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Energy Analysis of Control

Volumes
Chapter 5
Conservation of Mass, Flow Work and Energy of a
Flowing Fluid, Energy Analysis of Steady-Flow Systems,
Examples (Nozzles, Turbines, Compressors, Throttling
Valves, Mixing Chambers, Heat Exchangers), Unsteady-
Flow Systems
Balance Equations
Most equipments in chemical, petroleum and related industries are designed to
operate fluids that run continuously through them. Therefore, it is important
to understand the fluid flow (mechanics and characteristics). This is done
based on the law of mass conservation, Newtons 2
nd
law and first and second
law of thermodynamics
Objectives
1. Develop the general balance equation
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-2
2. Develop the conservation of mass principle
3. Apply first law of thermodynamics to control volumes
4. Identify energy carried by flowing streams crossing the control surface
5. Solve energy balance problems for common steady-flow systems
6. Apply the energy balance to general unsteady-flow processes
Measure of flow
Mass flow rate
.
m
(kg/h)
Molar flow rate
.
n
(kmol/h)
Velocity
V (m/s)
These measures are interrelated, i.e.
.
.
) ( n MW m =
&
Remember A
c
is the
area of flow
c
VA V =
.
Amount of material flowing through a cross section per unit time
Volumetric flow rate
) / (m
3
.
s V
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-3
Mass flow rate:

c
VA m =
.
Molar flow rate:
) /(
.
MW VA n
c
=

=
A
c n
c
avg
dA V
A
V
1
Average velocity:
Mass Balance for Open Systems
Control volume: Region of space identified for analysis of open system (C.V.).
Control surface: a surface which separate control volume from its surrounding.
Consider the C.V. shown in the drawing,
where fluid with the C.V. is the
thermodynamic system for which mass and
energy balances are written
What is the relationship between the entering
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-4
What is the relationship between the entering
and leaving mass as well as the rate of change
of mass within the C.V.?
{Net rate of mass flow into C.V.} = {Rate of mass change within the C.V.}
dt
dm
m m m
CV
= +
3
.
2
.
1
.
-
or
0
in
.
out
.
= +

i i
CV
m m
dt
dm
2
.
1
.
m m =
Since,
= Mass flow rate
.
m
= VA
Continuity equation
Steady state flow process: condition within the control volume do not change with
time
C.V. contains constant mass of fluid
For single entrance and single exit system:
or
= constant
0 ) ( ) (
in out
= +

i i
CV
VA VA
dt
dm

0 ) ( ) (
in out
=

i i
VA VA
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-5
2 2 2 1 1 1
A V A V =
or

VA A V A V
m = = =
2
2 2
1
1 1
.
or
Read Examples 5-1
For single entrance and single exit involving incompressible fluid (
1
=
2
):
VA A V A V m = = =
2 2 1 1
.
Example: A 1.2 high, 0.9 m diameter cylindrical water tank
whose top is open to the atmosphere is initially filled with
water. Now the discharge plug near the bottom of the tank is
pulled out, and a water jet whose diameter is 1.3 cm streams
out, as shown. The average velocity of the jet is approximated
as V = (2gh)
1/2
. Determine how long it takes for the water
level in the tank to drop to 0.6 m from the bottom.
dt
dm
m m
CV
out in
=
. .
Mass balance:
0
.
=
in
m
where:
( )
out
out
VA m =
.
gh A
jet
2 =
h A V m
k CV tan
= =
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-6
0 =
in
m ( )
out
out
VA m =
gh A
jet
2 =
h A V m
k CV tan
= =
dt
h A d
gh A
k
jet
) (
2
tan

