 6410N Fiber Channel HBA
The FiberStart line of PCI-Fiber Channel host bus adapter (HBAs) is designed to execute mission critical applications by enabling high-speed data transfers between PCI-based servers and a Fiber channel link. The HBAs are designed with high performance, cut-through architecture, low CPU utilization, a highly efficient physical layer design and a modular software structure. The stability and reliability of the JNI FiberStart line of HBAs remain unchallenged; and its interoperability allows for cross-platform implementation. The FCE-6410 is bundled with two JNI proprietary software products, EZ Fiber and the PC Driver Suite. EZ Fiber is a powerful graphically based management and configuration utility that makes installing and maintaining JNI HBAs as easy point-and-click. The PC Driver Suite is an integrated suite of software drivers that enables the HBA to operate with a wide variety of operating systems. These connectivity options, along with its industry-leading price-performance and straightforward installation process make the FCE-6410 adapter obvious choice when implementing Fiber Channel in a heterogeneous environment. Supports switched fabric, arbitrated loop and point-to-point topologies Full speed, full-duplex Fiber Channel interface Reduced bottlenecks in distributed and clustered environments with measured performance over 98.5 MB/second (half-duplex) LUN-Level zoning/mapping enabled through EZ Fiber Management Utility Runs on Windows NT, Windows 2000, Novell NetWare, Red Hat Linux, HP-UX, AIX, Solaris and Mac. OS.

4.1.2. Brocade SilkWorm 2800 Switch
The Brocade SilkWorm switches create an intelligent storage-networking infrastructure for mission-critical Storage Area Networks (SAN). The SilkWorm 2800 enterprise-class Fiber Channel switches is designed to address the SAN requirements of very large workgroups and enterprises. This Switch support business-critical SAN applications, such as LAN-free backup, storage consolidation, remote mirroring, and high-availability clustering configurations. The SilkWorm 2800 switch is also a completely interoperable with entry-level switches, enabling cost-effective “pay-as-you-grow” migration to more advanced SAN environments. The SilkWorm 2800 switch support scalability through networking multiple switches, and a fabric operating system (OS) that enables heterogeneous device connectivity, automatic data routing and re routing, self-healing, and scalable connectivity. The 16-port SilkWorm 2800 complements the SilkWorm 2400 switch by delivering higher density connectivity for extremely large SAN fabrics. Up to 239 switches can be networked together, providing over 2,000 ports of interconnectivity.

Technical Highlights
16-port switch deliver an industrial-strength framework for enterprise SAN fabrics. Each port delivers 100 MB/sec full duplex line speed. Offer superior interoperability with a wide range of servers and storage devices. Fabric OS provides powerful fabric management capabilities.

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4. SCSI bus activity. availability. Support for Full Duplex and class 2 transfers. This product which is tightly coupled with two independent SCSI ports provides a sustained throughput of 98 MB/sec. unit ready and power status. point-to-point devices. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . The ATTO Fiber bridge 2200R/D provides Fiber channel performance of 1. Management and Monitoring. LEDs show Fiber channel activity. On-board Ethernet provides SNMP and Telnet based monitoring and configuration.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.UA . ATTO Fiber Bridge 2200R/D is an intelligent Fiber Channel-to-SCSI bridge with a very versatile enclosure. Rack mount. GBICs. A Fiber Channel-to-SCSI Bridge for high Demand Environments. and broadcast hot Pluggable.1. This also supports the latest Fiber channel features including full fabric connectivity. redundant power supplies and cooling fans for high reliability.wilshiresoft. multi . Ethernet and Fiber channel In-band configuration.com info@wilshiresoft. Supports full Duplex operations. and serviceability. Desktop or Drop-in Specifications And Features 16 Universal ports automatically determine the port type for a loop. short wave and long wave optics. RS-232 Serial port provides command line & menu interface for diagnostic information and configuration options. Upto 5000 I/Os per second and a sustained throughput of 98 MB/sec. Cut through routing provides maximum latency of two microseconds from switch port to switch port. Dual independent SCSI buses. Fiber Channel Connectivity 16 GBIC Fiber channel port Support for Fiber optic and copper GBICs.cast (256 groups). Scalability Maximum upto 239 Switches of Full Fabric Architecture Performance Switch Bandwidth is 16Bg/sec End-to-End Non-blocking architecture delivers full-speed data delivery irrespective of traffic conditions. Technical Highlights Single GBIC Fiber channel port. 448 dynamically allocated frame buffer Fabric switches support unicast.Ultra2 LVD or High voltage Differential models available. Two independent SCSI buses . www. or an InterSwitch Link (ISL). Specifications and Features One Fiber channel GBIC port. tape and removable devices. Supports disk. RS-232. Desktop or Drop-in. Rackmount.0625 Gigabit (100 MB/sec) transfer rates. Redundant power supply. ATTO Fiber-Bridge 2200 R/D Fiber channel-to-SCSI Bridge with advanced management. and rack mount kit General Support seamless connectivity to Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop and full switch fabric configurations.3. connectivity and Fabric support. industrystandard GBICs.SAN Setup by Wilshire Page 81 of 123 Provides swappable.

8.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. locate and insert it in an unused 64-bit expansion slot. power down peripherals. FTP and SNMP over Ethernet.UA . Installing the Adapter card Shutdown the system. See the figure below for the location of the transmitter port (TX) and receiver port (RX) on the optical SC connector. Supports disk. The optical cables should be plugged into the optical Fiber channel (FC) connector. Command-line and menu-based ASCII text management interface for RS-232 and Telnet.5. PCI slots are typically white or ivory. SCSI Connectivity Two independent SCSI buses. Optical Interface Connector If your new adapter card has an optical connection. Connecting Cables and Devices Connecting devices to your new adapter card may require a variety of cables and/or adapter. The ATTO FiberBridge 2200R/D is Operating system independent. 64-bit performance will not occur on a 32-bit system. SCSI activity. cables and peripherals back into the computer and power up.1. Attach a loop back plug to the FC port. short wave and long wave optics. To install the adapter card. Fiber Channel Connectivity One GBIC Fiber channel port Support for Fiber optic and copper GBICs. Java-based graphical software for configuration and management of the ATTO Fiberbridge products over Fiber Channel. RS-232 serial port for local management using Fiberbridge services. Ethernet or RS-232.0 with service pack 4 (SP4) Solaris version 2. If an expansion slot id covering the slot opening unscrew and remove the bracket.4.wilshiresoft.1. and unplug the powercord. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . ATTO BridgeTools. Out-of-band support for Telnet. the interface uses a Fiber optic cable with standard SC Fiber optic connectors at each end. Local and Network Management 10/100 BaseT Ethernet port for LAN-based Management.6. 4. Note: The HBAs can be installed in either a 32-bit or 64-bit PCI system.SAN Setup by Wilshire Page 82 of 123 General Reliably attaches SCSI devices to Fiber channel arbitrated loop and fabric infrastructures. LEDs for Fiber channel activity. Unplug any peripheral devices from the system unit.com info@wilshiresoft. 4. tape and removable devices. Hardware Installation Minimum System Requirements Windows 2000 Windows NT version 4.7. Insert the adapter card in the available slot. power and system ready. Plug power cord. www.

( .0. Software Installation 4.com info@wilshiresoft. (for SCSI tape drive).1.3.Z cp 108435-01 /opt/108435-01. Now if your Tape drive is ready. # pkgadd -d /cdrom/jni/solaris/jni.0 Go to the control panel settings and then to SCSI Adapters. FC Target 0. Line 145: set the LUN number to 10. www. you can see the files in /dev/rmt. Mount the floppy containing the patches. go to Format Command. # cd /opt/jni/EZFiber/standalone.sh. you'll see a file jni. To add the patches # patchadd -u 108434-01 # patchadd -u 108435-01 . Run EZ Fiber software now and you can see the devices in the SAN (LUN numbers).com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. and can take backups as usual. Line 166: uncomment it and give port binding = "0000ef". Go to jnic. you can see the disk. Go to sd. ls Run a file install.pkg. # cd /cdrom/jni/solaris/EZFiber.2. Again Insert the JNI CD. repeat the same procedure. (depends upon the ID of the tape drive). cp 108434-01 /opt/108434-01. Line 139: uncomment it for defining the node name and give the node number as you see in the NT machine's EZ Fiber utility.UA . go to /floppy/san Copy two patches 108434-01 & 108535-01 to /opt diretory.Z Unzip both the files now. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Go to st.wilshiresoft.conf (for SCSI disk).pkg. Now init 0 and boot with boot -r. you'll have to load the CD and add the driver.conf.2. set LUN=11 (again depends on the id of the device).2. To execute EZ Fiber. A GUI tool EZ Fiber is ready and the devices in SAN can be seen here as you see in NT 4. Installation in NT4. If you have any disks.conf. Installation in Solaris 9 Insert JNI CD cd /cdrom/jni/solaris .SAN Setup by Wilshire Page 83 of 123 4. where target=1./ezf ). There you'll have an option Add driver. # cd /kernel/drv . ls Run a file ezf. -u is for updating. here you'll have to edit some files. To add the package. Line 152: uncomment it for defining the port name and give the port number. 4.

InfiniBand (Infinite Bandwidth) promises to eliminate this bottleneck.Emerging Technologies Page 84 of 123 5. 4x. creating a bottleneck. processor efficiency. processor efficiency. such as clustering. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Emerging Technologies 5. InfiniBand allows for improvements in network performance. I/O technology. fail-safe. Today's bus-based architecture is limited in its ability to meet the needs of the evolving data center. The benefits of InfiniBand over existing technologies include more scale for growth. The following outlines how each of these are achieved. Network Performance--InfiniBand has been designed to solve the problem of meeting I/O demand. Introduction of InfiniBand InfiniBand is a new High Speed. The speed of the Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) bus.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. The architecture is intended to minimize disruption of existing paradigms and business practices. reliability. the enormous investment in PCI-based architectures will make a phased implementation of InfiniBand necessary. The specification creates three different performance classes--1x. Enterprise Wide. which is being generated by high-end computing concepts. higher speed data transfer and easy integration with legacy systems.5Gbps in each direction. and 12x. and scalability. is an open standard that implements a network for I/O connectivity.wilshiresoft. and 24X7 availability.com info@wilshiresoft. InfiniBand provides for high performance I/O used in networked computing platforms and defines the requirements for creating an InfiniBand network. and scalability. www. Despite these compelling benefits. has not increased in tandem with CPU speed and Internet traffic. 5 – Overview of InfiniBand System 5. InfiniBand. the 'gateway' between external communications (the Internet) and the CPU. Each lx link can transmit 2. a switched-fabric architecture for I/O systems and data centers.UA . Fig. thereby decoupling the I/O path from the computing elements of a configuration (the CPU and memory).1 InfiniBand Advantages InfiniBand allows for greater network performance. reliability.

5. InfiniBand's throughput is on par with the fastest PCI bus. all traffic could be rerouted over the other operating link. As illustrated in the Figure. InfiniBand is broken into the following layers: Physical. thereby decoupling the I/O path from the computing dements of a configuration (the CPU and memory). As shown in Figure.com info@wilshiresoft.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.2 InfiniBand Architecture According to the 1.3 InfiniBand Layers The InfiniBand architecture is divided into multiple layers where each layer operates independently of one another. This is the core framework. InfiniBand server elements consist of CPUs and memory. availability. Reliability--Reliability is superior to today's PCI model because data can take many paths across the InfiniBand architecture. freeing up the CPU for other processing. Processor Efficiency--InfiniBand's channel adapters are intelligent. a first order interconnect technology for interconnecting processor nodes and I/O nodes to form a system area network.. Network.Emerging Technologies Page 85 of 123 Even in its slowest configuration. For example. increased bandwidth. each port would connect to one of two switches. and Upper Layers. Together with the server. This allows them to offload much of the communications processing from the operating systems and CPU. SCSI. and storage all access a common fabric.0. InfiniBand shifts the burden of processing I/O from the server's CPU onto the InfiniBand network. Scalability--The center of the Internet data center shifts from the server to a switched fabric in an InfiniBand architecture. implementation of the highest-class InfiniBand architecture will increase throughput by twelve times or more. By building a network of redundant pathways using multiple switches. as opposed to a shared bus. Gigabit Ethernet. * Switches--interconnect components for intra-subnet routing. and scalability. which is able to handle only one message at a time. otherwise known as an InfiniBand subnet. switch technology forms a network to which I/O devices are attached. Transport. 5.. Thus. and Fiber Channel technology. InfiniBand is an open standard that implements a network for I/O connectivity. networking. reliability can be achieved. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . In the event one of the links failed. www. The specification defines the various nodes in a subnet (a single InfiniBand network) Nodes of a subnet include: * Routers--interconnect components for routing traffic across subnets or to non InfiniBand networks. a processor could have two ports.a specifications. or. The architecture is independent of the host operating system (OS) and processor platform. IBA is described as ". InfiniBand enables systems to keep up with the ever-increasing customer requirements for reliability. Each of these devices can scale independently based on the needs of the data center. execute transport-level functions to CPU nodes and I/O nodes. Link." InfiniBand is much like a phone system--it is able to handle thousands of messages at any given time.wilshiresoft. Servers. and support for Interact technology. * Channel Adapters (CAs)--devices that terminate a link.UA .

5. Fig.5 Gb/s. backplane connectors. 4X.1 – Physical Layer The data rates and pin counts for these links are shown in Table www. InfiniBand defines three link speeds at the physical layer. and hot swap characteristics.3.3 – InfiniBand Layer Model 5.1.com info@wilshiresoft. 5. These include cables and receptacles for fiber and copper media. 12X. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .3.Emerging Technologies Page 86 of 123 Fig.UA .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Physical Layer InfiniBand is a comprehensive architecture that defines both electrical and mechanical characteristics for the system. 1X.wilshiresoft. Each individual link is a four wire serial differential connection (two wires in each direction) that provides a full duplex connection at 2.

