What are Data Network Peripherals In the modern 21st century world, almost all aspects of life and

society have been connected through computer networks. Especially with the introduction of the internet to the world, networks have been the way to go, for almost everything concerning professional tasks. Networking is one of the key factors that have caused the phenomenon of globalization as well. Hence, with networking having this kind of impact on many aspects of our life in the modern world; it is important to look at how so much has become possible, with the utilization of networking hardware or peripherals. Networking hardware refers to equipment which typically enables computers to network, includes hardware such as, routers, switches, access points, network interface cards and other hardware devices. With respect to the modern trend in these technologies, it is important to mention that the most common kind of hardware used today are copper based Ethernet adapters, which are included in many modern computer systems. The importance and the integration of networking hardware in modern devices can be understood better, as these devices are also included in day to day utilities such as mobile phones, PDAs and even modern coffee machines. Routers A router is referred to a computer which has the ability to perform such tasks as routing and forwarding information with use of software and hardware. Routers are regarded to generally contain a specialized operating system, along with such devises as RAM, NVRAM, flash memory, and one or more processors. Switches and Hubs According to simple theoretical terms, switches are defined as devices which join multiple computers together, with better facilities offered than hubs. And hubs can be defined as, small, uncomplicated, economical devices that join multiple computers, with a lower or basic level of networking facilities. Modems A modem enables a computer to transmit data over long distances using a cable or telephone line. As computer data is in digital form, it needs to be converted for transmission over the cable/telephone line, which only carries analog waves. This task or conversion is facilitated by a modem. Network Adapters This piece of networking hardware is one of the most essential pieces of equipment for any computer network, since it has the function of providing access between a computer and a network connection. When considering the theoretical aspects of network adapters, it is common to discuss the importance of another essential component, the network interface card or NIC. The term NIC refers to network adapter hardware in the form of a card. Network Cables Patch Cables - A patch cable connects two network devices Ethernet Crossover Cables - A crossover cable directly connects two network devices of the same type to each other over an Ethernet. Crossover cables are useful for temporary networking of devices when a network router, switch or hub is not present. Fiber Optic Cable - Fiber optic cables carry information using light pulses. These cables are typically designed for long distance networking use, although they are soon becoming popular for home use today.

What are Hub, Switch, and Router The functions of the three devices are all quite different from one another, even if at times they are all integrated into a single device. Which one do you use when? Let's take a look... Hub A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all packets.

commonly two Local Area Networks (LANs) or Wide Area Networks (WAN) or a LAN and its ISP's network . This allows all the PCs on the LAN to have access to the Internet and Windows file and . which will degrade performance. they usually include a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. the places where two or more networks connect. without significantly increasing network response times. combining the features and functionality of a router and switch/hub into a single unit. A router will typically include a 4 . And. Router use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts. is to route packets to other networks until that packet ultimately reaches its destination. This places a lot of traffic on the network and can lead to poor network response times. Today. and they use protocolssuch as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts. a switch can identify which system is sitting on which port. All routers have a WAN Port that connects to a DSL or cable modem for broadband Internet service and the integrated switch allows users to easily create a LAN. it will have access to the maximum available bandwidth. routers determine the best path for forwarding the packets. A router is typically connected to at least two networks. The Differences Between Hubs. The functions of a router. Frames carry your data. but the destination address of where it's going. a frame is passed along or "broadcast" to every one of its ports. Routers are completely different devices. So conversations regarding these devices can be a bit misleading — especially to someone new to computer networking. hub and a switch are all quite different from one another. A router is connected to at least two networks. for example. commonly two LANs orWANs or a LAN and its ISP.Switch In networks. So when only one PC is broadcasting. it is amplified and then transmitted on to the port of the destination PC. the places where two or more networks connect. then that bandwidth will need to be divided among all of those systems. It's for these reasons why a switch is considered to be a much better choice then a hub. Routers are located at gateways. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets. Let's start with the hub and the switch since these two devices have similar roles on the network. and Routers on the Network Today most routers have become something of a Swiss Army knife. In a hub. Routers are located at gateways. When a frame is received. multiple PCs are broadcasting. Where a hub or switch is concerned with transmitting frames. switched Ethernet LANs. a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments. your PC or workgroup and EarthLink. however. Each serves as a central connection for all of your network equipment and handles a data type known as frames. keeps a record of the MAC addresses of all the devices connected to it. unlike a hub. The hub has no way of distinguishing which port a frame should be sent to. Using headers and forwarding tables. Domain Name Service (DNS) proxy server and a hardware firewall to protect the LAN from malicious intrusion from the Internet. Switches operate at the data link layer (layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore support any packet protocol. The big difference between these two devices is in the method in which frames are being delivered. however. a router's job. it knows exactly which port to send it to. a 10/100Mbps switch will allocate a full 10/100Mbps to each of its ports. Router A device that forwards data packets along networks. Passing it along to every port ensures that it will reach its intended destination. in the case of Ethernet networks. In addition.8 port Ethernet switch (or hub) and a Network Address Translator (NAT). as its name implies. a wide variety of services are integrated into most broadband routers.s network. even if at times they are all integrated into a single device. With this information. So when a frame is received. It doesn't matter that the frame is only destined for one port. Switches. Additionally. a 10/100Mbps hub must share its bandwidth with each and every one of its ports. One of the key features of a packet is that it not only contains data. users will always have access to the maximum amount of bandwidth. A switch. If. So regardless of the number of PCs transmitting. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or.

