Sonny An

US History Honors December 5th, 2012

Chapter 11, Sections 1 & 2 Textbook Notes Section 1: Postwar Turmoil  August 23rd, 1927: Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian immigrants, executed; worldwide riots. o o  Radicals: Advocates of political and social revolution. Anarchism: Belief in that restraint of one person by another is evil; do not recognize authority of any government. 1919 and 1920: Red Scare, violent wave of anti-Communism, within U.S. o o June 2nd, 1919: 8 bombs set off in U.S. by Italian anarchist. A. Mitchell Palmer: $500,000 from Congress to “tear out the radical seeds that have entangled American ideas in their poisonous theories.”  o General Intelligence (antiradical) division developed, led by J. Edgar Hoover. November 1919: Union of Russian Workers raided by Palmer’s men in 12 cities.   o  o o  249 aliens deported to Russia on “The Soviet Ark.” 4,000 people arrested in a single night.

1919: 3,600 strikes across U.S, covered by newspapers as “Bolshevistic.” However, violent reactions from white Northerners. Washington riot: 4 men killed, 11 seriously wounded, 300 arrested for firearm possession or rioting.

1916 to 1920: The Great Migration: 500k African-Americans from South  North.

Marcus Garvey: Known as “Moses of the Negroes” by whites. o o Founded Universal Negro Improvement Association (250,000 members). “Back to Africa” movement: Black Star Line of ships for voyage.  Fails, as Garvey was sold faulty equipment from white dealers.

1919: Eighteenth Amendment established national Prohibition. o o Ban on alcohol. Successful in Tennessee (“emptied the jails”). Volstead Act: Declaring beverages containing one-half of 1% alcohol. 1916: Carrie Chapman Catt’s National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), radical approach. o 1916: Alice Paul’s Congressional Union (later National Woman’s party), moderate approach.

August 26th, 1920: Nineteenth Amendment: Women’s suffrage. o

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Sonny An
US History Honors December 5th, 2012  1921: Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act: Federal funds  welfare purposes (maternal and infant mortality). o o   o Faced opposition from American Medical Association. “Inspired by foreign experiments in communism.” 1929: Congress fails to renew the act. Declared unconstitutional by Supreme Court on economic grounds. 1916: Child Labor Act passed by Congress to control employment of children. 1923: Court struck down a Washington, D.C., law enacting a minimum wage for women.

Section 2: The Republican Influence   1922: Richard Strout, reporter for Christian Science Monitor for 62 years. Covered Presidents Harding, Coolidge, and Hoover. November 2nd, 1920: Warren G. Harding defeats James M. Cox by a landslide (presidential election). “Normalcy.” o o o Rejection of Woodrow Wilson’s internationalism: Policy of cooperation and involvement with other countries. “We do not mean to be entangled.” “The Poker Cabinet” (“The Ohio Gang”): Harding’s poker buddies, some used their position to line their pockets with money. Teapot Dome Affair: Secretary of the interior, Albert Fall, leases government oil fields to wealthy friends. “In America, everyone is assumed guilty until proved rich.” o  August 2nd, 1923: Harding dies of pneumonia, distraught over his friends’ betrayal. Media is bashed for “muckraking.” Calvin Coolidge “Silent Cal” succeeds Harding, erases damage done by the Harding scandals. o o o  Rejected government programs to help ordinary citizens. Wall Street Journal: “Never before, here or anywhere else, has a government been so completely fused with business.” Andrew Mellon, secretary of the treasury, cuts government spending and reduces taxes on corporations and high income persons. Herbert Hoover “Wonder Boy,” secretary of commerce under Harding and Coolidge. o o o Expanded Commerce Department to control and regulate airlines, radio, etc. Bureau of Standards to standardize everything manufactured in the nation. 1924: Pollution Act, first effort to control coastline oil pollution. 2|Page

Sonny An
US History Honors December 5th, 2012     

Thomas J. Watson of International Business Machines (IBM): “World peace through world trade.” The Dawes Plan: America loans money to Germany  Germany pays off debts to Allies  Allies pay off debts to America. November 1921: Washington Naval Conference: Charles E. Hughes discusses disarmament – limitation or reduction of weapons – of naval arms. 1928: Kellogg-Briand Pact: Treaty declared war illegal, however, fails to include punishments for future attackers. By 1924: America controls financial policies of 14 of 20 Latin American countries. o Nicaragua: Opposition to U.S. Marines from liberal nationalist Cesar Augusto Sandino.

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