InfiniBand defines multiple connectors for “out of the box” communications. All devices within a subnet have a 16 bit Local ID (LID) assigned by the Subnet Manager.Emerging Technologies Page 87 of 123 Infiniband Link Rates Table InfiniBand Link 1X 4X 12X Signal Count 4 16 48 Signaling Rate 2.3. a Service Level (SL) is defined to ensure its QoS level. and the SL provides each link a desired priority of communication. Flow control is handled on a per VL basis allowing separate virtual fabrics to maintain communication utilizing the same physical media. The check at the next hop would reveal a valid CRC even though the data has been corrupted. www. Each link can support up to 15 standard VLs and one management lane (VL 15). Link Level switching forwards packets to the device specified by a Destination LID within a Local Route Header (LRH) in the packet. The link layer encompasses packet layout. Switching Within a subnet. QoS QoS is supported by InfiniBand through Virtual Lanes (VL). Data packets carry up to 4k bytes of a transaction payload. management and data packets. These VLs are separate logical communication links which share a single physical link. Variant CRC (VCRC) and Invariant CRC (ICRC) that ensure data integrity. the error will always be detected. The actual raw data bandwidth is 2. Management packets use VL15 exclusively.5 Gb/s 10 Gb/s 30 Gb/s Data Rate 2.0 Gb/s (data is 8b/10b encoded). which then recalculates the CRC. Each switch/router has a SL to VL mapping table that is set by the subnet manager to keep the proper priority with the number of VLs supported on each link. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Due to the link being bi-directional.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. InfiniBand includes the ICRC so that when a bit error is introduced. Credit Based Flow Control Flow control is used to manage data flow between two point-to-point links. such as Virtual Lane support is determined with management packets. Management packets are used for link configuration and maintenance. Credit passing between each device is managed by a dedicated link packet to update the number of data packets the receiver can accept.com info@wilshiresoft. The 32-bit ICRC covers only the fields that do not change from hop to hop.5 Gb/s.2 Link Layer The link layer (along with the transport layer) is the heart of the InfiniBand Architecture. and switching within a local subnet. 5. In a protocol like ethernet. Data integrity At the link level there are two CRCs per packet. packet forwarding and switching is handled at the link layer. Device information. VL15 is the highest priority and VL0 is the lowest. The 16-bit VCRC includes all fields in the packet and is recalculated at each hop. Both fiber and copper cable connectors are defined as well as a backplane connector for rack-mounted systems. The VCRC provides link level data integrity between two hops and the ICRC provides end-to-end data integrity. Packets There are two types of packets within the link layer. routers and over the long haul. Most products are multi-port designs where the aggregate system I/O bandwidth will be additive. The LRH is present in all packets. Each device must support a minimum of VL0 and VL15 while other VLs are optional. the IBA can ensure end-to-end QoS through switches. which defines only a single CRC. the aggregate bandwidth with respect to a bus is 4 Gb/s.wilshiresoft. Each receiving end of a link supplies credits to the sending device on the link to specify the amount of data that can be received without loss of data. Each link along a path can have a different VL. All packets sent within a subnet use the LID for addressing.0 Gb/s Note: The bandwidth of an InfiniBand 1X link is 2.0 Gb/s 16. point-to-point link operations. As a packet traverses the subnet.0 Gb/s 8 Gb/s 24 Gb/s Fully Duplexed Data Rate 4. Therefore. Data is not transmitted unless the receiver advertises credits indicating receive buffer space is available. an error can be introduced within a device.0 Gb/s 48.UA .

2. To manage the communication within a subnet. unreliable datagram. InfiniBand specifies multiple transport services for data reliability.UA .5 Gb/s. The receiver reassembles the packets based on a Base Transport Header (BTH) that contains the destination queue pair and packet sequence number. The architecture defines a layered hardware protocol (Physical. Each link can support multiple transport services for reliability and multiple prioritized virtual communication channels. unreliable connection. raw datagram). the transport layer divides the data into packets of the proper size. Within the network layer InfiniBand packets do not require the network layer information and header overhead when used within a single subnet (which is a likely scenario for Infiniband system area networks).10 Gb/s.4 Transport Layer The transport layer is responsible for in-order packet delivery. Queue pair. partitioning.3 Network Layer The network layer handles routing of packets from one subnet to another (within a subnet.30 Gb/s. 5. 5. It operates both on the PCB as a component-to-component interconnect as well as an “out of the box” chassis-to-chassis interconnect. Management schemes are defined for error reporting. channel multiplexing and transport services (reliable connection. The packets are forwarded between subnets through a router based on each device’s 64 bit globally unique ID (GUID).4. 4 wire o 4X . Transport. Each individual link is based on a fourwire 2.4 InfiniBand Technical Overview InfiniBand is a switch-based point-to-point interconnect architecture developed for today’s systems with the ability to scale for next generation system requirements. link failover. 48 wire PCB. Copper and Fiber Cable Interconnect Subnet Management Protocol Remote DMA Support Multicast and Unicast Support Reliable Transport Methods . one transport level is used. Network.5 Gb/s bidirectional connection. Upper Layers Packet Based Communication Quality of Service Three Link Speeds o 1X .com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.3.1 InfiniBand Feature Set Layered Protocol . the network layer is not required).Emerging Technologies Page 88 of 123 5.Link Level and End to End www. Based on the Maximum Transfer Unit (MTU) of the path.com info@wilshiresoft. the architecture defines a communication management scheme that is responsible for configuring and maintaining each of the InfiniBand elements. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .3. The GRH contains the 128-bit IPv6 address for the source and destination of the packet. There is a significant improvement that the IBA offers for the transport layer: all functions are implemented in hardware. Network.Message Queuing Communication Flow Control . Link. Therefore the last router in the path replaces the LID in the LRH with the LID of the destination port. 16 wire o 12X . The receiver acknowledges the packets and the sender receives the acknowledge and updates the completion queue with the status of the operation. Transport Layers) as well as a software layer to manage initialization and the communication between devices. The router modifies the LRH with the proper local address within each subnet. 5. Packets that are sent between subnets contain a Global Route Header (GRH). chassis management as well as other services to ensure a solid connection fabric. reliable datagram.wilshiresoft. The transport layer also handles transaction data segmentation when sending and reassembly when receiving.Physical. Link.

switches are required to implement a SMA to respond to Subnet Management Packets. 5. a switch does not consume or generate packets.5. A switch contains more than one InfiniBand port and forwards packets from one of its port to another based on the LID contained within the layer two Local Route Header. which defines the required interface between the client software and the functions of the HCA.UA .Emerging Technologies Page 89 of 123 5.1 Channel Adapters A channel adapter connects InfiniBand to other devices. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . but define the operation for OS vendors to develop a usable API.5 InfiniBand Elements The InfiniBand architecture defines multiple devices for system communication: a channel adapter.com info@wilshiresoft. and a subnet manager. 5. Other than management packets. switch.2 Switch Switches are the fundamental component of an InfiniBand fabric. Fig. Switches can be configured to forward either unicast packets (to a single location) or multicast packets (addressed to multiple devices). Like a channel adapter. there must be at least one channel adapter for each end node and a subnet manager to set up and maintain the link. a Host Channel Adapter (HCA) and a Target Channel Adapter (TCA). router.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Verbs are an abstract representation. An HCA provides an interface to a host device and supports all software Verbs defined by InfiniBand. www. Verbs do not specify the application-programming interface (API) for the operating system.5. All channel adapters and switches must contain a Subnet Management Agent (SMA) required for handling communication with the subnet manager.5 – InfiniBand Architecture 5. Within a subnet. A TCA provides the connection to an I/O device from InfiniBand with a subset of features necessary for each device’s specific operations. There are two types of channel adapters.wilshiresoft.

and then left for InfiniBand to manage.wilshiresoft.UA . and the channel adapter’s hardware will handle each of the communication requests. www.5. The client places a transaction into the work queue (Work Queue Entry .2 – Overview of InfiniBand Switch Model 5.5. The channel adapter then generates a Completion Queue Entry (CQE) to provide status for each WQE in the proper prioritized order.com info@wilshiresoft.send and receive queue) is assigned at each end.5. called work queues. The architecture provides an API that can be utilized to provide high-speed and low-latency communications between peers in clustered applications.WQE. There must be at least one subnet manager present in the subnet to manage all switch and router setups and for subnet reconfiguration when a link goes down or a new link comes up. pronounced “wookie”). These queues. 5.4 Subnet Manager The subnet manager configures the local subnet and ensures its continued operation. If an active subnet manager goes down. InfiniBand was developed with the VIA architecture in mind. When the remote device responds. 5. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . The Subnet Manager communicates to devices on the subnet through each dedicated SMA (required by each InfiniBand component). a standby subnet manager will take over responsibilities to ensure the fabric does not go down with it. Non-active subnet managers (Standby Subnet Managers) keep copies of the active subnet manager’s forwarding information and verify that the active subnet manager is operational. a Work Queue Pair (WQP . For each communication channel between devices. The client can post multiple WQEs. 5.6 InfiniBand Support for the Virtual Interface Architecture (VIA) The Virtual Interface Architecture is a distributed messaging technology that is both hardware independent and compatible with current network interconnects. InfiniBand off loads traffic control from the software client through the use of execution queues.3 Router InfiniBand routers forward packets from one subnet to another without consuming or generating packets. The router rebuilds each packet with the proper LID on the next subnet. This allows the client to continue with other activities while the transactions are being processed. are initiated by the client.Emerging Technologies Page 90 of 123 Fig.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. which is then processed by the channel adapter from the send queue and sent out to the remote device. The subnet manager can be within any of the devices on the subnet. There can be multiple subnet managers residing in a subnet as long as only one is active. Unlike a switch. a router reads the Global Route Header to forward the packet based on its IPv6 network layer address. the channel adapter returns status to the client through a completion queue or event.

The first version of the specification for the technology was completed in October 2000. Hewlett-Packard. Several InfiniBand blade server designs have been announced by major server vendors. More recently the IBTA announced an effort to extend the technology’s signaling rate beyond its current 30Gbps limitation to 120Gbps. switched fabric interconnect standard for servers. standardized. communications and storage fabric in the data center. The technology is deployed worldwide in server clusters ranging from two to thousands of nodes. This unification of servers and storage ultimately delivers higher performance with lower overall total cost of ownership by utilizing a single network for both clustering and storage connectivity. reliable I/O architecture that interoperates with any server technology on the market. InfiniBand draws on existing technologies to create a flexible. Mellanox. InfiniBand continues to transforms the entire computing market. From Prudential Financial to Sandia National Laboratories. an area in which proprietary components are being replaced by higher-performance. Since then. The organization completed its first specification in October 2000. With industry-wide adoption.Emerging Technologies Page 91 of 123 Fig. InfiniBand benefits embedded applications economically and technically. the InfiniBand Trade Association (IBTA) is comprised of leading enterprise IT vendors including Agilent. more than 70 companies have announced the availability of InfiniBand www. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . InfiniBand has become the standard interconnect of choice for HPC environments and is quickly becoming the preferred standard in high performance. In addition to servers. Mellanox. Sun. Network Appliance. maintaining InfiniBand’s leadership as the high performance standard interconnect. In the past 12 months all major system vendors have announced InfiniBand products and hundreds of products have completed interoperability testing and are commercially available. Oracle. IBM. InfiniBand enables both block and file based storage systems with a high performance interface that directly connects to the server cluster. IBM. Sun. 5. InfiniBand is also being used for embedded computing.com info@wilshiresoft. Topspin and Voltaire. Topspin and Voltaire. Founded in 1999. Intel. InfiniCon. scalable.1 Beyond Servers InfiniBand implementations are prominent in server clusters where high-bandwidth and low latency are key requirements. 5. The InfiniBand Trade Association is lead by a steering committee comprised of Agilent.7. accelerating the proliferation of dense computing. through its inherent resiliency. off-the-shelf equivalents.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. InfiniBand unifies the compute. enterprise data centers.wilshiresoft.UA .7 InterConnect of Choice For HPC and Data Center InfiniBand is a high performance. Dell. InfiniCon. Intel. Hewlett-Packard. scalability and highly efficient communications. In addition to server clusters.6 – InfiniBand Virtual Interface Architecture 5.

mainframes featured scalable performance and a "channelbased" model that delivered a balance between processing power and I/O throughput. It also creates unique challenges for the data center. Ultra SCSI. and are being implemented in data centers worldwide. 5. Serial I/O provides point-to-point connectivity. serial I/O alternatives have become more attractive. Once. Instead. InfiniBand does not eliminate the need for other interconnect technologies. architectures that have applications distributed across a range of systems. Internet traffic and the rise of applications driven by Internet connectivity have created a model where more than eighty percent of computing is done over the network.2 A Single. one needs only to look at the complexity in interconnect configurations in today's Internet data centers. new opportunities have been created for the industry to address the reliability and scalability needs of the data center. Unified I/O Fabric Ethernet. 5. while delivering an I/O infrastructure that produces the efficiency. Proprietary interconnects. The heart of the data center.com info@wilshiresoft. Servers are often connected to three or four different networks redundantly. a "siliconization" of I/O resources. As serial I/O has become a financially viable alternative. InfiniBand takes I/O outside of the box and provides a mechanism to share I/O interconnects among many servers. Given that these and other I/O methods address similar needs. and increased reliability and performance. where mission critical applications live.7. This has created a wave of innovation in Ethernet local area network (LAN) connectivity.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. With broad adoption. The first wave of Internet connectivity also led to investment of trillions of dollars in communications infrastructure. Now an array of other factors. data center managers are looking for more functionality from standard interconnect server models. This has created the foundation for an explosion in applications addressing virtually every aspect of human interaction. The industry transitioned from the model of mainframes and terminals to the client server age. Data centers provided reliable data processing in a world of predictable workloads. Increased platform density for scaling more performance in defined physical space Servers that can scale I/O and processing power independently www. For the past decade.5 Trend to Serial I/O Traditionally. and this reliance will only increase as firms escalate their dependence on connectivity for business results. reliability and scalability that data centers demand. where intelligence is shared between intelligent PCs and racks of powerful servers. InfiniBand Architecture draws on existing technologies to create a flexible. downtime meant only a loss in productivity. with enough wires and cables spilling out to give them the look of an overflowing I/O pasta machine.UA . Business success depends on data center performance and flexibility today. The primary concern of the data center manager was system uptime. 5. starting with the industry standard architecture (ISA) bus. the "mission control" of information processing. Fiber Channel.7. moving 10 Mbps LAN infrastructures to speeds of up to 1 Gbps. To meet the demands of changing data center environments.3 Identifying the Need Before the emergence of personal computers (PCs). as failures led to loss of productivity.Emerging Technologies Page 92 of 123 products. The world of predictable workloads has now been turned into an increasingly unpredictable environment.4 Network Volume Expands The Internet's impact on the industry has been as big as the PC's." a concept that started with a network-connected PC turned on its side.7. This has evolved into an ever-rising specialization of "N-tier" server implementations. InfiniBand is transforming the industry. servers have relied on shared bus architecture for I/O connectivity. InfiniBand Architecture has created an opportunity for server design innovation including dense server blade implementations. With this transition came the advent of the "PC server.wilshiresoft. scalable. it's easy to wonder why so much I/O technology innovation continues in this already-crowded arena. complicate the mix.7. servers have also utilized myriad iterations of the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus. 5. By creating a unified fabric. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . In a world where eighty percent of computing historically resided locally on a PC. still relies on servers featuring the proprietary interconnects first seen in early mainframe systems. Bus architectures have proven to be an efficient transport for traffic in and out of a server chassis. companies have new server platform requirements. such as decreased consumer confidence and lost sales. fundamentally changing the way CIOs manage their compute complexes. it creates a more efficient way to connect storage and communications networks and server clusters together. reliable I/O architecture that interoperates with any server technology on the market. greatly expanding the ability to transfer large amounts of data anywhere in the world. To understand. Today. but as the cost of silicon has decreased.