=
Separating the variables
dt
dh
D gh D
k jet
2
tan
2
4
2
4

=
= 694 s = 11.6 min
h g
dh
D
D
dt
jet
k
2
2
2
tan
=

=
2
0
2
2
2
tan
0
h
h
jet
k
t
h
dh
g D
D
dt
g
h h
D
D
t
jet
k
2 2
2 0
2
tan

|
|

\
|
=
8 . 9 2 2
6 . 0 2 . 1
013 . 0
9 . 0
2

\
|
=
Flow Work and the Energy of a Flowing Fluid
Flow work or flow energy: work required to push the mass into or out of the
control volume when dealing with flowing system.
Consider a fluid element of volume V as shown
in the drawing.
Fluid immediately upstream will force this
fluid element to enter the control volume;
thus, it can be regarded as imaginary piston.
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-7
In such case, the force applied on the fluid
element by the imaginary piston is:
PA F =
PV PAL FL W = = =
flow
To push the entire fluid element into the control volume, this force must act
through a distance L. Thus the work done in pushing the fluid element across the
boundary (i.e., the flow work) is:
(kJ)
P w =
flow
Per unit mass, this work is:
(kJ/kg)
It is worth mentioning that the flow work relation is the same whether the
fluid is pushed into or out of the control volume:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-8
Since it is expressed in terms of properties, flow work is referred as flow
energy, convected energy or transport energy.
Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid
But P + u = h
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-9
(kJ/kg)
But P + u = h
For flowing fluid;
= h + ke + pe = h + V
2
/2 + gz (kJ/kg)
Note that the reason for defining enthalpy is to use it for flowing fluid and
to include energy associated with pushing stream with the internal energy of
the stream
Energy Transport by a Mass
If is the total energy per unit mass
m is the total energy of a flowing fluid of mass m
Or if the fluid is flowing with a mass flow rate
.
m
Rate of energy flow with that stream is
.
m
|
|

\
|
+ + = = gz
V
h m m E
mass
2
2
Amount of energy Transport:
(kJ)
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-10
\
2
|
|

\
|
+ + = = gz
V
h m m E
mass
2
2
. . .

Rate of energy Transport:


(kW)
Example: Steam is leaving a 4-L pressure cooker whose operating pressure is 150
kPa, as shown. It is observed that the amount of liquid in the cooker has decreased
by 0.6 L in 40 min after a steady operating conditions are established, and the
cross-sectional area of the exit opening is 8 mm
2
. Determine (a) the mass flow rate
of the steam and exit velocity, (b) the total and flow energies of the steam per unit
mass, and (c) the rate at which energy leaves the cooker by steam.
min 40
kg 57 . 0
.
=

=
t
m
m
kPa f
liquid
V
m
150 @

=
|

\
|
=
L 100
m 1
k / m 0.001053
L 0.6
3
3
g
= 0.57 kg
= 0.0142 kg/min
= 2.37 10
-4
kg/s
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-11
min 40 t
= 173.9 kJ/kg
u h P e
flow
= =
2 . 2519 1 . 2693 =
= 2.37 10 kg/s
c
g
c g
A
m
A
m
V

.
.
= =
3 6
3 4 -
m 10 8
) / m 1594 . 1 )( kg/s 10 (2.3

=
kg
= 2693.1 kJ/kg h pe ke h + + =

. .
m E =
= 34.3 m/s
= 0.638 kJ/s (kW)
) / kJ 1 . 2693 )( kg/s 10 (2.3
4 -
kg =
Energy Analysis for Steady-Flow Systems
Previously, we presented the 1
st
low for closed systems.
Now we apply the 1
st
law for open systems represented by control volume
{Rate of change of internal energy within the C.V.}=
{Net energy transported by the flowing streams} +
Heat + Work
Inspecting the C.V. shown in the
drawing, the balance equation,
in this case, would be:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-12
Heat + Work
What are the types of energy carried by the
flowing streams?
IE, KE & PE = (u +v
2
/2 + gZ)
Rate of energy transport by each stream
.
2
) 2 / ( m Zg V u + + =
Energy is also transported across the C.V. as heat and work
Taking into consideration the P work of the streams, then the energy balance
equation can be written as:
. .
out
.
2
in
.
2
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
) (
W Q m Zg V u P m Zg V u P
dt
mu d
CV
+ + + + + + + =

-
For most applications, KE = PE 0
Or
Implies no change of mass (m = constat), &
. .
in
.
2
out
.
2
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
) (
W Q m Zg V h m Zg V h
dt
mu d
CV
= + + + + +