It is. a dedicated server will contain features making it more suitable for production environments. either a computer or a computer appliance. gaming server. the machine's role that places it in the category of server. storage (as in RAID). and hence be labelled as one. mail server. hardwarebased firewall. Thus. a server is a physical computer (a computer hardware system) dedicated to run one or more services (as a host). a server is a program that operates as a socket listener. in theory any computerised process that shares a resource to one or more client processes is a server. a switch can connect multiple Ethernet segments more efficiently and a router can do those functions plus route TCP/IP packets between multiple LANs and/or WANs. as well as a built in LAN printer server and printer port. which is useful as a backup in the event that the primary broadband connection goes down. either to private users inside a large organization or to public users via the Internet. and the like. increased high-performance RAM. on the LAN behind the firewall. These features may include a faster CPU. Despite the many server-branded products available (such as server versions of hardware. In the context of Internet Protocol (IP) networking. they can in these situations fulfill the role of one. and increased storage capacity in the form of a larger or multiple hard drives. In this client–serverconfiguration one or more machines. consider a web server application (such as the multiplatform "Apache HTTP Server").printer sharing services. the "clients". So. wireless access points built into them. Depending on the computing service that it offers it could be a database server. configurable. In the context of client-server architecture. such as redundancy in power supplies. While nearly any personal computer is capable of acting as a network server. file server. The term server is used quite broadly in information technology. the word server typically designates computer models intended for hosting software applications under the heavy demand of a network environment. This web server software can be run on any capable computer. many routers will also have a built-in. while a laptop or personal computer is not typically known as a server. Ethernet switches and hubs can be connected to a router with multiple PC ports to expand a LAN. Some routers even have USB ports. Depending on the capabilities (kinds of available ports) of the router and the switches or hubs. To illustrate this. software or operating systems). to serve the needs of the users of other computers on a network. Servers often provide essential services across a network. take the common example of file sharing. Servers also typically have reliability. Routers might have a single WAN port and a single LAN port and are designed to connect an existing LAN hub or switch to a WAN. For example. the mechanism which shares these files to clients by the operating system is the server. Similarly. and much more of course. a server is a computer program running to serve the requests of other programs. Among the capabilities found on leading routers are those that permit configuring TCP/UDP ports for games. in short. While the existence of files on a machine does not classify it as a server. and more commonly. chat services. What is Server In most common use. or some other kind of server. Besides the inherent protection features provided by the NAT. in this case. . In the hardware sense. print server. web server. availability and serviceability (RAS) and fault tolerance features. The clients either run on the same computer or connect through the network. a hub glues together an Ethernet network segment. Firewall capabilities can range from the very basic to quite sophisticated devices. the connection between the router and switches/hubs may require either straight-thru or crossover (null-modem) cables. and network connections. Some of the more high-end or business class routers will also incorporate a serial port that can be connected to an external dial-up modem. share information with each other with one acting as a host for the other[s]. the "server" performs some computational task on behalf of "clients".