the cluster can be managed as one unit. creating an opportunity for clustered servers to become ubiquitous in data center deployments. the density requirements of servers become more widespread. Performance scales by adding additional boxes. As other networking connections become increasingly powerful data pipes that could saturate one server can be shared among many servers to effectively balance server requirements. With InfiniBand. Internet service providers (ISPs) and application service providers (ASPs) were among the first companies faced with the problem of finding enough room to house server racks to keep up with processing demand. This interconnect infrastructure is called a "fabric" based on the way input and output connections are constructed between host and targets.7. Shared I/O delivers other benefits as well. As data center managers upgrade and add storage and networking connectivity to keep up with traffic demand. this model shifts from individual server capability to the aggregate performance of the fabric. All InfiniBand connections are created with InfiniBand links utilizing both copper wire and fiber optics for transmission. I/O connectivity can be added to the remote side of the fabric through target channel adapters and shared among many servers. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . As the impact of Internet computing grows. Using InfiniBand. and provides a new model for managing interconnects. The result is a more efficient use of computer infrastructure and a decrease in the cost of deployment of fast interconnects to servers.8 Raising Server Density. which contain a defined number of I/O connections per box. By removing I/O from the server chassis. Target channel adapters enable remote storage and network connectivity into the InfiniBand fabric.9 Clustering and Increased Performance Data center performance is now measured in the performance of individual servers. Even though more systems can be added. without the need to add more I/O capacity (the converse is also true). Seemingly simple. Unlike today's servers. 5. InfiniBand channels are created by attaching host channel adapters and target channel adapters through InfiniBand switches. More importantly. new server deployment strategies become possible. creating more flexibility for data center managers. This saves uptime. server designers can fit more processing power into the same physical space.6 InfiniBand: Adrenaline for Data Centers InfiniBand answers these needs and meets the increasing demands of the enterprise data center. 5. decreases technician time for data center upgrades and expansion.7. the new modular designs improve serviceability and provide for faster provisioning of incremental resources like CPU modules or I/O expansion. InfiniBand servers can share I/O resources across the fabric. As servers transition into rack-mounted configurations for easy deployment and management. The ability to share I/O resources also has an impact on balancing the performance requirements for I/O connectivity into servers. As processing requirements increase. server manufacturers have recently produced sub-1U server designs (a U is a measurement of rack height equating to 1." Today's server clusters rely on proprietary interconnects to effectively manage the complex nature of clustering traffic.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. 5.Emerging Technologies Page 93 of 123 Racks of servers that can be managed as one autonomous unit Servers that can share I/O resources True "plug-and-play" I/O connectivity 5.7.wilshiresoft. there's no need to open every server box to add network interface cards (NICs) or Fiber channel host bus adapters (HBAs). Reducing Size Removal of I/O from the server chassis also has a profound impact on server density (the amount of processing power delivered in a defined physical space). Host channel adapters are I/O engines located within a server.75 inches).UA . With InfiniBand. this design creates a new way of connecting servers in a data center. additional power can be added to the cluster in the form of another server or "blade. Additionally. the very I/O model favored by mainframe computers. "Internet hotels"– buildings that house little more than racks of servers – are commonplace. InfiniBand enables the clustering and management of multiple servers as one entity. This enables independent scaling of processing and I/O capacity. With the ability to effectively balance processing and I/O performance www. The architecture is grounded in the fundamental principles of channel-based I/O. server clusters can be configured for the first time with an industry standard I/O interconnect.7.com info@wilshiresoft. without many of the complexities of traditional clustering. This method allows a data center manager to add processing performance when required. With InfiniBand. floor space is at a premium.7 Independent Scaling of Processing and Shared I/O One example of InfiniBand’s impact on server design is the ability to design a server with I/O removed from the server chassis. compute density–the amount of processing power per U–increases through the expansion of available space for processors inside a server. Instead.

12 Industry-Wide Effort Building a successful computer industry standard takes collaboration and cooperation. the most important data center requirement has been the resiliency of the compute complex.Emerging Technologies Page 94 of 123 through connectivity to the InfiniBand fabric. Burlington Coat Factory doubled the performance of its Oracle database by replacing large-scale UNIX systems with InfiniBand and commercial off-the-shelf servers.wilshiresoft. With multiple redundant fabrics.com info@wilshiresoft. 5. 5. Networks such as Ethernet and Fiber Channel are expected to connect into the edge of the InfiniBand fabric and benefit from better access to InfiniBand architecture enabled compute resources.7. InfiniBand architecture is uniquely positioned to become the I/O interconnect of choice for data center implementations. If a link goes down. intra-fabric redundancy results. and the need to retool to meet changing business needs. InfiniBand increases server reliability in a multitude of ways.10 Enhanced Reliability The returns on investment associated with InfiniBand go beyond enhanced performance. As this requirement increases with the advent of Internet communications. This will enable IT managers to better balance I/O and processing resources within an InfiniBand fabric. By creating multiple paths through the fabric. This moves away from the traditional "load store" model used by the majority of today's systems and creates a more efficient and reliable transfer of data. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . customers are quickly garnering a return on investment. If one path fails. Through the InfiniBand Trade Association. shared I/O and server density improvements. In 2003 Prudential Insurance replaced proprietary fabrics with InfiniBand and reduced its costs by an order of magnitude over previous UNIX solutions. Message-Passing Structure InfiniBand protocol utilizes an efficient message-passing structure to transfer data. 5. a more reliable server platform design is required. some of the industry's most competitive companies are working together to further enhance InfiniBand architecture. upswings in data center processing demand.11 End User Benefit With more than 200 worldwide deployments in development or completed. Since the advent of mainframe computing.UA . not only should the fault be limited to the link.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Nodes can be attached to a fabric for link redundancy. www. Natural Redundancy InfiniBand fabrics are constructed with multiple levels of redundancy in mind. but also the additional link should ensure that connectivity continues to the fabric.8. They are leading the shift to a fabric-based I/O architecture.7. data center managers can react more quickly to fluctuations in traffic patterns. connections between fabric nodes are inherently more reliable than conventional I/O technologies.7. The net result is a more agile data center with the inherent flexibility to tune performance to an ever-changing landscape. Channel-Based Architecture Because InfiniBand is grounded on a channel-based I/O model. InfiniBand also supports redundant fabrics for the ultimate in fabric reliability. an entire fabric can fail without creating data center downtime. 5. traffic can be rerouted to the final endpoint destination. Relationship between InfiniBand and Fiber Channel or Gigabit Ethernet InfiniBand Architecture is complementary to Fiber Channel and Gigabit Ethernet. and know InfiniBand benefits everyone in the server world.

One often overlooked piece of the storage boom is the effect that this explosion has had on the market for secondary storage. To effectively select a tape technology in today’s crowded tape marketplace.1. 6. hard disk capacity doublings. Older DLT and LTO technologies use the edge of the tape or a pre-written servo-track as a tracking reference during read and www. the head assembly moves up or down to precise positions at the ends of the tape.UA . the tape motion is resumed and another data track is written parallel to and in between the previously written tracks.1 Linear Serpentine Recording Fig. Application advancements. primarily because of the types and sizes of the customers that they target. Of the removable storage types. companies falter.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 95 of 123 6. regardless of the offering. the tape drive technology specifications remain the same. and new technologies can be introduced which out-date the older technologies. end users must apply some common feature-and-benefit analysis and some individualized needs analysis to ensure that a tape technology choice does not leave the business hanging as time goes by. many low-end tape technologies are excluded from discussion.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Both DLT and LTO technologies position the read heads slightly behind the write heads to accomplish a read-while-write-verify. Then.1 . All of the midrange tape technologies studied in this paper are available in stand-alone and automated library offerings. as they are typically not cost competitive in the mid-range space. This fact has created an ever growing need for larger and higherperformance tape drives and automation subsystems. half-inch tape moves linearly past head assemblies that houses the carefully aligned read and write heads.wilshiresoft. Any of these happenings can leave an end user in a precarious position when they affect the tape technology in which the end user has invested. By the same token. This paper does not discuss a number of very expensive tape technologies. In these technologies. 6. Data is typically thought of and measured by its physical capacity. or removable media storage. It looks at the history and evolution of each technology and examines how each technology accomplishes the advances and features necessary to compete in the mid-range tape marketplace today. This physical capacity has fueled tremendous growth in the primary storage industry (hard drives and hard-drive-based subsystems).1. and it is still the hands-down leader in the cost-for-capacity category.com info@wilshiresoft. Enterprise Backup Storage 6. it is important for end users to understand the underlying technology and some of the history of tape. Once the head assembly is in position. Roadmaps end. However. technology improvements can be delayed or never realized. tape has continued to evolve through the years. Introduction of Enterprise Backup Storage The explosive growth of data in the world around us is staggering today’s computing environment. This growth presents particularly interesting challenges to tape backup technology.1 Recording Methods 6. The successes of large primary disk suppliers such as IBM. network bandwidth. To create the serpentine pattern on the tape. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . This white paper provides a simple and understandable look at today's most prevalent mid-range tape technologies. EMC and Network Appliance have been the result. since protecting the data on today’s rapidly growing storage subsystems is an absolute requirement. and connectivity improvements are all contributing to the management challenges felt by today’s information technology managers.Linear Serpentine Recording All DLT and LTO tape products write linear serpentine data tracks parallel to the edge of the tape (Figure 1).1.

1. This method yields a higher track density and higher data capacity. tracks can be pushed together on a tape.2 . eliminating the need for the guard bands that used to be required between adjacent tracks. The new Super DLT technology. in DLT’s transitions from the DLT 4000 to the DLT 7000-8000 technologies The DLT 4000 used normal linear recording. 6.Helical-Scan Recording Read heads are positioned just behind the write heads. The read and write heads are precisely aligned in the drum and protrude very slightly from its smooth outer surface. When using azimuth. azimuth has been used through time to increase storage densities. thereby allowing data blocks to be written in a herringbone or SPR pattern. writing data blocks in a true linear pattern. The guard bands were eliminated. for example. to align its heads to the proper tracks. the heads create an angled data track on the tape Fig. which ensures the data integrity of each data stripe. allowing read-while write-verify. helical recording creates azimuth by mounting the heads at angles in respect to each other.2 Helical Scan Sony AIT and Exabyte Mammoth employ a helical scan recording method in which data tracks are written at an angle with respect to the edge of an 8 mm tape. In many tape and disk applications. uses an optical assist servo technology. Fig. A third vertical head position (zero azimuth) allows the DLT 7000 and DLT 8000 drives to read DLT 4000 tapes. All helical-scan tape drives use azimuth to maximize the use of the tape media. 6. The SPR method allows the head assembly to rotate into three different positions.1. rotating drum. in which the head assembly operated in one position perpendicular to the tape. however.com info@wilshiresoft.2 .Logical diagram of normal Linear and SPR Linear Recording. called Pivotal Optical Servo.1. eliminating the wasted space for guard bands. as shown Figure 2 below. www. As the tape is moved past the rotating drum.wilshiresoft. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . This is achieved by wrapping magnetic tape partially around an angled. Rather than moving the head assembly itself like linear devices do.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. A special servo head on the drum and track on the tape are used for precise tracking during subsequent read operations.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 96 of 123 write operations.1. The Use of Azimuth to Increase Linear Capacity Azimuth is defined as the trajectory of an angle measured in degrees going clockwise from a base point. The DLT 7000 and DLT 8000 incorporated a modified linear serpentine method called Symmetrical Phase Recording (SPR).UA . 6.

3 Helical-Scan Drive Mechanisms Sony AIT and Exabyte Mammoth drives employ a more common method of tape loading.com info@wilshiresoft. users should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for storage and handling of data cartridges. and the drive may even require repair. a load mechanism inside the drive engages with a positioning tab at the beginning of the tape. and then pulled across the read-write head assembly. since the leader may fail to engage when inserted into the tape drive.Diagram of a Helical-Scan Drive www.3 . For best results.2.2.2.Diagram of Linear Tape Drive 6.2 .1 Tape Loading and Cartridge Handling In all tape drive systems. 6. guided through the tape path. Sony AIT and Mammoth tape cartridges are much less sensitive to rough handling and dropping. which employ a dual-spool cartridge design. If this leader-latching problem occurs. This is one reason why linear tape drives are much larger than helical scan drives. the tape is spooled from one cartridge hub to the other. the tape is spooled between the take-up hub inside the drive and the cartridge supply reel inside the media cartridge.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. tapes must be handled properly to avoid high error rates. and in the worst case-loss of data. Fig. which pulls the tape out of the cartridge and onto a take-up hub inside the drive compartment. 6. the tape cartridge is typically rendered useless. the tape must be pulled from the cartridge. Linear and helical tape technologies differ significantly in their methods of tape handling and loading. It is very important that linear tape cartridges not be dropped or roughly handled because the tape inside may slacken or shift on the spool. Because of this. Fig.UA .2 Linear Drive Mechanisms When the tape cartridge is inserted into a linear tape drive. As the read or write operation is performed.wilshiresoft. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .2 Tape Drive Performance 6. When the tape cartridge is inserted. This may cause problems with loading the tape or may cause edge damage on the media. tape damage. 6.2. which is particularly problematic in automated tape library environments.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 97 of 123 6. drive motors engage the cartridge hubs and work with tape loading guides to position tape into the tape path. but in every case. As the read or write operation is performed.2.

helical scan drives use a much slower tape speed but a more complex tape path. These designs use a capstan. other factors such as head material. The goal of the capstan-less design is to reduce tape stress caused by the capstan-and-pinch-roller system. AIT and pre-Mammoth Exabyte tape drives employ traditional servo-driven capstan-and-pinch-roller designs to control tape speed. or a controlled motorized cylinder. in addition to being smaller and using less energy. reverse the position. It is important to understand how each drive technology minimizes this tape stress.5 Tape Speed and Stress Linear drives move tape at a relatively fast rate. 6. and media contamination. 6. making the guide-roller system critical to minimize edge wear on the media. The helical scan drives use a much slower tape speed of less than one ips through the tape path and past the rapidly rotating drum assembly. do not operate well in start-stop mode. In general.7 Media Load Time and File Access Time www. the tape tension in linear drives is over twice that of helical scan drives. Tape stress is a function of many system variables.6 Data Streaming and Start/Stop Motion A tape drive’s ability to continuously read or write data. with higher tape speeds. Each start-stop operation requires the mechanism to stop the tape from greater than 150 ips. 6. rewind well past the last data written. servo-driven take-up and supply hubs. For instance. and then restart the write operation. is a key performance and reliability differentiator. but the precise tape speed is controlled at the capstan point.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 98 of 123 6. The speed of the hubs is engineered to be constantly and precisely varied as the diameter of the two spools changes. Linear tape drives utilize a straighter tape path but a much higher tape speed. the take-up hub speed must decrease steadily as the tape spool gets larger in order to maintain a constant tape speed across the heads.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. the drive will need to stop the forward tape motion.UA .2. On the other hand. high-performance linear technologies employ powerful reel motor systems. This tension leads to tape-head wear.2.2. pulling the tape through the tape path at a regulated speed. In cases where these conditions are not met. While continued stop-start motion is detrimental to any drive. can perform the stop-rewind-start sequences very quickly. bring the tape back to speed. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Mammoth and AIT drives will typically out-perform DLT and LTO drives in applications where drive streaming is not possible. This is owing to their slower tape speeds and their constantly rotating drum mechanisms.wilshiresoft. In all tape handling systems.2. or “stream” data. ramp the speed back to greater than 150 ips. the relative tape speed is nearly equal in both helical-scan and linear technologies. and then resume writing. tape tension is required to ensure that the tape is held firmly against the head assembly as it traverses the tape path. Mammoth field studies have not proven this method to significantly improve reliability. capstan pressure. typically over 150 inches per second (ips). The reel-motor system results in linear drives having larger physical footprints and higher power consumption ratings than helical-scan devices. the relative speed between the tape and the heads must be precisely controlled. the tape must be precisely moved through the tape path and across the heads during read or write operations. Exabyte Mammoth drives employ an entirely new capstan-less design in which the tape speed is completely controlled by closed-loop. The amount of time spent performing a stoprewind-start motion dramatically impacts the overall tape system’s throughput. All four of these tape drive technologies use data buffering techniques to minimize the need to perform stop-start activities. Linear technologies must use larger buffers since the performance and reliability penalty for a stop-start operation is so much higher than with helical-scan products. However. In an attempt to minimize this. media composition. Interestingly. the reliability impact is greater on devices with higher tape speeds because of the mechanical stress placed on the system and the media. Linear technologies. The take-up and supply hubs are used to spool and unwind the tape. Tape speed is controlled using a servo mechanism and pick-up and take-up spools. Helical-scan drives. which forces the spool gears into the corresponding deck gears.4 Tape Tension and Speed Control In all tape drives. Linear recording technology controls tape speed with a system that is very similar to that of Mammoth tape drives. A drive’s performance will suffer dramatically if the drive is not supplied with data at a rate sufficient to keep it streaming. and cleaning practices will also have an effect on tape-head wear. Also. tape path control mechanisms (usually guide rollers). to pinch the tape against a freewheeling roller. These linear mechanisms employ a very tight and positive control of the spool-to-deck mechanism.com info@wilshiresoft. However. some of which include tape speed.