-
. .
in
.
out
.
) ( ) (
) (
W Q m h m h
dt
mu d
CV
= +

-
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-13
Steady state flow processes:
Implies no change of mass (m = constat), &
No change of conditions within C.V. u = constant
For single entrance and exit to C.V., it can be shown that
w q Z g
V
h = + +
2

2
(kJ/kg)
(kJ/s)
. .
in
.
2
out
.
2
) 2 / ( ) 2 / ( W Q m Zg V h m Zg V h = + + + +

- Remember: this is

. .
out in
E E =
Terms appearing in energy balance equations
.
Q
= rate of heat transfer between the control volume and its surrounding
.
Q when control volume loosing heat
0
.
= Q
when control volume is well insulated (i.e. adiabatic)
.
W
= Power
For steady flow devices, the control volume is constant; thus no boundary work
Work required to push mass into and out of the control volume is taken care by
using enthalpies
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-14
using enthalpies
this power represents remaining work done per unit time
Many steady-flow devices, such as turbines, compressors and pumps, transmit
power through a haft, and Wsimply becomes the shaft power for those devices
If the control surface is crossed by electric wires
(as in the case of an electric water heater), W
represents the electrical work done per unit time.
Otherwise
0
.
= W
1 2
h h h =
Determined by reading enthalpy values at exit and inlet stream
For ideal gases, it can be approximated by h = c
p,avg
(T
2
T
1
)
Note that (kg/s)(kJ/kg) kW
( ) 2 /
2
1
2
2
V V ke =
Unit of kinetic energy is m
2
/s
2
, which is
equivalent to J/kg; which should be divided by
1000 to get kJ/kg.
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-15
1000 to get kJ/kg.
The amount of kJ/kg due to ke is negligible
compared to enthalpy change when the
change in velocities is small; but becomes
important for large change in velocities.
) (
1 2
z z g pe =
Similar argument can be given for pe term as that of ke due to similar unit and
contribution compared to other forms of energies in energy equation.
Flow through nozzles and diffusers
- Used in jet engines, rockets, space crafts, garden houses
Nozzle: increases the velocity of a fluid at the expense of pressure
Diffuser: increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down
Nozzle flow
Diffuser flow
Nozzle
V
1
V
2
>> V
1
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-16
For flow through nozzles or diffusers:
0
. .
= =W Q
and PE 0
But
KE 0
Diffuser
V
1
V
2
<< V
1
Air at 10
o
C and 80 kPa enters the diffuser of a jet engine steadily with a velocity
of 200 m/s. The inlet area of the diffuser is 0.4 m
2
. The air leaves the diffuser with
a velocity that is smaller compared with the inlet velocity. Determine (a) the mass
flow rate of the air and (b) the temperature of the air leaving the diffuser
P
1
= 80 kPa
T
1
= 10
o
C
V
1
= 200 m/s
T
2
= ?
Air
m = ?
Example: Deceleration of Air in a Diffuser
kPa 80
) K 283 )( . / kPa.m 287 . 0 (
3
K kg
=
P
RT
1
=
Specific volume using ideal-gas law:
= 1.015 m
3
/kg
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-17
V
1
= 200 m/s
0
. .
= =W Q
1
1 1
.

A V
m =
kg / m .015 1
) m 4 . 0 )( m/s 00 2 (
3
2
=
= 78.8 kg/s
Energy balance:
0
2

2
= +
V
h
T
2
= 303 K FromTable A-17:
FromTable A-17:
kJ/kg 14 . 283
K 283 @ 1
= = h h
2
2
1
2
2
1 2
V V
h h

=
|

\
|
=
2 2
2
2
/ m 1000
kJ/kg 1
2
m/s) (200 - 0
- kJ/kg 14 . 283
s
h
= 303.14 kJ/kg
Steam at 1.8 MPa and 400
o
C steadily enters a nozzle whose inlet area is 0.02 m
2
.
The mass flow rate of steam through the nozzle is 5 kg/s. Steam leaves the nozzle
at 1.4 MPa with a velocity of 275 m/s. Heat losses from the nozzle per unit mass
of the steam are estimated to be 2.8 kJ/kg. Determine (a) the inlet velocity and (b)
the exit temperature of the stream.
P
1
= 1.8 kPa
T
1
= 400
o
C
A
1
= 0.02 m
2
P
2
= 1.4 MPa
V
2
= 275 m/s
steam
m = 5 kg/s
q = 2.8 kJ/kg
Example: Acceleration of Steam in a Nozzle

C 400
MP 8 . 1
o
1
1
)
`

=
=
T
P
1 1
.
A V
=
) m 02 . 0 (
kg/s 5
2
1
V
=
Steam
Table:

kJ/kg 3251.6
/kg m 16849 . 0
1
3
1
)
`

=
=
h

Then:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-18
0
.
= = pe W
1
1 1
.

A V
m =
kg / m .16849 0
) m 02 . 0 (
kg/s 5
3
2
1
V
=
V
1
= 42.1 m/s
Energy balance:
q
V
h = +
2

2
T
2
= 378.6
o
C
2
2
1
2
2
1 2
V V
q h h

+ =
Then:
|

\
|

=
2 2
2 2
2
/ m 1000
kJ/kg 1
2
m/s) (241.1 m/s) (275
kJ/kg ) 8 . 2 6 . 3251 (
s
h = 3211.9 kJ/kg
Then fromTable A-6:

kJ/kg 3211.9
MP 4 . 1
2
2
)
`

=
=
h
P
Throttling Process
This is flow through a restriction, e.g. orifice, partially closed valve or
porous plug, without any change in kinetic and potential energy.
The main result of this process is a pressure drop in the fluid.
Throttling produces no shaft work and is an adiabatic process:
Therefore, 1
st
law reduces to: 0 = h
1 2
h h = or
Constant enthalpy process
For ideal gas: h = h(T) only T
2
= T
1
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-19
For real gas: reduction in pressure at constant enthalpy results in T
Example: Throttling of steam
P
1
= 1000 kPa
T
1
= 300
o
C
Atmospheric
pressure
Determined the exit T?
kJ/kg 1 . 3052
1 2
= = h h
According to the steam table;
@ P
2
=101.325 kPa & h
2
= 3052.1 T
2
= 288.8
o
C
Example: Throttling of wet steam
P
1
= 1000 kPa
x=0.96
Atmospheric
pressure
Determined the exit T?
kJ/kg 2695.7 1) 0.96(1933. 762.6
1 2
= + = + = =
fg
xh h h h
f
According to the steam table;
@ P
2
=101.325 kPa & h
2
= 2695.7 Superheated &T
2
= 109.8
o
C
Example: Throttling of saturated liquid water some of the liquid
vaporizes due to pressure reduction
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-20
vaporizes due to pressure reduction
P
1
= 1000 kPa
Saturated liquid
Atmospheric
pressure
Determined the quality of the
exit stream?
kJ/kg 762.6
kPa 1000 1 2
= = =
= P f
h h h
kPa 25 3 . 101 2 kPa 5 32 . 101 2 = =
+ =
P fg P f
h x h h
9 . 2256 1 . 419 6 . 762
2
x + =
x = 0.152
Turbine (Expanders)
Expansion of gas through a nozzle:
WORK energy Kinetic energy Internal
shaft to attached blades ) V & (P nozzle a


Turbine (or Expander): a device composed of alternate set of nozzles and rotating
blades through which vapor or gas flows in a steady-state expansion process
whose overall effect is the efficient conversion of the internal energy of a
high-pressure stream into shaft work.
Turbine: when steam is the operating fluid (Steam power plant)
Expander: when high-pressure gas from a chemical or petrochemical
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-21
Expander: when high-pressure gas from a chemical or petrochemical
plant is used as the operating fluid
Turbine
s
W
.
1
2
Energy balance: Inlet and exit pipes are
designed to make the velocities similar
PE = 0; Assume adiabatic Q = 0
For steady-state flow process:
) (
1 2
. . .
h h m h m W
out
= =
Compression Processes
Expansion pressure reduction in a flowing fluid (Work produced)
Compression Pressure augmentation (Work required)
Examples: Compressors, pump, fan, blowers and vacuum pump.
Application: Transport of fluids, fluidization of particulate solids,
bringing fluid to certain desired pressure for reaction or processes, etc.
Compressors: for gases
Accomplished with rotating blades, like turbine operating in reverse
direction or cylinder with reciprocating piston.
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-22
Compressor
s
W
.
1
2
Energy balance: Inlet and exit pipes are
designed to make the velocities similar
PE = 0; Assume adiabatic Q = 0
For steady-state flow process:
) (
1 2
. . .
h h m h m W
in
= =
Air at 100 kPa and 280 K is compressed steadily to 600 kPa and 400 K. The mass
flow rate of air is 0.02 kg/s, and heat loss of 16 kJ/kg occurs during the
process. Assuming the changes in kinetic and potential energies are negligible,
determine the necessary power input to the compressor
Example: Compressing Air by Compressor
dt dE E E
system
out in
/
. .
=

mass and work, heat, by
nsfer energy tra Net
4 4 4 4 8 4 4 4 4 7 6

energy etc... potential,
kinetic, internal, of Change
4 4 4 4 8 4 4 4 4 7 6
0

. .
E E =
. . . .
+ = +
Compressor
s
W
.
1
P
1
= 100 kPa
T
1
= 280 K
m = 0.02 kg/s
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-23

out in
E E =

2 1
h m Q h m W
.
out
. .
in
.
+ = +
= 2.74 kW
kJ/kg ) 13 . 280 98 . 400 )( kg 2 0 . 0 ( kJ/kg) 16 )( kg 2 0 . 0 (
.
+ =
in
W
( )
1 2
h h m q m W
.
out
.
in
.
+ =
kJ/kg 13 . 80 2
280 @ 1
= =
K
h h
kJ/kg 98 . 400
400 @ 2
= =
K
h h
2
P
2
= 600 kPa
T
2
= 400 K
q = 16 kJ/kg
The power output of an adiabatic turbine is 5 MW, and the inlet and the exit
conditions of the steam are as indicated in the drawing.
(a) Compare the magnitudes of h, KE, and PE
(b) Determine the work done per unit mass of the steam flowing through the
turbine
(c) Calculate the mass flow rate of the steam
Example: Power Generation by steam turbine
1
P
1
= 2 MPa
T
1
= 400
o
C
V
1
= 50 m/s
z
1
= 10 m
Q = 0
MP 2
1
`

= P
Inlet:
kJ/kg 3248.4 = h
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-24
Turbine
out
W
.
1
2
z
1
= 10 m
= 5 MW
P
2
= 15 MPa
x
2
= 0.9
V
2
= 180 m/s
z
2
= 6 m
Q = 0
C 400
o
1 )
`
= T
fg f
xh h h + =
2
= 2361.01 kJ/kg
kJ/kg 3248.4
1
= h
Turbine exit is saturated liquid vapor
mixture at 15 MPa:
kJ/kg ) 4 . 3248 01 . 2361 (
1 2
= = h h h
Then,
kJ/kg )] 3 . 2372 )( 9 . 0 ( 94 . 22 [ + =
= - 887.39 kJ/kg
|

\
|

=
2 2
2 2
/ m 1000
kJ/kg 1
2
m/s) 50 ( m/s) 180 (
s
|

\
|
+ + + =
|

\
|
+ +
2
2
2
2
. .
1
2
1
1
.
2 2
gz
V
h m W gz
V
h m
out
2
2
1
2
2
V V
ke

=
= - 14.95 kJ/kg
|

\
|
=
2 2
2
/ m 1000
kJ/kg 1
m] 10) - [(6 ) m/s 81 . 9 (
s
( )
1 2
z z g pe =
= - 0.04 kJ/kg
0 Since
.
|

\
|
= Q

. .
out in
E E =
(b) Energy balance at steady state:
Dividing by the mass flow rate:
( ) ( )
(
+

+ =
2
1
2
2
z z g
V V
h h w
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-25
kJ/kg ] 04 . 0 95 . 14 39 . 887 [ + = w
Dividing by the mass flow rate:
( ) ( )
(