One well-known product is the Google Search Appliance. such as the aforementioned Apache HTTP Server software. as the majority of computers required a great deal of space. a desktop computer was be seen as a very small version of a computer. These operating systems attempt to abstract hardware. may wait in a sleep state for their necessity to become apparent. The trade-off is that all-in-one computers tend to be much less upgradable than other desktops. . Originally. Historically. the hard disk. The later iMac series. In fact. A desktop computer is still. but the mouse and keyboard still being external. allowing a wide variety of software to work with components of the computer. The all-in-one desktop computer has also been popular to varying degrees over the decades. In a sense.[citation needed] Between the 1990s and 2000s an increase in the use of dedicated hardware saw the advent of self-contained server appliances. making them preferable for highperformance tasks such as video and sound editing. a more attractive form factor. This type of computer would contain most of the computer components. This price difference has shrunk in the past few years. many older all-in-one computers actually incorporate a carrying handle. including a smaller desktop footprint. meant to be taken around from one location to another easily. which in all but low-level programming languages must interact using an API. Simpler examples of such appliances include switches. Early file servers housed multiple CD-ROM drives. such as the CPU. domain name servers. Such programs. Towers usually have more space. The Internet itself is also a forest of servers and clients. which are not meant to be used at a desk. however. The desktop computer was traditionally be assumed to be a fairly specific layout. so that they are a sort of intermediary step between a truly portable laptop and a totally static desktop computer. modems. modern personal computers can be seen as a forest of servers and clients operating in parallel. and print servers. within a single case that would sit horizontally on a desktop. The introduction of Cloud computing allows server storage and other resources to be shared in a pool and provides servers with a higher degree of fault tolerance. all of which are available in a near plug-and-play configuration. and games. Later. Since any software that provides services can be called a server. able to integrate more powerful components than a laptop of the same generation. which were used to host large database applications. the operating system can be seen as serving hardware to the software. Merely requesting a web page from a few kilometers away involves satisfying a stack of protocols that involve many examples of hardware and software servers. and is usually either placed under a desk. allowing for many bays to hold things like hard drives and multiple media drives. and to portable computers. since the parts can be much larger. making laptops become a much more popular choice. Modern operating systems such as Microsoft Windows or Linux distributions rightfully seem to be designed with a client– server architecture in mind. What is Desktop Computer A desktop computer is a personal computer built to be used at a desk.Servers became common in the early 1990s as businesses increasingly began using personal computers to provide services formerly hosted on larger mainframes or minicomputers. design. All-in-one computers have a number of advantages over towers or the basic desktop computer. the desktop computer is looked at as the larger end of the computer spectrum. This sort of case sits horizontally. The least of these are the routers. since their components are carefully sized to fit in the smallest possible area. and the RAM. Many of Apple’s original computers were all-in-one. also by Apple. the desktop computer tower became the dominant form of desktop computer. and an external mouse and keyboard would attach to it. or up on the desk next to the monitor. or laptops. and various other servers necessary to provide us the world wide web. gateways. rather than underneath the monitor. This is in contrast both to large mainframe computers. continued the all-in-one tradition. These operating systems may be able to run programs in the background called either services or daemons. and greater portability. routers. A monitor would then sit on top of the desktop computer case. with computers having become incredibly small. For one. with the monitor included as a part of the component case. These days. the desktop computer has been desirable over the laptop computer for a number of reasons. a unit that combines hardware and software in an outof-the-box packaging. desktop computers are usually cheaper than a similarly-powerful laptop. and in some cases may even be soldered directly to other components. however.

including a battery power supply. the price is generally higher for slightly less impressive performance and the laptop's hardware configuration is much less adaptable. External destinations are accessed using this port. such as NiCs. The main advantage of a laptop computer versus a desktop computer is its mobility as well as its reduced size. in a small casing (on average 360 cm x 40 cm x 270 cm). even though it is possible to connect additional external peripherals thanks to its numerous I/O ports. A wireless antenna that allows connections to other wireless devices. This antenna typically uses the Wi-Fi standard. What is Wireless Router A wireless router is a device that performs the functions of a router but also includes the functions of a wireless access point and a network switch. Also known as VoIP phone systems.Ex-WEP. Therefore. and wirelessbridges. Ordinary PSTN phones are used as VoIP phones with analog telephone adapters (ATA).Generally. etc. It is commonly used to provide access to the Internet or a computer network. One of the key advantages to IP telephone systems is that whereas long-distance calls on a regular phone system can be cost prohibitive. the motivation for buying a laptop computer must above all be a need for mobility or a need to save space.g. wireless access points. . so many people who like to build their own computers or modify their computers over time still find desktops preferable to laptops. the choice should fall on both the computer's performance (both graphic as well as computing power) and on the types and number of I/O ports that are available. What is Laptop A laptop computer (also called notebook computer) is a computer that integrates all the elements that needs to run properly. digital video manipulation. depending on the manufacturer and model.WAP. typically one with Internet access. or Internet telephony. Wireless router has many types of security for different manufacturers. to transmit telephone calls over the Internet as opposed to the circuit-switched telephony used by the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). viaradio waves. On the other hand. What is IP Phone An IP telephone system uses packet-switched Voice over IP (VoIP).there are no fees beyond the cost of Internet access. Moreover. the same calls on an IP phone system are free -. and WiFi in particular. since parts are generally not made to such specific sizes.). wireless repeaters. it is becoming very easy to connect to the Internet in public Hot-Spots or simply in any room of your home as long as it is equipped with a WiFi terminal. A WAN port which connects to a wide area network. a screen and a keyboard. Some wireless routers also include a DSL or cable modem in addition to the other components. It does not require a wired link. For advanced multimedia uses (e.WPA. IP telephone systems typically comprise a VoIP private branch exchange (an IP PBX) and desktop VoIP phones (IP Phones) that connect to a VoIP service provider via a Local Area Network (LAN). connecting a digital camera or an mp3player. in a wireless-only LAN (WLAN). a desktop computer at its peak can be seen as about a year and a half ahead of a laptop computer at its peak. The desktop computer is also much easier to customize than a laptop. VoIP phones can be simple software-based softphones or purpose-built hardware devices that appear much like an ordinary telephone or a cordless phone. with the emergence of wireless networks. or in a mixed wired/wireless network. It can function in a wired LAN (local area network). as the connection is made wirelessly. Most current wireless routers have the following characteristics:     LAN ports which function in the same manner as the ports of a network switch.