File access times are typically expressed as averages. The specifications for the four mid-range tape technologies are shown in the following table. built into the Sony AME tape cartridge. Through the use of the MIC feature. called Flash EEPROM. making these technologies an obvious choice for applications requiring fast data retrieval. Media Load and File Access Time * Tape Drive Exabyte Mammoth Exabyte Mammoth-2 Quantum DLT 8000 Media Load Time 20 seconds 17 seconds 40 seconds Average File Access Time 55 seconds 60 seconds 60 seconds Tape Drive Quantum Super DLT HP LTO Surestore Ultrium 230 IBM LTO 3580 Ultrium Seagate Viper 200 LTO Ultrium Sony AIT-1 Sony AIT-2 Sony AIT-3 Media Load Time 40 seconds 15 seconds 15 seconds 10 seconds 10 seconds 10 seconds 10 seconds Average File Access Time 70 seconds 71 seconds 65 seconds 76 seconds 27 seconds 27 seconds 27 seconds * Times obtained from drive manufacturers’ published information.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.com info@wilshiresoft. File access time is defined as the time between when the drive receives a host-system command to read a file and the time when the drive begins to read the data. The flash memory stores information previously stored in a hidden file written before a tape’s Logical Beginning Of Tape (LBOT). and any valid tape technology comparison must show both native and compressed values.6:1 www. since the requested file might be located in the middle of the tape or at either end.wilshiresoft. Sony’s AIT drives reduce wear and tear on mechanical components during the initial load process and offer faster file access.5:1 2:1 2:1 2:1 2.8 Data Capacity Data capacity is measured by the amount of data that can be recorded on a single tape cartridge.UA . Hardware data compression is also used to increase capacity.2. 6. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . MIC technology is now being used in today’s LTO tape drives. Times are usually specified as the time required to reach the middle. Tape manufacturers maximize capacity by increasing the bit density on a given area of tape or by increasing the length of the tape in the cartridge. which consists of an electrically erasable programmable read-only memory chip. Media load time is defined as the amount of time between cartridge insertion and the drive becoming ready for host system commands. Each manufacturer uses a different data compression algorithm resulting in different compression ratios: Data Compression * Tape Type Exabyte Mammoth Exabyte Mammoth-2 Quantum DLT Quantum Super DLT HP/IBM/Seagate LTO Sony AIT Algorithm IDRC ALDC DLZ DLZ ALDC ALDC Ratio 2:1 2. The AIT time advantage is due in part to the unique Memory In Cassette (MIC) feature.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 99 of 123 Media load and file access times are important factors to consider as per-tape capacities rise or when tape drives are integrated into robotic tape libraries. The Sony AIT drives offer a much faster media load time and file access time. Drive vendors typically state specifications for both media load and file access.

6. However. 7. 6 MB/sec. Native and compressed capacities for each type of tape are shown in the table below. 6 MB/sec.3 Reliability In general.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 100 of 123 * Data compression obtained from drive manufacturers’ published information. 12 MB/sec. This is usually measured in megabytes per second (MB/sec. tape drive reliability can mean many things to many people.2 MB/sec.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.3. The comparisons made here are based on the maximum tape lengths available at the time of this writing.6 MB/sec. 22 MB/sec. 15 MB/sec. Capacity Media Type Exabyte Mammoth Exabyte Mammoth-2 Quantum DLT 8000 Quantum Super DLT HP LTO Surestore Ultrium 230 IBM LTO 3580 Ultrium Seagate LTO Viper 200 Ultrium Sony AIT-1 (Extended Length) Sony AIT-2 Sony AIT-3 Native Capacity 20 GB 60 GB 40 GB 110 GB 100 GB 100 GB 100 GB 35 GB 50 GB 100 GB Compressed Capacity 40 GB 150 GB 80 GB 220 GB 200 GB 200 GB 200 GB 91 GB 130 GB 260 GB * Tape capacities obtained from drive manufacturers’ published information. Following are two sets of reliability specifications often used in mid-range tape technology competition. Compressed 6 MB/sec.UA . 11 MB/sec. Therefore. Buffer sizes are selected by the manufacturers to minimize start-stop activities. 15 MB/sec. 3 MB/sec. If the data transfer from the host system to the drive is significantly slower than the drive’s transfer rate (after compression). larger buffer sizes cannot eliminate start-stops in situations where there exists a performance mismatch between the host system and the drive. 30 MB/sec. it is important to keep the tape drive’s cache buffer supplied with data for drive streaming. Tape drive vendors have notoriously slanted tape technology specifications in order to lure users into using to their technology. a great deal of start-stop tape motion will occur while the drive waits for more data. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Start-stop activities sometimes referred to as shoe shining because the tape goes back and forth across the head will adversely impact the drive’s throughput performance and can dramatically increase wear on the drive’s mechanical subsystem. 12 MB/sec.1 Mean Time between Failure (MTBF) www. 30 MB/sec. 12 MB/sec.2.8 MB/sec.wilshiresoft. 6. 6. * Data transfer rates obtained from drive manufacturers’ published information. 15. Data Transfer Rates Drive Type Exabyte Mammoth Exabyte Mammoth-2 Quantum DLT 8000 Quantum Super DLT HP LTO Surestore Ultrium 230 IBM LTO 3580 Ultrium Seagate LTO Viper 200 Ultrium Sony AIT-1 (Extended Length) Sony AIT-2 Sony AIT-3 Native 3 MB/sec. 16 MB/sec.com info@wilshiresoft. 31. 30 MB/sec.9 Data Transfer Rate Data transfer rate is defined as the speed at which data is written to tape from the drive’s internal buffer.). 32 MB/sec.

Tape Drive Annual Failure Rates Drive Type Exabyte Mammoth Quantum DLT HP/IBM/Seagate LTO Sony AIT ** Technology too new to be quantified. www. cleaning frequency. which can significantly affect actual drive reliability.com info@wilshiresoft.000 hours 50. they offer a good comparison of performance in high duty-cycle environments. MTBF and Head Life Statistics * Tape Drive Exabyte Mammoth Exabyte Mammoth-2 Quantum DLT 8000 Quantum Super DLT HP LTO Surestore Ultrium 230 IBM LTO 3580 Ultrium Seagate LTO Viper 200 Ultrium Sony AIT-1 Sony AIT-2 Sony AIT-3 MTBF 250. LTO tape technologies are so new that they have not yet been able to produce any AFR data.3 Data Integrity Data integrity is specified as the bit error rate (BER).000 hours * Rates obtained from drive manufacturers’ published information.000 hours @ 20% duty cycle 300.000 hours 30. DLT. In reality. but when combined with other reliability specifications.wilshiresoft. and an error correction code (ECC) algorithm to ensure a BER of 1017. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Therefore.5% 4. and LTO drives all incorporate a read-while-write-verify error detection. The Sony AIT drive is the only product that incorporates a third-level error correction code (in addition to first and second level) for increased data integrity. This is a statistical value relating to how long. a cyclic redundancy check (CRC). The vendor then averages those numbers over each year for that tape technology. The table below shows how reliability spec. and duty cycle can significantly affect actual drive reliability. Environmental conditions. Approximate AFR 2. Tape drive manufacturers often add a disclaimer to the MTBF specification that the figures should only be used for general comparison purposes.000 hours 50. cleaning frequency.000 hours @ 20% duty cycle 250. and duty cycle.2 Annual Failure Rate (AFR) An excellent real-world indicator of a drive’s reliability is the Annual Failure Rate (AFR) of a drive technology’s field population.000 hours 50.5% 6. compare.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 101 of 123 One method of measuring tape drive reliability is specified by Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF).000 hours @ 100% duty cycle Head Life 30. Vendors calculate AFR numbers based on how many failed drives they have returned to the factory from the installed base.3. and the manufacturer’s duty cycle assumptions vary. As in MTBF calculations. on average.000 hours 50.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. which gives the number of permanent errors per total number of bits written.000 hours @ 40% duty cycle 400.000 hours @ 100% duty cycle 250. The fact that manufacturers usually don’t include head life in the MTBF specification.UA . Mammoth.000 hours @ 100% duty cycle 250.000 hours @ 100% duty cycle 250. the user’s results are averaged regardless of environmental conditions.000 hours ** 50.000 hours @ 100% duty cycle 250.000 hours @ 40% duty cycle 250. 6. Head life specifications (in hours) are subject to some of the same interpretation problems as MTBF. AIT.5% ** 1. these numbers should be used only for general comparison purposes.3. drive reliability varies greatly and cannot be accurately predicted from a manufacturer’s MTBF specification. or 1 error in 100 trillion bits.000 hours @ 100% duty cycle 250.000 hours ** 60. the drive mechanism will operate without failure.

a clarification of terms is required. based purely on specifications. ** These tape drive information not there.000 passes by two.850 ** 15. for example. AME media also employs a very smooth diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating. require only one pass to fill a tape and one to rewind it. This backward compatibility. Specifically.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.4. first-generation Exabyte drives. if an www. has key features that significantly improve its recording characteristics and its head-to-tape interface reliability. forces special read-write head requirements to read both AME and MP media. In helical-scan devices. However. 17 August 1999). and a “pass” is defined as the running of the tape over the head in one direction.000 in their specifications). Note the distinction between the terms “passes” and “uses.wilshiresoft. which significantly reduces drive-head wear and head contamination. multiple passes are required for one use. The highly metallic surface of AME media allows higher recording densities and improved signal-to-noise ratios.com info@wilshiresoft. the head can write four channels at once. The MP recording layer is composed of magnetic material mixed with a binder and other additives. as well as many other tape technologies. respectively. Helical drives. the less friction is generated between the tape and head. For a comparison of the stated specifications of media uses and passes in today’s mid-range tape technologies. Therefore. AME media’s recording layer is made entirely of magnetic cobalt material. It also necessitates special cleaning practices by the user.1 Media Reliability Media reliability is often summarized with pass specifications and use specifications. Sony’s new AME media. MP technology is used in DLT. however. The media-use specification is the more valid way to compare the drives. A single use of a DLT tape.000 17. For example. This equals 19. The smoother and more pure the media. “The relevance of the media use spec is under review” (DLT Forum. making it the most advanced media type being used today.” For purposes of comparison here. The best way to judge media’s durability is to evaluate its formulation. Media Use Specifications * Drive Type Exabyte Mammoth Quantum DLT Quantum Super DLT HP/IBM/Seagate Ultrium Sony AIT Media Type AME MP MP LTO MP AME Media Uses 10. For example. In linear devices. requiring the tape to be passed over the head 52 times to fill a tape. there are too many differences between helical-scan and linear technologies.230 (Quantum lists 15. the listed pass specification must be divided by the number of passes necessary to fill a tape. there are only two passes required for one use.000 15. 6. involves numerous tape passes over the read-write heads.UA . Both media types contain a base film and a recording layer of magnetic metal material. like video tape technology.2 Media and Backward Compatibility Exabyte originally designed Mammoth-1 drives to read both AME and MP media as well as to be compatible with their existing MP 8 mm tapes. for a total of two. the media used by all of the drives are approximately equal in durability. in a DLT 8000 device. LTO. and the tape can accept 208 channels. on the other hand. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . To determine the number of uses a tape may endure.000 and 20. media experts and real-world users agree that media pass and use specifications are largely theoretical and generated primarily for marketing purposes.4 Media Types Two basic types of media are used in today’s mid-range tape drives: Metal Particle (MP) and Advanced Metal Evaporated (AME). the DLT 8000 media-use number can be calculated by dividing 1 million passes by 52. such as lubricants. AME technology is used for Mammoth and AIT media.000 media-use numbers are deduced by dividing 30.000 * Rates obtained from drive manufacturers’ published information. Even Quantum has stated.000 and Mammoth’s 10.4. MP tape is a relatively old technology and has evolved to support ever-increasing bit densities. resulting in longer-lasting media.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 102 of 123 6. one “use” is defined as the filling of a tape to capacity. 6. This is because the pass specifications are not comparable. like Mammoth and AIT. AIT’s 15.

Exabyte specifies that a cleaning cartridge be loaded into the Mammoth drive every 72 tape-motion hours. Backup windows become unpredictable when new and old media are mixed inside an automated tape library. which flashes when the drive needs to be cleaned. a drive manufacturer must weigh the size of its installed base and the willingness of that base to switch to a new media type as the manufacturer introduces new tape drives. Quantum DLT drives have no recommended cleaning interval other than when the cleaning LED flashes. With typical corporate data volume growing at 60 percent per year. the AME media formulation and the DLC coating significantly reduce media surface debris that can clog heads. (Occasional cleaning of AIT read and writes heads with approved Sony cleaning media may be required for excessive head contamination. an AIT-1 cartridge in an AIT-3 drive will achieve double the transfer rate of that same cartridge in an AIT-1 drive.5 Drive Cleaning As tape technologies advance. First. tape vendors have struggled to continue along their roadmaps. those types of fans force airborne dust through the drive and the critical head-tape interface. an end user should consider the migration path of the technology. Cleaning is required because the MP media binder chemistry is prone to leave debris on the heads and in the tape path. including financial difficulties owing to loss of marketshare. prices decreasing. the distance between the head and tape decreases. a user would not want to buy into a technology near the end of its life cycle and then be stuck with the lower performance and lower capacity of an older technology. This raises a reliability question for Mammoth drives reading MP tapes on a consistent basis. All of the drives examined here have an LED cleaning light on the front of the drive. (See the table below for drive performance roadmaps. In addition. most customers have ended up transitioning their media pool over to the newer tapes. the drive will not accept another tape until a cleaning cartridge is inserted. For a look at the past and the proposed future of the different mid-range tape technologies. Sony has taken a different approach to keeping the AIT drive’s tape path and heads clean. Dust. AIT drive cooling is achieved via an internal. Sony’s third generation AIT product.) Historically. which slow performance.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 103 of 123 MP tape is read by the Mammoth drive. In general. 6. (That transfer rate is higher than an AIT-2 cartridge in an AIT-2 drive. Product development problems have arisen from a number of sources. but still not as high as an AIT-3 cartridge in an AIT-3 drive. see the roadmaps compared at the end of this section. For example. and the physical head gap shrinks. So. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . These features allow Sony AIT drives to operate with virtually no manual cleaning. an AIT-2 cartridge in an AIT-3 drive will duplicate the transfer rate available for AIT-3 cartridges in AIT-3 drives. It is perhaps more realistic for Mammoth users to transition to AME media and avoid the problems associated with using MP media. Second. A future migration path should offer higher performance and capacity while ensuring backward-read compatibility with previously written tapes. the recording density on each square millimeter of the tape increases. and product development delays. a built-in head-cleaning wheel is automatically activated by an error-rate-monitoring device to ensure a clean head-to-tape interface and maximum performance. and eventually lead to drive failure. and other contaminants can enter the head-to-tape interface area and cause high error rates.) 6.6 Technology Roadmaps When choosing a tape drive technology. The implications of cleaning are even less appealing when using the drive with a mixed media set in a tape library environment where backup software does not recognize the difference in media types.wilshiresoft.) However.UA . As tape technologies evolve.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Exabyte has not published any specifications or test reports that quantify reliability when using the Mammoth drive in this mode. However. Unfortunately. Tape drive manufacturers have traditionally addressed these issues by specifying periodic cleaning with a fabric or rough media cleaning cartridges. These challenges have stemmed from a wide variety of causes. comparison algorithms and media types have been continued long past their usable life just to extend the installed bases backward read (and sometimes write) capabilities. eliminating maintenance problems and significantly reducing the drive’s overall operating costs. is the first tape drive to double the transfer rates of previousgeneration media. tape library manufacturers like Spectra Logic are now providing solutions in which a user can logically partition old and new media in one tape library. while it is appealing to be able to read the older tape with the newer drives. media particles. Sony stands www. new tape drives utilize new media types to take advantage of the latest head and media components. the AIT drive does not rely on external fans in the library or the system cabinet to cool the AIT drive and components. Logical partitioning such as this can help to leverage the end user’s original investment in the older tapes. Finally. AIT-3.com info@wilshiresoft. Other technologies have always forced the previous generation speeds when using the older media. decrease capacity per tape. variable-speed fan that cools only the drive circuitry and base plate without pulling air through the tape path.

** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** Mammoth ** ** 12 MB/Sec.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. 16 MB/Sec. Roadmaps of Drive Performance (Native Transfer Rates) * Drive Type AIT 1998 AIT-1-XL 3 MB/sec. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . MB/Sec. - 2000 - 2001 2003 2005 2006 2007 DLT Mammoth HP LTO IBM LTO Seagate LTO - AIT-6 96 MB/sec. DLT 7000 5 MB/Sec. 3580 Ultrium ** 15 MB/Sec. MB/Sec. Surestore Ultrium ** 15 MB/Sec. head technology. several companies. Viper 200 Ultrium ** 16 MB/Sec. compression algorithms. ** These tape drive information not there. and media processes have made it very difficult for drive vendors to extend the older technologies past three generations while remaining competitive with newer drive products and backward compatible with the existing installed base. and media.com info@wilshiresoft.wilshiresoft. DLT 8000 6 MB/Sec. 32 MB/Sec.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 104 of 123 alone as having full ownership control over its deck manufacturing. 24 MB/sec. have been very dependent upon other companies to release their next product.UA . Mammoth 3 MB/Sec. however. - 1999 AIT-2 6 MB/sec. Mammoth 3 MB/Sec. Super Super Super DLT Super DLT Super DLT DLT 1280 DLT 2400 220 320 640 50 100 11 MB/Sec. heads. * Highest data transfer rates of tape drive technologies as publicly stated by drive vendors. AIT-3 AIT-4 AIT-5 12 MB/sec. 48 MB/sec. www. Three generations have historically been the industry norm for tape drive evolution. Evolving semiconductor technologies.

Exabyte allowed Quantum’s DLT and Sony’s AIT to capture Mammoth’s previous generation customers as the customers’ needs increased when no new products were being offered by Exabyte. Super Super DLT 1280 DLT 2400 640 GB 1. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Those products included the EXB-8200. Sony has continued to drive the cost of AIT drives down. Super DLT technology incorporates more channels. Sony has published a roadmap. performance. Quantum’s DLT drives were able to deliver better throughput at a time when storage capacities were exploding. The DLT 2000. DLT 2000XT. and EXB-8505XL. The first Super DLT drives did not offer backward compatibility to previous DLT generations. expecting to double capacity and performance every two years. EXB-8500. EXB-8500C. Exabyte owes its key success to those initial products. The December 2001 release of AIT-3 marks the third generation of Sony’s AIT technology. Often times. Exabyte’s Mammoth drive had experienced some lengthy production delays but is shipping in volume quantities today. Again. new thin film M-R heads. the capacity and transfer rate between DLT generations doubled. EXB-8200C. www. pressure to maintain backward read and write compatibility only increased the engineering complexity.com info@wilshiresoft. This typically leaves engineers with the problem concerning backward compatibility. Quantum Corporation recently launched its next generation DLT product: Super DLT. With AIT.wilshiresoft. ** These tape drive information not there. offering users the best cost-for-performance figures in this class. The company’s financial woes were only continuing to grow. During the production delays.UA . which offered higher performance at a moderate price while playing in a market with very little competition. Exabyte delivered a number of products from 1987-1992. and DLT 4000 drives were able to offer better capacity. backward compatibility issues make it difficult to remain competitive with other technologies of the time. The major challenges that created on-schedule delivery difficulties include the new servo positioning architecture. a new optical servo system. In the early years of DLT technology. Exabyte’s inability to deliver Mammoth until nearly three years after announcing the product opened the door for other technologies. allowing them to capture the market share previously owned by Exabyte. However. and gathered more than 80 percent of the mid-range market share. This new DLT product required significant engineering innovation. In today’s marketplace. and advanced media formulations. and much higher internal data rates than the previous DLT architecture. in transfer rate. now that it’s mature. EXB-8205. Additionally.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. and reliability than the first Exabyte products. which extends through AIT-6. Sony remains in the forefront of all mid-range tape technologies. new media formulations. EXB-8505. Exabyte’s Mammoth technology showcased numerous industry firsts and was the company’s first attempt at designing and manufacturing a deck mechanism and head assemblies without Sony’s expertise. However. a new head design. and Exabyte very recently made the decision to merge with Ecrix Corporation. companies that deliver solid products on schedule have gained market share and have become standards. the jump from DLT 7000 to 8000 yielded an incremental increase of only 5 GB in capacity and 1 MB/sec. holding the highest capacity and performance specifications for the last several years.2 TB ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** Surestore Ultrium 230 ** 100 GB 3580 Ultrium ** 100 GB Viper 200 Ultrium ** 100 GB * Highest native capacities of tape drive technologies as publicly stated by drive vendors.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 105 of 123 Roadmaps of Drive Capacity (Native) * Drive Type AIT DLT Mammoth HP LTO IBM LTO Seagate LTO 1998 AIT-1-XL 35 GB DLT 7000 35 GB Mammoth 20 GB - 1999 AIT-2 50 GB DLT 8000 40 GB Mammoth 20 GB - 2000 Mammoth 60 GB - 2001 AIT-3 100 GB Super DLT 220 110 GB ** 2003 AIT-4 200 GB Super DLT 320 160 GB ** 2005 AIT-5 400 GB Super DLT 640 320 GB ** ** ** ** 2006 - 2007 AIT-6 800 GB.

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delivering a product in a landscape with little competition allowed Quantum to gain more than 80 percent of the market between 1992 and 1996. Availability and engineering delays for DLT 7000 and follow-up DLT products have now opened the door for newer technologies.

6.7 Tape Technologies
The Major Tape technologies
DAT DLT LTO AIT

6.7.1 DAT
6.7.1.1 HP – DAT 72 Tape Drive
Overview
The HP StorageWorks DAT 72 tape drive is the fifth generation of HP's popular DDS tape drives, built on the success of four previous generations of DDS technology and providing unprecedented levels of capacity, reliability and cost of ownership. The DAT 72 delivers a capacity of 72 GB on a single data cartridge and a transfer rate of 21.6 GB/hr (assuming a 2:1 compression ratio). This drive reads and writes DAT 72, DDS-4, and DDS-3 formats, making it the perfect upgrade from earlier generations of DDS. The StorageWorks DAT 72 tape drive is the ideal choice for small and medium businesses, remote offices, and workgroups. The DAT 72 drive comes in four models -- internal, external, hot-plug, and offline hot-swap array module - plus it fits in HP's 3U rack-mount kit, making it compatible with virtually any server environment.

Fig. 6.7.1.1 – HP DAT Tape Drive

Features & Benefits
Industry-standard DDS technology: As the most popular server backup technology of all time, DDS offers a proven track record of dependability Up to 36 GB native capacity on a single tape (with DAT 72): Provides enough capacity for a small server or workstation Transfer rate of over 10 GB/hr native (with DAT 40 and DAT 72): Backs up a whole cartridge worth of data in less than four hours

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HP One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR): Restores your entire system at the touch of a button without the need for system disks or software CDs Small, half-height form-factor: Fits easily into most servers and workstations, including HP ProLiant and AlphaServers with hot-plug drive bays Wide choice of models: Comes in internal, external, hot-plug, offline-hot swap array module, and rackmount configurations, providing a suitable option for any server Automatic head cleaner: Minimizes the need for manual cleaning with a cleaning cartridge Lowest media price of any tape technology: Reduces the overall cost of ownership Broad compatibility with a wide range of servers, operating systems, and backup software: Suits almost every operating environment HP StorageWorks Library and Tape Tools utilities: Helps make installation, management, and troubleshooting a breeze Includes TapeWare XE: Provides a complete, easy-to-use backup solution that includes disaster recovery capabilities

Specification
System feature Capacity Media Description
Up to 36 GB native capacity on a single tape -- 72 GB at 2:1 compression DAT 72 media – 170m, 4mm tape, Metal Particle (MP++++) formulation (Blue cartridge shell for ease of identification in mixed media archives where older versions of DDS media may be in use) DDS4 - read and write compatibility DDS3 - read and write compatibility Recording method - 4 mm helical scan Recording Format - DAT 72, DDS-4, DDS-3 (ANSI/ISO/ECMA) Data Compression - Lempel-Ziv (DCLZ) Error Detection/Correction - Reed-Solomon Data Encoding Method - Partial Response Maximum Likelihood (PRML) 8 MB Sustained Transfer Rate (native) 3 MB/s Sustained Transfer Rate (with 2:1 data 6 MB/s compression) Burst Transfer Rate 6 MB/s (asynchronous) 40 MB/s (synchronous) Data Access Time 68 s Average Load Time Average Unload Time Rewind Time Rewind Tape Speed 15 s 15 s 120 s (end to end) 1.41 m/s

Media Format

Buffer size Performance

Reliability Interface

MTBF - 125,000 hours at 100% duty cycle Uncorrected Error Rate - 1x10-17 bits read SCSI Interface - Wide Ultra SCSI-3 (LVD/SE) SCSI Connector Internal: 68-pin wide HD LVD External: 68-pin wide LVDS, thumbscrew Array module: 80-pin SCA (SCSI and power) Termination No terminator is required for internal model (assumes use of terminated cable). External model requires termination with multimode terminator (included with product). Array module requires termination with multimode terminator (ordered separately - p/n C2364A).

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6.7.1.2 T9940 Tape Drives
The StorageTek® capacity-centric T9940 tape drive is ideal for applications that demand high throughput and capacity. The StorageTek® T9940B tape drive stores up to 200 gigabytes of native data on a single tape cartridge at rates as high as 30 megabytes per second.

Fig. 6.7.1.2 – StorageTek Tape Drive

Benefits
Reduced batch and backup windows
With its native data transfer rate of 30 megabytes per second, or up to 70 megabytes per second with compression, the T9940B drive helps you store more data in less time to meet your shrinking production batch and backup windows.

Increased productivity
The high capacity T9940 tape drives minimize cartridge mounts, require fewer cartridges to manage for disaster recovery and improve automation efficiency.

Lower storage costs
T9940 tape drives do the work of multiple typical mid-range drives. This enables you to minimize extra hardware, reduce SAN complexity and simplify management, to help reduce your costs.

Lower backup costs
The T9940B drive’s low dollar-per-gigabyte media helps you cut your total costs of backup. With data compression, it can store as much as 400-800 gigabytes on a single cartridge.

Standard Features
Tape compatibility
The T9940B drive provides backward read compatibility with 9940A cartridges. It can rewrite StorageTek 9940A tape cartridges with three times more data, for extended investment protection.

StorageTek VolSafe media support
The T9940B drive supports VolSafe® cartridges, a high-capacity write-once-read-many (WORM) storage solution. VolSafe is a non-erasable, non-rewritable tape media for archiving critical data.

Multi-platform connectivity

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2 DLT 6. Specification Tape load and thread to ready: 18 sec (formatted) Average file access time (first file): 41 sec Average access time: 59 sec Maximum/average rewind time: 90/45 sec Unload time: 18 sec Data transfer rate. ESCON for VSM.wilshiresoft. 2Gb FICON for FICON and FICON express channels Burst transfer rate: Channel rate (Fiber Channel): 200 MB/sec (maximum instantaneous) Interface (Fiber Channel): N & NL port. This highly reliable autoloader contains a single Tandberg DLT8000 tape drive and holds up to 10 DLTtape™IV data cartridges supporting random or sequential access.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 109 of 123 T9940 drives run on today’s popular operating environments. SAN-readiness A native two-gigabit fabric-aware Fiber Channel interface makes the T9940B drive ready for the demands of highspeed SAN environments and storage server networks.7. and two-gigabit Fiber Channel connectivity. This enables remote storage applications and increases your disaster recovery options. native (uncompressed): 30 MB/sec Data transfer rate (compressed): 70 MB/sec Capacity. Automated Storage Management – Made Easy The Tandberg DLT Autoloader has an easy-to-read LCD readout. SCSI and one-gigabit Fiber Channel connectivity. FC-PLDA (Hard and soft AL-PA capability).1 Tandberg DLT 8000 Autoloader 10 Cartridge version The Tandberg DLT Autoloader brings you the productivity and security of an automated tape solution. In addition. FICON for distance The FICON interface drives support distances up to 100 kilometers (versus nine kilometers for ESCON) without channel extensions or significant throughput reduction. media status. installation and configuration.com info@wilshiresoft. native (uncompressed): 200 GB Interface: 2 Gb Fiber Channel. Unattended Backup – High Speed. which provides information about the tape drive. The Tandberg DLT autoloader also supports an automatic drive cleaning feature which does not require operator intervention. www. 3490E. the optional barcode reader provides an inventory of stored data and automated media tracking so that access to stored data is fast and simple. FC-AL-2 FCP-2. robotics.UA . FC-TAPE Read/write compatibility interface: Proprietary format Emulation modes: Native. as well as the proven reliability and scalability of DLT technology. T9940A. Capacity and Reliability The Tandberg DLT8000 autoloader is one of the highest capacity (4U half-width) autoloaders available. 3590 6. The T9940A drive supports ESCON. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . you can be assured that your mission critical data is well protected. ESCON.7. ESCON.2. The T9940B supports two gigabit FICON. The removable cartridge magazine (7 cartridges in the magazine . Based on the widely accepted DLTtape™ technology renowned for its ultimate reliability.3 in fixed slots) provides easy handling and allows for exchanging weekly backups in one simple step.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.

user-friendly configuration and installation. Capacity and Reliability The Tandberg DLT8000 autoloader is one of the highest capacity (4U half-width) autoloaders available. Sun solution. Based on the widely accepted DLTtape™ technology renowned for its ultimate reliability. And because of Sun's stringent testing requirements.2.2GB/hr SCSI Interface: SCSI-2. which detects. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . the Tandberg DLT autoloader provides the industry’s easiest maintenance for the network administrator. in a rack or on top of a server Removable magazine for easy storage management Optional barcode reader for fast cartridge inventory and data retrieval Added security with TapeAlert™ Supported by all major software suppliers Data Capacity Native: 400GB Data Capacity Compressed (2:1): 800GB Transfer Rate Native: 6 MB/s / 360MB/min / 21. retries.all without interruption in service or performance degradation.2 SUN StorEdge L8500 Tape Library The Sun StorEdge L8500 Tape Library provides robust enterprise tape automation capabilities to support the backup/restore of your valuable data in a complex SAN environment.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. you can be assured that mission critical data is well protected. Fast/Wide LVD/SE Tape Capacity: 10-cartridge capacity High Speed. With simplistic and comprehensive diagnostics. 6. www. arrays and software.com info@wilshiresoft. and when combined with Sun servers.7. Sun's Fiber Channel tape drives incorporate FCP-2 error recovery.6GB/hr Transfer Rate Compressed (2:1): 12MB/s / 720MB/min / 43. it offers a complete. end-to-end. and recovers from errors on the interface to eliminate problems .wilshiresoft.UA . The L8500 is ideal for enterprise-wide data consolidation efforts. and can also help to reduce administrative overhead and lower the total cost of storage ownership. Special Functions Up to 800GB* storage capacity Up to 43GB*/hr transfer rate Available with Tandberg DLT8000 drive Fits easily on a desk. The Sun StorEdge L8500 Tape Library is an integral part of a policy-based data management strategy. This highly reliable autoloader contains a single Tandberg DLT8000 tape drive and holds up to 10 DLTtape™IV data cartridges supporting random or sequential access. Drive exchange and upgrade can be carried out in the field by the user in less than 30 minutes. you're assured of a quality product optimised for the Solaris environment.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 110 of 123 Integration and Administration – Made Easy The Tandberg DLT Autoloader fits easily on a desktop or server and the 4U size allows two units to be placed side by side in a standard 19" rack.

). which is transparent to user. Benefits Protects customer investment. No interruption in backup performance. Ease of service. 9940B and LTO 2. 2N power is optional. Near zero scheduled downtime.2 – StorEdge Tape Library Features Upgradable to support future drive types. ft. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . Remote monitoring via TCP/IP or optional local touch-screen panel. Specification Availability: Non-disruptive serviceability: Standard N+1 power for drives. Capacity and Performance: www. Small footprint. Conversion kit for some customer-owned drives. Sun FC drives support FCP-2 error recovery. Service/operator areas limited to front and back. Customers can select the appropriate drives for their application and migrate to new drive types without having to manage physical partitions .7.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Protects your current customer investment. robotics. supporting the highavailability demands of enterprise customers.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 111 of 123 Fig. Conserves valuable data center floor space. can accommodate growth without scheduled downtime.com info@wilshiresoft. Reduces the queuing effect found in libraries with single robots. Supports true mixed media and drives.so there's only one library to manage. high slot density (can exceed more than 50 slots/sq. allowing replacement while the library is operating. multiple robots can handle more requests in parallel.wilshiresoft.2.UA . Future ability to connect multiple libraries via redundant Pass-Through Ports (PTPs). 6. Multiple robots. including 9840B/C. and library electronics. Ease of management.

1 and laterSun StorEdge Utilisation Suite (SAM-FS) Software 4. V240. 6800.000. The MSL6000 Tape Libraries offer maximum flexibility with best-in-class offering for drive technology including the new HP LTO Ultrium 960 and SDLT 600 in addition to the Ultrium 460 tape drives. 1280Ultra 60 & 80Sun Enterprise 220R. simplicity without compromise.1 and later 6.2. native (uncompressed):Per drive: 9840C: 30 MB/sec9940B: 30 MB/secLTO-2: 30 MB/secPer 64 drives:9840C .25 sec per robotMean Time To Repair (MTTR): 30 minutes or lessMean Exchanges Between Failures (MEBF): 2. any cartridge can be placed in any cell. 420R.000 hr @ 100% duty cycleMCBF: 100. V250.500 customer-usable slots (maximum) Number of tape drives: Up to 64 drives of any combination Cartridge access port (CAP): Standard 39 cartridge slot CAP. V440. www.1 and laterSun StorEdge SFS 4.448 customer-usable slots (minimum) 6. freeing valuable IT resources for more strategic work. V1280.000 loads)Tape Path Motion (TCM): 216.5 yr @ 70% TCM duty cycle9840B FCPower On: 290. These technologies are available for both new library purchases as well as upgrades to currently installed MSL5000 and MSL6000 Tape Libraries. optional 39 additional slots (78 total) Hardware: Sun Blade 1000.com info@wilshiresoft.9 TB/hrAverage cell to drive time: 6. The MSL6000 Tape Libraries provide change without chaos. E20K.448 customer-usable slots (minimum) 6.6.000 hr @ 70% TCM duty cycleHead Life: 8.7. E6900Sun Fire 12K. experiencing uncertain data growth.6.000 tape motion hours Software: Operating System:Solaris 8 U4 Operating System or laterSolaris 9 Operating SystemSupported software:Sun Enterprise and Application:Sun StorEdge Enterprise Backup Software 7.000 hr @ 10 loads/day (100. 1500.000 cartridge load/unload cyclesHead Life: 60.UA .000 loads)Tape Path Motion (TCM): 196.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 112 of 123 Number of cartridge slots: 1. no required partitions Digital vision system: Unique digital vision camera system performs continuous calibration and reads bar codes Operator panel: Standard remote monitoring and control.wilshiresoft.0 and laterACSLS 7. and growth without limits to meet even the most demanding IT network requirements. E2900Sun Fire 4800.000 exchangesMean Time Between Failure (MTBF) . 4810. 450.6. 15K.3 HP MSL6000 Tape Libraries The portfolio of HP StorageWorks MSL6000 Tape Libraries provide centralized backup to a single automated device.000 hr @ 100% duty cycleTape Load: 240.000 hr @ 10 loads/day (100.drives9840C FCPower On: 290. 2500Sun Fire V210. 280R. Optional 39 additional slots (78 total) Capacity: Number of cartridge slots: 1.9 TB/hr9940B . touch-screen is optional Automatic clean: Dedicated cleaning cartridge slots for tape drive cleaning for multiple drive types by library or software command Automatic self discovery: Auto-discovery and auto-configuration for all drive. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . V480. 10000 Management: Media management: full mixed media.000 hr @ 100% duty cycleTape Load: 240. and Cartridge Access Ports Continuous automation calibration: No periodic maintenance or alignment required Performance: Throughput per hour. media types.500 customer-usable slots (maximum) Number of tape drives: Up to 64 drives of any combination Cartridge access port (CAP): Standard 39 cartridge slot CAP. x500. 2000. E4900. 440. V880.9 TB/hrLTO-2 . Ideal for medium to large IT networks with or without a storage area network (SAN).000 hr @ 70% TCM duty cycleHead Life: 8. E25KNetra 240.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. slots.4 and laterThird-Party:VERITAS NetBackup 5. 250.5 yr @ 70% TCM duty cycleMLTO-2 FCMTBF: 250.

Affordable: Buy only the storage you need now and add more later. but it can also be scaled with MSL5000 Tape Libraries using a pass-through mechanism for up to 16 drives and 240 slots. You can start with a direct-attach configuration. a simple installation of a Fiber Channel interface card makes the conversion a snap. operating systems.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 113 of 123 Fig. 30 cartridges 2. In addition.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. HP Library and Tape Tools. In addition.wilshiresoft. Not only will the MSL6000 Tape Library scale within the family. To move from a direct attach to network attached storage configuration.7.3 – HP Tape Library The MSL6000 Tape Libraries are easily managed through an intuitive GUI control panel and integrated remote web management. and SDLT 600.4 to 4. and backup software is fully tested through the HP Enterprise Business Solutions group for complete certification Benefits Flexible: Investment protection by providing instant interface and drive technology upgrades without hassle Manageable: Manage the library from any local or remote location and reduces administrative burden Scalable: Investment protection by providing seamless capacity enhancement 6.7. 6. The MSL6000 Tape Libraries provide growth without limits by offering maximum investment protection through scalability. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . and easily change to network storage environment with only an interface card upgrade. Upgrade to new technology with easy to install upgrade kits Manageable: User-friendly GUI control panel and web interface make library management easy from any remote or local location. high performance automated data storage Up to 4 drives. each library is available with HP world-class diagnostic tool. and with either a SCSI or Fiber Channel interface. Flexible: Available with a broad choice in tape technology. including: Ultrium 960. the MSL6000 Tape Libraries will scale to larger configurations by enabling a single library to grow and change with capacity and technology as needs require.com info@wilshiresoft.2.4 EXABYTE 430 Tape Library High capacity.UA . Features Scalable: Multi-unit stacking allows the library to grow with your storage requirements. Compact: 5U and I0U modules offer the highest storage density in their class. Reliable: Tape libraries provide consistent backup and automatically change tapes with robotics rating of 2 million Mean Swaps before Failure. Compatible: All MSL6000 libraries work with industry leading servers.5 TB capacity (compressed) www. Fully tested and certified in HP's Enterprise Business Solutions (EBS).2. Ultrium 460. the MSL6000 tape libraries can be up and running quickly in a wide range of fully supported configurations. at no additional charge. allowing simple management capabilities from any remote or on-site location. Evolutionary: Drives can be upgraded as technology progresses.

in 100-tape increments.com info@wilshiresoft.UA . Running at speeds up to 173GB/hr.7. the 430 configured with M2 tape drives delivers the advantages of a higher performance tape drive.5 to 173 GB/hr transfer rate Accommodates either VXA-2 or M2 tape drives Optimized for rack-mount installations Fig. You pay only for the capacity you use.wilshiresoft. These maximum capacity models have up to 15.2.5 – Tape Library by ADIC The Scalar 10K’s unique capacity-on-demand scalability lets you scale your storage capacity more easily and quickly than you can with any other library. 6.7. The 430 library with VXA-2 is designed to meet the of organizations limited by both budget and network bandwidth. 6. using a software key. 5x9 Next Business Day On-site Service 6.885 tape slots and allow you to combine LTO. For high-capacity or mixed-media needs. the Scalar 10K offers traditional library configurations. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . The system supports multiple protocols and heterogeneous www. and AIT technology in the same chassis. mid-range automated data storage solution designed for mid-size data centers running IBM and HP/Compaq servers. and high-availability architecture. If your data center system architecture is optimized for speed. the 430 with VXA-2 has adequate performance for many mid-range data center environments. The power of mid-range automation now comes with a choice. 30 slot 430 library can be configured to meet your unique system needs with either VXA-2 or M2 tape drives for up to 5TB of data storage.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 114 of 123 86. The Scalar 10K is the first library to offer integrated storage network support. Extended service options include: For the VXA-2 library: PN 1010915-000 for 430 VXA. with certified interoperability that means seamless operation in new or existing SANs. built-in storage network support.5 Scalar 10K by ADIC With its capacity-on-demand scalability. SDLT. Fig. 5x9 Next Business Day On-site Service For the M2 library: PN 1010918-000 for 430 M2. priced thousands less than the nearest competitor. the Scalar 10K brings the efficiencies of consolidation to your backup. The 4 drive.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. Don't pay for more than you need.4 – EXABYTE Tape Library Impressive! The 430 tape library is the most affordable.7.2. Capacity-on-demand systems ship with extra capacity that you can activate.2.

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fabrics at the same time. Integrated SAN management services, such as serverless backup and data-path conditioning, provide better backup in storage networks. The Scalar 10K’s high-availability architecture, which includes true 2N power and dual data paths, is designed to meet the reliability demands of data consolidation. Features to ensure maximum system uptime include autocalibration, self-configuration, and magazine-based loading of up to 7.9TB (native) at once. For more information on the Scalar 10K, please see the Scalar 10K microsite.

Features and Benefits
Capacity-on-demand scalability: lets you instantly activate additional storage while paying only for the storage you actually use Enterprise size: high drive count for maximum performance and flexible configurations Proven connectivity: storage network interoperability means seamless integration into new or existing SANs Intelligent SAN support: integrated storage networking support—including serverless backup, data path conditioning, and built-in firewall—for easier installation and operation, higher performance and reliability High availability: features include true 2N power, dual SCSI library control channels, hot-swap drives Reliability: diagnostic options include real-time health checks, email and pager alerts, and phone-home event reporting Rapid configuration: five slots-per-second inventory speed; auto-discovery and auto-calibration of all components Investment protection: supports LTO, SDLT, and AIT in single- or multi-technology installations for maximum flexibility and performance Virtual libraries: provides up to 16 “virtual library” partition options for multiple applications support Responsive service: one-year on-site service provided by ADIC technical Assistance Center (ATAC) with 24-hour, worldwide service and support

6.7.3 LTO (Linear Tape Open)
6.7.3.1 HP Ultrium960 Tape Drive
The HP StorageWorks Ultrium 960 Tape Drive represents HP's third-generation of LTO tape drive technology. Positioned as the highest capacity drive in the StorageWorks family, the Ultrium 960 features an 800 GB compressed (2:1) storage capacity using new LTO 3 media. By doubling the capacity of current Ultrium drives, HP customers now require fewer data cartridges to meet their storage needs, significantly reducing their IT costs and increasing their ROI. The Ultrium 960 also features a compressed (2:1) data transfer rate of 160 MB/s. Using a new 16-channel recording head, an Ultra320 SCSI interface, and increases in media tracks and bit density, the HP Ultrium 960 sets a new performance benchmark as the world's fastest tape drive. For customers that continually experience shrinking backup windows, the Ultrium 960 is the ideal direct-attach backup storage solution for enterprise and mid-range server, as well as entry-level hard drive arrays.

Fig. 6.7.3.1 – HP LTO Tape Drive

The Ultrium 960 supports the industry's most comprehensive list of compatible hardware and software platforms. Each drive option includes a single-server version of HP Data Protector (license) and Yosemite TapeWare (CD) backup software, as well as support for HP StorageWorks One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR) and HP StorageWorks Library and Tape Tools (L&TT). The Ultrium 960 Tape Drive is fully read and write compatible with all second-generation Ultrium media, and adds a further degree of investment protection with the ability to read all

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first-generation Ultrium media as well. The Ultrium 960 also represents HP's first tape drive solution to deliver support for Write-Once, Read-Many (WORM) media. This feature allows customers to easily integrate a costeffective solution to secure, manage, and archive compliant data records to meet stringent industry regulations. HP customers can now manage all of their backup and archiving data protection needs with just one drive.

Features
800 GB Capacity: The Ultrium 960 tape drive is a high capacity drive that stores 800 GB on a single cartridge with 2:1 compression. 160 MB/s Performance: The world's fastest tape drive with sustainable data transfer rates to 160 MB/s at 2:1 compression. Data Rate Matching (DRM): Allows the tape drive to dynamically and continuously adjust the speed of the drive, from 27 MB/s to 80 MB/s, matching the speed of the host or network. LTO Open Standard: Drive technology based on an open standard that provides for media compatibility across all brands of LTO Ultrium products. Server Compatibility: Qualified on HP ProLiant, Integrity, 9000, NonStop, and AlphaServers platforms, as well as many servers from other leading vendors such as Dell, IBM, and Sun. Software Compatibility: Extensive list of supported backup and archiving software applications from HP, CA, VERITAS, Yosemite, Legato, Tivoli, and many more. Support for WORM Media: Able to read and write to new Write-Once Read-Many (WORM) HP Ultrium Data Cartridges Management and Diagnostics Software Included: HP StorageWorks Library and Tape Tools software provides a single application for managing and troubleshooting your tape drive, media and configuration. Backup Software Included: Includes a single-server version of Yosemite TapeWare XE (CD) and HP OpenView Data Protector (license) One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR) Supported: Firmware-based disaster recovery feature that can restore an entire system using a single Ultrium 960 tape drive and data cartridge

Benefits
High capacity drive allows customer to backup more data with fewer data cartridges: High capacity drive reduces the costs associated with data protection by requiring fewer data cartridges to complete backups. Ultra fast performance can backup more data in less time: High performance drive allows customers to scale their backup capacities without having to increase their backup windows. Data Rate Matching optimizes performance while reducing tape and media wear: Data Rate Matching optimizes the performance of the tape drive by matching the host server or network's data transfer rate, putting less stress on the tape drive and media. LTO open standard provides customers with more choices: The LTO open standard ensures compatibility across all brands of Ultrium tape drives, giving customers a greater choice of Ultrium solutions without losing investment protection. Comprehensive hardware and software qualification increase customers agility to adapt to new environments as needed: Support for heterogeneous hardware and software platforms provides customers with a single tape drive solution for all environments. Investment protection through backward write and read compatibility: Backward read compatibility ensures that files from generation one and two Ultrium data cartridges can be recovered using the HP Ultrium 960 tape drive. Backward write compatibility allows the customer to create backups using second-generation Ultrium media with their HP Ultrium 960 tape drive, maximizing their ROI for media that was previously purchased. Easily integrate a secure method for archiving compliant records using Ultrium WORM media: With a single HP Ultrium 960 tape drive and HP's comprehensive support for hardware and software platforms, customers can easily integrate a WORM-based archiving solution into their current data protection strategy using LTO Ultrium solutions. Complete set of management and diagnostics tools included with each tape drive option and available via free download from HP.com: Tape drive management, performance optimization, and troubleshooting is made simple using the HP StorageWorks Library and Tape Tools application that is included with HP Ultrium 960 tape drive.
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Complete hardware and software solution in the box with each HP Ultrium 960 tape drive: HP Ultrium 960 tape drives ships with a choice of single-server backup software applications (HP OpenView Data Protector and Yosemite TapeWare), tape drive media, and SCSI cables, providing the customer with a complete data protection solution in the box. Simple and fast disaster recovery with One-Button Disaster Recovery (OBDR) included in the drive firmware: HP Ultrium 960 tape drives include a HP-exclusive disaster recovery feature, One-Button Disaster Recovery, that allows the customer to simply and quickly recover a server's operating system, software applications, and data using a single HP Ultrium data cartridge.

6.7.3.2 IBM 3584 Tape Library
The IBM TotalStorage 3584 Tape Library leverages the drive technology the IBM TotalStorage 3588 Ultrium Tape Drive Model F3A, as well as the IBM TotalStorage 3592 Tape Drive Model J1A, within the same library. The 3584 has been designed to meet the needs of customers seeking solutions for data archiving, backup, disaster recovery, and other storage needs. The 3584 tape library is designed to offer high performance, availability, reliability, mixed media, and on demand storage capacity.

Fig. 6.7.3.2 – IBM Tape Library

Tape Library offers the IBM TotalStorage 3592 Tape Drive and the new IBM TotalStorage 3588 Ultrium Tape Drive Model F3A, utilizing Linear Tape-Open (LTO) Ultrium 3 Tape Drive technology designed to provide high capacity, throughput, and fast access performance Variety of drive technology offerings help increase storage density while protecting your technology investment in supporting LTO Ultrium 1, LTO Ultrium 2, LTO Ultrium 3 and IBM 3592 tape drives and media within the same library Introducing a second library accessor, the 3584 High Availability Frame Model HA1, designed to help increase library availability and reliability Built-in storage management functions designed to help maximize availability and allow for dynamic management of both cartridges and drives Designed to provide multi-petabyte capacity, high performance and reliability in an automated tape library that is scalable to 192 tape drives and over 6200 cartridges for midrange to enterprise open systems environments Patented Multi-Path Architecture designed to help increase configuration flexibility with logical library partitioning while enabling system redundancy for high availability

6.7.3.3 Comparison IBM LTO Ultrium versus Super DLT Tape Technology
Introduction
This white paper is a comparison of Super DLTtapeTM technology with the Ultrium technology developed by the Linear Tape Open (“LTO”) technology providers, Seagate, HP and IBM. Its focus is on the merits of the two technologies from a customer point of view, and as such it compares the features and benefits of the SDLT 220

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have a native capacity of 100GB and are specified with transfer rates of 15 MB/sec or 16 MB/sec. taking into account the key factors a customer considers when choosing a data protection solution. including: Backup and Restore Nearline and HSM Digital Asset Management Archiving Digital Broadcasting Data Acquisition The AML/2 features a multi-host architecture that lets the library share data across all of your network applications and architectures. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .Enterprise Backup Storage Page 118 of 123 drive with the three different implementations of Ultrium technology. They are sold by HP and IBM’s captive server and automation divisions. DLTtape systems are recognized as the de facto industry standard for mid-range backup. IDC’s latest reported market share numbers indicate that DLTtape had a market share of 73% in the mid-range tape segment1. including Storage Area Networks.000 pieces of media. scaling to support hundreds of drives. Ultrium drives are not compatible with any previous tape technology. half-inch magnetic tape drive with a native capacity of 110GB a native transfer rate of 11 MB/sec. For true mission-critical applications.UA . The AML/2's barrier-free scalability and mixed-media support make it the preferred choice for a wide range of data management tasks.7 million drives and over 70 million cartridges shipped to customers. It draws on secondary data from respected industry analysts such as IDC and Dataquest. Open Standards DLTtape drives and media have served the world’s mid-range backup and archiving needs for much of the last ten years.7. and DLT 8000 tape drives. HP and IBM. independent third party test data. It is manufactured by Quantum Corporation and by Tandberg Data. It is backward read compatible with all DLTtape IV media written on DLT 4000. They also use half-inch magnetic media. Technology Overview Super DLTtape is the latest generation of the award-winning DLTtapeTM technology. as well as by a subset of other vendors. more than 76. as well as extensive primary research conducted with IT managers in departmental and enterprise IT environments. The library grows simply by adding new. It also supports partitioning of the library's storage into userdefined virtual libraries. barrier-free modules. Ultrium tape drives are the single reel implementation of LTO technology. and as much as 5. The SDLT 220 drive is a single reel.wilshiresoft. The AML/2 supports more than a dozen media types. 6. DLT 7000. and is sold and marketed by most leading vendors of servers and automated backup systems. With an installed base of over 1.4 AML/2 LTO by ADIC The AML/2 is the industry's premier solution for large data system storage.000TB of data (native). www.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.3. the AML/2 offers the only large-scale library in which every piece of media can be accessed by two fully redundant robotics systems to ensure maximum continuous data availability. It offers the industry's largest capacity. a new platform developed by Seagate.com info@wilshiresoft. The chart below summarizes the installed bases of various competing mid-range tape technologies.

7. Supported by one of the industry's premier global networks of integration. and data-path conditioning utilities that increase backup performance and reliability.3.3. scalable tape library with integrated storage networking support. Unlike other libraries. 6. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 . and field support experts The AML/2 holds up to 5.3.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 119 of 123 Fig. enhance security and availability.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. a built-in SAN firewall.7. These tools include serverless backup. 6. and offers the industry's only fully redundant robotics option. Fig.com info@wilshiresoft.7. its unique barrier-free expansion eliminates the use of pass-through ports—maintaining performance and reliability as the system scales. scales without passthrough ports.UA . and make data management more efficient.184TB and 400 drives. 6. single-view connectivity. the Scalar 1000 features management services that ease installation and diagnostics. with more than 6.the only one with fully redundant robotics for continuous data availability Industry-leading density.5 Tape Library by ADIC To provide better backup in storage networks.wilshiresoft. www. logistics.5 Scalar 1000 AIT by ADIC The Scalar 1000 is a high-performance. handles a mixture of drive and media types. the library reduces total cost of ownership (TCO) in high-growth environments.4 – Data Storage System by ADIC Features and Benefits Industry's largest capacity data storage library . scaling from 118 tapes to more than a thousand. A budget-friendly choice.500GB per square foot Protects your investment by supporting simultaneous use of different media and drive types and providing an easy migration path to new technologies Scales with your data growth using unique barrier-free expansion to eliminate all pass-through ports Multi-host architecture makes it easy to share the library between different applications and OS Provides for automated data and media management and allows easy remote monitoring and operation. The Scalar 1000 grows easily and economically.

It also offers up to 16 “virtual library” partitions. as needed Barrier-free growth: robotics extend through all modules for continuous high-speed service without passthrough ports Proven connectivity: storage network interoperability means seamless integration into new or existing SANs Intelligent SAN support: integrated storage networking support—including serverless backup. You can also partition the library into user-defined volumes. SDLT/DLT. and field support experts www. Features and Benefits Cost-effective scalability: pay as you grow by adding drives. older and newer technologies can easily co-exist. logistics.000. data path conditioning.7. SDLT/DLT. the AML/J is the right solution for enterprise storage because the system makes it easy to share the library between different applications and operating systems.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 120 of 123 The Scalar 1000 supports LTO. The AML/J is the right solution for data growth because it offers true scalability within a single library. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .or multi-technology installations for maximum flexibility and performance Virtual libraries: provides up to 16 “virtual library” partition options for multiple applications support Responsive service: one-year on-site service provided by ADIC technical Assistance Center (ATAC) with 24-hour. Barrier-free expansion modules let you scale the system easily and economically–from as few as two drives and 400 cartridges to as many as 226 drives and 7. It’s the right solution for changing technology because mixing and changing media is easy.500 cartridges. and AIT in single. Finally. cartridges.wilshiresoft. and built-in firewall—for easier installation and operation.000-cartridge exchange rating. Supporting more than a dozen technologies.com info@wilshiresoft. Its multi-host architecture lets the AML/J become a shared network resource.6 AML/J by ADIC The AML/J automated storage library offers a unique combination of solutions for large-system data storage needs. worldwide service and support 6. including simultaneous use of different media Protects your organization's IT investment by offering an easy migration path to new technologies Offers an integrated multi-host architecture that makes it easy to share the library between different applications and operating systems Provides for automated data and media management and allows easy remote monitoring and operation Supported by one of the industry's premier global networks of integration.or mixed media configurations. and expansion modules. higher performance and reliability Reliability: diagnostic options include real-time health checks.3. the AML/J is designed for easy field integration of new drive technologies.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev. and AIT technologies in single. And since it supports concurrent operation of different technologies in the same library.UA . email and pager alerts. Remote operation: browser-based management lets you perform all library operations and diagnostics remotely Investment protection: supports LTO. and phone-home event reporting High performance: Supports up to 48 drives with a 1. Features and Benefits Grows economically with data using a unique barrier-free expansion system that eliminates pass-through ports Provides the industry's widest choice of storage technologies.

UA . 6.7.wilshiresoft.com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.com info@wilshiresoft.3.6 – ADIC Storage Library www.Enterprise Backup Storage Page 121 of 123 Fig. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .

.............................................................wilshiresoft.........................................................................4.....................................2..... Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 ... 10 1............................................................................... 4 1..............................................11..................... SCSI Controllers .............................................................................................................2....... 20 2............................com info@wilshiresoft........ Introduction. 2 1........... What is Filer?................................. Advantages of NAS:............ 1 1................... Configurations & Pictures ...................1 Introduction to NAS ........................1........... 9 1... Connectivity... SCSI Termination.....................................5.................................... 19 2...................................................................................................................2.......... 2 1................................................................................... 27 2................ Introduction........2........................... File Storm NAS: .....3........................... 15 2...5................. Hardware......................3...................................................1........................................ AS: Think Network Users ...................................... 14 2.. Strong standards for Network Attached Storage (NAS). 27 2................................................................2..................1 NetApp Filers Product Comparison...................1.......................................................8.........1 NetApp NAS Solution .. 12 1......5.........................................2.... Advantages of DAS....................... 20 2...................................................5..................................................................5.... 19 2.............. 18 2...................................1............. NAS by AUSPEX ...........13 Benefits of Low end and workgroup NAS storage.................................................................................16................................. Comparing FC DAS Storage Solutions........ 18 2..............16.7....................................... Ideal Situations for DAS ..............................................5.......... 1 1...................................................16.......5..4......................................... NAS Applications and Benefits .... 9 1..... NAS by SUN .......................... SCSI Devices that do no work together.........................................3....1......................................................3 Advantages of SATA over PATA ....... 21 2..................................................................................................................................................................................................Ended vs........... 4 1......................................................................................... Streamlined Architecture ...................16...........................15... NAS Plus Tape Based Data Protection ................................................................. 8 1.......................................................5............................................... Adaptec Direct Attached Storage – SANbloc 2GB JBOD..........................................................1.............................5................................................ 11 1.......5...............................2.. 18 2......................................................................................................................7.. 3 1............... 10 1.............................................................. Network Attached Storage versus Storage Area Network ............................................5..........2...2.................. 13 2................1 PATA.........10...................4.....6.................................. 17 2...........6.. 25 2.................................... Error! Bookmark not defined... 1 1............... 5 1............................8...............3... 14 2.. 4 1...................... 2 1............................... Advantages of SCSI............3...........14.........................com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev.............................5.............. SCSI....................5................................Index Page i INDEX 1...........6....................4..................Enterprise Storage Solution .....................1..................................................................... SATA ....................................... Drawback ........... Fiber Channel ......................................2..............................................................................................................16...... 16 2............ Comparison of SCSI Technologies ......................................................... 20 2.....................5............12......................................1.................... Ns: Think Back-End/Computer Room Storage Needs.5..................................................2...............................5................................................................................................ 11 1................... 17 2...................4...........................................2 SATA...................5.........1....................................2............................................ NAS Characteristics................3..................... 11 1....................................................... Sun StorEdge 5310 NAS Appliance .2............................5.................................................................................16.... Adaptec Ultra320 SCSI ...................................16........................................................ 26 2......... EMC NS Series/Gateway NAS Solution .................................. 19 2... NAS by EMC............9...................................16.................. 8 1.............5........................................................3.........................................................................16 NAS Solutions ..................................................... Advantages of Fiber Channel ........................................... 1..........5.... Business Benefits of NAS Gateways........ 23 2.............. 11 1............. 20 2..................................... 15 2..................5...............5............... Single .....................2.......................................................................... Direct Attached Storage (DAS) Model........................................... Differential................... PATA vs................ 27 www.....................................3.5..................3................................................... Introduction to DAS.7...................................................................................................................................... 4 1............. Sun StorEdge N8400 and N8600 filers..... Enhanced IDE....1.............................5................

... 55 3..... 55 3..............................................Index Page ii 2................................................. Introduction of Fiber Channel........... Fiber Channel Topologies.................... Point-to-Point................................................................................... a Hub? ...................2.............17.....3.............. 50 3..........................................................................18..........................................................1.com info@wilshiresoft........... 55 3.............18........... Benefits of StorNext Storage Manager ....... 39 3.2..2........................................................... ADIC / Network Appliance Solution Overview.........................................4........................................... Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop (FC-AL)................... 49 3......17.......................... Features of a SAN ...............5..........................Enterprise Storage Solution ...........2........................ VERITAS SAN 2000: The Next Generation ...............................2....................................4......... 38 3............................ SAN by VERITAS................................................................. 40 3...............2................................................................. 46 3............17..............15.....17.1........................... 39 3...8................................ Tivoli Storage Manager .............................. 39 3.............................. How do I manage a SAN? ....................................2.............. Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 ....................................... 46 3............ 55 3....................... Difference between SAN and NAS ....... 52 3.......................................................................................... 33 3...................3............................................................18................................................................. 37 3........................ TruMap ....... Features of StorNext Storage Manager ..............................................................2 SAN Management Software Solutions........................................................................... TruTechnology.......................................................................................16..............................................2........ 37 3............ 55 3..............2..........3.. 38 3................................wilshiresoft........................................ 40 3....................................................................................................................................................3....................................... 44 3.................5....9.............................................2....................... What is a SAN Manager?................ 39 3.....4..9. 53 3....................17.....................................17............................................... 31 2......................... Benefits of SUN StorEdge ................................................... 29 2... Tivoli SANergy ............ Example for Increasing Availability Using Clustering....................................................................... How do SCSI tape drives connect to a Fiber Channel SAN? ..................17......................................3.................8......................................................1......................8......................................1................... Backup Architecture Comparison................17......................... StorNext Storage Manager ..............3................................................... 29 2............................ 38 3........1..................................12........2............................9.....14.........10...............3......................... 56 www......... When should I use a Switch vs............. Benefits for ADIC-Network Appliance NAS backup solution to an enterprise:...................... 44 3.................................. 45 3.....13...... SAN Solutions ............................1.................................................17..................................1..............18.........1................ TruFiber......... ADIC SAN Solutions........ 55 3..................................................................................17.....17..........................................1...1...................18............................ 43 3....9.................................... SAN-speed sharing for Application Files ...................................... 30 2.........3....................................................... Evolution of SANs ................................................................................7..... 38 3.............................16................4.................1............. 37 3.............. 30 2.......9.......................6...................................................................... SAN approach for connecting storage to your servers/network? .................... Features of SUN StorEdge ........2.............................................. 34 3...... 44 3...........6.........com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev........................................2.... Fiber Channel ........ 42 3.. Difference between SAN and LAN........................................17.................................. 35 3.................................. 52 3..............2.......................................................................................................................... 29 2.18......................................................... 37 3......................................................1.................................... 37 3. Today’s SAN Topologies................................................................................ SANs : High Availability for Block-Level Data Transfer.....................................18... TruCache............................................................................................... Switched Fabric ...............16..........7............................... Comparison of SAN with Available Data Protection Technologies..... 31 Introduction of SAN.....17......... TruMask ......8....................................... 47 3....................................... VERITAS SAN Solutions .......................................... 47 3.................................................................................17............... 34 3........8........... Advantages of Fiber Channel... Advantages of SAN over DAS ......17...... SAN Hardware Solutions .......................................................8..............................................11........................................ 54 3. Server-Free Backup and Restore .... Benefits of Using a SAN Behind a NAS Storage Network ..........................3..16.........3......16....................18........ 40 3............................... TruSwap .............1.................................................................................2..................................5....... Veritas SAN Applications...................17............ SAN by SUN............................................................. 56 3............. 47 3.....................................9.............................. NAS by ADIC ............16...............2.......4.........17.................................................... Advantages of Storage Area Networks (SANs) ..

19.................3................. 82 4........................... iSCSI describes:..................................19........19. Installing the Adapter card ..........13...........................4...........................................................................5.................. HBAs .............................................................................................14.................................1 Introduction of iSCSI ...........................................19............................. Pain-Free Initiation ... 60 3............... 70 3................................18...................................................19................2..........................................................................................18..........................14...... FCIP IETF IPS Working Group Draft Standard specifies: ..... Scalable Fiber Channel Devices .................................... How iSCSI Works....................................................Enterprise Storage Solution ............... Brocade SilkWorm 2800 Switch ...........................................1....................................... 75 3........... Terms and abbreviations: ............ Conclusion ...... 80 4......................7......................................................................................................19. Adaptec iSCSI....... Hardware Installation.............................15................................ 74 3....................... 64 3............. Adaptec 7211F (Fiber Optic).. Fiber Channel System ... Installation in Solaris 9................................................................... Conclusion ......................... iSCSI under a microscope ........ 79 3..................1.................................................................................................6....... How to Build an iSCSI SAN ..... Security...................................19.........12............................11...................12.....com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev...................19...................14................................. LAN Free Backup Solution Benefits ................................................................... ATTO Fiber-Bridge 2200 R/D....................19....................18......................................................................................................... 72 3................................................................. 83 www.................................. 65 3...................19...........3.................... 71 3..................................................................................com info@wilshiresoft.. 74 3..................................................... Error Handling.........................................................19................ Technology Comparisons ..............16.......................... 81 4..................... 77 3....................................2.19.....................................19.......................2...............................1 (LAN Free Backup)........................................1.... 58 3............... Features of Fiber Channel .............................. 57 3.......... Others (iFCP.................................... Storage Systems..17............. Software Installation...3...5.............2..............................................................................Index Page iii 3...................................................19.......... 57 3............................... 82 4......18...18.................... 62 3.....................................9.......10...18........................19.........1. Suggested Deployment Strategy. Hardware Details ................3......................................................................11......8............. 74 3...... 73 3....................1................................13..............................1................... Advantages of iSCSI ................ 67 3........1........................13.........................18........................................12........................12....................14............... Advantages of iSCSI on SAN:.18............1.... JNI FCE 6410N Fiber Channel HBA..................................................... 76 3................... Stage .................. Why Fiber Channel?.......5............................................. 70 3.......................19.............................................. What is an Interconnect? . 73 3.................. Session Management..................... 60 3.................................... 83 4.. Fiber Channel over IP........1.............................................................. 67 3.................................19................................................... P.9..........................................................................2............. 72 3...........................................18.......................................S....................................................................18.....................10....................................................2.................14.................. FCIP) ..............................................14........1.................................................... SAN Setup by WILSHIRE....19....13..........................................3................ 77 3...18......................19........ 77 3.3...2.............................................................................................19..................................................................19...... iSCSI.............................................6............................................ Distributed Backup ............1....11................ 80 4......1...............18........ 74 3.............11....2.............................14...2.......................................... 79 3............................................................................19.................................19............................11................. iFCP ..19.............2 (Server-Less Backup) ........................... LAN Free Backup using Fiber Channel...............14...............7......................... 64 3...................................................................................... Setup ........ 64 3........................................ 64 3.............19........................... 69 3..... 74 3........ 61 3.19............................................ SAN Components........................... 80 4.................4.......................... 73 3............................................... Stage ............... ..........................18....................................................................................................... 75 3................................. Applications that can take advantage of these iSCSI benefits include:............................................................... 79 4...... 57 3............................18................. 68 3........ Address and Naming Conventions ..............wilshiresoft.................................... 59 3....19.........12......................................... 56 3............ 68 3..................18................. Fiber Channel Strategy for Tape Backup Systems..................................................................18................................ Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 ................................................8.................1..................... 67 3........ SAN Backup ..................18................................................. Centralized Backup ......................................... 80 4...........

.............................................................................. 98 6. 94 5......................................... 95 6.........................................................................................2 Helical Scan....................3....................3........................2.................... 100 6.....................................................................9 Data Transfer Rate...............0........................ 88 5......4 Transport Layer............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 92 5.................................................9 Clustering and Increased Performance ................................................. Unified I/O Fabric............................................................................................................................................................. 97 6....................................... 97 6............................... 91 5.............................................2.............................................1............................................... 98 6.............................................................................................1 Recording Methods...5........................................................... Introduction of InfiniBand ................4 Media Types...........3 Data Integrity .................................................................................... 99 6.......................................... 95 6..................................7 Independent Scaling of Processing and Shared I/O........................................................................2 Link Layer ..........................3 InfiniBand Layers ............................ 97 6...... 92 5..............................................................................8 Data Capacity ...................................................... 98 6........................5.............................4 Tape Tension and Speed Control ........................................2..............................................................5.. 83 5.............................................. Introduction of Enterprise Backup Storage............... 89 5...................................................................... 85 5....................................................................................................... 93 5................................................................ 88 5...............................................................................................................................3........4...........................7....................................................2 InfiniBand Architecture ........7 InterConnect of Choice For HPC and Data Center ........................4.................................................................7.......3............................................................. 91 5......................................3..................................................................6 Data Streaming and Start/Stop Motion ............................ 97 6......................6 InfiniBand Support for the Virtual Interface Architecture (VIA) .. 90 5.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Industry-Wide Effort............ 93 5....................................................7... Installation in NT4...1.................................... 88 5..............2.........................................5 Tape Speed and Stress..............1 Tape Loading and Cartridge Handling....................................................................6 InfiniBand: Adrenaline for Data Centers .5 Trend to Serial I/O...........7.....3 Helical-Scan Drive Mechanisms.........................................7........................................................................................2.........7..............................................1 InfiniBand Advantages .................. 85 5....................................................................................................... 102 6.. Reducing Size ................................................1 InfiniBand Feature Set............................................................................................................................................................................ 93 5.......................8....... 90 5..................................... 92 5......................... 96 6...7........ 94 5............................... 93 5.....wilshiresoft..................Index Page iv 4. 95 6................. 94 5......1 Linear Serpentine Recording .............................................. 84 5...............2 Linear Drive Mechanisms ......................... 89 5............................................................7....3......4 Subnet Manager ........3 Router ..........................3............................................................................................................................................................................................7...............2................................................................. 90 5...............3.............7........................7..1 Channel Adapters ........................... Physical Layer...........3 Reliability......... 100 6.......................................................................................................... 86 5...........................2......... 88 5.....................................................................................................................................................................2........2 A Single..............................................1 Media Reliability........... 100 6............................................................................................... 101 6................................................................................................. 84 5...................................................................................2 Annual Failure Rate (AFR) ........4 InfiniBand Technical Overview ..........................................8 Raising Server Density........................................................ 98 6................ 92 5............. 101 6.........................1 Mean Time between Failure (MTBF)....................2...7 Media Load Time and File Access Time... 87 5........................................................................................................................7...................11 End User Benefit ....................1.........................5.................5 InfiniBand Elements ................................... Relationship between InfiniBand and Fiber Channel or Gigabit Ethernet ...............4 Network Volume Expands ............................................Enterprise Storage Solution .. 102 www............................................................com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev......................................................com info@wilshiresoft..10 Enhanced Reliability.......................1 Beyond Servers .......... Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 ................2....... 89 5.................................. 94 6...........3 Network Layer...2 Switch....3 Identifying the Need ...........2 Tape Drive Performance .

.................................5 Scalar 1000 AIT by ADIC .............7..7..................................... 106 6...............7....................................7.................7............................................................................................................... 119 6..2...................................2 T9940 Tape Drives ............................................................................7.. 113 6..... 108 6..........7.2..... 115 6................................. 102 6..7..................... Dt: 15-Oct-08 Version: 3 .....Index Page v 6................................................................................1 HP Ultrium960 Tape Drive..........................................7.............................................................................................................................................................3..................................3 LTO (Linear Tape Open) .............................5 Drive Cleaning .............................................. 103 6...3....................2..... 120 www.............1...com Wilshire Software Technologies Ph: 2761-2214 / 6677-2214 / 6452-6173 Rev....1 DAT..................... 109 6............................3......2..................3............................................4 AML/2 LTO by ADIC ................3.....................3............. 115 6............... 103 6........................................................................................................................................... 118 6.............................................................................7................................ 114 6.........................6 Technology Roadmaps .....................................7...............4 EXABYTE 430 Tape Library ............................2 SUN StorEdge L8500 Tape Library.............................................com info@wilshiresoft.........7..2.............................. 112 6.............. 109 6.....................2 DLT ... 117 6................................................................. 106 6................. 117 6.5 Scalar 10K by ADIC .....................................Enterprise Storage Solution .....4.....6 AML/J by ADIC .......................................................................3 Comparison IBM LTO Ultrium versus Super DLT Tape Technology .................................2 IBM 3584 Tape Library........................1..........................................................1 Tandberg DLT 8000 Autoloader............................... 110 6...............1 HP – DAT 72 Tape Drive............................................7.....................................................................................2 Media and Backward Compatibility ...3 HP MSL6000 Tape Libraries ................................. 106 6..............wilshiresoft.......7 Tape Technologies .7.................7.................................7...........................................................