+ =
1 2
1 2
1 2
2
z z g
V V
h h w
out
kJ/kg 72.48 8
kJ/s 000 5
=
w
W
m
out
.
.
=
[ ] pe ke h + + =
= 87.48 kJ/kg
(c) Mass flow rate for 5 MW power output:
= 5.73 kg/s
Mixing Chambers
Mixing chambers: the section where the mixing process takes place
Take different shapes: T-elbow or Y-elbow
Conservation of mass principles over all streams:
0
in
.
out
.
=

i i
m m
Usually in mixing chambers: q = 0 (insulated)
w = 0 (no work involved)
Kinetic and potential energies are negligible
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-26
Energy balance:
0 ) ( ) (
in
.
out
.
=

m h m h -
Assuming steady-flow process through the chamber
Consider an ordinary shower where hot water at 60
o
C is mixed with cold water at
10
o
C. If it is desired that a steady stream of warm water at 45
o
C be supplied,
determine the ratio of the mass flow rates of the hot to cold water. Assume the
heat losses from the mixing chamber to be negligible and the mixing to take place
at a pressure of 150 kPa.
Example: Mixing of a Hot and Cold Waters in a Shower
3
.
2
.
1
.
m m m = +
Mass balance:
0
in
.
out
.
=

i i
m m

. .
out in
E E =
Energy balance:
. . . . .
| |
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-27
3
3
.
2
2
.
1
1
.
h m h m h m = + 0 Since
. .
|

\
|
= = = = pe ke W Q
Combining mass and energy balance:
3
2
.
1
.
2
2
.
1
1
.
) ( h m m h m h m + = +
3 2 1
) 1 ( h y h yh + = + 2
.
1
.
/ where m m y =
2
.
m Divide by :
Since T
sat @ 150 kPa
= 111.35
o
C all streams are subcooled
kJ/kg 18 . 251
60 @ 1
=
C
o
h h
kJ/kg 022 . 42
10 @ 1
=
C
o
h h
kJ/kg 44 . 188
45 @ 1
=
C
o
h h 3 1
2 1
h h
h h
y

=
= 2.33
44 . 188 18 . 251
022 . 42 44 . 188

=
Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers: devices where two moving fluid streams exchange heat
without mixing
Simplest form: double-tube (tube-and-shell)
Conservation of mass:
Under steady operation, the mass flow rate of
each stream flowing through a heat exchanger
remains constant
Energy balance: w = 0 (no work involved) KE = PE = 0
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-28
Energy balance:
q depends on the selection
of control volume
w = 0 (no work involved) KE = PE = 0
Refrigerant-134a is to be cooled by water in a condenser. The refrigerant enters
with a mass flow rate of 6 kg/min at 1 MPa and 70
o
C and leaves at 35
o
C. The
cooling water enters at 300 kPa and 15
o
C and leaves at 25
o
C. Neglecting any
pressure drops, determine (a) the mass flow rate of the cooling water required and
(b) the heat transfer from the refrigerant to water.
Example: Cooling of Refrigerant-134a by Water
w
m m m
.
2
.
1
.
= =
(a) Mass balance:

. .
out in
m m =
For each fluid stream:
g
m m m
.
4
.
3
.
= =
. .
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-29
g
m m m
4 3
= =
Combining mass and energy balance:
) ( ) (
3 4
.
2 1
.
h h m h h m
g w
=

. .
out in
E E =
Energy balance:
4
4
.
2
2
.
3
3
.
1
1
.
h m h m h m h m + = +
0 Since
. .
|

\
|
= = = = pe ke W Q
Enthalpies
kJ/kg 98 . 62
15 @ 1
=
C f
o
h h kJ/kg 83 . 104
25 @ 2
=
C f
o
h h
Water exists as compressed liquid at both sides, thus:
Refrigerant enters as superheated vapor and leaves as compressed liquid, thus:

C 70
MP 1
o
3
3
)
`

=
=
T
P
kJ/kg 303.85
3
= h
C 35
MP 1
o
4
4
)
`

=
=
T
P
kJ/kg 87 . 00 1
35 @ 4
=
C f
o
h h
Substituting:
kJ/kg] ) 85 . 303 87 . 100 ( [ kg/min) 6 ( kJ/kg ) 83 . 104 983 . 62 (
.
=
w
m
kg/min 1 . 29
.
=
w
m
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-30
kg/min 1 . 29 =
w
m
(b) Choose volume occupied by water as the control volume:

. .
out in
E E =
2
.
1
.
,
.
h m h m Q
w w
in w
= +
Rearranging and substituting:
kJ/kg] ) 982 . 62 83 . 104 ( [ kg/min) (29.1 =
) (
1 2
.
,
.
h h m Q
w
in w
=
kJ/min 1218
,
.
=
in w
Q
Note that same result can be obtained if we choose refrigerant as control volume
Energy Analysis of Unsteady-Flow Processes
Steady state: no change occur within the control volume
Examples: Charging of rigid vessels from
Unsteady flow, or transient flow: processes which
involve changes within the control volume with time
0 =
dt
dm
CV
- Normally starts and ends over finite time period
0
) (
=
dt
mu d
CV
&
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-31
Examples: Charging of rigid vessels from
supply lines
0
in
.
out
.
= +

i i
CV
m m
dt
dm
. .
in
.
2
out
.
2
) 2 / ( ) 2 / (
) (
W Q m Zg V h m Zg V h
dt
mu d
CV
=

+ +

+ + + -
- Discharging a fluid from a pressurized vessel
Requires application of both unsteady state material and energy balances:
1 2
m m m m m
system out in
= =
W Q m Zg V h m Zg V h u m u m = + + + + +

in
2
out
2
system 1 1 2 2
) 2 / ( ) 2 / ( ) ( -
Multiplying by dt and integrating between state 1 and state 2 of control volume
noting that:
m dt m =

.
Q dt Q =

.
W dt W =

.
Note that the energy balance corresponds to:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-32
system out in
E E E =
Note that the energy balance corresponds to:
;
, out in in net
Q Q Q Q = =
and that:
in out out net
W W W W = =
,
When ke and pe changes are negligible:
W Q hm m h u m u m = +

in out
system 1 1 2 2
) ( -
Another difference between steady and unsteady
flow system:
Steady flow fixed in space, size and shape
Unsteady-flow fixed in space, but might
involve moving boundary
Characterized by uniform-flow:
Fluid properties at inlet and exit steams do
not change with time
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-33
not change with time
- A uniform flow may involve
electrical, shaft, and boundary work all
at once
Example: Filling an evacuated tank with an ideal gas.
m
i
T
i
T
2
Initially m
1
= 0.
Find a relation between T
i
and T
2
.
Energy balance gives:
Mass balance gives:
m
2
u
2
m
1
u
1
h
i
(m
2
m
1
) = 0
u
2
= h
i
= 0
= 0
0 ) (
system 1 1 2 2
=
i i
h m u m u m
W Q hm m h u m u m = +

in out
system 1 1 2 2
) ( -
1 2
m m m m m
system out in
= =
1 2
.
m m m m
system
in
= =
Combining:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-34
u
2
= h
i
Using defining relation for h
i
:
u
i
+ P
i

i
= u
2
For ideal gas: u
i
+ RT
i
= u
2
or: u
2
u
i
= RT
i
C
V
(T
2
T
i
) = RT
i
1
2
+ =
V i
C
R
T
T
Solving for T
2
/T
i
:
=
T
2
= T
i
Mass balance gives:
A rigid, insulated tank that is initially evacuated is connected through a valve to a
supply line that carries steam at 1 MPa and 300
o
C. Now the valve is opened, and
steam is allowed to flow slowly into the tank until the pressure reaches 1 MPa, at
which point the valve is closed. Determine the final temperature of the steam in
the tank.
Example: Charging of a Rigid Tank by Steam
Mass balance gives:
1 2
m m m m m
system out in
= =
2
m m m
system
in
= =
system out in
E E E =
Energy balance:
Department of Chemical Engineering
Thermodynamics ChE 340
5-35
2 2
u m h m
i i
=
Combining with mass balance:
2
u h
i
=

C 300
MP 1
o
)
`

=
=
i
i
T
P
kJ/kg 3051.6 =
i
h

C 3051.6
MP 1
@
o
2
2
)
`

=
=

u
P
C 56.1 4
o
2
= T
Since @