or a combination of both. Alcatel and other large switch makers. be considered the only such line. at least as of late 2011. especially intranets. it is susceptible to IP spoofing. access points support "infrastructure" mode.e. netbooks and smartphones will simply become the dominant interfaces.21 etc. Circuit-level gateway implementation: This process applies security mechanisms when a TCP or UDP connection is established. You can implement a firewall in either hardware or software form. the smartphone becomes the dominant VoIP phone because it works both indoors and outdoors and shifts base stations/protocols easily to trade off access costs and call clarity and other factors personal to the user. Generally the features of VoIP phones follow those of Skype. such as e-mail-like IDs for contacts that may be easier to remember than names or phone numbers. dedicated hardware devices featuring a built-in network adapter. What is a Firewall A firewall is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network. it cannot. According to this view. a firewall is considered a first line of defense. antenna. and radio transmitter. All messages entering or leaving the intranet (i. which have richer feature sets but (because they rely on mainstream operating systems' IP support) latency-related audio problems. the local network to which you are connected) must pass through the firewall.Two combined signal-and-power wired cable interfaces are in common use to communicate between computer networks (or computers) and physically separate VoIP phones: USB and Power over Ethernet. but it is difficult to configure. Several types of firewalls exist:  Packet filtering: The system examines each packet entering or leaving the network and accepts or rejects it based on user-defined rules. Siemens. iPhone. USB and softphone PC applications are considered transitional by many industrial users and makers of larger telephone switches. Although very small WLANs can function without access points in so-called "ad hoc" or peer-to-peer mode.) becomes available from outdoor wireless carriers. Older and base model access points allowed a maximum of only 10 or 20 clients. Firewalls are generally designed to protect network traffic and connections. Access points act as a central transmitter and receiver of WLAN radio signals. A competing view is that as mainstream operating systems become better at voice applications with appropriate Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees and 5G handoff (IEEE 802. or easy sharing of contact lists among multiple accounts. They also typically support the USB but not Ethernet or Power over Ethernet interfaces. however. Google Voice and other PC-based phone services. Note: In protecting private information. In addition. used only to build markets for VoIP that will eventually shift over to the more robust PoE technology shipped by Cisco.. packets can flow between the hosts without further checking. Access points used in home or small business networks are generally small. What is Wireless Access Point? Wireless access points (APs or WAPs) are specially configured nodes on wireless local area networks (WLANs). Access points support Wi-Fi wireless communication standards. This mode bridges WLANs with a wired Ethernet LAN and also scales the network to support more clients. and the PoE/USB VoIP phone is thus the transitional device. which examines each message and blocks those that do not meet the specified security criteria. Firewalls prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet. The latter is preferred in industry such as large scale [[ For these reasons. and therefore do not attempt to authenticate individual users when determining who can access a particular computer or network. Packet filtering is fairly effective and transparent to users.  . Android and the QNX OS used in 2012-and-later BlackBerry phones are generally capable of VoIP performance even on small battery-charged devices. Once the connection has been made. A VoIP phone or application may have many features an analog phone doesn't support. many newer access points support up to 255 clients.

or some other software filter that applies a set of rules to a HTTP conversation. The firewall capabilities lie in the fact that a proxy can be configured to allow only certain types of traffic to pass (e. and receives the data on behalf of the computer(s) behind it. or web pages). and McAfee Personal Firewall. A proxy server has the potential drawback of slowing network performance. since it has to actively analyze and manipulate traffic passing through it. Acting as a proxy server: A proxy server is a type of gateway that hides the true network address of the computer(s) connecting through it. many firewalls use two or more of these techniques in concert. Earlier versions of Windows did not have firewalls built in. HTTP files. many home and small office broadband routers have rudimentary firewall capabilities built in. such as Zone Alarm. Black Ice Protection. These tend to be simply port/protocol filters. connections to servers. makes the requests for pages. although models with much finer control are available.g. Web application firewall: A web application firewall is a hardware appliance. Vista. Such rules are generally customized to the application so that many attacks can be identified and blocked.2 and later are also equipped with a built-in firewall. Tiny. Macintosh computers running Mac OS X 10. In addition. etc. . In Windows 7. Norton Personal Firewall. and XP. Third-party firewall packages also exist. server plugin.  In practice. software firewalls are built into the operating system. A proxy server connects to the Internet... Many of these offer free versions or trials of their commercial versions.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful