by Richard J. Pike

Open-File Report 93-262-A


This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government

Menlo Park California 94025

CONTENTS Page 3 3 5 5 6 7 9 16 17 17 18 19 21 22 23

Abstract Introduction Land-surface quantification The problem Toward a solution Morphometry demystified Current practice Implementation The bibliography Background Purpose and scope Subsets of the main list Amendments Acknowledgments Bibliography

ILLUSTRATIONS Table 1 2 3 Goals and applications Topical key to the literature The DEM-to-watershed transformation 4 10 20

Figure 1

Cognate disciplines


by Richard J. Pike

A compilation of over 2100 references provides one-source access to the diverse literature on geomorphometry, the quantification of land-surface form. The report also defines the discipline, describes its scope and practice, discusses goals and applications, and identifies related fields. The bibliography documents the current, computer-driven state-of-art of geomorphometry and furnishes the historical context for understanding its evolution. Most entries address at least one of ten aspects of the science its conceptual framework, enabling technology, topographic data and their spatial ordering, terrain attributes in vertical and horizontal domains, scale dependence and self-organization of topography, redundancy of descriptive parameters, terrain taxonomy, and the interpretation of land-surface processes. A subset of some 350 references, divided into 49 topics that outline the field of geomorphometry in more detail, guides the reader into the longer, unannotated listing. Lastly, over 100 references trace the development and application of one of the discipline's outstanding new contributions: the DEM-to-watershed transformation.
Topography is perhaps the single most important land surface characteristic that determines the climatic, hydrologic and geomorphic regimes.

Isacks and MouginisMark (1992)

This report is a research bibliography on the numerical representation of topography, or geomorphometry, a technical field within the Earth sciences. (I use topography in the restricted sense of grounJ surface or terrain, excluding vegetation and the cultural landscape.) Also known simply as morphometry, this old and widely practiced specialty has been revitalized over the past 25 years by the digital computer and related developments. Geomorphometry serves both

applied and basic ends, supporting society's use of technology as well as contributing to scientific understanding of natural processes (Table 1). The main applications of morphometry to technology include engineering, transportation, public works, and military operations. Morphometry for the interpretation of natural processes and events has two principal functions; it leads not only to new discoveries in Earth science, but also to application of those results for improving the condition of human settlement most explicitly protection from environmental hazards and the management of natural resources. I hope to address several issues by compiling a reference resource on geomorphometry. The first, and overriding, purpose is to improve access to thn scattered writings of this diverse field. A related goal is to promote scholarship in understanding the development of the discipline and in

highways. canals. water supply planetary-surface exploration . siting & design of: bridges. dams. Develop & manage natural resources: ACTIVITIES inventory & mapping zoning risk assessment mitigation prediction benefit-cost analysis emergency response restoration RESOURCES water soils & arable land vegetation & forests open space & parks minerals & fuels wetlands wildlife II. Pure (primarily Earth) Science discoveries in: geomorphology geology hydrology geophysics soil science climatology meteorology oceanography planetary science B. above) to: 1. airports. UNDERSTAND NATURAL PROCESSES A. Evaluate natural hazards & reduce their effects: HAZARDS slope failure wildfire earthquake flood coastal erosion volcanic eruption severe storm tsunami 2. & Public Works: cultivation urbanization & land use telecommunications navigation waste disposal B. irrigation. Transportation. Engineering. Applied Science uses of new discoveries (A.Table 1 Some Goals and Applications of Geomorphometry I. SUPPORT TECHNOLOGICAL NEEDS OF SOCIETY ACTIVITIES inventory & mapping environmental protection engineering benefit-cost analysis reclamation commodity extraction depletion-modeling A. Military Operations: concealment & avoidance cross-country mobility logistics & engineering reconnaissance & targeting weapons design & deployment tactical & strategic planning vehicle design planning.

1945. The basic problem. even to the extent of modeling physical processes numerically (for example. 1992). and plain are equally imprecise an old shortcoming inherent in applying everyday language to technical questions. The sixth aim is to prompt colleagues to investigate the field's related disciplines (Fig. Graff. topographic data in addressing important issues in science and technology that require information on land form. 1992) and other elements that contribute to new knowledge of synoptic meteorology and global climate (Henderson-Sellars and Dickinson. Rolling hills in North Dakota. Hoffman. For example. Frank and others. Reasons for this include the great complexity of terrain. what is a hill and when is it not a hill but rather a ridge or a mountain? These questions. hill. for they restrict the role of . 1990. affect the perception of hills as rolling? And. and neither resembles the rolling hills celebrated in songs of the Scottish Border country. My final goal is to call attention to the need for higher standards of accuracy in the mass-produced digital elevation data on which progress in the field depends so critically. The different shades of meaning that reside in qualitative terms greatly impede the communication of information about topography. Over the past few decades much progress has been made in describing agents of geomorphic change and how they work. for example. Seventh. 1988. what distinguishes them from nonTolling hills? How does an observer's location. plateau. for that matter. I have taken the opportunity afforded by this compilation to organize the science of geomorphometry to identify its components and arrange them in a structure that is consistent with current research directions and applications (Table 2). Isacks and Mouginis-Mark. the resulting difficulty in describing it numerically. Anderson. of continuous land-surfaces. just what are rolling hills? What makes them rolling to the eye and to the mind. rough. Third. Such adjectives as hilly. 1992. are not trivial (Gibson. and flat mean different things to different observers. The fifth goal is to provoke new inquiries into the nature of topography. 1964). or parameterization. which is essential to understanding the regional distribution of precipitation (Tarboton. Table 3). 1986). The common nouns mountain.citing its literature. One result is that very different landcapes may be characterized in identical terms. 1) and activities (Table 2) for solutions to operational problems in topographic analysis. Most recent among such problems is the numerical description. 1979. Phillips and Renwick. Stahler. 1992). except for individual drainage basins (Horton. through the cross-fertilization of ideas that the diversity of this bibliography is intended to create. Descriptions of continuous topography tend to be qualitative and subjective. 1950. which are of great interest in applied linguistics and the psychology of cognition. and some reluctance to abandon the qualitative approach that has long seemed adequate for much research and teaching. even among experts familiar with landscapes worldwide. steep. Representation of the topography itself. however. gentle. is this: language used to represent continuous terrain is not systematically LAND-SURFACE QUANTIFICATION The Problem Form has lagged behind process in the quantitative understanding of the Earth's surface and its evolution. has been less successful. depending on their experience and the scale of the landscape under scrutiny (Wolfanger. Obstacles to quantifying terrain must be overcome. The fourth objective is to foster a sense of unity within a field that is complex and fragmented and to provide its workers with a focus a sense of place within science and technology. does not mean the same thing as rolling hills in Tuscany. 1992). I want to encourage the continuing development of computer software that implements new approaches and procedures in morphometry (for example. both on and above the ground surface. Such confusion reflects several underlying issues. because the prevailing nomenclature is verbal and nonunique. 1941.

topography is just geometry and topology. dates back at least to Tricart (1947). and other non-Euclidean attributes that comprise the spatial arrangement of topographic features (Horton. Its application is most mature in the study of drainage basins. peaks. or morphometry. Beckinsale and Chorley. Nonetheless. Melton. Application of morphometry to the Earth's surface has come to be known as geomorphometry. More importantly. 1945. parameters ofX. b. the term is no more so than many others in the Earth sciences for example. 1958b. and thus numerical. and passes is captured by slope. 1964a. 1992) and sedimentary petrography (Krumbein and Pettijohn. which was simply morphometry in the early 20th century and previously orometry (Hettner. The term. areas. Wood and Snell. 1917. 1959. Lastly. Geometric measures have long been used to describe the three-dimensional form of topographic features that are expressed as points. some of them taken at several spatial scales. are required to effectively represent the shape of a terrain surface (Van Lopik and Kolb. which directly reflects geomorphic process. However. and other landforms that are readily isolated in the landscape. for example. and watersheds. Bookstein. is comparatively well developed (Evans. both within and outside of geology and geography. 1988). Reduced to its analytic essentials. Pike and Rozema. without precise description of the what there can be no meaningful why the operation of geomorphic processes at the Earth's surface cannot be explained convincingly in quantitative terms without measures of the resulting topographic forms. 1938. or equifinality where different processes and conditions yield similar landforms (Thorn. Y) domain. 1960a). or to use topographic form effectively in related applications. whatever they might be. slopes. and other derivatives of terrain height in both the vertical (Z) domain and in the horizontal (X. Euclidean geometry vastly oversimplifies so complex a surface as continuous topography (Frank. 1967. Specific morphometry is less well developed for landforms that can be difficult to identify or delimit. such as drumlins. Hammond. geodistinguishing this craft from its practice elsewhere. it has gained acceptance mainly through the work of Evans (1972) and Mark (1975a). Without such measures and an orderly taxonomy of form it is impossible. connectivity. geomorphometry is . Mark. 1988a. ridges. Toward a Solution The need for repeatable. This approach has been particularly successful in such fields as biological systematics (Thompson. curvature. well established and nothing is to be gained by searching out an alternative. description of observations in many sciences has led to the measurement of shape. Marshall. or landscapes.Y attributes other than those based on stream order are essential to fully describe the topology of landscapes particularly where fluvial degradation is not the dominant process. it is impossible to incorporate those differences. 1992). to define rolling hills or to specify in exactly what respects the hills of Tuscany differ from those of North Dakota or the Scottish Border. lines. or landforms. 1987a. sand dunes. Jarvis and Clifford. Hoffman and Pike. depressions. 1987). Such measures should be sufficiently comprehensive to provide a signature of process (Pike. The geometry of basic elements ridges. 1935. Although a little awkward. impact craters and volcanoes. 1979a). and volumes in Euclidean space (Smith. b). The topology of these elements is most frequently expressed as a hierarchy of channel links and nodes. 1972): specific describing discrete features. save in cases of convergence. valleys. 1928. 1978. Topologic parameters have been introduced more recently to describe sequential order. into numerical models of terrain that can be related to spatial variation in climate and other natural phenomena. paleomagnetism. Finally. Specific morphometry. 1990). 1986. Two approaches to geomorphometry are often distinguished (Evans. Warheit. 1991). Many measures of both types. 1975).equated with measurable attributes of land form (Frank and others. 1988). and general describing continuous topography. Shreve.

Dikau.cirques. The content of geomorphometry (Table 2) may be more familiar to Earth scientists as terrain analysis. and morphometry includes much of each field. Frank and others. some of them marginal to the Earth sciences (Fig. The computer revolution and related technology. notably through work starting with that of Horton (1945) and more recently through the computer-partitioning of watersheds from matrices of terrain heights (Table 3. the unknown degree of scale dependence of land form. It is identified with many military and engineering applications (for example. 1992b). it is still more derivative and interdisciplinary than primary and independent. 1). 1969). The alternatives are many. a toolbox for solving terrain-related problems in science and technology. 1988a. p. Its several connotations particularly military. The field is recognized as a specialty within geology. interacts with or feeds back to. In the United States. and geomorphology (Graf. 1990). Morphometry borrows from. Acevedo and Card. Geomorphometry is evolving from a vaguely bounded and supportive role between various disciplines into a coherent academic field. Although morphometry has predictive capability (Wood. all three approaches to land-surface quantification overlap. geography. ambiguity of guidelines for sampling terrain. and karst features (Evans and Cox. a theory of morphometry might build formal geometric and topologic structures of the Earth's surface for . For example. The practice of morphometry is most primitive for the general case. it remains highly empirical and like geomorphology (Cox and Evans. Tribe. General geomorphometry today offers many challenges (Pike. and developments in topology and in surface characterization since 1957 warrant an updated definition. It is not just a set of approaches and techniques. Evans. Whatever the definition. engineering. geomorphometry is an emerging discipline of land-surface form that transcends method. but a research specialty of its own. Bekker. 1962. in somewhat the same way that crystallography provides the geometric foundation for mineralogy. as well as a subfield of digital cartography (Clarke. 1988). Peuquet. 1993) lacks unifying theory. which might be based less on physical processes and laws and more on spatial properties and relations derived from graph theory (Bunge. 1969. Such simple analogies as this would have to be developed much further and incorporate geomorphic processes. 1988a) that could be implemented by computer (Frank. Its research agenda includes the problem of nonstationarity (azimuth dependence) of much topography. 1988. geomorphology. 1990a). Much work lies ahead before a theory can be formulated for geomorphometry. Richards. continuous topography. or terrain modeling. and other engineering problems. terrain roughness. 1988. Such a theory for geomorphometry would require first a general theory of geographical space (King. exploration of the planets and Earth's seafloor.Y domain. 1967). Geomorphometry as a science is still immature. 1957. Although none of these terms is synonymous or entirely correct. two possible approaches are noted briefly here. 1989. One path is through geomorphology. or remote-sensing often address such problems in general morphometry as the classification of continuous surfaces according to roughness Morphometry Demystified Geomorphometry has been defined as the science "which treats the geometry of the landcape" (Chorley and others. 1979a). However. They range from simply quantification of topography to numerical extraction and expression of the information content of terrain surfaces. Pike. but these few words are now inadequate. quantitative geomorphology. morphometry is allied closely with surface hydrology. and difficulties in describing the organization of continuous topography in the X. 1974). 1990). 138). 1990). 1987. perhaps the most closely allied discipline (Thorn. Geography offers an alternate path to morphometric theory. Terrain analysis tends to be applied. which least directly reflects geomorphic process and is commonly applied to line-of-sight (viewshed). Mark. and furnishes information for longer-established areas of study. 1986. Rhoads and Thorn.

Remote sensing. Communications engineering. Resource management. Rural-land classification. Medical imaging. Hydrology. Mathematics. Navigation. Cartography. Meteorology & climatology. Economics. Geometry. Machine visualization. Military terrainanalysis. Computer science. Tectonics. Rural-land classification. Soil science. Risk assessment. Theoretical geography. Information technology. Oceanography. Psychology. Ecology. Microscopy. Law. Pattern recognition. Terrain modeling . Geophysics. Biological systematics. Civil engineering. Tribology >^ \b <^/ *ny \y GEOMORPHOMETRY ^^ \^ \^ \y \^ APPLICATIONS OF ANALYSES AND RESULTS Agricultural engineering. Psychology. Planetary science. Machine visualization. Topology. Physical geography.Figure 1 Some Cognate Disciplines of Geomorphometry SOURCES FOR APPROACHES AND T ECHNI QUES Artificial intelligence. Cartography. Statistics. Automotive engineering. Forestry. Land use. Geotechnical engineering. Geomorphology. Civil engineering. Physical geography. Geomorphology. Surveying. Digital image-processing. Military terrain-analysis. Engineering geology. Planning & zoning. Hydrology. Photogrammetry.

1973. Such attributes of terrain in the X. Quantitative geomorphology is a research discipline with a more strictly scientific focus. 1988c). Spatial ordering of topographic information is concerned with designs for sampling terrain. I have simply found the structure of Table 2 to be helpful in my own research. The topics and relations shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. some topics could be consolidated. almost certainly lies in what is now termed terrain modeling. but also capture much of the visual perception of surface form. The remaining six topics in Table 2 cover the technical details of terrain representation and the applications of geomorphometry. in teaching. 1964. To . 1969). and more recently a discipline in its own right. 1963. 1989). such computer-based procedures as the delimitation of watersheds from elevation matrices (Table 3) are blurring the operational distinction between general and specific cases between landscapes and landforms. Terrain analysis also can be entirely qualitative and commonly incorporates attributes of landscape other than geometry of the surface as in the mapping of land systems and similar types of natural units for land-use appraisal (Mitchell. it also addresses such complications of morphometry as its inherently spatial context. Much of the ambiguity arises from an ever-growing and diversifying technology that provides so many new ways to model topography by computer (Fisher and Lindenberg. Terrain modeling is largely an automated implementation of general geomorphometry. As a rule. Derivatives of elevation in the vertical (Z) domain include relief and slope angle. with special attention to the fidelity of digitized elevations obtained from contour maps. and with structuring the resulting elevations in ways that best describe surface form. however. The ten general areas in Table 2 are reviewed briefly here. notably drainage basins (Strahler. Pike. or surface. Morisawa. Much of the future growth of geomorphometry.Y (horizontal) domain as spacing and arrangement are more difficult to compute than Z-domain descriptors. quantitative geomorphology involves specific morphometry and rarely addresses continuous topography. It generally interprets physical processes that create discrete features or orderly groups of them. Among these are different approaches to feature measurement as well as the most common means of machine visualization relief shading. Enabling technology includes several computer-based techniques for the description of land form. Conceptual framework sets forth an approach to the numerical representation of both discrete forms and continuous topography. Increasingly. and others could be added. Way. 1990. The heading topographic data emphasizes the production of information that is used to capture surface form. but it also indicates virtually any spatial ordering and geometric or topologic rendering of the land surface by computer (Dikau. and in communicating with colleagues. modeling describes recent applications of digital-cartographic technology to topographic data (Petrie and Kennie. further aid in this attempt to define the field as it exists today. often from contour maps. which outline some applications and cognate disciplines of geomorphometry. it is not synonymous with geomorphometry. 1985) and impact craters (Baldwin. for the topics could be arranged differently. including development of its theory. 1991). geomorphometry remains diffuse and ill-defined. 1990a). Terrain modeling commonly includes relief shading and other means of machine visualization.(Bekker. and are the most easily generated descriptors of topography. save in the context of regional landscape evolution. Weibel and Heller. I have identified 49 groups of activities or topics that characterize its current state-of-art and suggest a further ten-fold ordering of them (Table 2). Terrain. Because the term was rarely used to describe quantitative work predating the computer. This classification is not unique. the first four subject headings treat introductory topics and method. 1973). Current Practice Although long established as a research endeavor. consolidate and more sharply focus the discipline of geomorphometry.

1986 Monkhouse and Wilkinson. DISCRETE FEATURES Evans. 1986 Krcho. 1988 Gibson. 1968 Dikau. 1991 GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS Aronoff. 1978 Young and Yamane. 1988 Petrie and Kennie. 1992 Hsu.1979 Heinrichs and others. 1992 Tamura and others. 1991 Franklin. 1990 ESRI. 1990a Frank. and Robinson. Palmer. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TOWARD A THEORY OF GEOMORPHOMETRY Berry. 1986 Carrara and others. 1941 Wood and Snell. 1990 Hammond. 1991 Savitt and others.Table 2 A Topical Key to the Literature on Geomorphometry INTRODUCTION 1. 1991 Cowen. 1982 Richards. 1992 Hoffman. 1974 Mark and Frank. 1973. and Robinson. 1990 Hoffman and Pike. 1954a. Goodchild. 1965 MORPHOMETRY AS ANALYTICAL CARTOGRAPHY Chervyakov. 1992 Frank. 1974 Lay. 1990 Weibel. 1988 PERCEPTION & COGNITION OF TOPOGRAPHY Aloimonos. 1945 Mark and Warntz. 1989 Burrough. 1990 Dikau. 1965 Jarvis and Clifford. 1972. 1990 Clarke. 1990 Strahler. 1992a Maguire. 1976 METHOD 2. 1989. 1990 Mark. 1960a LAND FORM VS. 1975b Renwick. 1990 Dikau. 1971 Peucker. Palmer. 1954a. LANDFORMS: CONTINUOUS SURFACES VS. 1992 Wolfanger. 1992 Weibel and Heller. McCullagh. 1989 Thorn. 1992 QUANTIFYING TOPOGRAPHY NEEDS & CAPABILITIES Clarke.1990 Kugler. 1989 REMOTE SENSING Eppler and Farmer. 1966 Greysukh. 1972 Tobler. 1988 Davis and Dozier. and Rhind. 1991 Raper. 1991 10 . 1965 Horton. 1982 Ktty. 1990a. ENABLING TECHNOLOGY DIGITAL TERRAIN (SURFACE) MODELING Clarke.1987a. 1992 Weaver. 1967 Hammond. 1950.

TOPOGRAPHIC DATA ACCURACY OF CONTOUR MAPS El-Tahlawi and Rashad. 1988 Pike and Thelin. 1992 Yoeli. 1985 Peddle and Franklin. 1991 Nagao and Matsuyama. and Berlin. 1984 DIGITAL IMAGE-PROCESSING Fabbri. and Thelin. 1988 Schut. Defense Mapping Agency. 1990 Cole and others. 1989 Schenk and Zilberstein. 1976 Sharif and Makarovic. 1988 Hadipriono and others. Acevedo. 1986 11 . Pike. 1988 Moellering and Kimerling. 1991b. 1981 Dozier and Frew. 1991 Yoeli. 1967 AUTOMATED PATTERN RECOGNITION & FEATURE EXTRACTION Argialas and others. 1987 Turner and Miles. 1990 Topographic Science Working Group. 1991b 3. 1992 McCulloch and Marinaro. 1987 Lay. 1981. 1990 Rosenfeld. 1982 Mahoney and others.Haralick and others. 1987 Greysukh. 1989 AUTOMATED RELIEF SHADING & PHOTOCLINOMETRY Batson and others. 1990 Muller and others. 1984 Jensen. 1990 Hutchinson and Dowling. 1991 Fahsi and others. 1975 Dubayah and Dozier. 1983a DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS (DEM's) & DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS (DLG's) I CREATION & AVAILABILITY Berry and others. 1991 Raggam and others. 1992b Evans. 1987 Grender. 1985 Ivanov and Chalova. 1991 Toriwaki and Fukumura. 1978 Wang and others. 1990 Collins and Moon. 1981 Graff. 1980 Thorn and others. 1988 Thelin and Pike. 1980 Franklin and Peddle. 1968 Wolf. 1985 Leberl and others. 1991 Horn.1990 Kennie and McLaren. 1990 ESRI. 1988 Rinehart and Coleman. 1986 Elvhage and Lidmar-Bergstrom. 1989 Riazanoff and others. 1983 Hall and others. 1989 Smith and Wessel. 1988 Gustafson and Loon.S. 1987 Hobson. 1988 Buttenfield. 1986 Ounnazd and others. 1991 Kidner and Smith. 1967 Haralick and others. 1992 Narasimhan and Argialas. 1990 Schaber. 1976 Guth and others. 1988 Nogami. 1988 COMPUTER ALGORITHMS & SOFTWARE PACKAGES Barchi and Guzzetti. 1989 Sasowsky and others. 1992 Wolf and Wingham. 1990 Usery and others. 1987 Friedhoff and Benzon. 1992 EXPERT SYSTEMS & ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Argialas and Narasimhan. 1980 Pao. 1988 Elassal and Caruso. 1990 Gugan and Dowman. 1991 Mark. 1988 U. 1979 Pike. 1990 Mackay and others. 1967 Jenson and Domingue. 1989 Peuquet.

1988 CARTOGRAPHIC DATA STRUCTURES II SURFACE-SPECIFIC Falcidieno and Pienovi. 1991 Lee. 1990 Theobald and Goodchild. 1986 ESRI. 1992 Ostman. 1991b McKenna. 1967 4. 1990 Maling. 1986 ESRI. 1992 Gardner. 1980 Mark. 1989 Mark. Acevedo. 1959. 1968 Ohmori.OEM's & DLG's II ASSESSMENT OF ERROR & QUALITY Acevedo. 1984 Forstner. Palmer. 1989 Carstensen. 1988 Wolf. 1989 Polidori and others. 1990 CHARACTERIZATION 5. 1967 Wood and Snell. 1975 Thapa. 1989 Wood. 1990 Frank. 1993 Raggam and others. 1966 Evans. 1985 Chen and Tobler. 1990 Richards. Z-DOMAIN ATTRIBUTES ELEVATION & SOME OF ITS DERIVATIVES Clarke. 1991a Ibbs and Stevens.1992 Hannah. Kimber. SPATIAL ORDERING OF TOPOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SAMPLE DESIGNS TO EXTRACT DATA FROM CONTOUR MAPS Ansoult. Barry. 1978 Plews and Clarke. 1961 Strahler. 1989 Theobald and Goodchild. 1983 Guth. 1989. 1984 Leberl and others. 1967 Strahler. and Card. 1975b Ming. 1979b Peucker and Chrisman. 1952 Tanner. 1990 Shaffer. 1991 Samet. Fowler. and Mark. 1991 Theobald. 1981 Li. 1982 Peucker.1960 LOCAL (RELATIVE) RELIEF Ahnert. 1991b Goodrich and others. and Robinson.1992 Ebisch. 1988 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES OF DATA ACQUISITION Bjornsson. 1988 Brozena and others. 1992 Gugan and Dowman. 1989 Maguire. 1975a Ohmori and Hirano. 1990 USGS. 1971 Stearns. 1988 Krabill and others. 1986 Mirante and Weingarten. 1978 Pike. 1956 Wood. 1991 Carter. 1992 Evans and others. 199 la THE TRIANGULATED IRREGULAR NETWORK (TIN) DeFloriani and others. 1988 12 . Little. 1992 Snell. 1984 Pike and Wilson. and Chick. 1984 Drummond and Dennis. 1987 Pan. 1960a CARTOGRAPHIC DATA STRUCTURES I RASTER & QUADTREE Cebrian and others. 1986 Mark. 1967 Zakrzewska. 1991 Marks and others.

1984 Pike. 1972a Woronow. 1991 McArthur and Ehrlich. 1970 Evans. 1959 Whalley and Orford.Y-DOMAIN ATTRIBUTES AZIMUTH (ASPECT) OF TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES Abdel-Rahman and Hay. Newman. 1987 Eppler and Farmer. 1975 Hallet. 1984 LaGro. 1978 Heerdegen and Beran. 1968 Speight. 1981 Jones. and Brabb. 1988 Shreve. 1992 Lancaster. 1981 Dale and Ballantyne. 1988 Mulla. 1986 O'Neill and Mark. 1988 Williams. 1987 TOPOLOGY OF CHANNELS AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF FORM Abrahams. 1981 TERRAIN TEXTURE I SPACING & FREQUENCY Dolan and others. 1974 Gregory and Gardiner. 1976 Komar. 1988 Pike and Rozema. 1975 Warntz. 1980 Frank. 1970a Blong. 1991 6. 1977 Howard. 1990 Vincent. 1990 Hsu. 1988 Moore and Mark. 1986 Hallet. 1991 Franklin and Peddle. 1971 Strahler. 1987 He and Wang. 1987 Bras and Rodriguez-Iturbe. 1988 Wadge and Cross. 1986 Trifonov and Shults. 1992 13 . 1956 Young. 1972 CURVATURE OF SLOPE IN PROFILE Carrara and others. 1989 Hadipriono and others. 1982 Papo and Gelbman.1980 Snow. 1989 Van Lopik and Kolb. 1987a Pitiy. 1975 Werner. 1975 Tarboton and others. 1980 Evans. 1990 Haralick. 1967 Montgomery and Dietrich. 1973 Howard. 1965 Williams. 1979a. 1970 Piotrowski.ANGLE OF SURFACE SLOPE Agopova. SCALE DEPENDENCY & SPATIAL SELF-ORGANIZATION VARIATION OF LAND FORM WITH SPATIAL SCALE Church and Mark. and Robinson. 1965 PLANIMETRIC SHAPE OF TERRAIN FEATURES Jarvis. X. 1989 7. 1965 Ahnert. 1989 Haynes. 1989 Troeh. 1978 Mark. 1974 LAND-SURFACE CURVATURE IN PLAN Chang and Toebes. 1988a Troeh. 1968 Wadge. 1990a Mark. Palmer. 1972. 1978 Hill. 1990 Lettau. 1992 TERRAIN TEXTURE II ARRANGEMENT (PATTERN) Anderson. 1977b Gordon. 1975 Mark. 1988 Rossbacher. 1977 Ongley.

1975 Church and Mark. 1973 Pike. 1989 Scheidegger. and Card. 1954a Mather. 1963 RESULTS & APPLICATIONS 9. 1990 Snow and Mayer. 1991 Eyles. 1959 TOPOGRAPHIC TYPES & TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS Beckinsale and Chorley. 1985 Jaeger and Schuxing. 1977 Gray. 1986 Piech and Piech. 1975a Melton. 1966 SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION OF TOPOGRAPHY Mark and Aronson. REDUNDANCY OF TERRAIN PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT OF COVARIANCE Engstrom. 1986 Pike. 1984a Miller and others. 1975 Rayner. 1979b Evans. 1966 Tobler. 1990 Pike. 1988 Mather and Doornkamp. 1972 Parry and Beswick. 1988a Schreier and Lavkulich. 1964a. 1970 Scott and Austin. 1972 Hammond. 1987 Liu. 1984 Pike and Rozema.1984a Gordon. 1971 Speight. 1979 Speight. 1960a 14 . II. 1990 Wood and Snell. 1977 Oliver and Webster. 1991 Dikau. 1992 Xia.1992 Phillips.Shaw and Smith. 1972 Woldenberg. 1991b UNIFORM & NONUNIFORM RELATIONS OF SCALING ISOMETRY & ALLOMETRY Bull. Clarke. TERRAIN TAXONOMY CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES & THE GEOMETRIC SIGNATURE Demek. 1989 Thompson. 1958b Pike and Wilson. 1988 PROPERTIES OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC VARIANCE SPECTRUM Bryson and Button. 1967 Ferguson. 1971 Hammond. 1984 Olea. 1966 Weibel. 1976 Van Lopik and Kolb. 1966 Mark and Aronson. 1971 SORTING OUT INDEPENDENT DESCRIPTORS Ebisemiju. 1972 Sprent. 1959 Wood and Snell. and Mark. 1974. 1980 Mosley and Parker. 1957 CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION & MAP SCALE Buttenfield.1988b Wong. 1959c Woodcock and others. b Rrasnovskaia. Acevedo. 1989 Evans. 1968. 1961 Mark.1974 Wood and Snell. 1975 Fox and Hayes. 199 Ib 8. 1972. 1972 FRACTAL DIMENSIONS OF TOPOGRAPHY Burrough. and Plews. Brabb. 1986 Goodchild and Mark. 1981 Clarke. 1989 McMaster. 1992 Wolf.

1973 Stewart. 1992 Dyer and Vinogradov. INTERPRETATION OF SURFACE-SHAPING PROCESSES SURFACE HYDROLOGY I DRAINAGE BASIN MORPHOMETRY Abrahams. 1989 Isachenko. 1987b Fox and Hayes. 1983 Mock and others. 1968 Townshend. 1992 Tinkler. and Mark. 1988 Mills and Starnes. 1978 Lancaster. McCauley. 1978 Chorowicz and others. 1973 ENGINEERING CATEGORIZATION OF TOPOGRAPHY Bekker. 1985 SURFACE HYDROLOGY II MODELING CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT Committee on Global Change. 1983 Silva and others. 1987 Vertessey and others. 1990 Davis and others. 1991 Craig. 1980. 1967 Tarboton. 1981 McEwen and Malin. 1964. 1989 Toppe. 1991 Cook and others. 1992 Costes and others. 1983 15 . 1990 Sauchyn and Gardiner. 1963 Wentworth. 1977a Evans. 1987 SURFACE HYDROLOGY III THE AUTOMATED DEM-TO-WATERSHED TRANSFORMATION Tribe. 1992 Isacks and Mouginis-Mark. 1984 Band and others. 1990 Henderson-Sellars and Dickinson. 1975 Tunnard and Pushkarev. 1988 Strahler. 1988 Band and others. 1982 1O. 1972 Fisher. 1990a. 1990 Rowan. 1969 Chiou and others. 1982a Gardiner and Park. 1985 Hakanson. and Holm. 1974 Piotrowski. 1985 Brabb. 1988 MODELING & SIMULATION OF PROCESS Anderson. 1982 Dolan and others. 1988 Elmes and others. 1991 Gardiner. 1992 Pike. 1992b (review paper) (Table 3 has > 100 more references) TOPOGRAPHY SHAPED BY NONFLUVIAL PROCESSES Carrara and others. 1975 Petrie and Kennie. 1991 Norton and Sorenson. 1981 Way. b Patton. 1973 Mitchell. 1984 Mayer and others. 1969 Tsipis.1992 Zavoianu. 1989 Rentsch and others. 1992 Smith. 1992 Lettau. 1971 Rozema. 1985 Zecharias and Brutsaert. Ellen. 1972 Morhange. 1991 Morris. 1977b. 1991 Colleau and Lenotre.1989 Hugus and Mark. 1992 Carrara and others. 1978 Howard. 1989 Simpson and Anders. 1991b Goldberg. 1990 OTHER APPLICATIONS RELATED TO GEOMORPHOLOGY Aniya. 1962a Hibler. 1987 Burbank.TERRAIN EVALUATION & LAND SYSTEMS Burrough. 1992 Young and Pielke. 1971 Zachar.

Carrara. and large sets of topographic data that drive current research were unknown just 25 or 30 years ago. and volumetric analysis. are a major goal of geomorphometry. Carrara and others. The parameters of form that have been found effective for abstracting natural topography are the subject of much current experimentation (Table 2. missile targeting. These computerdriven advances have led to new ways to represent topography (Goodchild and Mark. Kobashi and Hirano. topologic modeling. various types of sampling from both profiles and matrices. Many classification schemes address numerical problems in the interpretation of land-surface processes from land form. numerical taxonomy. Mark. percentage hypsometry. or scale. morphometry has been adapted to regional tectonics (Burbank. and for virtually any number of terrain types. planetary and deep-sea exploration. are especially powerful (Franklin. As a result. progress in specific and especially in general geomorphometry has greatly accelerated. 1993). planning recreational land-use. Many measures may describe the same attribute of form. Combinations of morphometric data with nontopographic information. measuring road and runway roughness. and risk-assessment of slope failure from digital terrain data (Lied and Bakkeh0i. relief. from remote sensing and other cartographic sources. 1991. They include roughness analysis. and the degree of scale dependency and spatial self-organization is itself a key descriptor of form. texture analysis. One of the most successful of these combined applications has been the spatially-based study of natural hazards particularly the recognition. overlapping activities that have long been central to geomorphometry developing new techniques of analysis and testing descriptive parameters. Applications -range from watershed management. 1969. quantifying cross-country mobility. 1988. Topography differs in shape with level of generalization. prediction. feature complexity and connectivity. machine visualization and its complement shape-from-shading (photoclinometry). altimetric analysis. nearest-neighbor analysis. 16 . line-of-sight (viewshed) modeling. 1985. input/output and communications devices. 1972). and geographic information systems (GIS) have revolutionized morphometry. 1983a. 1987a). spectral analysis. Most recently. mainly topics 2. and siting installations for microwave transmission. such redundancy of terrain parameters can be sharply reduced through correlation and multivariate analysis. slope-frequency statistics. The high-speed digital computers. and assessing soil erosion to meteorological modeling. Systems for terrain taxonomy. promising techniques and parameters can now be tested and evaluated rapidly. degree of randomness. Aniya. but the enabling technology is new. multivariate statistics. 1988a. 4. analytical algorithms. 1980. Chorley. alignment (including parallelism). spacing. All ten general categories in Table 2 are active areas of research. and scale dependency. These measures describe various properties of elevation. The resulting innovations in such related specialties as digital cartography. computer graphics. Ellen and others. and 8). 1992. curvature in plan and profile. Operational techniques often are adapted from allied disciplines (Fig. slope. network analysis.These spatial properties do not necessarily require elevation data. but several of them focus on two broad. Bekker. Brabb. direction and strength of aspect (azimuth). 1941. 1992). Bernknopf and others. 1985. I m plem entation Some of the issues in terrain quantification currently addressed by geomorphometry may be old (Wolfanger. 1. Table 2. mainly topics 5-7). Large tracts of continuous topography can now be described in detail rather than characterized from a few samples. The crucial improvement has been in the speed and volume of data processing. 1987. including those in surface hydrology and the geomorphology of landforms other than drainage basins. particularly in continuous topography. mapping eco-regions. signature analysis (fingerprinting). The uses for geomorphometry (Table 1) continue to multiply as computer technology advances and more digital data become available. Pike.

1971). 1962. 1992). 1969a. and climatology (Henderson-Sellars. The literature has become so heterogeneous and scattered that it is impossible to command the subject by consulting just a few key serials in geology or geography. 1986. and scores of serials in the Earth sciences and related areas (Figure 1). This body of material is large because so much of modern geomorphometry is the product of the Cold War (1946-1991) and its offshoot. Progress in information technology promises to sustain the current vitality of geomorphometry. (The open literature resulting from such work reveals a virtual who's who in geomorphometry. digital elevation models (DEM's) or digitial terrain models (DTM's) (Case. 1990. Through image processing. 1952. notably by fuzzy-set logic or neural networks. 199 Ib). 1978). Maguire and others. remote sensing. Recent developments in remote-sensing technology should. Despite much progress. promise to contribute to solving this problem and others (Narasimhan and Argialas. Clarke. Strahler. but its early applications were largely military (Noma and Misulia. oceanography (Fox and Hayes. Moore. defined here as anything published before World War II. Today. spatial modeling. Acevedo. spatial statistics.1979. however. Hammond. The chief impediment to a wider practice of geomorphometry has always been the slow capture of data through manual measurement of topography. 1967. planetology (Leberl and others. 1990. THE BIBLIOGRAPHY Background The rapid growth and diversification of geomorphometry have created serious problems of information retrieval. Evans. 1935. Horton and others. Applicable techniques include knowledge-based recognition and extraction of specific features by computer (Chorowicz and others. 1990. The square-grid DEM was first implemented by computer in the late 1950's by Charles Miller and his colleagues in the department of civil engineering at MIT (Roberts. Wood. in time. the Apollo Moon-landing program (1960-1972). usually on contour maps (Raisz and Henry. . 1957). Boehm. Improved description of spatial patterns and their analysis. machine visualization. Soon adapted to civilian engineering and Earth science in limited applications (for example. One problem at the frontier of current research in geomorphometry is the automated parsing and classification of continuous topography at different scales. Hobson. Melton. 1992. 1983). Tarboton. 1992). 1991) as well as greater variety in the applications of morphometry (Burrough. the grid DEM was first thoroughly explored for 17 its potential value to morphometry by Evans (1972. and computer graphics. 1990). shortcomings in the quality of DEM's remain (Theobald and Goodchild. origin was not conducive to publishing in the open literature. Such ease of access has not prevailed since the war. 1992).1980). textbooks. Early work. the digital-computer revolution has laid the necessary foundation for future contributions in the field. 1991). 1937. appeared almost exclusively in a few European journals of geography (Smith. Much research on morphometry is inaccessible because its mission-oriented. lead to removal of these obstacles (Evans and others. 1956). 1985). Falcidieno and Spagnuolo. technical reports. Petrie and Kennie. Tobler. Sui. The stillevolving body of writing on morphometry is shared among increasing numbers of edited collections and symposium volumes. including Strahler. 1992). Neuenschwander. and pattern recognition. 1989. This problem is being eliminated by the mass production of large matrices and networks of terrain heights. Tobler. commonly military.1987. Prolific contributors include the rapidly growing fields of digital cartography. 1991) and DEM coverage of many parts of the world is either lacking or prohibitively expensive (Wolf and Wingham. New developments in morphometry are being implemented in such allied disciplines as remote sensing (Haralick. 1989. Chapman. 1967). 1959. Pike and Wilson. little morphometric work is attempted without DEM data. 1944).

Burrough (1986). The resulting bibliographic entries are cited largely. dating from the late 18th century. The literature search culminating in this report began shortly after that second course. Stewart (1968). McCullagh (1988). Hormann (1971). limited-distribution and in-house documents of military and other governmental agencies (particularly NASA) and their outside contractors (Peltier. Mays.and Van Lopik (1962. no interdisciplinary list of these governmentsponsored works has been compiled previously. The 49 subheadings in Table 2 are the latest iteration of that syllabus. I have referenced related studies from such peripheral fields as tribology (the study of abraded metal surfaces). and Petrie and Kennie (1990). The compilations by Can. Thorn (1988). Mitchell (1973). Hammond. agricultural and military engineering. and other concerns of data capture. It provides access to the entire field of geomorphometry by collecting representative citations of its dispersed and varied writings into a single source. 1963) also are dated and hard to locate. in particular the section on morphometry edited by K.Peucker. Chorley (1972). Richards. Once the best. Most of this material is unclassified but is not well known to the newer students of morphometry and. as well as for the conceptual organization of the various elements of geomorphometry. although technological advances should soon render much of this material obsolete. both on overviews of the subject and on its individual facets. 1979. Speight (1974). became especially evident to me in 1988 while preparing the syllabus for a four-week summer course on the subject. The alphabetized list of over 2100 entries. meteorology. 1969). Zakrzewska (1967). Neuenschwander (1944) now is useful only as a historical source. Mulla. as is the survey of early Russian work by Bocharov and Nikolayev (1957). are appended to more recent research papers. The variety of references reflects the great diversity of geomorphometry. Bekker (1969). Salisbury (1971).S. 1958. 1966. Horn (1981). Xia and others. The listing is biased somewhat toward geomorphology and is perhaps weakest on civilian applications in engineering. in any case. if difficult to find. is 18 . literature reviews. 1975. in the format of the U. See Pruitt. which also served as the outline of a study guide for the course the following year. It emphasizes recent work.1979). The need for such a compilation. it is oriented toward geomorphology rather than engineering applications.S. 1984. or monographs. 1953 and 1956. and vary from obscure to celebrated and from trivial to profound. 1960a. However. To encourage different approaches to problems in morphometry. Perhaps the most useful single source is the volume of Goudie and others (1990). Basic works from the growing literature on geographic information systems (GIS) and related advances in computer technology and digital cartography also are included. but not entirely. and David Mark. The listing is good on the extraction of digital elevations from contour maps. Wood and Snell. is not readily accessible to them. Among these are Clarke (1966). Mark (1975a). planetary-surface exploration. Purpose and scope The bibliography included in this report addresses the problems of informationretrieval just described. Geological Survey. these flaws reflect the occasional use of secondary sources and the short time available for the project. current through 1992. but none of them is both current and has the great breadth required for research in the field today. Helpful reference lists. 199 Ib) and harmonic analysis (Pike and Rozema. include routine applications as well as outstanding contributions to technique. Pike and Rozema (1975).) Major contributions to the field reside in the "gray literature". Some citations are incomplete and others are irregular in format. 1). and pyschology (Fig. Such recent developments in terrain representation as fractal geometry (Mark and Aronson. Morisawa (1985). 1993 abstracts indicate some of the newest research trends. Evans (1972. It has been a part-time endeavor. Bibliographies on various aspects of geomorphometry have been published. Davis. Citations range from abstracts to long books. 1988) are well covered. To my knowledge.

Cox. It thus remains something of a browser's choice. and I have only sampled these.S. 1974). describe provocative analogies to terrain. The quantification of landforms per se is well treated in the literature of geology and geomorphology. among the first to be treated quantitatively (Schroter. Horn and Brooks. Accordingly. 1987). even at the risk of perpetuating incomplete or incorrect citations.S. The topics in Table 2 overlap considerably. 1985.1988c. Many documents came from the estate of Walter Wood. The bibliography is idiosyncratic in several further respects. although I have attempted a token representation of the large non-English literature (for example. Other references are familiar to me from participation in the NASA Apollo program. my referencing of slopeprofile analysis only samples the available information (Pitty. 1968. I knew of some of this material from my early work with Walter F. A similar 19 . although some recent references to the literature on those and other landforms are provided (Table 2). 1969). I have ignored much of the large literature on impact craters the most symmetric and easily measured of all landforms. 1962) and at Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory (Pike. In this respect I have thought it more helpful to be inclusive than exclusive. relief shading. My bibliography includes much historical material. Young. Zavoianu. 1990). provide helpful examples or teaching material. Comparable material from other governments is poorly known to me and little of it is included in the bibliography. and my own area of specialization (Pike. which addresses the shape of landforms discrete units of topography shaped by known or likely physical processes. 1972. 1974. Extensive reference lists are already available for some sub-specialties (for example. This selection provides an up-to-date introduction to each of the 49 sub-fields and activities within geomorphometry as well as guidance in pursuing further study from entries in the main listing. that material is well accessed by other recent surveys (Gardiner. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center (Wood and others. Wood at the U. drumlins (Piotrowski. Horn. 1989). Hermann. For similar reasons. or simply offer food for thought. Pike and Spudis. Some entries. b). 1982a. 1990a. Subsets of the main list The bibliography is not annotated or subdivided by topic. 1978b). 1957. especially old works and those in languages other than English. I have been more selective for specific geomorphometry. 1979). are not wholly germane to morphometry.1977. However. the form of continuous topography. 1990). and in such cases I have relied on existing bibliographies (for example. many more applications of terrain intelligence to military doctrine and tactics are not generally available. the listing makes no pretence to completeness. 1791). only a small fraction of the vast body of writing on hydraulic geometry and the morphometry of drainage basins is included here. Government "gray literature" on morphometry as I have been able to locate without a prolonged search. and few of the references fit comfortably in only one category. even though it is now technically obsolete. such as those on statistics and numerical taxonomy or on evolution of the digital computer and its applications. 1989) and sand dunes (Breed and Grow. The listing is similarly thin on the morphometry of such well defined features as volcanoes (Pike. Howard. 1964). references in Krcho. during the development of design criteria for the lunar roving vehicle (Pike. Although I have touched on many facets of geomorphometry and have tried to omit no important works. Emphasis of the bibliography is on general geomorphometry. Kugler. so that students may trace the development of thought and practice in the field.The bibliography includes as much U. 1971. 1981. These shortcomings are partly offset by the stuctured sample of some 350 references in Table 2. they contain interesting background. Although numerous military-sponsored documents are cited. Bocharov and Nikolayev. I have neither seen nor read many of the obscure sources. English-language publications predominate. none of this classified material is given here.

1990 Finsterwalder. 1991 Lee and Snyder. 1985 Falcidieno & Spagnuolo. 1992 Tribe. 1990 Cuevas-Renaud. 1992 Chorowicz and others. 1988 Martz and DeJong. 1990 Rudyy. 1986a. 1972 Sprunt. 1984 Tarboton and others. 1984 O'Callaghan and Mark. 1981 1983 Carroll. 1992 1993 Chorowicz and others. 1991 Quinn and others. 1988 Jenson and Domingue. 1987 Martz and DeJong. 1987 Jenson and Trautwein. 1991 Jenson. 1992 ESRI. 1984 Ehlschlaeger. 1972 Yuan and Vanderpool. 1989 Yoeli. 1988 Hutchinson. 1990 Douglas. 1987 Weibel and others. 1986 1984 1989 1992 Blaszczynski. 1991 Band. 1975 Johnston and Rosenfeld. 1989c Hugus and Mark. 1993 Garbrecht and Martz. 1990 1986 Quian and others. 1988 Morris and Heerdegen. 1983c Marks and others. 1989b. 1991 Hutchinson & Dowling. 1993 20 . 1986 Theobald. 1978 1988 Band and Wood. 1983 Band. 1990 Nogami. 1992 Martz and Garbrecht. 1986 Van Deursen & Kwadijk. 1986b Skidmore. 1975 1978 Moon. 1988 Carrara. 1991 Tribe. 1989a. 1991 Band and others. 1989 Chan. 1985 Lammers and Band. 1990 1987 Bevaqua and Floris. 1985 Gardner and others. 1989 Miller and Goldberg. 1991 Tarboton and others. 1991 Freeman. 1986 Scarlatos. 1992 White and others. 1983 Mark.S. 1991 Martz and DeJong. 1991 Vincent and Soille. 1984 Connors and others. 1992 Rokos and Armstrong. 1992 Ehlschlaeger. 1993 Helmlinger and others. 1992 Lozar. 1987 Carla1 and others. 1986 Soille and Vincent. 1985 Jones and others. 1991 Fairfield and Leymarie. 1990 Zhang and others. 1988 1981 Collins and Moon. 1985 Jenson. 1991 Moore and others. 1991 1975 Collins. 1986 Smith and others. 1990 Band and Robinson. 1987 Goldberg and others. 1990 Morris. 1992a. 1986 Soille and Ansoult. 1990 Palacios-Velez and Tribe. 1992 Smith and Brilly. 1990 Baglio and others. 1992 Pratson and Ryan. 1992 Wiche and others. 1988 Beven and others. 1992 Chou. 1989 Hutchinson. 1990 Carrara. 1989 1985 Yoshiyama.Table 3 Evolution of Research on the DEM-to-Watershed Transformation 1972 Natarajan. 1989 Palmer. 1991 U. 1989 Marks and others. 1991 Moore and Gray son. 1992 Sekulin and others. 1975 Peucker and Douglas. 1986 Theobald and Goodchild. 1984 Bennett and Armstrong. 1990 Band. 1992b Weibel. 1988 Riazanoff and others. 1985 1990 Kobashi and Hirano. 1990 Frank and others. Army. 1992 Donker. 1989 Weibel. 1987 1991 Aumann and others. 1984 Seemuller. 1991 Majure and Eash. 1990 Miller. 1992 Mackay and others.

Amendments Incorrect and incomplete citations of the literature resulting from failure to consult original works. instances of the first two types of error cited above certainly remain and are my responsibility. Some elements of geomorphometry are particularly important now. Mark. 1992b). karst.ordering of all 2100-odd entries in the main listing would warrant additional. Independent. Blaszcznski. ESRI. 1972) to its practical application (Band and others. Suggestions for revision or improvement in the arrangement of sub-topics within geomorphometry (Table 2) also are solicited. Over 100 references in Table 3 trace this recent breakthrough in digital cartography from inception (Natarajan. Evans. Subsequent enhancements compute a suite of geometric descriptors for each basin (Majure and Eash. The DEM-to-watershed transformation (Table 3) is a computationally intensive procedure that creates a network of surfacespecific lines (ridges and drains) from a matrix of square-grid elevations and delimits areas (drainage basins). particularly in areas of low relief (Martz and Garbrecht. and other landscapes that lack well integrated drainage. 1988). Tribe (1992b) offers a good recent review of the procedure and discusses many of the references in Table 3. or TIN (Kumler. Klinkenberg. The procedure can yield good results in topography that has sufficient relief to define the fluvial net unambiguously from a DEM.S. 1991. 1990. thus enabling much topography to be analyzed by the techniques of specific rather than general morphometry. Although effort has been made to assure that the references are correct. 1944). all entries were collected by one person and compiled in a computer file that was repeatedly checked and updated. To work properly the technique also requires a closely spaced DEM of good quality. The transformation is important because it fundamentally reorganizes topographic 21 information. 1958. Haralick and others. 1930. 1992). from continuous terrain into a mosaic of landforms. Table 3 also omits a few references that describe the automated extraction of drainage networks using digital images instead of DEM's (Toriwaki and Fukumura. These fast-evolving topics include the triangulated irregular network. 1985). Army. mistakes always enter a listing of the size and detail presented here even when. It is less successful in glaciated. 1989. Sprunt. I apologize for them and hope they are not too many or unduly misleading. I encountered many such errors in my survey of the discipline and have tried not to perpetuate them. and their literature warrants special attention. 1979. works. 1991). 1972. To exemplify the evolution of one of these topics. carelessness in manuscript preparation. topics. fractal modeling of topography (Polidori and others. but older or less available. 1978. Hammond. However. or typesetting errors are an irritating fact of life. Lee and others. 1992) and its incorporation into both commercial and public-domain software (U. Lee. eolian. Kundert. Smith. 199 Ib). 1984). Neuenschwander. 1991. as in this case. Mistakes and omissions that are found by readers should be called to my attention so that corrections can be released in an addendum or in a more formal publication of the bibliography. 1991. . and the automatic extraction of terrain features from DEM's and digital images by such advanced techniques as pattern recognition (Chorowicz and others. 1992). Other major contributions to morphometry are excluded from Table 2 because they are unlikely to be found in all but specialized or research collections and large libraries (for example. parallel work on the problem converged about 1982 (Marks and others. They are especially annoying in geomorphometry because much of this diverse literature is unfamiliar to specialists. 1992). 1977. 1935. Because Table 2 is deliberately biased toward recent publications in each category. Most references in Table 2 are published in the open literature and have good bibliographies that provide further access to the specialized literature and cite important. some old classics are absent (Wentworth. I have attempted a comprehensive listing for the automated DEM-to-watershed transformation an area so active that the resulting list (Table 3) is already dated. 1983. more specialized.

Filling one such gap. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories). Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park. William Acevedo and Steve Ellen helped clarify and reorganize Table 2 and Figure 1. FAX [415] 329-4936 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to all my colleagues from the CNR-USGS summer courses in hydrogeological hazards held in Perugia. Address correspondence to: Richard J. Lastly. However.S. if one given name. 22 . CA 94025 U. 1962). issue number. For meetings give location and dates. This facet of geomorphometry. Discussions with Richard Dikau. the exact and complete citation of serial or other form of publication (book. Italy. government agencies and their civilian contractors commonly destroy restricted documents as they become obsolete (for example. Pike M/S975 U. if at all possible. comparable research in morphometry almost certainly was pursued by military agencies of former Warsaw Pact nations. including volume number. especially the Soviet Union. and inclusive page numbers. if accompanied by a translation of the citation (particularly for languages in non-Roman characters). such outdated writings can be valuable in tracing the history of geomorphometry and should be made public. University of Heidelberg. remains unknown to me save for possibly related civilian and academic references in Krcho (1990). To ensure accuracy and reduce ambiguity. for books give name of city and publisher.S. Even office correspondence may be significant (for example. and the name(s) of authors).A. would also require access to sources that are closed. surname plus two initials (or. and Elaine Wood for the professional archives of her late husband. I welcome additions to this bibliography from its users. Staff at the Menlo Park USGS library were unfailingly helpful. conference proceedings. and Ellen suggested improvements to the manuscript. Wood. I thank Waldo Tobler for Krcho (1990) and other books. expanded my view of the field. Lastly. However. please send reprints or photocopies of proposed additions rather than just the citations. in 1988 and 1989 for the opportunity to draw together the literature on morphometry and the incentive to compile this bibliography. ojr. year of publication 3. photocopy of title page. on the military applications of morphometry. the emphasis should be on general rather than specific morphometry. and so forth). Entries in languages other than English are especially wanted. which would be of historical and probably substantive value. I can entertain new entries if just the following information is provided: 1. Groenewood. title of the work.Some voids remain in the bibliography and most of them reflect the limited time available for the project. Walter F. Dikau also provided references to the European literature. respectively. Although the end of the Cold War may lead to declassification of material from that period. then spelled out) 2. Again.

2. p. 1991. 12.. Channel networks..S. 365-380.. p. 1980. v. 4.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . p.W. v. An approach towards a descriptive classification of slopes: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Modelling Geomorphological Systems: London. 11. 38. J. 3. 1978. 1984. Peter. San Francisco. Barry. 2. p. William. Ahnert.. June 2122: Abstract Booklet. and Earl. 44. Adams.. Frank. International Geomorphology 1986: London. p. M. regular or random. 1980. Ackerson. no. M.A.K. V.. A. a geomorphologic perspective: Water Resources Research. 1991. New Jersey. no. Supplementband 9. v.S. William.D. Functional relationships between denudation. p.. Acevedo.). R. p. Channel network topology..D.. p. 3rd. v. Abdel-Rahman. J. Abler. Frank. International Conference on Basement Tectonics. Annual Convention. Chapter 13. 135138. Abrahams. 2. Baltimore. Frank. p. Parsons. and Hay.. and Fish. 77-81. p. 1970a. p. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 145-158. Abrahams. v. and Pike. An evaluation of landscape units: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. ed. eds. 284. Divide angles and their relation to interior link lengths in natural channel networks: Geographical Analysis. no. v. 161-188. p. no. Ronald. Acreman. 1987. AJD. Acevedo. Modelling landform change. 1986. 157-171. Ahnert. Basement Tectonics Committee: Proceedings. 137-151. Classification of drainage basins according to their physical characteristics. in O'Leary.. Ahnert. the Geographer's View of the World: Englewood Cliffs. Abrahams. Agopova. 1537-1548. A.. v. an application for flood frequency analysis in Scotland: Journal of Hydrology. and Pike. 3.. no.L. Part H. ASTM Committee D-18 and U. in Gardiner.B. p.D.. March 25-29. Ackermann. 243-263.. 3/4.M. 12. v. Frank. 1984. no. in Anderson. 268. 2. 73-86. 84.. William. Vincent. Spatial Organization.168 p. Abers.G. 1988. 347-358. D. A. 71-84. J. 23 R. 587 p.. John Wiley and Sons. Ahnert.C.J. Sampling and statistical analysis of multi-modal orientation data. G. E. ed. 1-12. 2 (Cartography and GIS/LIS).. 40. Denver Colorado. no. Quantitative characteristics of bottom slope angles in seas and oceans (translated from the Russian): Oceanology. v.S. in International Symposium on Mapping and Geographic Acevedo. Seamount abundances and distributions in the southeast Pacific: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Experimental investigation into the accuracy of contouring from DTM: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.P. Supplementband 25. 1971. R. D.B. v. Abrahams. and Sinclair. 1965. 1035-1055. J. and uplift in large midlatitude drainage basins: American Journal of Science. First assessment of U. C.1991.M. 1. 1990. Technical Papers.. no. F. G. Local relief and the height limits of mountain ranges: American Journal of Science. 1986. p. and Weissel. 46. John Wiley and Sons. Quantitative Slope Models: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.. California (abs. A. Ahnert. 2. Frank. 1970b.000 sheet.D. no. 1988. ed. 1981. v. p. Digital representation of morphology in the San Jose 1:100. 87. 375-400.. Synoptic maps of southern New England topography from a digital elevation model (abs.. 23. p. Geological Survey. 5.): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.. and Mark. v. MA. no. 20. p. relief. and Gould. Geological Survey 30-minute DEMs: A great improvement over existing 1-degree data. no. The random topology model of channel networks bias in the statistical tests: The Professional Geographer. 1976.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GEOMORPHOMETRY Information Systems.

Kodwo. Reply: ESP. John (Yiannis). no.W.. Graphics. Anderle. B. p. 1978. 1:3. 77-96. v. 2. Andrew. p. Wiley.208.1990. March 24-29. and Winter. no. p. R.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 4. Scarp degraded by linear diffusion inverse solution for age: Journal of Geophysical Research. Al-nabi.R. 4. 1989.C. Baltimore. Stuart. A method of bivariate interpolation and smooth surface fitting based on local procedures. High-precision geocoding of remote sensing data of high-relief terrain. p. 1978..S. Jens. The role of topography in controlling throughflow generation: Earth SurfaceProcesses. p. no. A.. no. v. no. Wiley. 1987. 76. American Association of State Highway Oficials.. R. Md. no. [see also 1980. 1985. v. 4. and Hovem. v. p. P. 197-209. 1960. and Bucknam. Md. 15. 2. 193-195] Anderson. v. Eolian ripples as examples of self-organization in geomorphological systems: Earth-Science Reviews: v. Visual shape computation: Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. 24. 14. C.G. v. 2 (Cartography and GIS/LIS). 1-4.K. p. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing annual convention. v. 1954. in Water for the Future: Hydrology in Perspective (Proceedings of the Rome symposium. v.Ahuja. 3. v. Anderson. 2. A method of bivariate interpolation and smooth surface fitting for irregularly distributed data points. [see also. p. Aloimonos. 8. p. Fitting degradation of shoreline scarps by a nonlinear 24 R.. R. p. Aimer.. p. 1988. 171-182. 1991. 126-136. no. Allan. Rosso. 13. and Hanks.. Reply. Hidden line elimination in projected grid surfaces: Association of Computing Machinery Transactions. 1990.J. Checking vertical accuracy of topographic maps: Surveying and Mapping. Baltimore. ed..G. Fractal techniques and the surface roughness of talus slopes: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. p.. 183-192. T. D. Technical Papers: v. v. p. 1957. v.193-10. 29. Relating sediment yield to watershed variables: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Pattern Models: New York. 1983. D. Akima. Automated texture analysis on landscape maps: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. Gar. IJM. 1971.. and Abrahams. 899-916. A Policy on Geometric Design of Rural Highways: paging unknown. B12. Alster. ESPL. Automated shaded-relief for medium scale aeronautical charts. 1. T. 93-110.P. and Burt... 3. D. Design and production notes for the Raven Map editions of the U. 1974. A three dimensional digital elevation data compression procedure: Survey Review (London).. v. v. 90. 2. 20. 164. 18-20 and 26-31. T. 82. 148-159 and 160-164. p. 309 p. p.. and Taramasso. 4 (GIS). M.. p. 17. April 1987): IAHS Publication no. N. Akima. Johannes.C. p. Alpha. 99-106. V. no. A. Modelling Geomorphological Systems: New York. March 24-29. 240 (April). and Schachter..P.. no. Hiroshi. 1982. Anderson. and Strobl.S. p. Technical Papers: v. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. no.E.N. Akal. v.5 million digital map: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. v. Alexander. 921924. Nos. and Algorithm 474 bivariate interpolation and smooth surface fitting based on local procedures (E2): Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. p. 446-448. v.. 3. 1991.. 5. 458 PAnderson. 330-340. no. 1987. The role of quantitative geomorphology in the hydrological response of river networks. no.J. 10. Alderman. no. 274-291. Andah. Anderson. Dieter.. annual convention. 6. 1991. no. and Algorithm 526 a method &: Association for Computing Machinery Transactions on Mathematical Software. Renzo.. 38.D. 4. no. Tuncay. 1992. 1978. 8. 287-290] Anderson. Quantitative physiographic method of landform portrayal: Canadian Cartographer.20. 303-304. 31. Raggam. 1. M. Twodimensional space series analysis for sea-floor roughness: Marine Geotechnology.J. 2. Andrews. 1987. 2. p.J. Hiroshi. 331-334. 1988.. H.

no. v.E. K. 21. p.P. 1983.. 401-410.M. v.. Mathematical morphology. 2 (Photogrammetry and Surveying). 4. 1988. no... a tool for automated GIS data acquisition from scanned thematic maps: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.S. Stanley. Asada. p. 9.. 56. v. 75. v. PJ.. and Schulz. v. G. April 27. 1989. Anonymous. 92. Ansoult. 1992. p. Strebeck. American Geophysical Union Transactions. J.1992. D. Proceedings. Guinness.. II. 18. R. paging unknown. Larry. Quantitative description and classification of drainage patterns: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 1/2. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention. 1-32. Aronoff. Nos.W. 207-221. 1. 3. eds..diffusion model: Journal of Geophysical Research.: Eos. B. Annual Convention. 1985... 32 p. 1988. 1963. Geographic Information Systems A Management Perspective: Ottawa.D. 2. no. 29 (March).. O.W. NASA Defense Purchase Request T-55866. 1990.. p. 190-191. 1989. unpublished Ph. J. no. NASA/MSC.F. Landslide-susceptibility mapping in the Amahata River basin. Davies.A. M.D. p. and Harlow.867. 1971. 65-80. A frame-based approach to modeling terrain analysis knowledge. Aniya. 3. p. Ansoult.L. 151-170. no. Andrle. 1965. Circular sampling for Fourier analysis of digital terrain data: Mathematical Geology. p. 54. v. C.P. p. 1982. 1989. Anonymous. p. Ohio State University. Argialas. Andrews. 56. v. 6. D. 1968.. Air Force Aeronautical Chart and Information Center. v. Auto-Carto Six. no.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . p. Contour processing and 3-D image processing of Sea Beam bathymetric data: International Hydrographic Review (Monaco). 12C3-1271. 65. Akira. Argialas.P. Computational image interpretation models. 79. 63. 1988. 309-318.. 9. v. no. Arvidson. no. in Snow. no.. 6th International Symposium on Automated Cartography. Armstrong. Ravi. Photometric techniques for mapping Lunar Orbiter site IIS-2: St.P. D. TX.F.S. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers. v. 1993. and Mayer. 12. 6. U. G. v. EA. 261-265. Argialas. no. v. v.. A structural approach towards drainage pattern recognition: Columbus. p. Marc. Canada. 25 R.S. 1985.857-12. Imageprocessing applied to gravity and topography data covering the continental U. K.. and Mintzer.G.D. 6. Masamu.. Applications of information and graph theory to multivariate geomorphological analyses: Journal of Geology. no. Fractal enhancement for thematic display of topologically stored data.M. R. an overview and a perspective: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. prototype expert system for terrain analysis: Journal of Aerospace Engineering. no. J. TAX. 257. and Hopkins. 4.. Andrews. Akira. D.S. 235-243.. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology. Japan: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 1. Estimating fractal dimension with the divider method in geomorphology. 1992. L. p. p. Baltimore. 102-114. and Hodge. 5. 505-509. B12. dissertation. 1. 294 p. August 3-8. MO. no. v. Maryland. Louis. and Narasimhan.P. Final Report. M. New bathymetric surveying and processing system based on Sea Beam 2000 (in English): Report of Hydrographic Researches (Tokyo). Asada. Argialas. p. Technical Papers.. and Estabrook. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.. 871-886. p. p.. Lyon. 131-141.T. D. Houston. Armand. Integration of photogrammetry with multiple data sources for upper Tennessee River navigation lock feasibility studies. ed. 1989. B. in Wellar. D.S. p. WDL Publications. 4. 1990.. Argialas.. Kaley. Washington. The logic of geographic classifications and regionalization schemes: Soviet Geography Review and Translation. R. 311-319....C. Robert. v. v. 20-38. and Soille. Ottawa Canada.W. D. Computer production of terrain models: Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. 1983.J.

53. 1954. U. Automated digital terrain models. no. E. v... Liang. Jr. Autometric Corporation. regional landforms analysis. p.M.).. A method of analyzing polymodal distributions in orientation data: Mathematical Geology. 63-222. no. Some informational aspects of visual perception: Psychological Review. 931. 1985. p.. The Face of the Moon: Univ. VA.B. no. Earth Sciences Division. ONR Task 387-030. 48. S. no. in Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) moves ahead: The Earth Observer (Greenbelt. and Arnoult. G. 327-332. R.K. 3. 323-330. Attneave. 6. and Tang. O.. Zoltai. 1986. R. J. Determination of optimum sampling interval in grid digital elevation models (DEM) data acquisition: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. and Blair. v. p. MD. 516540. Bailey. p.Y. and Le Heux. v. p. 46.E. 1956.P.E.. [13 papers] B Baglio. Introduction. 60. 4.O. U.. Attneave. 183-193. Bakker. v. Special issue ocean mapping: Marine Geodesy.O. Bakhtin. Applicability of Certain Multifactor Computer Programs to the Analysis. no. Baldwin.. N. Earth Sciences Division. Theory on central rectilinear recession of slopes I-IV: Nederlandsche Akademie van Wettenschappen. p. 61.. ONR Task 387-030. 3. Office of Naval Research. G. 239 p. American Society of Photogrammetry American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. and others (the SEPM Bedforms and Bedding Structures Panel). Missouri. 265-275. 1982. 7. prepared for Geography Branch. p. 16. no.-P.. 44. M. Ayres. 1991. 53.P.. Proceedings. p. p. 1990. 1949.. 1964. v.G... 1947. 285-293. prepared for Geography Branch..N.. Ayeni. Avouac. p.. v. eds. Chicago Press. 2-3. J. Contract Nonr 4145(00). Ecological regionalization in Canada and the United States: Geoforum. v.1978. 1993. Neth. 78 p... 2-3. 959-966 and 1154-1162. 1930. S. St. v. Bailey. Classification of large-scale subaqueous bedforms a new look at an old problem: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. On the determination of the mathematical characteristics of a topographic relief (in Russian): Geodezist (Moscow). Ebner. 5. V. and Drummond.B. 452-471. 11. Bailey.. p. Quantitative study of shape and pattern perception: Psychological Bulletin. Optimum sampling for digital terrain models a trend towards automation: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. W. 1986.. 1987. v. 1-26. v.. Analysis of scarp profiles evaluation of errors in morphologic dating: Journal of Geophysical Research. B4. A. EOS Project Science Office). 1963. in Short. NM. no. 15. no. Contract Nonr 4523(00). 98. 1687-1694. A. 1987.)t Eos. O.S.. 67. Topographic data. nos. and Prediction of Landforms: New York. 53. Louis. Heinrich.. v. 1992.. 1978. no. R. 1. 50. v.E. Classification.S. 3. Pick. 21-22. no.1950.Ashley.C. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. v. paging by section. NASA. Autometric Facility. the Raytheon Co.I. p. Final Report. Automatic derivation of skeleton lines from digitized contours: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.. eds.. p.. 6. p.W. and Jenson. Aumann.E. J. Balce. and Wiken. 160-172.. in Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Symposium. TA. 1992. 1073-1084 and 1364-1374. 6745-6754. 26 R. A. Final Report. Topographic characterization using digital elevation models for simulating runoff from watersheds with surface depressions (abs. Geomorphology From Space: National Aeronautics and Space Administration.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Balce.V. p. p. Fred. p. 1975. May 9-11. Special Publication 486. J. Proceedings. Expanded Study of the Applicability of Multifactor Computer Programs to Terrain Analysis: Alexandria. Ayeni. 4. no. Baker. S. no.R.B. Quality control of height accuracy of digital elevation models: ITC Journal (Enschede. 259-268. Fred. Office of Naval Research.. G. V. v.

.E. 10-13 December. Barenblatt. 361-370. 1991. Automated construction of a hydrologic information system from digital elevation data. 1. Topographic partition of watersheds using digital elevation models: Water Resources Research.W. Barsch. Joseph. 1972. Geomorphology and geoecology: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. LJ2. and Turf. 99-112. 171-196. no. no. 13-23. 4.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Dietrich. Microcomputer Applications in Geology. in Opitz. Seattle. L. and Mausbacher. Coughlan. 4049.. L. Band. Band. Zhivago. Visual pattern analysis in machines and animals: Science.): Eos. 23-37. 2. v. 1989a. 3. and Wood. Proceedings: p.. Correction for edge effect bias in point-sampling: Forest Science. 56. v. A. and Dikau.Baldwin. H. 73. a Macintosh computer program for the representation and statistical analysis of orientation data in structural geology. 1963. p. v. 177. Washington. E. Roland. 1.. p. v.F.T. H. Neprochnov.E. eds.. p. Peterson. G. Technical Report 71-43-ES. 695-697. p. J.F. Pergamon Press. Band. Massimiliano.G. L. p. and Robinson. Geomorphological and ecological mapping: GeoJoumal..E. 1993. Dungan. Running. U. Spatial aggregation of complex terrain: Geographical Analysis. 1984. 1988. 4. 27.. Band. v. and Rosenfeld. Dietrich.. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 1-3. Forest ecosystem processes at the watershed scale basis for distributed simulation: Ecological Modelling. Proceedings.E.. Deepak Publishing. v.. 1991. The role of the navies in the 1990's and beyond.M.. 1986a. NV. 24. P. p.K. 1986b. 1986. A.L. Army Natick Laboratories. Chicago Press.. D. nos. VA.E. and Merriam. Entwicklung einer digitalen geomorphologischen Basiskarte (DGmBK) (in German with English 27 R. R. Barnett. S. nos.. D. no. L. Band. v.. Jr.J. 5255. 531-542. Band.. Trees. v. July 5-10. v. Ocean Yearbook 10: University of Chicago Press. Barsch. Jennifer. p.. and Running.S. 1986.E. p. Mass. 10. Richard. p.D. p. Norton. II. L.P. E. 15-24. STRANA. 488 p. no...B. Geographic Information Systems in Government: Workshop on GIS in Government. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling.B. in Hanley. 1964. ed. Effect of land surface representation on simulated evapotranspiration and net carbon assimilation (abs. The fractal dimension A quantitative characteristic of oceanbottom relief (translated from the Russian): Oceanology. S. and Rockaway. 1989. LJ2.. Barr. no. Springfield. 1986. L. J. Contour-to-grid methods for the ARAC system. no. Barsch. Band. p.. 249-270. 1992.E. no. no. Band. 1985. forested areas: Artificial Intelligence Applications in Natural Resource Management. J. Narasimhan... Oxford...R. Lammers. Hampton. in EPA Workshop on Geographic Information Systems for Environmental Protection.R.. 3. L. D. and Nemani. v. Dietrich.. Analysis and representation of drainage basin structure with digital elevation data. p. L.. Frank. 1971.B.W. 1989c. no. Azriel.. January.. 567-575. Barberi. 12. 1990. 229-239. Richard. Supplementband 79.. Band. January 1986. p. Nemani. 31/f. R.F. Las Vegas. Barret. Strategies for large-scale distributed hydrologic simulation: Applied Mathematics and Computation. How to decrease erosion by natural terrain sculpturing: Weeds. 21. 39-49. 1990. A terrain-based watershed information system: Hydrological Processes. no. Earth Sciences Laboratrory. Fausto. Ramakrishna. 6... 279293. 4. Ginsburg. Barlow. Yu. Proceedings: p. in Borgese. 1-12. v. Barnaby. 1980. p. v. 1-4. A... v. 1989b.E. Distributed parameterization of complex terrain: Surveys in Geophysics. and Ostrovskiy. and Finke. 14.. J.F.A. Band. R. 2.I. B. V.P.. 22. 437-450.V. Barchi.. VA. p. 34 p... J. 151-162. supplement. p. eds. 2nd. 1. The Measure of the Moon: Univ. 3. 1979. and Guzzetti. 109. Morphometry of landforms drumlins: Natick. p. Automating topographic and ecounit extraction from mountainous. and Morgan.

Beard. v. 1991. Proceedings.K.. 110-118. 1969.M. 9. Orlando.G. Statistical features of sea-floor topography: Deep-Sea Research. fill. p. 401^08. 2.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. p. Land Evaluation: Melbourne. Introduction to Terrain-Vehicle Systems: Ann Arbor. v. 2. 28. M. A programming system for the manipulation of digital terrain models (in German): Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Photogrammetrie. 1993. 15. The University of Michigan Press. implications for non-Newtonian gravity: Journal of Geophysical Research. 22. Morphometrie (in French): Annales de Ge"ographie. Bell.. 10. 3. Army European Research Office. and Chorley.M. 32-58. Bekker. 1975. 29. Becker. T.. 522 p. Theory of Land Locomotion. 5. University of Michigan Press. Part I the terrain. Computer-generated shaded-relief images: U. and Gunther.. Macmillan of Australia.. R. Zipper: a localized approach to edgematching: The American Cartographer. 1971. 283-293. 1979.F. 68. Michael. [p. p. 38. p. Routledge. p. no. 10.H. 1211-1218. Contract No. U. p. 1988. 1-378] Bell. and Borgas. F. R. Terrain evaluation as a function of user requirements. DAJA37-C8-C-0031. 846 p. p.. Mesoscale sea floor roughness: Deep-Sea Research. 12-18. and Eliason. 1947. An inductive bit-mapped classification scheme for terrain feature extraction. S.S.O.P. 136-139 on morphometry] Beer.36317. P.. no. 1975. 1969. and Chorley. Variogram'] Beckinsale.S. 1975.B. G.. Baulig. 1956. Beard. p. Horton's laws and the fractal nature of streams: Water Resources Research. no. D. Jr. 4.A. 1. v. 1.. WJL. Synthetic stereo and LANDSAT pictures: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. no. 1885. 26A. 379-419. p. p.. 496 p. 883-892. Digital cartography of the planets new methods. 28 R. 43. v.. Theory of the cartographic line revisted implications for automated generalization: Cartographica. 78-91.. and its future: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.. 1. 30... p. 39-52. Geological Survey Journal of Research.K. 1475-1487. v. M.. no. 17. thesis. 95. and Grabau. p. v. 1991. 3. and Chrisman. p. Edwards.M.abstract): Geo-Informations-Systeme. v. Terrain evaluation for off-road mobility criticism and models of terrain evaluation procedures for large areas: Oxford University. no. p. P. no. 220 p. Ser. 1976. 1960. 104-107. Kathleen. Batson. Art. Application of two relative relief techniques to an area of diverse landforms a comparative study: Surveying and Mapping.F. Attributes of drainage basin topography an evaluation of profile and matrix approaches and their hydrological relevance: Durham. UK. 1968. and Armstrong. 1983. R. B. 3. v. FL. [see. R. p. no. Off-The-Road Locomotion. M.E. Terrain and geology near the WTVD tower in North Carolina. 369. Kathleen.A. 65-76. N. also p.H. Bell. p. no.369.. Tom. An experiment in terrain filtering: Area (UK). 4. no.. R. [chapter 11. ed. and Eliason. v. no. The use of transformations: Biometrics. 120 p. v. Batson. 1987.. Bekker.S. K. E. Bassett.. p.P. RJ. v. in GIS/LIS '89. UK. 42. G. no. W. v. p. volume 3 historical and regional geomorphology 1890-1950: London. Beckett. v.G.. Jr. unpublished PhD. 59-68. DA. 385^08. v. Bartlett. 1989.. 53. The geometrical form of volcanic cones and the elastic limit of lava: American Journal of Science. regional classification.. research and development in terramechanics: Ann Arbor. v.T. Bekker.M. R. 2. Batson. 3. no.. 2. 3. V.. no. M. Edwards. the mechanics of vehicle mobility: Ann Arbor.G. The history of the study of landforms. University of Michigan Press. 1990. 163-172. 1950. T. and Tew. M. v. Bartlett. in Stewart. p. Henri. v.. XXXVII. p.J.R. 64-76. Benn. Final Technical Report. 397 p. 1959. its status. Bauhuber. especially. University of Durham.. or the development of geomorphology.H. 1279-1284.. Batchelder. Erlacher. 12. M. Bennet.. M.

H.H. Berry.S. v. Novakovskiy.. 11.. v.K. D. 2 (Cartography). v.C. J. Economic and Cultural Topics: Evanston. O. p. 1968. 1929. JE. 10. v. Technical papers.J. 1988. coding. Koshel'. 29 R.F. 146154.L. R. Louis. A mathematical structure for analyzing maps: Environmental Management. no. 2-11. Computer-assisted map analysis. in Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing..L.. [translated 1987. p. and Baker. no.M. 54. A.. Part I. 39-56... N. Brookshire.M. no. J.. France. and Marble. 1958.. 1992.. B. and Marble. and Hannay.J. no. 91-100. Berger.33 p. v. A.L. in International Workshop on Image Processing. Berry. Beucher. 48. On linear sets of points of fractional dimension: Mathematische Annalen.L. Quantitative Geography. HI.J.J. Beuerman. OP. 1987.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . A. and Shapiro. Musin. no.. B... 219251. p. 24-34] Berry. Moreland. A synthesis of formal and functional regions using a general field theory of spatial behavior.1988.V. in Berry. Berry. eds. Relief as an indicator in engineering studies and mapping of loess deposits: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. 24. and Pastushkova. 27 p. Besicovitch. D.L. 76.Y. 161-193. eds.F. and Marble.G. 159-165. Prentice-Hall. Berkovich.F. p. 512 p. 419-428. and Mathews. J.. 103-110. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory Report No. 1986. Spatial Analysis. E. St. Mathematical analysis of geomorphic relations: Buffalo. 1962.L. 1968. no. 573. Geographic sampling.. p. eds. September 17-21. p.. A probabilistic approach to landslide hazard mapping in Cincinnati. C. Missouri... 1405-1410. 262-271. v. 1982. p. Bernknopf. a reader in statistical geography: Englewood Cliffs. D. AA.. p. A note concerning methods of classification: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. D. B.L. potential and pitfalls: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. A. v..M. 101... v. 1987. 1968. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Statistical properties of sea-floor roughness. J. S. 2. No. M.. and Lantuejoul. Prentice-Hall. and Doughty. D. Remote sensing in the morphometric analysis of channels and floodplains (in Russian): Geomorfologiya..000 scale preliminary results: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. Hydrology and automatic cartography: Cartographica. Berry. NJ. p. p. B. 2. eds. Acoustics and the Sea-Bed: Bath. B. Berlyant. in Garrison.J. DA.R. 3. 56-61. Berry. no. B.. 53. Berry. 51-57. Berry. 1964. Spatial Analysis. and Sventek. 5663. paging unknown.. an approach to the problem using multivariate analysis..000.. R. MA. 317-325. 1967. Grouping and regional!zation.... p. N. Use of watersheds in contour detection. 1. 1992. 1978. 13.L. Ohio. and Suyetova. 1.. Monograph 28. B. Proceedings.J. no.L. and Marble.F.5minute map series. Berry. p.. a synthesis: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 19. R. no.D. Berlyant. Constructing a global digital data base using a world hypsometric map at 1:15..J.L. v. Handbook No.M. 25. v. 215-223. 4. 152.JJL. 2. 1979.. in Pace.. Geological Survey's 7. 1968. Prentice-Hall. Statistical analysis and the illusion of objectivity: American Scientist.Beran. A Reader In Statistical Geography: Englewood Cliffs... p. Approaches to regional analysis. Spatial Analysis...M. p. 29. Production of hypsography digital line graphs from the U. Yu.. B. Topography of random surfaces: Nature. Berry. NJ. 29. [reprinted in Berry and Marble. in Berry. annual convention.O. W. N. Berry. 300-303. Northwestern University Studies in Geography no. Real-time Edge and Motion Detection/Estimation. B. eds.F. p.. v. p.. no. K. UK..V.J. and Berry. D. 1983. 1988. and storing flood plain data: Washington. ed. a reader in statistical geography: Englewood Cliffs.K.S.. p. C.. no. D. 237.J. v.. Rennes. 3. 1988.D. Department of Agriculture.. 2. LA.S.. 273. Sampling. S. Zaytsev.. with applications for economic evaluation: Bulletin of the Association of Engineering Geologists.. v.K.. p. 209-217] Berkson.M. Bath University Press. 1968. S A. p. March 13-18. J... 1968. Campbell. 3.

Relationships between morphometric attributes of landslides: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. 1987. International Geographical Union Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing.. 4.. J. in Hydrology of Ice Caps in Volcanic Regions: Reykjavik. AA. M J. v. 185-192. 1974. p. Bjomsson. Beyer.Bevacqua. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Mapping Practices and Standards (selected papers from a symposium. Proceedings. p. and Bufton. June 12-22. Blong. v. cartographic computing technology and its applications papers from the Euro-Cart I seminar. 24. and Kirkby. Calif. 1993. Monograph 28.. 43-69. Wood. 403-415. 13-16. 256 p. Regional soil loss prediction utilizing the RUSLE/GIS interface. p..C. D. 1986.K..B. Birkoff. 1. Hillslope morphometry and classification a New Zealand example: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. PA.. J AH. no. p.. in National Conference of the Association for Computing Machinery. 2nd. no.. 74. A physically based. DJ.W. and Floris.J. San Francisco. 1957. and Lam. 1/3. Harding. R. 2. 67 p. 1967. 1982. Proceedings. no. K. July 5-10. Blong. New York. Rit 45. p. Measurement of ground topography and vegetation height by laser altimetry (abs.F.J.. A surface-specific line tracking and slope recognition algorithm: Computer Vision.. MA. 1988.F. L. 1975. Perspectives in the alternative cartography. v. 7. 2. 47. Compatible triangular finite elements: Journal of Mathematical Analysis Applications. G.J. Beven. no.. 1972. 1979. Publishing House of Geodetic Literature.I. and Sivapalan. R. Bocharov. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling.. Oxford. Optimal interval sampling in theory and practice. 227 p.. v. Blinn. Pettersson. Seven. G. Blais. v. 192-198. E. The RAND Corporation Memorandum RM-4636-PR..K.. 2. 194-195..J. 531553.. and Moore. 52. C. 31-54. A numerical classification of selected landslides of the debris slide-avalancheflow type: Engineering geology. 1992. SA. 405-429. Visindafelag Islendinga. v. 22nd. 1988. 1977. 11. UK.. p. Terrain Analysis and Distributed Modelling in Hydrology: West Sussex. 100. KJ. A. 1992. R.. Jacek. and Fulton.191 p.. p.. Dec. p. Graphics and Image Processing. Bobrik.. ID. Special Technical Publication 1126. v. Zur Erfassung flachen Gelandes durch willkurlich verteilte Hohenpunkte (in German): Vermessungstechnik.1990): Philadelphia. Wiley Ltd.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Boehm. Surface and bedrock topography of the ice caps Hofsjbkull and Vatnajokull mapped by radio echo sounding. 951-957. 40. variable contributing area model of basin hydrology: Hydrological Sciences Bulletin.. New College. CA. On hydrological heterogeneity catchment morphology and catchment response: Journal of Hydrology. no. B. p.. P. Chapman.. p.. 219-227. Blair.. no.. and Mansfield. Perspectives on artificial intelligence programming: Science. J. Supplementband 18. JJJ. v. p. Blaszcznski. American Society for Testing and Materials. v. J. A.L. and Nikolayev. Helgi. 4741. Bickmore. Methods of Mathematical Statistics in Cartography (in a translation from the Russian): Moscow. 204207. p. p. p. M. 122-131. Murugesu.1981: Cartographica.. KJ. eds.. Santa Monica... M.J. p. ed.L. Societas Scientarium Islandica. 1916. and Stefik..): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 99114. On the determination and mathematical measurement of landforms and of the volumetric size of geographic objects on the earth (in Russian): Izvestiya Russkogo geograficheskogo obshchestva. v. 1. no. D. R.] 30 R. 19. no. Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures: Computer Graphics. 1986.. Seattle. 6677. 353-375. [also 1967. no. 1973. W. eds. Tabular representations of multivariate functions with applications to topographic modelling. 20.. 1973.. Bobrow. 231. v. [also published in Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '77] Blong. Washington: Williamsville. v. 6. in Johnson. 16 (Supplement). 19. no. [reprinted papers from first two special issues of Hydrological Processes] Seven.

41. Exhibits. L. 224-240. 54. Boyle. 8. Boyell. R. TN2.191 p. Stuart. 1991. p. Bourke. R. Inventory of World Topographic Mapping. 90 p.. Bowyer. and McLaren.A. 4. 7823. 1991. p. Bonner. A. Volume I. no. Rolf. in Mechanics of Soil-Vehicle Systems.. 97. 210 p. 1987.. 24. Martin. 320-321. KL. 1991. May 1989: IAHS Publication no.1987. F. Boyko. 1965.B. Baltimore. Computing Dirichlet Tessellations: Computer Journal..Bogdanoff. Boulton. 1980.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Andrew. U. 273282. Wadge. EL.R.L. Blackwell Scientific Publications Ltd. Contour mapping of Arctic basin ice draft and roughness parameters: Journal of Geophysical Research. Mary. MD. Metody i sredstva avtomatizatsii topograficheskikh s"yemka (Methods and means for automated topographic analysis.. and Clark. emergency response. 17-27. Proceedings: v. Bookstein. R. v. AS.728. Analyzing and portraying geologic and cartographic information for land-use planning. 1978. L.J. ed. v. 1991. p. Bohme. International Conference. 4. 17. in Kavvas.. 1992. 5. Bradshaw.] Bogdanoff. and Wallis. Report n. 75. W. 1st International Conference.J. Designing a geographical information 31 R. p.. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Bohme.37 p. Construction Engineering Research Laboratory.. October 26-30.0 tutorial DTED and DEM elevation data extraction: Champaign.. 135. 181. F. 1988. v. v. The concept of shape in geography: Geographical Review.. W. A. LL 78. 767-774. Proceedings. no. M. no. no.J. Bohme. 1981.G. Morphometric analysis of river basin characteristics: United Kingdom Water Resources Board.S. Rolf. Brandstatter. 2. 1963.. R.L.. North America. Cll. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. Italy.J. 1. 1964... for The International Cartographic Association. Special volume 18. Ignacio. J. A photometric technique for determining planetary slopes from orbital photographs: U. and Reading.C. and Thomas. Turin. p. paging unknown. Lecture Notes in Biomathematics 24... 16 p.D. [also 1962. and decisionmaking in San Mateo County. 129-136. GRASS 4. Rolf. and Schmall. Land Locomotion Laboratory.. no. and Tweddale. in Russian): Moscow. R. 1973. p. p. proceedings of the IAHS Symposium. 2nd. p. On the statistical properties of the ground contour and its relation to the study of land locomotion. 4. 362-374. 1957.L. New Directions for Surface Water Modeling. R.E. 3. Brass. v. The Measurement of Biological Shape and Shape Change: Berlin. Cote.L.. Geoffrey. Detroit Arsenal. Effect of stream-ordering technique on Horton's laws of drainage composition: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. A. E. v. v. p. Bras.715-17. and Kozin. 1961.A. F. Osterreichische Zeitschrift fur Vermessungswesen. a First Course: Brookline Village. The method of successive grids for reduction of function storage requirements: Computer Journal. 1964. and Rodriguez-Iturbe. no. A review of the search for a quantitative link between hydrologic response and fluvial geomorphology.S. Springer-Verlag.. no. Boyce. and Australasia: London. J. p. and Workshops on Geographic Information Systems. Brabb. 1965. California. AV. 561-572. Ordnance TankAutomotive Command. 196 p. MA. 1989. Introduction to a statistical theory of land locomotion: Journal of Terramechanics. Kos. GIS '87San Francisco. 13 p. The generation and design of hill shading on the basis of raster relief data (in German): Kartographische Nachrichten. v. Bowden. and Kozin.. JX. 149163.J. 162-166. Chester.10 p. R JL.L. Exakte Schichtlinien und Topographische Geandedarstellung (in German): Vienna. Scott. p. Army Corps of Engineers. Geomorphologische Bearbeitungen von digitalen Reliefmodellen mit Methoden der Rasterbildverarbeitung (in German with English summary): Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen. Computer Vision. Geological Survey Professional Paper 812-A. Western Europe.. 1989. compiler. 4..

582. 1987. 1974. A note on the description of surface roughness using fractal dimension: Geophysical Research Letters. 1527. 1974. H. paging unknown. Bridge.C. 22-29.. and Grow. 83-88. v.575-12. and Snow. and Jones. v. 3. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1052. p. R. A Study of Global Sand Seas: U. 18.R. unpublished Ph.F.. 794. S. Robert. 198. 2. for Air Force Office of Scientific Research. 220-230. p. Jacob. John. map supplement number 17. Brassel. Statistical methods in anthropology: Nature. no. Department of Geology.PIKEAJSGS OF93-262A .R. K. S.S. Gerry. Larry. 45 (April)..J. p. New York University Department of Electrical Engineering. v. p. no. Belhaven Press. Briggs. 168. Brown. p. p. v. Broad bandwidth study of the topography of natural rock surfaces: Journal of Geophysical Research. p. 835844. SUNY. 24. 253-302. Chapter J.. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 1992. 1979. The Use of the Fractal Dimension to Characterize Landforms and Their Drainage Networks: Ithaca.P. p.. E.J. p. Publications in Geomorphology. 11. Morphology and distribution of dunes in sand seas observed by remote sensing. 2. 1951. Meandering pattern of the White River in Indiana an analysis... 10951098..S... 39. p. 90. 1979. and Reif. Drainage basin perimeters. 104 p. 1992.. 1. p. 12. Marc. no. 18. V. 1991. G. Breme.G.E. A review and conceptual framework of automated map generalization: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems.S. Brice..D. p.system for the prediction of landsliding potential in the West Indies in Cosgrove. Contour map and terrain intervisibility processing a literature survey: University Heights. Brassel. 1. no. in GIS/LIS '91. 32 R. v.. Teresa. p. Fluvial Geomorphology. 14. NY. dissertation. in Morisawa. v.. v. New technology allows remote areas to be probed: Eos. 39-48. 4317. 3. T.. Bronx.. and Riedmuller. NY. 74. and Peucker.. James. John. New York.. ed. 1973. P. 143-157. A model for automatic hillshading: American Cartographer. Automated relief representation: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Brozena. 5.Vad. Chalona. No. no. C. Machine contouring using minimum curvature: Geophysics. v.D. 1974. Brown. 289-303. 2. I.G.. Columbia University.M. C.J.. and Bronguleyev. 1970.. M. B14. 193-201] Brooks. D. N. [31 annotated references] Breyer. 1. Nos. Topoclimatic models of an alpine environment using digital elevation models within a GIS. W. a fractal significance. and Long.V. Forsberg. v. V. W. 1985. no. Broscoe. Bronguleyev. 4279. Breed. Technical Report 403-11. no. Neotectonics and Resources: London. no. Brassel.E. 3... 1/2. and Beckman. 1987. grant AF-AF)SR-70-1854. eds.. KE.K. The use of fractal dimension in engineering geology: Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology.. p. 1. p. ed. A. Project 389-042. Technical Report No. G. v. 34 p. Proceedings.. Atlanta. Little. K. Mervyn. andWeibel. Slope profiles of cycloidal form: Science. v..F. v. James. 179-200. D.. KJB. proceedings of the 4th annual geomorphology symposium: Binghamton. 610-611 and map. 1959. no. in Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing.. 1977. in McKee. and Mader.. and Mayer.. in Snow. no.E. 1985. A map of the averaged relief of the Russian plain (in Russian): Geomorfologiya.Y. 1988. p. Brown. R. A procedure to generate Thiessen polygons: Geographical Analysis. Quantitative analysis of longitudinal stream profiles of small watersheds: Office of Naval Research. B. Brassel. October 28-November 1. eds. S. Bronowski. 1992. Cornell University..H.. Brosch. v. Georgia. New York. 4. 1991.S. no. Polsler. 64. Rene. F J. [translated 1987. 610612. p. no. Geography Branch. 1. p. 229-244. and Scholz. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology.

Semiautomated training field extraction and analysis for efficient digital image classification: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. p. 7. no. Houston.. 477-492. G. The concept of topographic equilibrium in neotectonic terrains. Quantitative Geography Part II Physical and Cartographic Topics: Evanston. HI. 1984. p. 240-242. p. Fuzzy mathematical methods for soil-survey and land evaluation: Journal of Soil Science. Allometric change of landforms: Geological Society of America Bulletin. PA.P.G. Bull. v. 19-21. 359.M. PA. and Lin. no. M. March 1993. 1990.. no.C. Lee Vining Canyon. Burl. J A. 3. Mervyn. William. S. The quantitative revolution and theoretical geography: The Canadian Geographer. v. 19661 Burbank. 55. [corrected reprinting. 1984. Three-dimensional displays for natural hazards analysis. 4. Taylor. p. 205-226. M. Walsh. John Wiley and Sons.V. p..W. lan. 36-42. PA. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV.. Quantifying the effect of rheoiogy on planview shapes of lava flows. 151-162. v. Bryson. 86. 1962.. W. 4. California: Quaternary Research. seriya energeticheskaya. 120-143. Automated production of landscape maps for physical planning in The Netherlands: Landscape Planning.. 227-228.C. A pattern recognition system for locating small volcanoes in Magellan SAR images of Venus.W.K. Clarendon Press. 9. No. Application of the methods of statistical description of random fields to a characterization of landforms (in Russian): Izv..C. and Jones. and Smyth. p. 1989. using classified Landsat thematic mapper digital data and large-scale digital 33 R. Theoretical Geography: Lund. Characteristic size of relief: Nature. Don. Marcus. T. Principles of geographical information systems for land resources assessment: Oxford. 24th.. Brunsden. W. PA. Neotectonics and Resources: London.L. Fractals and geochemistry. D.Bruno. 51-53. no. Bunge. Geological Survey Professional Paper 450-B. 483-484. no. Fayyad. D. California: U. Jiun-Chuan.. 1992.. 2 (18). I. The use of generalized harmonic analysis in characterizing the surface relief of watersheds (in Russian): Probl. no. 1991. 207-208. 3-4. Ondemand map publication: Geotimes.. 1987] Burrough. and Button. 11. D. D. I. Series C. v. in Avnir. 14. Buchanan. 2.. no.. 11. The Fractal Approach to Heterogeneous Chemistry: London..J. 1347-1355. Burton. 383-405. and Lillesand. 35. 1989. Butler..R. Buchheim. Sweden. 20. 1964. 40. p. Bursik. v. C. in Cosgrove. PA. Northwestern University Department of Geography. PA. Gleerup. Bull. 294. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV. 1.. in Garrison. Belhaven Press. Burrough. eds. Studies in Geography no. The variance spectra of certain natural series. W. Lund Studies in Geography.B. ed. Relation of alluvial-fan size and slope to drainage-basin size and lithology in western Fresno County. 6395.. v. 1991. v. P. 24th.S. 1967. p. no. 1963. p. p. 1975. no. v.. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference...J. Relative dating of moraines based on landform degradation. p. and Marble.PIKBUSGS OF93-262A . p. Burrough.B. p. v.210 p.. John.. 193 p.. Rex. B. [2nd ed. March 1993. AA. 451-455. AN Kazakhskoy SSR. 1960.V. Busalayev. 1962. R. TX. and De Veer.. p. Burrough.. eds. and Brown.. General and Mathematical Geography no. 1489-1498. 1993. p. 5838. 1991. and Steeples. and Lopes-Gautier. Denys. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 1989. Fractal dimensions of landscapes and other environmental data: Nature. Burrough. p. p. 1981. 1-24. eds. 35. v. gidroenergetiki i vodnogo khozyaystva (Problems of Waterpower and Water Management). 1986. 1993. Houston. 13-23] Busalayev. No. Burrough. RA. UM. The application of fractal ideas to geophysical phenomena: Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. TX.. 3.F.M. D. [reprinted 1968 in Berry and Marble.

Treatment of the cartographic line: Cartographica. v. B. p. no. Rapid approximation of drainage density line intersection method: U. Transactions. Italy. Dave. unpublished report No. Segmentation of a thematic mapper image using the fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. Water Resources Division Bulletin. Modelli digitali del terreno nell' indagine geomorfologica e idrologica (in Italian): Milan. Generazione di modelli digitali del terreno ad alta precisione (in Italian): Florence.. Buttenfield. Geological Survey. On the practice of estimating fractal dimension: Mathematical Geology. Federici. 73 p. GJ. v. v. p. for U.S. Aicographics.. R. Jean. Italy. 22.1984..B. 110-115. 61 p.T. 403-426. 762805 ). Ing. Wesley. 221-241. p. Terrain Quantification Phase I.R. unpublished Ph. no. and Maugham. J. Carrara. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories.P. Andr6. B. 6.S. 34 R. and Van Lopik.D. Carla1. and Langbein. 1989. 1991. 1983a. 1984. AF 19(628)-481 Project No. RE. and Welch. Multivariate models for landslide hazard evaluation: Mathematical Geology. no. 85 p. 149-173. no... 7-20.P.R. Buttenfield.. PB 211090] Cailleux. 1985. v.. R. 1984. Robert. Beeker. Map generalization making rules for knowledge representation: New York. Milano. in International Conference on the Arno Project (research on a monitoring system for the Arno basin flashflood forecast). Dip. p. RA. no.. V. Buttenfield.. v. and Voegeli. and Federici. 43. Carman. 1950. and Pasqui. Calef. Carr. R.C.. Carr. Threedimensional illusory contours and surfaces: Nature. 1950.B. 585-587. 945-958. no. Civile. 15. D. Pour une meilleure geomeirie des formes du relief (in French): Revue de G^omorphologie Dynamique. p. Report No.C. W. 79-100. Playa and Miscellaneous Studies: Texas Instruments Co.1986. R.V. Univ.P. for U. v.B. Terrain Quantification Phase II. Wesley.. Automating the identification of cartographic lines: The American Cartographer... p. 23. 194-195. Report No. 126..R. Scale-dependence and selfsimilarity in cartographic lines: Cartographica. no. J. Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Transactions.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .M. 1987.. Carla'. 304-316. v. November 12-15.P. Calef. 65-69. 1972. Slope studies of northern Illinois: Illinois Academy of Science.S. Cadigan. 1962. Terrain classification a multivariate approach: Washington... B. 14. Surface Geometry Measurements: Dallas. GE-24. and Trivedi. 0/87. 1991.. Quad. U. University of Washington. + appendices (including 348-entry annotated bibliography). An average slope map of Illinois: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Buttenfield. p. 63-208 (Contract No. v.. p. 400-408. no. 6404. 762805). 4. v.. J. and Newcomb. 4.D. 1. Carr. P. 302 PButtenfield. no. and Van Lopik. Palmer. v. Carlston. Cannon.. A relative relief map of Illinois: Illinois Academy of Science. p.L. p. 45. C.. Wesley. v. 1987. and Tricart.elevation models: Geocarto International. [NTIS No. Monograph 40. J.. Line structure in graphic and geographic space: Seattle. B. 43.. Texas Instruments Co. Leslie. 63-793 (Contract No. M. Florence. V. 7628 Task No.... 1960. I960. Numerical Generalization in Cartography. Calef. p. G. 1952. + appendices (including 154-entry annotated bibliography). Wiley. 3. D. D. 1953. G.30 p. AF 19(628)-2786 Project No. and McMaster.S. Carrara. Geographical information systems in the assessment of flood hazard.. 7. L. Alberto.. no. Detti. 256 p. Carrara. USGSGD-72-024. Geological Survey. 11. Atti Conv. Proceedings. Alberto.R. 1963...W. eds. G. p. 70-72. and Benzer.D. v. 4.. 7628 Task no. R. Alberto. 3. 1. 1. p. Carrara. 26. R.. p. 1992.. W.. 10 Feb. Carla'. Ormsbee. November 24-25. dissertation. Records. Firenze. RA. Alberto. p. Bezdek. J. 1986. 360.. B. Federici. 1987. 2. Italy.P.

. Data base of mean height values for the whole Italian landmass and surrounding areas determining and statistical analysis: Boll. 1990. 1977. Carrozzo. v. p. E. and others.Carrara. Paola. p. Federici. 4th: Universita di Firenze. 35 R. no. 3. and Osso. no. 8. M. D. Carrara. Margiotta. Pugliese-Carratelli.. R. Alberto.M. L. M. Chirenti.. Carstensen. 1984: Centre de recherches en geographic physique de 1'environment association Francaise de geographic physique.. no. M.J. Realizzazione di un archivio delle quote medie (in Italian with brief English summary): serial unknown.C.. Geomathematical assessment of regional landslide hazard.F. p. Alberto. 144-151. Series C. 117-127. 35-62. Reali. p.. Roma. Digital terrain analysis for land evaluation: Geologica Applicata e Idrogeologica. France. in Chung. June 22-July 4. Quarta.. 5. no. p. A. A. Symposium on Quantitative Analysis of Mineral and Energy Resources.. p. T. 581-597. AJ. Alberto. 1992-2.W.A. and Kirkby. Sorriso-Valvo. and Reali. Geod. Fausto.. Landslide inventory in northern Calabria. D. 16. 141-151. v.. p. 474-482. Drainage and divide networks derived from high-fidelity digital terrain models. 209-224. eds. p. UK. Neth. Quarta. Carrara. M. M. and Zuanni. 60 p. 1972. and Adams. p. and Merenda.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 1. p. 1975. 34rd Annual Meeting.. Guzzetti. Mass Wasting.. Chirenti. v.. Analysis of landslide form and incidence by statistical techniques.. Luzio. C. CNR Gruppo Nazionale per la Difesa dalle Catastrofi Idrogeologiche. F. Norwich. T. F... Carrara. C.. Geo Abstracts Ltd.).... Ward. v. E.. Carrara. Computer Mapping.R. 1978. E. GNGTS. Realizzazione di un archivio delle quote medie (in Italian): Atti I conv. p. p. R. Alberto. Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Italy. 223. Luzio. Reticoli idrografici e parametri morfologici di bacino da modelli digital! del terreno: Bologna. Cardinali. v. Carroll. Automated gully delineation using digital elevation data: Annual Meeting of the American Society of Photogrammetry. Jr. GIS techniques and statistical models in evaluating landslide hazard: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. M. Association of American Geographers. Tundo. Communications du Colloque. Carrara. 1975. Computer-based data bank and statistical analysis of slope instability phenomena: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Alberto. 1976. Proceedings/ Technical Papers: p. L.T. Detti. C. Carrara. D. MA. in Yatsu. M. A. 1981. in Mouvements de Terrains.. in American Society for Photogrammetry American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Carson.. 49th. 3-27. Bringing the digital elevation model into the classroom. Threshold and characteristic angles of straight slopes. in International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Soil and Structural Engineering. 1988. Uncertainty in assessing landslide hazard and risk: FTC Journal (Enschede. 1985. Landslide hazard mapping aims and methods. 1986: Dordrecht. 1992. D. 21. Detti.R. v.T.. and Reichenbach. southern Italy: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. Alberto. 1991. 13. Cambridge University Press. Proceedings. 1983. p. Carrozzo. J. SeYie Documents du BRGM no. Carrara. A. Carrara..m. 86 p. Carter.T.. and Guzzetti. Fausto. C. 1984. 1984. v. v. J. Carrara. Proceedings of the 4th Guelph Symposium on Geomorphology. p. 187222. Lucca.. 475 p.. 69-127. V. Carrozzo. Linea 3. 44. 1982?.. 1983. Pitagora Editrice. C.. Angularity and capture of the cartographic line during digital data entry: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. no. 427-445. and Quarta. 87.. 1153-1162.. Neth. and Pasqui. V.. Mauro. Cardinali. Carson. Technical Papers. Aff. G. L. Co. 83. Luzio. no.. Alberto. Alberto. eds. 17. no. and Zuanni.. 1988. 223-247. 19-34. p. March 13-18. 1982. southern Italy: Catena. 22-24 March. A. 172-183.. NATO Advanced Study Institute. H "Ciocco". Pasqui... Sorriso-Valvo. Reidel Publ.. Washington. Catalano. e Sc. D. Chirenti. and Merenda. L.. Margiotta. Margiotta. 2. F. Hillslope Form and Process: London.. D. 9..1983.. Roberta. Alberto. C..C. 1983b.. Progress in the '80s: Washington. Mauro. Carter. 37-56. 1/2. T. Caen.

1989. Special Publication 2.. 77-81. J. 12. J. 511-520. Maryland.. Indianapolis. 77-85. Line-of-sight investigation based on quantitative terrain analysis: Montreal. MO. Pedraza. 1970. 16.. G. 1577-1580.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 69-78. 129-136. Louis. and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. H. 1. L. 255-265." Trondheim.. p.. G. Chan. p. p. July-Dec. Advanced Systems Planning Report ASP-1022.R. 13. K. and Ortega. 73. p. 1962. J. Edinburgh.. Norges Geologiske Undersoekelse. Castner... ed. 1989..R. J. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing-American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Catlow. p. Centeno.B. and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. v. 22-34..M..H. 1987.I. 1951. in Auto-Carto 9. v. Caruso.. 1477-1586. J.R. [reprinted 1891m Collected Mathematical Papers: Cambridge. v.. American Society of Photogrammetry. Chapman.. v. Gonzales. Roger. annual convention. p. Proceedings. The extraction of positional data from historical photographs and their application to geomorphology: Photogrammetric Record. paging unknown] Cayley. E. 44th. 18. Technical Papers. 1988. p.. Michael.1978: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. v.L. I. 54. no.20 p. no. 29. no.4th Series. D. p. Carter.R. 1991. [reprinted 1891 in Collected Mathematical Papers: Cambridge. April 2-7. 4. Carter. March 29-April 3..M. IN. in Blakemore. Arthur. A history of digital image processing at JPL. Arthur. Cavadias.. v.C.R. v.1986.. Chang.. Seventh International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography.. T. N. 383-400. v. and Tsai. in Woiff. Standards for digital elevation models. 18. M A. Small scale physiographic maps in the "Comunidad de Madrid" Spain. The effect of data precision on the calculation of slope and aspect using gridded DEMs: Cartographica. v. 159-166. 1859a. and Daosheng. Reassessing the role played by shaded relief in topographic scale maps: Cartographic Journal. Norway.H. and Wheate. in Digital Image Processing: Englewood Cliffs.R. Chang. Digital representations of topographic surfaces: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 1985. 112-115] Cebrian. 4. ed. p.. p. Analysis and display of digital elevation models within a quadtree-based geographic information system. 44. 55-64. University Press. p. Baltimore. 11. J. v.1985. September 14-19. 264-268. v. J.. CA. Proceedings. no.. Kang-Tsung. 1978.1986. Digital Terrain Model (DTM) Symposium.P. v. International Symposium "Geological mapping in the service of environmental planning. KR.E. Baltimore.. p. Locating "lakes" on digital elevation models.. May 9-11..Carter. 557-578. 44. On the analytical forms called trees: The London. Applications of the statistical slope orientation diagram: Illinois Academy of Sciences Transactions.1985. Case. 36 R. V. p. and Toebes. 447-454. 1979.J. Acaso. D. Mower. D. 374-378. 6-9 May 1986. 4 (Cartography). p. Bor-wen. D. 1992. The structuring and cartographic generalisation of digital river data: Annual Meeting of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 68-77. Technical Papers. J. On contour lines and slope lines: The London. p. Cayley. Washington. 18.. S. St. The effect of DEM resolution on slope and aspect mapping: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. March 11-14. Ninth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. no.K. Maryland. Castleman. v. Proceedings. p. 69-77. J A. p. 1979. Prentice-Hall.. v.C.W. no. ICA symposium.. Auto Carto London. F. 1989.D. September 8-13. p. Catlow. 1. 1986. Edinburgh. no.: Proceedings. 2. 1859b. 2. p. The multi-disciplinary applications of DEMs. Chandler. 1985. and Cooper. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Proceedings: Geology for environmental planning.. 6. ed. 1984. A statistical comparison of meander planforms in the Wabash Basin: Water Resources Research. University Press. fall convention. Canadair Limited. in Auto-Carto 7. 1987. Du. and Mark. Relative errors identified in USGS gridded OEMs.

no. G. On slopes: International Review of the Hungarian Geographical Society. 4th. Comparison of four techniques for topographic normalization of LANDSAT TM data. v. J. J. Kweichow: Geographical Society of China Journal. C. 411-432. V. Azriel.. The role of modern cartography in the formation and development of geographical morphometry (in Russian): Geografiya i prirodnyye resursy.-T. Proceedings: p. R.R. 37 R.. 10 p. Chase. V. 50-56. 27. Waldo. R. 39-57. 120-126.. 1947. Proceedings: v. Chen. Morphometric indices on small-scale geomorphological maps (in Russian): Trudy instituta geografii AN SSSR (Moscow)...428-452. Geological Survey Professional paper 500-B. p.. Illustrating the laws of morphometry: Geological Magazine. 1967. Z. and the Pattern Recognition Society. 1989. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology.. p. 1986. Chiou. p. p. 2.S. Group operator variance in morphometric work with maps: American Journal of Science. Chorley. A spatial low-pass filter working for triangular irregular network (TIN) and restricted by break lines.. + illustrations. 475-484. R. Z. p.N.. 2. no. Proceedings: p. 7390. Z.-T. D. v. 1. 4. Systematic selection of very important points (VIP) from digital terrain model for constructing triangular irregular networks. A new quantitative method of topographic analysis: American Journal of Science.. Baltimore.L. April 2-7. 25. p. Chen. 94. 1. v. Nov. v.G. v. 628-638... p. R.. Maryland.... Eighth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. M.S. 3. eds. v.1986. 208-218. J.S. 140-150.: Proceedings.P.J.K. 6.C.1992. March 29-April 3. 1992. 339-344. 250. ed.J. v. Washington. p.-T. and Ventura. Z. 4. Climate and morphometry: Journal of Geology.A. p. Thompson Book Co. R. v. Raoul. 1992.. no. eds..Chapman. D. p. in Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment. in Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. G. no. J. Poscolieri. The shape of drumlins: Journal of Glaciology. 30-Dec. 1952.M. No. 1990. p. 14. The University of Michigan. Chen. Geomorphology and General Systems Theory: U.-T.J. Proceedings. Cheng. 521 p. Chen. in Chrisman. AutoCarto 8. 138-145. I.. 1968. p.1986. 1989. August 3-8.. p. Washington. Maryland. and Guevara. 2.1988. V. no.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . R.. in Blakemore. Chorley. 184-196. The relative relief of Tsunyi. 4 (Remote Sensing & Data Acquisition). ICA symposium. 1966. 1938.A. v.S. in Auto-Carto 9. The multidisciplinary applications of DEMs. 77-89. 1990. Chyi-Rong.C. 781-790. 65. and Tobler. Analysis of a digital elevation model of the Italian peninsula for quantitative geomorphology and structural geology: typescript.. sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. v.. no. Texas. Fluvial landsculpting and the fractal dimension of topography. ASPRS/ACSM.1987. Ann Arbor. D. no. 39. 1957... Pollock. A. C. A numerical study of the terrain effects on a squall line: Terrestrial Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences (Taiwan). Larry. p. 1957.. Chen. Onorati. 2. Chen. Chebotarev.. 1990. Pictorial Pattern Recognition Symposium on automatic photointerpretation. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention. 1987. 3.. v. R. ASPRS/ACSM.. in Snow. 20 p.. [translated 1990. Thomas. Ledley. Chorley. 5. 1962.A. S. 2. the University of Maryland. Chentsov. Chorley. V. 1988. p. 256. Chervyakov. ed. 1948. Auto Carto London. 1958. 1/2. no... U.. San Antonio. Crucilla. 5. in GIS/LIS '88 conference. 1959. v. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers. 6. Baltimore. R. R. Nos. 314-322] Chiarini. May 31-June 2. C.. and Mayer. and Hoffer. The study of local topography from maps by means of statistical methods (in Russian): Trudy Moskovskogo instituta inzhenerov transporta (Moscow). Choate. Cholnoky. Ninth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. no. Lunar slope angles and surface roughness from Ranger photographs. September 14-19. and Rozenfeld.S. Proceedings: Washington. 1927. N.. Michael. Chorley.C.. Breaklines on terrain surface..

38 R. [chapter 8. L.. 1959. and Walling. no. Petr. and Man: London.M. 70.. C.. p. RJ. 3. 262. 2. chapter 15. S. Yue Hong. Morasse. 1987.. 5. Chutha. Kim. 1987. 36. Geo Books. 58. A analise da densidade de drenagem e suas implicates geomorfo!6gicas: Geografia. p. R.. 1991. Harper and Row. 138-141. 625 and 631. The History of the Study of Landforms. v. no. Christou. Jean. The drainage basin as the fundamental geomorphic unit. Michael. and Rudant. 1-4. J. Slope-line detection in a vector-based GIS: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. p. v. quantitative and morphometric advances. 28. Kim.P. Vanfgek. Maryland. Fitting a triangulation to contour lines.. Chorowicz. Charles. volume 1 Geomorphology before Davis: London. no. Nikolaos. 566-571. p. Relations between morphometric characteristics and denudational processes in some drranage basins of Italy: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. no. and Beckinsale. Chorley. p. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. Guillande. J. D . no. no. and Cervelle. and Churchland. 86-90. v. and Pogorzelski. R. 418-440..C. and Lupia Palmieri. On experimental method in geomorphology. Norwich. 1981. v. Jean. Michael. 342-390. p.E. Jean. Chorowicz. 4. p. Breard. Physical Geography. 1989. Youn-Jong.. no. Dunn. A new standard for estimating drainage basin shape: American Journal of Science. 8. 1980. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. no.. in Chorley. Chorowicz. and Dooge.. Bernard. A. and Kennedy. or the development of geomorphology.J. Michael. Chou.E. 2. p. Church. v. v. p. dynamic.. Methuen.I. 57.. p. Ichoku. 5. J. Promchinavongs. Eighth International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. J. HA. 1972.. 77-99. 29. 32-37. 1972.J. Churchland. J. Anew technique for recognition of geological and geomorphological patterns in digital terrain models: Remote Sensing of the Environment.. v. v. P. 255..J. 1993. 1. Dip and strike measured systematically on digitized three-dimensional geological maps: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 23-42. ASPRS/ACSM. no. Elvidio.J.P. v. Geoid and density anomalies: Eos. Manoussis. Kim. p.-Y. ed.. D. Chorley.P. August 16-24. and Morley. Catchment Experiments in Fluvial Geomorphology: meeting of the IGU Commission on Field Experiments in Geomorphology. 1989. Chorley. 1984. p. 67. and Cervelle. L. p. A simplified approximation for the hypsometric integral: Journal of Geology. and p. Sirio D'Alessandro. Earth.P. Malm. Irhoku..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . March 29-April 3.. Proceedings. 3. 1971. no. A. Riazanoff. 1990. p. p. R J. 563-580. [also an article. Serge. v. 2. 57-67. P. 1993): Water Resources Research. UK. 53-67. and chronological advances] Chorowicz. On size and scale in geomorphology: Progress in Physical Geology. 603-610 in chapter 31.-R. Reply (to Garbrecht and Martz. Ciccacci. 1990. Paola.A. 4. Charles. Christofoletti. 431-436. Didier.G. Jean.H. A Systems Approach: London. ed.S. Leandro.M. Cartographic problems in stream channel delineation: Cartography (UK): v. and Mark. 3-16] Chorley. R. 29. p. v. Church. in this reference. Fredi. Prentice-Hall International. A combined algorithm for automated drainage network extraction: Water Resources Research. Riazanoff. 280-290. Church.J. R. 393 p.. and Dale. Bernard.. 370 p. 1969. 1. Chorley.. p. 1991. Rudant.. T. 22. Water.1964.J. v. no. Foin. and Veillet. in Burt. B. 1992. no.S. early quantitative geomorphology.. in Auto-Carto 8.. Chapter 23.. 7. Prudon. Methuen. 150-162. quantitative. Richard. R. Horton's slope function: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.. p. 199-201. v. P. Youn-Jong.. R. 1293-1302. Proceedings. RJ. 1992.. 4. 6. 2. Baltimore. 537-539. 177. p. no. Colin.F. p.. D. The shape parameters of the geomorphologic unit hydrograph: Journal of Hydrology. Christiansen. same title. Could a machine think?: Scientific American.J. P.. eds. Serge. 1981. no. p. and Ware..D. the first quantitative work on landscape processes. 229-239. 1979. Chorley. 1957.Chorley. p. 81-97. Exeter and Huddersfield. 227-233.. v. A.

G. 1. Distance to nearest neighbors as a measure of spatial relationships in populations: Ecology. ed. M. 289-297.. v. August / September. D. 1982. The semivariogram part I: Engineering and Mining Journal. UK. 1989. Clarke. p. 1992. 713-722. and Schweizer. DX. Scale-based simulation of topography. A method for drawing slope maps from contour maps by automatic data acquisition and processing: Computers and Geosciences. 1801. Proceedings. no. R.. 7. Mercurian crater rim heights and some interplanetary comparisons. 1981. 1303-1309. Clarke.. Clark. 1990. no. Cloud. Coates. Civco.. M.L. 39 R. 5. 18. 419-423. What's DEM data?: The Computer Oriented Geological Society (Denver). and 13.12. The application of contour data for generating high fidelity grid digital elevation models. p. Computation of the fractal dimension of topographic surfaces using the triangular prism surface area method: Computers and Geosciences. 15. no. Clarke. 235-274. in Lam. J. 1990.. 1971.1987.. 680-688. in ACSM/ASP Conference. Beach cusps response to Plateau's Rule?: Science. N. Texas. P. K. Proceedings: Oxford. 16. and Evans.. v. p. p. Gregory.. 1966. A... p. v.C. Clark.K. 1980.J. 183-192. Heinemann (also New York. COGS letter..N. no. Coffman. in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 10th. p. Clarke. 204-237 (Chapter 11) in Analytical and Computer Cartography: Englewood Cliffs.W. Clarke. Clarke.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . p. and Orrell.. no. 1991.I.. 3751. Clerici. 1954. Spatial Processesmodels and applications: London. Proceedings. Clarke. in AutoCarto 8. v. Claus..C. p. Ron. 35. v. Scott.H. Topographic normalization of LANDSAT thematic mapper digital imagery: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing... 2635-2650. 3. Fractals in Geography. p. v. K. J. Influence of scale in geomorphic map analysis (abs. Department of Geography. 2. Prentice-Hall. p. AD.. Anew scheme for particle shape characterization based on fractal harmonics and fractal dimension: Powder Technology. 1979. NJ. One thousand Mount Everests?... Clarke. v.M. paging unknown. K.. 1959. An assessment of some morphometric methods: Durham. p.. Baltimore. v.. K. no. Conversion of contoured topography to digital-terrain data: Computers and Geosciences. no. Jr. Cole. no.C.): Geological Society of America Bulletin. VA. Occasional Papers series. A. p. P. 3. Digital terrain models through digital stereo correlation: Photogrammetria. Essays in Geomorphology: London. Maclnnes. 1987. 2. K. in press. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. Isobel. J. Measuring the fractal dimension of natural surfaces using a robust fractal estimator: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. Clarke. American Elsevier). UK. and Turner. 445-453. part 2. 1979. no. Prentice-Hall. A. 213-222. and DeCola.C. 303-320. p.K. 154. 7. 1981. 9. in Dury.C. 4.. 101-109. Morphometry from maps. 1984. no. v. Nina. 1987. 173-181. 6.. AutoCarto 5th. and Miller. 55. and Ord. v. eds. Clark. K. Gruen. v. 4. p. ca.E. 1. Crystal City. D. Computer determination of the geometry and topology of stream networks: Water Resources Research... 2. 290 p. no. 1966. no. Houston.C. Michael.R. K. D.. University of Durham. v. 1986. and Loon. 1958. 70. 13. New York. 90-94. p. 51. 8th. 12. 12. p. p. p. MD. Quantitative shape analysis a review: Journal of Mathematical Geology.. 1988. 37-47. 243-249. Clark. March 29-April 3. no. p.C. 1990. 1. 4.C. v. no.I. J. Pergamon Press. James. D.Cintala. Lee. Terrain Analysis.M. Scale-based simulation of topographic relief: The American Cartographer. Cliff. J. 890891. no.. p. 107. v. 39.

p. p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 507-518. no. 181. Austin. B. 692 p. no. Jr. and Watson. Mobility performance of the Lunar Roving Vehicle. John Wiley and Sons. Conradsen. p. p.. v.S.. 397-406. 1972.. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York... 1988.C. Cook. March 13-18. p. and Thyrsted. P. Cornell University Graduate School. H. Louis.. 137] Committee on Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences.. A. National Academy Press. N.H. 1992. M.. E.H. Washington. [see data: Topography. and George. an introduction to numerical cartography: Ithaca. Geomorphology and information theory. Connelly. Collins. Gardner. 1988. Alabama. 91-108..S. v. Algorithms for dense digital terrain models: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.K.. S. and Lendtre. p. 36th... B..M.W. 1991. ed. R. Outliers in circular data: Applied Statistics. M. 78 p. A new digital method for analysis of neotectonics applied to the Bonnevaux-Chambaran area.1974. KF.. Committee on Global Change. 1979. and Saluena. 29.J. P. v. N. J. global change research program: Washington. in Annual meeting.. 348 p. Laut. Proceedings. 282-290. 3. Proceedings. 313-321.J. no.N. 1976. NASA Technical Report TR R-401.. 1972... S. Environment.. no. International Association for Scientific Hydrology Symposium. France: Tectonophysics.C. 8. 141 p.. S JL. Body. Nilsson. Landscape and rainfall indices for prediction of streamflow similarities in the Hunter valley. 1990.. Accuracy/quality control of digital data in the digital topographic information bank. D. and Moon. 240-242. 268-283.S. GE-24. H. MO. Proceedings: Publication no.16 p. E. 1986.. 2 (Cartography).P.1976. v. National Academy Press. B. 194. 295-305. 221. D. terrestrial studies Apollo 15 results: Marshall Space Flight Center.. Water Science and Technology Board..L. Research Strategies for the U.1992.S. and King. Landslides: Rotterdam. Terrain parameters directly from a digital terrain model: The Canadian Surveyor. Australia: Water Resources Research. N. International Symposium on Landslides. 71-76. VA. 1989. St.. 1983. J. Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences: Washington. 6th. T.Z..P.R. applications: chapters 3 & 4] Condit. D. in Chorley. Basic Concepts of Computerized Digital Image Processing for Geologists: U. Quantitative Geography..R. Army Befense Mapping Agency Topographic Center). and Resources. Costes. 50-67. Technical papers. and Chavez. National Research Council. 40 R. ed. Auto-Carto I. National Research Council. New York. p. p.S. 919-924. Commission on Geosciences. 29. 24. v. p. B. B. thesis.B. February 22-28.. 1968. Cook. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Geological Survey Bulletin 1462. Farmer. Collett. Deriving stream parameters for hydrologic modeling from digital elevation data. 3. 1. Knut. Balkema. ACSM. J.. G. The influence of geometrical slope characteristics and land use on the development of shallow landslides. Baeza. R..P.. Gert. Reston. Collins. 4607. A. 1975. 5..S. Connelly.. Cook. Temporal terrain shading. p. C. no. Christchurch.. Ages estimated from a diffusion equation model for scarp degradation: Science. February 10-14. no. annual convention. 1988.C..C. (Operating Systems Panel remarks on data collection systems at the U. Colleau. v. Colman.. v. 291 p.. Harper and Row. Corominas.G. C^LM. Goodspeed. 1. Statistical lineament analysis in south Greenland based on LANDSAT imagery: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 1976. Cooper. 1991. Tage. 2. Baltimore Maryland. [see topographic data. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Becember 9-12. v. v. 1968. 263-265. and Day. Falls Church: Proceedings. techniques and theories in geography: London. no. 1283-1298.. p. I. unpublished M. The coding and storage of terrain height data. R. Faith. p. in New Directions for Surface Water Modeling. May 1989. Kenneth. p. p.Cole. B. 47. AA.S.C. CD. 1981.. 483-488. and Srikanthan.E. p. in Bell. in International Conference on Automation in Cartography. Connors.

p. v.. L. Sidney. 54. 2. 16-30. eds.. 108130. Craig.. 78-101. eds. Fractal dimensions and geometries of caves: Mathematical Geology. Northwestern University Studies in Geography no. Evaluation of terrain complexity by autocorrelation: Kent State University.L. no. and Evans.J. v. 12. in Goudie. 12. 111. no. Crozier. October 2-5. 1956. 181-195.. to Special Issue on Theoretical Geomorphology Hillslopes and Rivers: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.G. J. 1980. R. Economic and Cultural Topics: Evanston. 1982. v. 197-207.1980. Ohio. 1. A computer program for the simulation of landform erosion: Computers and Geosciences. J. 1. Craig. p..J. 1970. 13. 1991. N.L. and Clark.Coulson. 4.. Contract NAG 5-165.. 3. Applied Geomorphology. 7. 18. 1991. and Craft.. F. no..K. v. 1990. 1989. and Gregory. 1551-1555. 301-312.J. Part I. 1967. Bilateral topographic symmetry patterns across Aphrodite Terra. J. W. Description of line patterns. 1982. Geology Department. Bl.. llth. Prentice-Hall. 1988.. Cressie. S.. 2. 1987.F. and Klein. 45-48. no 11. Andrew (with the assistance of six others).. 7. 754 p. The description of relief in field studies of soils: Journal of Soil Science.E. P. N J. Geomorphological Techniques (second edition): London. Cox. Dacey. 6. Quantitative Geography. 1975. M. I.PIKBUSGS OF93-262A . Ohio.E. R. Quality control of data through scientific visualization: Scientific Computing and Automation. 16.G. 765-783. p. D J. The analysis of two-dimensional orientation data: Journal of Geology. Culling.. p.J. Criteria for constructing optimal digital terrain models. Folse.L. Crumpler. v. no. 1571-1576. v. 1986. 4812. 4. 1. v. CIS versus CAD versus DBMS. 208 p. K. 221-243. and Loh. 41 R. The fractal geometry of the soil-covered landscape: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Computing Appalachian geomorphology: Geomorphology. Proceedings: London. 3rd ed. v.. Cowan.J. I. 1983. Kent. N. no. p.. v.G. 1987.. and Head. W. 1973. 93.: Englewood Cliffs. Mark. Crozier. Hillslope profiles. p.C. in Garrison. L. v. 369-385.. 1988. On the estimation of spatial autocorrelation in geomorphology: Earth Surface Processes. p. p. for the British Geomorphological Research Group. M. for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.F. 117-131.. Curl.. R. Kent State University. 111-142. KR. no. 19. Annual Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium.E. in Craig. p. Cox. 237. ed. no. Final Report. 17. 1987.J. v. 12.. 1986.R. Computer interpolation and contouring of two-dimensional data a review: Geoexploration. v.. Curtis. and Datko.S. Techniques for the morphometric analysis of landslips: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.. Alien and Unwin. 262-267.. M. p.F. no. 71-86. v. no.. no. 54. p.H. 92-96.. (with Don Boucher). no. D J.K.. 277287... p.. On the origin of the Peterborough drumlin field testing the dilatancy theory: The Canadian Geographer. 928 p. no. On Hurst phenomena in the landscape: Transactions. Grain. v. Curray. 1-2. 11. 1965.G. what are the differences?: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 2. R.. J. 8.R. Trends in automated mapping and geographic information system hardware: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Cox. 64.W.. L.. no. W. R. p. Unwin Hyman. 8..N. 11. Craig. D. p. no. Introduction. Craig. Doornkamp. Rane. p. p. Culling. Croswell. Japanese Geomorphological Union. 89-93. Noel.H. Applied General Statistics. and Marble.G. v. p. Wiley. p. 2.S. Croxton.. no.. Crosley. N J.. D. Cowden. Venus: Journal of Geophysical Research. v. 1967. 8. p. R. 1988. Artificial intelligence and natural resource management: Science. p. Statistics for Spatial Data: New York. v.

An experimental investigation of video pattern recognition. 201-211. Washington. Pollock. Army Research Office (Durham) Contract No.1984. 1990. B. v. Downing. L. R. 1986. 3. and Gamble. 127-151.021. and Joseph. 1984. Covariance of biophysical data with digital topographic and land use maps over the FIFE site: Journal of Geophysical Research. p. no.E. Dawson.W.. p.K. 97. v. 169186. R. v. in American Society for Photogrammetry American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.. no. A method of characterizing nearly level surfaces: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. 86 p. v. Modeling crater topography and albedo from monoscopic Viking orbiter images. Methuen. 8.S. no. 24th. for U.M.J. Introduction to image processing algorithms: BYTE. 19. 175185. and Ballantyne.. Final Report. p. Contour mapping and SURFACE H: Science. Changing perceptions of reality (image editing in the microcomputer 42 R. The hydrologic regions of Michigan: Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science.1986: Proceedings. v. in Cheng. v.. Davis. and Dozier. 237. U. Jack.. D17. Davis. M. C.. no.F. MA. Dale..F. O. DA-31-124-ARO-D-456.C. and Rozenfeld. p. Information analysis of a spatial database for ecological land classification: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. ORA Project 08055. J. sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. Statistics and Data Analysis in Geology (2nd edition): New York. 56. 605-613. 914. Fall Convention.B. Dangermond. 1982. and Zoraster. E. Davis.H.J. 1976.. Azriel. v. TX. 379-380. 1987. 1973.C.. 2. Davis. Schimel. Atlanta. v.L. J.Dacey. Bll. Jack.1931. v. Arts and Letters. Sept.. 2. and Soderblom... no. T. M. 1986. 1980. v. Geographic data base systems.. Report ETL-0302.K. no... 1932. 1992. p. 646 p. 1967.009-19. R. F.D. p. 429-461. 6076. and Conacher. G. 1987. Houston. Proceedings: Washington. John Wiley and Sons.. J A. J. 4815.. p.. p. no. 1970.. F. Nelson. PA. R. 8. PA. 1.S. and Tanaka. A hypothetical nine unit landsurface model: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. no. 89-94. Kittel.S. 5. C. p.. Jr. Algorithms for Digital Terrain Modeling: Fort Belvoir. Dacey. 32.C. Blong. Davis. Department of Geography.J... 89. D. 1968. VA. San Antonio. Directions in Geography: London. Dawson. ecL. Some questions about spatial distributions. v. Dangermond. Is kurtosis really 'peakedness'?: American Statistician.B.R. EM. no. 1976. Army Engineering Topographic Laboratory. Georgia. 14. the University of Maryland. Friedl. Davis. M. Jeff. 94499457. p. May 31-June 2.L. Darling. Dubayah. no. 1. 12. Dalrymple. Davis. and the Pattern Recognition Society.S. 4.M. 211-215. p..F. D.. 1. I methodology: Journal of Geophysical Research. 24.M.. 1969. and Krumbein. D. Geographic Information Systems Workshop. Davis. no. 1993. 19-22. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Jeff.. Ledley. p. March 1993.. p.W.. eds.A. D. 16. paging unknown. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV.G. 1984. R. April 1-4. W. Small volcanoes in Tempe Terra.. Thompson Book Co. Pictorial Pattern Recognition Symposium on automatic photointerpretation.M. 1989. Darlington. Daniels.M. LA. B. The software toolbox approach to meeting the users' needs for GIS analysis. 184191. A study of the land type: Ann Arbor. p. R.. p. 1970.C. in Chorley.. v. p. Davis. 1968.C. Steven. 66-75..C. 669-672. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. K. A.. " Davis. The University of Michigan. J. p. TX: Technical Papers. Topological properties of disjoint channel networks within enclosed regions: Mathematical Geology. J. and Dozier. Two statistics for the analysis of orientation data in geography: The Professional Geographer.. Ralph. Critical values for a measure of contiguity of anomalous points in a grid survey: Mathematical Geology. 12.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. Michaelson. Mars their detailed morphometry and inferred geologic significance. 457-469.

Auto-Carto 6.H. 1986. 10. Christian. p. and Nagy. Depraetere. 17. Hall. International Geographical Union Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing. Neural networks: The American Scientist. Jaromir. Efficient selection. II. What is computer science?: The American Scientist.J. Pietro. Christian. Denning. Expert systems: The American Scientist. v. Geomorphologische Kartierung in mittleren Massstaben: Gotha. Academia Press. DeLotto.A. Day. Norfolk. Pienovi. compilers. 793-800. Bianca. 1981. Surface roughness as a discriminator of tropical karst styles: Zeitschrift for Geomorphologie. August 3-8. Issue 23. p. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. no. and Baker. 235-250. 3. P.J. 302. p.. C. Manual of Detailed Geomorphological Mapping: International Geographical Union Commission on Geomorphological Surveying and Mapping. v. 1992. Demek. and Chorowicz. N. Falcidieno. & 304. M. Proceedings: U.. v. 1982. 50-75] Demek. 73.. Otdelenie Matematicheskikh i Estestuennykh Nauk] Dell'Orco. Va. 1. v. 80.. in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Denning.S. Selenographic distribution of apparent crater depth. and McAuley.. 74. no. 1972. October. DeJong. Bianca. May 17-22.A. 299308. 1983. 1986. unpublished M. J. no. March 16-20.. and retrieval of irregularly distributed elevation data: Computers and Geosciences. 14. 639-650. Leila. Seattle. v. Proceedings: New York. p. Ottawa Canada. E. p.. 344 + 24 p. no.... and Nagy.. GeographischeKartographische Anstalt. VEB Hermann Haack.G. Benoit. p. Clifford. David. Classes des Sciences Math£matiques et Naturelles. 1.C. and Ghiron. 1989. Geological Survey national computer technology meeting. 13. p. De Hon.F.. George.Th. 11.. P. 225 p. Washington. Shape representation by rectangles preserving fractality. eds. U. 2nd. 1934. 77.1986. 1992. A visibility-based model for terrain features. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers. Geological Survey Open-file report 92-64. Visualization techniques Magellan scientists use computer-simulated flights to explore Venus: OSSA Information Systems Newsletter. H. Depraetere. R. De Floriani. Erganzungshefl Nr. Supplementband 32. 1-4. 16-19. 5 (Resource Technology 92). 1985.S. p. 6.. storage. p. Falcidieno.. Jeff. no. no. B. Pienovi. NASA Office of Space Science and Applications. p. International Cartographic Association: Proceedings. v. Caterina. v. Texas.. Multiscale interactions between topography and vegetation in Colorado. ed. Myche. Steve. Caterina. P. Bayesian learning: The American Scientist. De Cola. Sur la sphere vide (in French): Bulletin de l'Acad£mie Des Sciences de USSR. v. 1979. Exemples d'analyse g6omorphom6triques dans les Appalaches a partir des Modeles NumeYiques de Terrain (in French): Physio-G6o. p. 18-20. p. 1987. P. 1992.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Multiscale characterization of topographic complexity in Colorado (abs. Saunders. B. 12B. International Symposium on Automated Cartography. Gellert. 216-218. no. Denning. 194. in Balthrop. 1. J. no. Delaunay. Department of Geography.. 6. paging unknown.1992. D. George. 1983: Proceedings. Eric. and Verstappen. 1991. 3. p. v. p. v. The role of scale in automated terrain classification: Buffalo.. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention. 6th. Hans. De Floriani. Jaromir. Lee. co-eds. VII. July 5-10. v. 1985. Jean..). 5. 281 zu Petermanns Geographischen Mitteilungen. Etude G6omorphom6trique du bassin-versant de BooroBorotou a partir d'un modele num6rique de terrain Structure et fonctionnement hydrop6dologique d'un petit bassin-versant de 43 R.environment): BYTE. and Embleton. in Wellar. [for morphometry: p. p. Leila.J. WA. 1989.J. ed. [also listed as Izvestiia Akademiia Nauk SSSR. 1989. 1981. Deffontaines.. Prague. Embleton. Alien. 667-673. Principles of drainage basin analysis from multisource data Application to the structural analysis of the Zaire Basin: Tectonophysics. 49-76. 426-429. BJS. 16-27. p. Denning. 237-263.Y. v. 1991. thesis. Pergamon. Houston. De Cola..1992. no. 1-8. and Kugler.S.300. SUNY-Buffalo. 12th.J. 293-297. Lee. Marco.

James. 1970. 23. 1356. Aspects of constructing a digital geomorphological base map. J. v..S. southeast California. A... Sci. Richard. 329-338.. v. Abrahams. 246-261. 5. Dikau. Dillon. no.H. 1990. p. 1993. Review of GIS applications in hydrologic modeling: Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. De Smet. James. annual conference and exposition. 1991. pour le Devel. 675-679. Dean. de Rech. Proceedings. Montgomery. DeVantier. and Mark. Soci6t6 Beige d'fitudes G6ographie. and Maidment. 1. Landform classification of New Mexico by computer: U. Autocorrelation of the Earth's crust* with analog computers: Review of Scientific Instruments.R. D. 1985. A 104.D. p. 1991. 1981. v. 1951. Montgomery. p. 1989. Romy. p. Multivariate Analysis Methods and Applications: New York.. v. and Turrin. 3109-3116. p. 119. 143167. A. Roger.A. 13-18. 6.J. p.E. en Cooperation. 2.J. south-central 44 R. 115-124. 13-15] Dietrich. in Vinken. Ding. France. v. ed. B. 302-305. Taylor and Francis. 98. p. and Urban.. 1978. D. 59. p. Geomorphic landform modelling based on hierarchy theory. Richard. no. Visualization in the earth sciences: Earth and Mineral Sciences. Pal. and Goldstein. [* Le. no. p. David. v. v. Wilson. in Raper. in Geotimes. 1954. Richard. Equipe HYFERBAV. Zurich. E. Cima volcanic field. Doehring. Inst. no. D. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling.. Dietrich.C. p. 1983. Matthew. p. CA: Proceedings. N. C. no. 230-239... Djokic. Dikau.. v. v.. and Bauer. 1990a. 357-370. Discrimination of pediments and alluvial fans from topographic maps: Geological Society of America Bulletin. July 23-27: 1990.. De Smet. 1. 89. D. Geological Survey Geophysical Investigations Map GP-933. 1. 10.. p. Erosion thresholds and land surface morphology: Geology.D. 587 p. Richard. 7 (July). Richard.R. Geologisches Jahrbuch (Hannover): v. Wilson.000. no. Renier. 1992. 20. v. v. 353-360. p. Case studies in the development of derived geomorphic maps: Geologische Jahrbuch.C.D. 81. Drainage development on basaltic lava flows. 2. 22. 1989.. Dikau. 5. San Jose.R. M. and Horowitz.E. p. 1993.. and Lunar Crater volcanic field.K. paging unknown. v. 1957. and landscape morphology using a digital elevation model: Journal of Geology. Robert. no. 20. W. 45-55. 1984. R. ed.1992. J. Analysis of erosion thresholds.15 p.D. T. Roger. Switzerland. 259-278. 1990b. Thematic relief mapping by computer: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. 36.. and McKean.E. p. Richard. Collection Etudes et Theses. in GIS/LIS '92. 891-900. v.. Courbe hypsographique et profile moyen de 1'Ardenne (in French): Bull. John Wiley and Sons.. p. 1992. Brabb.O.500. 8.. 1. Dixon. Derivatives from detailed geoscientific maps using computer methods: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Dohrenwend. no. Fr. Terrain analysis for urban stormwater modelling: Hydrological Processes. Dikau. W. W. scale 1:2. Yuemin. no. Three dimensional applications in geographical information systems: London.. 101. [abridged 1991. W. ORSTOM. An improved method for shadow modeling based on digital elevation models. Systematic valley asymmetry in the central California Coast Ranges: Geological Society of America Bulletin. and Markus. Soci6t6 Beige d'fitudes G6ographie. 1988. no. C. 53-62. Problems de morphom6trie (in French): Bull. journ6e hydrope'dologique. Supplementband 80. Divenyi.. Geological Survey Open-file Report OF 91-634.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A ... v. Diamantides. v. Jonathan. 122. Geometry comes up to date: The New Scientist. Diment. November 10-12. 28. McKean. p. The application of a digital relief model to landform analysis in geomorphology. 1992. Bela.savanne humide (in French): Montpellier. Average elevation map of the conterminous United States (Gilluly averaging method): U. v. p. Dohrenwend. 111-132. 178-187. ground surface] DiBiase.S. no. channel networks. and Feldman. Dikau. 4th.C. 51-77.R.. B. p. Dikau. 2.

1989.C. The topographic distribution of annual incoming solar radiation in the Rio Grande river basin: Geophysical Research Letters. 23. Neth. and Hart. [see GSAB.R. Hayden.. Dufour. D. 1986. v.. Drummond.O. p. H.R. Yves. Doornkamp... Experiments to locate ridges and channels to create a new type of digital elevation model: Cartographica. Drewry. 1971. Ellsworth. 1. 57-79.. Douglas. Alfred. 10.C. p. & GSAB.. 2961. Drungil. Rapid calculation of terrain parameters for radiation modeling from digital elevation data: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 1992. no. Application of low altitude photogrammetry to the determination of rangeland hydraulic parameters: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Heywood. 173178. no. Philip. no. and Simanton. 41-44. Numerical Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. v. Oblique synoptic images.H. Dornbach. 2. 963-969. Glenn. and McEwen. 7. Shoreline forms and shoreline dynamics: Science. and King. no.H. Dolan. 36. 1983... and Felder. and Dudycha. 19..101/4. 129-141. Linwood. 1981.J. and Peucker.Nevada Reply: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1968. B. p. p. V. no. display strong evidence of a "new" caldera in southwestern Guatemala: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 145-151.. 256. and Hayden.W.W. Orthographic terrain views using data derived from digital elevation models: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.. St. Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis: New York. Systematic variations in inshore bathymetry: Journal of Geology. R. Crescentic coastal landforms: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. no. p. p. 4.H. Algorithms for the reduction of the number of points required to represent a digitized line or its caricature: The Canadian Cartographer. N. v. 5. Claude. Claude. 52. Robert. p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . v. v. 1974. 257-265. p. F. 7. 3/4. 2231-2234. Wendell. 2. Structural and hydrogeological origin of tower karst in southern China (Lijiang plain in the Guilin region): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. v. p. Foley. Dolan. Duffield. no. and Vincent. p..H. Hayden. v.P. 1. p. 5. Definitions numeYiques utilisables: Bulletin du Comite" Francais de Cartographic. B. 1986. J. v. and Dennis. L'utilisation de 1'ordinateur pour 1'analyse morphome'trique du bassin versant en vue de la planification du re*seau hydrome'trique national de base (in French): Revue de Geomorphologie Dynamique. p.. 1975. no. and van Katwijk. Vincent. 982-986. W. no.M. no. Grant. p..). no. p. 25-36. Wiley. 85. 5514.O. Duda. Druet. 101. 1973. v. 1973. 1. Jeff. R. Robert.J. 1973. 1989. J. 1481-1485. Heiken. 482 p. Terrain units in eastern Antarctica: Nature. 1977b. and Frew. Dozier.. Linwood. Jeff. Pascal. 99/9. no. 1987. v. J. 405-413. Dubayah. p. 22.K. Doyle. 197. Martin's Press. Howarth. P. R.. v. v. Drogue. 1992. p. 1992. 49-51. D.E. v.O. 20. A faster solution to the horizon problem: Computers and Geosciences. 33. 1993. Donker. no. Douglas. 95.M. 18. and Abgrall. F. p. v. P.. v. 1978. no. 2. 4. Holder. 1990. no. v. and Downey. 4298. Duncan. Qualifying relief terms: The Professional Geographer. 16. v. 1990. Dubayah.. 44.. 28. p.E. 22. H. 1. 1956. T. 4. 1977a. 194-195. 55. Dugay. 112-122. B. C. LeDrew.. no. CA. Dozier. Bruno.. R. McCuen. produced from digital data. J. James. no. 217-22-4. Douglas... Digital terrain models an overview: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.. Automatic extraction of catchment hydrologic properties from digital elevation data: ITC Journal (Enschede.. p. Elements remarquables du relief. 509-518. 1-12. Jeffrey. no.P. Jeff. 1992-3. A software package for integrating digital elevation models into the digital analysis of remote-sensing 45 R. 6. no. and Bidaux.. Robert. p. An approach to design of terrain representation: Surveying and Mapping. v. 12. R. 326-332. 372 p. v. D..E. 595-599] Dolan. no.. and Dozier. 19191924.P.

Dury. Geoffrey. p. v.. Beitrage der Rasterdatenverarbeitung zum Aufbau digitaler Gelandemodelle (in German): Zeitschrift fur Vermessungenswesen. Lithology and microtopography in the Chillagoe karst. Louis. Ebisemiju. v. 1990. Height interpolation by the method of finite elements. 268-278. 5. 21. D. p. and Trotter.. MO. no. Masashige. An objective criterion for the selection of representative basins: Water Resources Research. 191-204. 1977.S. Ebner. and Tang. Earth Sciences Division Ad Hoc Committee on Geography. M. 1961. Effect of digital elevation model resolution on properties of contours. Ebner. 7. 1984.H.. Generation... v.R.. B. Publication No.. no.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Mass. 26. part fill. v. 1277. p.Y. v. p. Heinrich. R. 179-192. DeRose. S.. Queensland. p. 1978. Budapest. Corps of Engineers. v.V. 1984 meeting: Technical Papers. 4. G. v. Ebner. 186-201. 1. and Hossler. 1984. and Vmogradov.C. ed. 241-254. 1-2.. 15.M. ?). 5.C. 1951. Liang. 1965. p. 1988.. National Academy of Science National Research Council. p.. DTMs for terrain evaluation: Geocarto International. and Reiss. Reinhardt. Army Research and Development Laboratories. Magnitude-frequency analysis and channel morphometry.H. v. and Tang.. 1. Heinrich. W. May 9-11. v. F.S. 7. in Morisawa. B. 1973.1978. 1988. N. 2. p. Reinhardt. 6th. p. High fidelity digital terrain models from digitized contours. no.data: Computers and Geosciences. no. 339-343.. 331-342. individually paginated (8 papers). Dedham. Heinrich. in World Conference of the International Cartographic Association. 83 PDyer. Japanese Geomorphological Union. 424-434. p. R... and Hirano. Konrad. Fluvial Geomorphology. no. Ebisch. 80 p. [republished in Cartographica. p. Publications in Geomorphology.S. 9. v. W. 1983. p. Geoffrey.2. Liang. 1. Japan). 1979. 61 A. Masaaki. Proceedings. v. p. p. Pymond. 5. 1987.. 27.. ASP/ACSM: Proceedings. Microrelief studies as a guide to mine detector design: U. Ebisemiju. 103-112. no.. n..K. 2. 1989. Ebner. Dutton. 1979a. Geodesic modelling of planetary relief. Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis. p. The Science of Geography: 46 R. v. Harvard University. no. in Wellar. Ottawa Canada. no. 1st. management and utilization of high fidelity digital elevation models: International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (Kyoto.. Ebner. Australia: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Dunkerley.E. Data Structures Surficial and Multi-Dimensional: Harvard Papers on Geographic Information Systems.I. 1927. Button. III/556HI/566. 1979b. 15... proceedings of the 4th annual geomorphology symposium: Binghamton. v. 148-158.S. 27. International Symposium on Automated Cartography. 1983. Ebizuka. P. ed. SUNY. Washington.. Auto-Carto 6. 1983: Proceedings. no. 14th. 1989. 88. 188-207] Dwornik. p. Heinrich. J. ed. Numerical analysis of landform in the western part of the Izumi Mountain Range based on the digital map: Transactions. M.. 53-58. and Webb. 4.S... Heinrich. nos. Peter. 1992. 1988. Quantitative measurement of available relief and of depth of dissection: Geological Magazine. Digital terrain models for high mountains: Mountain Research and Development (where publ. D. The role of biosphere reserves in landscape and ecosystem studies: Nature and Resources. no. v. Graduate School of Design. p. 2 & 3. F. 669-678. C. 353356.E. St. Dury. Ebisemiju. Research Report 1692-RR. International advanced study symposium on topological data structures for geographic information systems.L. A reduced rank model of drainage basin morphology: Geografiska Annaler. in American Society on Photogrammetry / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. v. 91-121. in Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Symposium. F. G. Canonical correlation analysis in geomorphology with particular reference to drainage basin characteristics: Geomorphology.. 114.

L.000. no.000. Army Corps of Enginers.. C. watershed <main>. Elassal. and Weinberg. C. 1988. 15. Atlas of the Exclusive Economic Zone. v.. 2. C. March 13-18. 54. 1988. 129-138.. Miscellaneous Investigations Series Map 1-1792. September 28October 3. Anchorage. 1989: Proceedings.S. Alaska. March 18-19. p. M. Eckert. M. Utah. no.1988.. p.R.000. p. Max. 247. RJC. G.1986: Technical papers. A comparison of surface fitting algorithms for geophysical data: Terra Nova (London). Efford. p. 1. Louis. 1990-1992] Edwards. v. p. USGS digital cartographic data standards digital elevation models: U. 69.. annual convention. 2 (Cartography). August 17-24. R. p. User's Guide: v.R. v. EEZ-Scan 84 Scientific Staff. 1990. Interactive digital image manipulation system (IDIMS). MO: Technical papers. western conterminous United States: U. Experimental digital shaded-relief map of California: U. p. and Mark. 1970..S. 16. Calif. scale 1:1. 203-213.. paging by section. Eli. 1.L.. 19-58. 275-281. and Oregon (1-2271) published by the same authors. An analytical cartographic system for modeling geomorphic data. St. and Hassan..B. and Batson. p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 1: Sunnyvale. Y. 1990. 1990. Elghazali. An exact method for characterization of grain shape: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 64-73.1989. Daniel. Die Kartenwissenchaft (in German): Berlin and Leipzig. 47 R. D. 205-212. no. Desmond. Ehlschlaeger.. 2. Edwards. 75-82. M. R.. 9 PEinstein. and Reclamation. Albert. [Punktsystem of relief protrayal: v. 1992.K. in Symposium on Mining Hydrology.1 User's Reference Manual: Champaign. 2 vols. 43. p. 5.L. 40 p. Eliason. Sedimentology. 1983. r. 1986. 1989. no.. in Geographical Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS).. Nevada. R. 1983. [Similar maps of Arizona. Louis. and Moellering. Electromagnetic Systems Laboratory. and Batson. El Abbass. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Automated modeling of debris-flow hazard using digital elevation models (abs. Performance of surface fitting algorithms using fictitious double Fourier data. Wyoming. Using the AT Search algorithm to develop hydrologic models from digital elevation data. Edwards. 1988. 445-453. 1991. 1980. B.R. annual convention. Albouy. March 13-18.S.. 223. Mapping fractures remotely for earthquake hazard assessment by the use of topographic and seismic hypocenter data: Episodes (IUGS).M. v. v.. A. Geological Survey Circular 895-B.N. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.S. (ESL). Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. T. 1921. no.M.. Experimental digital shaded-relief map of Southwestern United States: U. S. presentation (no citation for proceedings volume).W. 1992. University of Kentucky: Proceedings.S.D. Edwards. MO: Technical papers. v. and Diament. N. MD. Terrain data base generation for autonomous land vehicle navigation: Photogrammetria. Kathleen. v. Digital terrain modeling applications in surface mining hydrology. v. Baltimore. Sources of error in the photoclinometric determination of planetary topography a reappraisal: Earth Moon and Planets..): Eos. fall meeting. in International Geographic Information Systems (IGIS) Symposium '89. 535-540] Edmonds. The cause of the formation of meanders in the courses of rivers and of the socalled Baer's law: Naturwissenschaften. scale 1:500. 14.Hungary. St. 1926. and Caruso. scale 1:2. AA. p. v. Version 4... Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations map 1-1850. 40. 1. U. Ehrlich.D. R.S. 1988. 1986. Jallouli. EL. Vincent. Robert. Kathleen. 1.. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Ehlschlaeger. no. MJM. Bernard.. Geological Survey.. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.152 p. 101-107. Ellen. p. p. 6 (General). and Hamrio. Research for reducing the labor intensive nature of high-resolution terrain analysis feature extraction..000. Palmer. p. and Schoppmann. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations map 1-1848. Harold.. 467-475. Walter De Gruyter and Co. J.000. Inc.

S.K. 1989. 1992a. p. and Knifong. Inst. (ESRI) Inc. 443-453. Fugikawa.0). R. Robert. ed. Enzmann. 6. D. 209-217. p. Digital mapping of debris-flow hazard near Honolulu (abs. E.. ESRI. 1-8. Christian. 6. S. scale 1:30. LMV-Rapport 1986: 3.D. 1991b. H. ARC/INFO user's guide. Elliot. R. 1983..K. 43 (supplement). no. CA. California: U. Art. May. Christian. Fall Convention. M. Mark.K. 1989. Elvhage. ESRI.0): Redlands. 321 p. A-95 to A-103. Surface analysis and display: Redlands. 2. p. An investigation of the change in surface roughness through time on the foreland of Austre Okstindbreen. The nature and objectives of applied geomorphological mapping: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Investigations Map. ESRI. ca. variously paged. 343-358. 274-291.S. no. Reinhold Book Co. 1988.O. display. W. S.. variously paged. 227. Supplementband 68. p. Some working hypotheses on the geomorphology of Sweden in the light of a new relief map: Geografiska Annaler. 1991a. ESRI. andRashad. 6.. 1. Redlands..L.D..0)... Datorstod vid terrangatergivning (in Swedish): Tekniska Skrifter-Professional Papers. and Lidmar-Bergstrom. 140.. G. Cell-based modeling with GRID (rev. Naturgeogr. Statistical expression for measuring the degree of reliability of contour maps. S. Surface modeling with TIN (rev.. Hawaii: U.. 389-395. Geological Survey Open-file report OF 93-0213. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. GA.500. 1993. (ESRI) Inc. v. El-Tahlawi. Eppler. 48 R. R. 4. Nummedal. 2. Land Surface Roughness: University of London (UK). v. Rapport 59 med kartbilaga. Embleton. Engstrom. M. J. v.A. Elvhage. Sources of shape variation in lunar impact craters Fourier shape analysis: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. 1991: Technical Papers. and Verstappen. 1988.. p. Cannon. Supplement hydrologic and distance modeling tools: Redlands.H.M.. D. Enzmann.T. Th.) Annual User Conference llth. 94. (ESRI) Inc.Ellen. Kama. p. 147 p. MJ. 69. and Cannon.. July 1991. no. Elmes.): Eos.H. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. P. 73.. north Norway: Computers and Geosciences. Elvhage. 33...H. 1991. R. July 1991. p. USA: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Elliot. Environmental Systems Research Institute. Environmental Systems Research Institute.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . variously paged. 2. 1992b. no.000. Inc.. v. ser. Environmental Systems Research Institute. October 28-November 1. p. CA. ARC/INFO user's guide.D. Stephen. MF-1406. and Twery. 1982. v. Marin County and adjacent parts of Sonoma County.K. unpublished doctoral dissertation. Forest cover type estimated from digital elevation data. Ehrlich. Calif. Quantitative researches on frequency distribution of surface inclination for areas of different rocks (in Japanese): Tirikyoiku (Tokyo).1. G. v. ARC/INFO user's guide. in Fairbridge. CA.. p. Introduction to the section on signatures.. Morphometric analysis of mountain drainage basins in the Basin and Range Province.N. D. Signature theory.. Mark.K. 1983. 1933. 1987.. and Schultz. Endo. Atlanta. 1968.Z. CA. Ellen. Dag..S. Map showing areas susceptible to different hazards from shallow landsliding. Analysis. R. Environmental Systems Research Institute. Terrangatergivning En serie svenska experimentkartor (in Swedish): Uppsala Univ. Cell-based modeling with GRID 6. Peterson.W. Christian. Understanding GIS. 19. A.. variously paged. in Planetology and Space Mission Planning: Annals of the New York Academy of Science. and management: Redlands. v. 993-994. and Reid. scale 1:62. 1.. 15. in GIS/LIS..R. Ellen. (ESRI) Inc. Map of debris-flow hazard in the Honolulu District of Oahu. 1992. p. 1992.D. v. in ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute. Clifford.21 p.. R. 1966. p 30-37. The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology: New York. 1991. no.. 154-156... 1986. J. in press. Proceedings. the ARC/INFO method (rev.

. I. Statistical characterization of altitude matrices by computer. 1969. T. 52. 24 p. p.... ed. International Geomorphology 1986.S. J. no.S.. Harper and Row. Empirically determined effect of gross terrain features upon ground visibility from low-flying aircraft: U. U. International Conference on Geomorphology. 1961. Evans. I. Evans. The selection of class intervals: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. an investigation of dimensionality and the choice of key variables: Durham Geomorphometry Report 8. England. I. 1. Switzerland.. 16-18 September 1985: Rotterdam. 1984b. 98-124. Methuen. van Zyl.Eppler. 2. Statistical characterization of altitude matrices by computer. Part II: New York. England. I. and Rose. v. University of Durham. 1981. 3.S. 1987a. L.S. Department of Geography. England...S.J. 105-124. ed. Army contract DA-ERO-591-73-G0040.. 1977b. I..S. 1974. 29. p. Evans. R. 131 p. 553. England. Technical Publication 2760.J. and Mouginis-Mark. Department of Geography..S.. I.S. D. The morphometry of specific landforms. Army contract DA-ERO-591-73G0040.... Evans. Evans.. Durham City. JJ. University of ZurichIrchel: Proceedings... Erickson. The geomorphology and morphometry of glacial and nival areas. England. British Columbia: University of Cambridge.T. 1979. Fourth progress report. The implementation of an automated cartography system. University of Durham.D. 59A. v. and Man: London. Durham City..S. no. Zurich.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. 2. Evans. V.L.. Earth. University of Durham. 369-380. 1991. Evans. Manchester. John Wiley & Sons. I. HA. The geomorphometry and asymmetry of glaciated mountains.S. I.557. Evans. 1975. 1987b. Texture analysis of radiometric signatures of new sea ice forming in Arctic leads: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 49 R.S. 274-295. England. 1984a.. I. An integrated system of terrain analysis and slope mapping: Department of Geography. 39-55. Supplementband 36.. v. 1. A new approach to drumlin morphometry. University of Durham. 527 p.S. in Menzies. p. RA.. eds.S. Galloway and Caithness (reprinted 1984): Durham Geomorphometry Report 7. I.D.. Evans. 192 p. Final Report (Report 6). no. Evans. P.. 119-130. Evans. 3-4. New Series. Fair. Gill. Third progress report. derivatives of altitude and descriptive statistics. Evans. August 2024 1984. General geomorphometry. I. UK. Somerset. with the assistance of Margaret Young and J. p. I. 1963. paging unknown.S.L. p. I. Naval Ordnance Test Station. 1977a. U.G. I. p. Geography Department. with special reference to the Bridge River District. Frequency distribution of gradient: Durham City. 1970. p. in Chorley.. 73. 98-116. Evans. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. and Fanner. p. v. Water. no. AA. Analysis of terrain characteristics from digital terrain matrices for parts of Devon. Balkema. 558. Evans. Academic Press. NAVWEPS Report 7779. England. Systematics Association Special Volume No. Map analysis of mean slope: Geographical Articles (Cambridge Univ.. p. 1st. p. Data Processing in Biology and Geology: London.S. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. ed. Properties of the Wessex land surface. 151-175. Proceedings of the Drumlin Symposium. 1972. 57 p. An integrated system of terrain analysis and slope mapping: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.S. Evans. The effect of resolution on gradients calculated from an altitude matrix (Appendix: Stationarity): Durham City.S... Evans.. University of Durham.. 233-241. in Gardiner. J. Radar interferometry studies of the Earth's topography: Eos. UK).S. statistical properties of the Wessex land surface. 1980. 2. v. Dumfries. p. v.. RJ. in Chorley. I. 17-90. 56 p. Evans. Zebker. Statistical characterization of altitude matrices by computer.. ed. Army Contract DA-ERO-591-73-G0040.S.. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. World-wide variations in the direction and concentration of cirque and glacier aspects: Geografiska Annaler.. Correlation structures and factor analysis in the investigation of data dimensionality. D. in Cutbill. dissertation. 1992. Department of Geography.S. 34-40. U. unpublished Ph.S. p. 1977c. I. J.

v. Fairfield. Andrew. and trafficability analysis. 1986. in Smardon. v. J. Automatic recognition of topographic features for digital surface modelling. Goudie et al. 283 p. CA (abs. and Bain. 4. v.G.. Pierre.. p.. 335-344.. I. 24. Cambridge University press. eds. in GIS/LIS '90 Convention. 73. I.B. 1. June. 1992. Death Valley. K.F. 1. 85-89. November 1990: Proceedings. 1990. [revised from 1981. Caterina.P. NJ. Fellows. Fractals. 345-351. R. 1979.F. Palmer. K-t. and J. Foundations for Visual Project Analysis: New York. p. Anaheim. p. no. & 28. Feder. and simplicity A comment: Mathematical Geology.S. T. 1974. Richard. 1985. 2809] Falcidieno. Bianca. 37-39. 2. Ulliman. no. Evans. p. England. 23-31. Durham City. p. no. 3.. 10-12. Department of Geography. July 23-27. 54. Wiley..P. The role of cell size in hydrology oriented geographic information systems.. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 10.16.. and Spagnuolo.Evans. 1986. R. Mineral Sciences. J. 1.M. p. 1986.P. 4. and six others. 16 p. Depth of dissection of the West Malaysian landscape: Journal of Tropical Geography. I. Statistical characterization of altitude matrices by computer. Plenum Press. Unwin Hyman. eds. 1990. 21. 1. Zurich: Proceedings.. 27. 1971. 228. 1990. Eyton. and Leymarie. Falconer.S. Microcomputer Applications in Geology: Oxford. v.. Pergamon Press. v. 1990. Faintich... Image Processing of Geological Data: New York. and Cox.. A. R. Eyles. Fair. Faintich. 1984 meeting: Technical Papers. 6. 133-144. v.18.. eds..C. p. Hypsometry. 4th5 July 23-27. Terrain elevation and surface feature data display for mission.S.. D. Michela. v.. Army Contract DA-ERO-591-73G0040. v. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. A feature-based approach to terrain surface approximation. and Cox. M. in Goudie. 190-199. University of Durham. v. no. Falcidieno. 199-213. first edition] Evans. p. 1965. digital elevation models on contour map accuracy. J J. 27. in American Society for Photogrammetry American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 1984. Landscape visibility. 1991.): Eos.. 44-56. 1974.. Evans. 47-62. no. p... Eyton. Geomorphological Techniques (second edition): London. 43 (supplement). Eyles. The Pennsylvania State University.J. J. Defense mapping undergoes a digital revolution: Computer Graphics World. IB. The Geometry of Fractal Sets: New York. v. Jens. J. New York..S. 4th. 411-423. 709-717.1990. in Hydrologic Applications of Space Fabbri. and Merriam. John. 5.. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. M. JJR. 1969.20. 1985.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . no.. Simley. A digital terrain modeling package: University Park. p.. [correction: 1991. CA. 1988. 11. p.162 p. 13. Zurich: Proceedings.1990. Cambridge Tracts in Mathematics. R. Bianca. 244 PFabbri.G. p. 61.. Promising aspects of geological image analysis. I. 1985..B. A classification of west Malaysian drainage basins: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. A. v.J. Report 1 (Spectral analysis): First half-yearly report on U. p. p.J. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. 35-44. Fahsi.R. statistics. v. no. p. Eyles.. p. p. J. Computer generated templates for the construction of landform relief models: American Cartographer. p. in Hanley. 150-153. 85.G.T. 1984. Geomorphometry and the operational definition of cirques: Area (UK). no. 2. General geomorphometry... and Chang. 1986.J. Felleman. The effect of the source and spatial resolution of 50 R.J. Topographic evolution of Trail Canyon alluvial fan. no. no. v.. J. 28.. Water Resources Research. R. Jeffrey.. Slope studies on the Wellington Peninsula: New Zealand Geographer. Ahmed. and Fortson. and Pienovi. Felleman. Drainage networks from grid digital elevation models: Water Resources Research.26. land use.D. N. 1. 460-467. and Ragan.

in Colby. 9.T. Md. Fiorentino. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 19-98. Fenneman.W.. E. 261264. no. Geographic surveying. 199Ib. no. First experiments in viewshed uncertainty the accuracy of the viewshed area: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.H. Pion. 1992. CA. Robinson. 1975.C. Geographic Surveys: University of Chicago Press. 9.. 1933.H. v.. Geographic Surveys: University of Chicago Press. Pels. Finch.000 scale and table. 2 (Cartography and GIS/LIS). Finch.C. Pierluigi. Fisher. Montfort a study in landscape types in southwestern Wisconsin. Annual Convention. p. P.T. 160. p. C. Interactive viewshed mapping using shaded surface displays A community planning application. p. v. in Colby.. v. p. The barchans of southern Peru: Journal of Geology. N. November 1990: Proceedings. 780-788.. 1991a. V. 3. no. G.M. Fenneman. and Lindenberg. R. v. 58. 1993. v. 1946] Ferguson.. P.. R. p. v. 315-333. The elements and types of terrain (Chapter 11): Physical Elements of Geography. First experiments in viewshed uncertainty simulating fuzzy viewsheds: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.L. and Singh. p.J. HA. 35-82. C.F. 29. p. 74.. ed. The Geographic Society of Chicago Bulletin no. remote sensing. Fielding... p. No. 20. B. and Devine. and Duncan. 1985. ed.. Bridges. no. Zur Bestimmung von Talund Kammlinien (in German): Zeitschrift fur Vermessungswesen. Baltimore. p. v. v. Proceedings: Publication no. Isacks.. 1215-1224. Muawia.F... An entropy-based morphological analysis of river basin networks: Water Resources Research. Finch. p. p. J. On distinctions among cartography.. 4. Trewartha. March 25-29: Technical Papers. 6. 1890. 15-44 + maps. Bivariant color mapping techniques for topographic visualization and their applications in site appraisal. 20.I.C. E J. 111-121. March 25-28: Technical Papers. Physiographic divisions of the United States: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 1917. p. Barazangi. P. Fink. 453-460. 1321-1327.. River meanders regular or random?.P... p. 51 R. V. Fisher. p. Md..C.. [reprinted by U.. 1959. 1979. 1933.... 229-241. 1991. 3/4. 67. p. in Wrigley. Claps. C. Pels. in GIS/LIS '90 Convention. v. N.. p. ed. 1431-1434. H. 1928.E. 1957. 55. McGraw-Hill. 2. 6 (Auto-Carto 10). 614-647. 1. N.C. no. p. 3-11. JJ2.. Baltimore. D.... 26. no. V.E. Physical divisions of the United States: map at 1:7. 57. 1993. R. 1990. 1986.F. v. Meander irregularity and wavelength estimation: Journal of Hydrology. and Grimm. V. 208-216. v.I. p. Shapes of Venusian "pancake" domes imply episodic emplacement and silicic composition: Geophysical Research Letters. Geological Survey. and Hammond. Statistical Applications in the Spatial Sciences: London.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. International Association for Scientific Hydrology Symposium.C. R. 345-352.M. Fisher. A. The Geographic Society of Chicago Bulletin no.. 6. New York. P. Simulation of the uncertainty of a viewshed. August. and geographic information systems: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Annual Convention.. 184-189. FLA.. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 10. Sebastian. N.E.. Fisher. 10. and Johnson. v.Technology. 5. 1993. Cocoa Beach. v. 16 (Supplement). p.H. 205-218.. J. 4. no. Uber den mittleren Boschungswinkel und das wahre Areal einer topographischen Flasche (in German): Sitzungsberichte de Koniglichen Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaflen.000. How flat is Tibet? (abs. Mauro. Finkel. Finsterwalder. v..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Finsterwalder. Ferguson. MathematischePhysische Abteilung (Munich). no. Anaheim.F.. R. 195. 1989.S.

and Prediction of Sea-Floor Roughness Using Spectral Methods: Bay St. and Carpenter. 1987c. S.. E. Alaska. VA. Terrain analysis from digital patterns in geomorphometry and Landsat MSS spectral response: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 1986.E. 1. Alain..G. Fox. no. 13. v. 21st. no. 1979. p. 645-654.E.. fall meeting.G. v. v. Towards a spatial theory. v. WA. Fowler. 1. Foley.. Fournier. August 1989: Computer Graphics. V. Bruce. A. v. Geomorphometric processing of digital elevation models: Computers and Geosciences.): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. 199-207. and Bell. p. 8. p.. and Heasler..B. 583-599.. 25. Automatic extraction of irregular network digital terrain models. Department of Photogrammetry. 1/2. 214-225.-J. Proceedings. J. p. 131. P. v. D. 1980. Seattle. R. in Proceedings of ACM Siggraph '79. 1982.G. C. Loren. Frank. Frank. Fussell. 1987b. Anchorage. On the morphological quality of digital elevation models. 728-738. 1989...B. 1-48. no.. no. no. p. p.. in International symposium on remote sensing of environment.. J.. S. v.. p. 1983. K. 1978. 1988. S. 1983. J. v. Fournier. P. July 5-10. Miss. and Robinson. B. A. Comment on computer rendering of fractal stochastic models: Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. Arlington. 18-20 April.-J. no. 2. in Torlegard. ed. S. 98. C.J. no.1986.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. v. 6.. Alain. M. 1985. no. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.D.D. in International Geographic Information Systems Symposium. p. 111. 12. p.. 211-239.G.p. Fussell. Palmer. D. 1987... International Colloquium on Mathematical Aspects of Digital Elevation Models. NASA. Automated pattern recognition of digital elevation models for geomorphic analysis (abs. 1987. C. 1985. Don. An empirical assessment and illustration of some multivariate morphometric techniques: Mathematical Geology. p. 3. and Hayes. 4. Tributary arrangements in fluvial systems: American Journal of Science.. G. Quantitative characteristics of sinuous distributary channels on the Amazon deep-sea fan: Geological Society of America Bulletin. no. p. 215-227. 1982. v. An approach to processing dense grid digital elevation models for use in Landsat terrain classification.E. v... Naval Oceanographic Office. Franklin. Franklin. no.. Flint. Mackaness.. J.G. G. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. p. 21. Wolfgang. J. 603-609.. p.E. and Damuth. 1989. 1988. R. II. G. Peacegood. 371-384. 6. Kennert. Louis. v. and Wilkinson. no.E. 6:1-6:18. p. 6. September 28October 3. Technical Report No. Proceedings: Washington. v. v. and Carpenter. Empirically derived relationships between fractal dimension and power law form frequency spectra: Pure and Applied Geophysics. 111-139. 280.U. 218 p.U.F. WA. Terrain relief and pattern description using digital elevation and Landsat data. 23. 1986. 59-65. Technical Papers. no. 1. The 52 R. 53.. 1987a.Fisher.. Authors' reply to Mandelbrot. 25. Loren. Ann Arbor. 1976. Stockholm. Link slope distribution in channel networks: Water Resources Research. Chicago. 26-45. 13. Fox. and Little. November 15-18.. 371-388. 12. Hoover.. 279. Franklin. Franklin. Description. Flood. Royal Institute of Technology.1986. Don.. Fordham. Flint. Quantitative methods for analyzing the roughness of the seafloor: Reviews of Geophysics and Space Physics.C. p. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in geodata processing: Progress in Physical Geography. Computer rendering of stochastic models: Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. Analysis. Formal methods for the accurate definition of some fundamental terms in physical geography. Fox. p. 2. International Geographical Union. Forstner. Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing: Proceedings. 583-584.A39. 10. 2nd.E..

1.).. Caen. SJ2. 663-668. 256-267. 36. 4. p. 1965.. Friedlander. 218-229. C. L.. 1989. v.. Visualization the second computer revolution: New York. no. a study in Gros Morne National Park: Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. DP. 1968. Yu. 156-171. Poul. 1975.P. 1987. v. and Grenander. Franklin. 1. 1974.. p. Geological Survey. p. v. and Dennehy. no. The modelling of spatial relations: Computer Graphics and Image Processing.K. 6.. 53 R. No.R. p. Gallant. 57-97. Freeman. Yu. 293-311. Freeman. no. S. Autocorrelation function and quantitative character of relief (in Russian): Vestnik Leningradskogo Universiteta. K. 1. Freeman. and Lucchitta. 101-106. 69-75.E..E. 6. 4. Franklin.. v.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Frolov. in International Congress for Stereology. Fredericksen. p. v.. On the application of morphometric analysis in geomorphological investigations (results of a geomorphological study of the middle Stara Planina. On searching a contour map for a given terrain elevation profile: Journal of the Franklin Institute.150 p.. Jay.G. Freiberger.M. France. 1991. 1977.. [severely criticized by D.1987: Proceedings. 1984. Gambell. 16. 413422. no. U. 284. no. 1987. Neth. v. 7th. no. Quantitative characterization of the shape of geographical features (history of the issue. S. Spectral/ geomorphometric discrimination and mapping of terrain.. Poul.. C.. Surface patterns in theoretical geography: Computers and Geosciences. p. p. F. Freeman. 1991. S . p. 281-? Galabov. p. J. 547-578. in Problemina na geografijata na Balgariya. 13. O. in Bulgarian). 1982. 1081-1088. 1991. Jacobi. 215 p.. 145-157. 1968. 2.. Herbert. p.. 1991. v. A new triangulation method for planar contours: Computer Graphics. p. 17. v. Part A3a. 1987. 1989. Modelling and classifying terrain: International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. v..M. Whittier. Z.S. Texture analysis of digital image data using spatial cooccurrence: Computers and Geosciences. A limitation of first generation Lunar Orbiter negatives as applied to photoclinometry: Flagstaff.University of Michigan. 1974. 3. p. 4. in Russian): Izvestiya VGO. 18. v. Fredericksen. Gao. no. Herbert. and Kubik. Nauka i izkustvo. 2. Computer processing of line-drawing images: Computing Surveys. Franklin. no. Frolov. 28-42.E. 15. p. William.. Environmental Protection Agency document EPA/600/3-89/060.M. Terrain analysis and accuracy prediction by means of the Fourier transformation: Photogrammetria.. September. A sequential algorithm for detecting watersheds on a gray level image. Mark. Morphometrische Untersuchung der Vogesen: Easier Beitrage zur Geographie und Ethnologie.. and Yagodina. GeologivaGeografiva 3. 6/111. 3. Proceedings: Acta Stereologica. October 26-30.. 7-40. and Moulton. 3.S. GIS modeling of the influence of topography and morphology on landslide occurrence in Nelson County. p. T. T. v. R. and Benzon. and Peddle.. S. 25. Walter. John.P. 17. Regionalization as a tool for managing environmental resources: Corvallis. and Morse.S. 152 p. 1978] Frey. U. 4.L. A. R. v. 1-25. Peddle. Oregon. Friedhoff. Larsen. Interagency Report: Astrogeology 11. O. Sofia. Satellite remote sensing of mountain geomorphic surfaces: Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. Ganapathy.. p. Omernik. 3.L. 1970. B. p. Freeman. no. no.. and Hughes. Poul. and Lo. Geographische Reihe. Jacobi.R. and Kubik..S.R. p. v. D. Neil. 3. J. 1981. Ulf. 1985. lip. 115-128. v. AZ. Calculating catchment area with divergent flow based on a regular grid: Computers and Geosciences.G. 1967. T. A review of current trends in terrain modelling: ITC Journal (Enschede. K. Frederickson. Virginia. D.

no.: Water Resources Research. v.. p. 535-536. p.C. 135. 1. p. D J. Lawrence. Garbrecht. July 23-27. v. Fractal trees and Horton's laws: Mathematical Geology. 1973. C.. Proceedings. Zurich.in GIS/LIS '91. 30.. and Waters. 2. p. 167-180. A drainage density map of Dartmoor: Transactions of the Devonshire Association. Vincent. 5. 1. 1982b. Gardiner. Redundancy and spatial organization of drainage-basin form indices an empirical investigation of data from northwest Devon: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (new series). Univariate distributional characteristics of some morphometric variables: Geografiska Annaler. 1992. A.S. and Martz. 2. Automated extraction of geomorphometric properties from digital elevation data: Zeitschrifb fur Geomorphologie. Ranging performance of satellite laser altimeters: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. and Martz. 1. R. p. no. no. T. Poland. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Vincent. Gardner. Garvin.. England. Vincent. British Geomorphological Research Group. Supplementband 80. Gardiner. Gardiner. Proceedings: Norwich. Sheffield. August 1977. p.L.K. no.S. A Morphometric Approach to Land Form Aspects of Land Classification: University of Exeter (UK). Icelandic lavashield volcanoes scaling of topography. 1974. 1973. 1990.. 3. review and assessment: Progress in Physical Geography. p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. 1061-1072. p.. v. paging unknown.48 p. v. p. v.M. and Williams. v. slopes and morphometry (abs. 141-153. V. Vincent.C. Gardiner. and Day.S. 1978. in Briggs. 1993.. 6th. no. Quantitative representation of land-surface morphology from digital elevation models. The creation of slope maps by a photo-mechnical technique: Area (UK). Gardiner. v. Vincent. v. 106. Atlanta.. 1992. v. 107-142. 6. no. v.): Eos. Technical Bulletin no. Land form and land classification in north west Devon: Transactions of the Devonshire Association. K. Fennm. and Park. Proceedings. 1. Gardiner. 14-21.R. D. 1982a. Lawrence. 4th. 1381-1384.B. Land evaluation and the numerical delimitation of natural regions. 54 A. and Otalora. C. 1990. 5768. An evaluation of drainage parameters extracted from low relief digital elevation models (abs. Gardiner. 1975. British-Polish Seminar. unpublished Ph.. 43 (supplement). p.1991. Geo Books. no. 416-431. Georgia. thesis. September 1974.1990. Transactions of the 54 R. 226. p. Studies in Quaternary Geomorphology. 103. in Institute of British Geographers / Institute of Geography of the Polish Academy of Sciences Seminar on Applied Physical Geography at Torun. 2. 147-153. no. Drainage basins morphometry quantitative analysis of drainage basin form. The relevance of geomorphometry to studies of Quaternary morphogenesis. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. 43. Sasowsky. no. Comment on "A combined algorithm for automated drainage network extraction" by Jean Chorowicz et al. 1990. Garcfa-Ruiz. R. 1. and Harrison. Instutute of British Geographers.. 19. J. v.. Perspectives in Geomorphology. Gardiner. p. Small domes on Venus probable analogs of Icelandic lava shields: Geophysical Research Letters. eds. 38-44. Gardner. R. 1992. no. Monograph 28. Vincent.. Quantitative Fluvial Geomorphology: New Delhi.. "Vincent. Gardiner. 9. Garvin. Vincent. p. 1983. 29. Garg.S. 1-18.W.. Vincent.. 3-4. 1976. Drainage Basin Morphometry: London... 61-71. Geographica Polonica: v. 1978.): Eos. 273-282. H. Vincent. 1971. and Williams. Garbrecht. P. R. J.S. 14. 24. and Rhind. v. J. 73. 1974. Gardiner. 2. Jurgen. October 28November 1. p. Stream networks and digital cartography: Cartographica. p. Gardiner. p. in Sharma.B. ed. 2. 17. no. 11-30. Jurgen. p. 1992. Vincent. 954-963. v. Concept Publishing Co. v..D. Gardiner. p. 4.W.. Drainage basin morphometry. Vincent.

.B. R. 35.. 359-364. Gilbert.A.. p. [reprinted 1968 in Berry. p. 1932. p. 475-482. Available relief as a factor of control in the profile of a land form: Journal of Geology. no. A. J. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map 1-1318. 132 p.M. scale 1:7... 11. p. Gerrard. v. Houston. p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 4. W. 3224. 1950. 3.F. J. Switz. 1966.. 320-326. and Nelson. p..J. 73. 122139. Wightman. 15131520. 1401-1404. K. R. 195 p. A. BJX. p. 69.] Gerenchuk.. E.M... L. p.American Geophysical Union.. no. 11. v. 74-83. 241-254. and Williams. in Soils and Landforms: London. Gregory. v. AL. Glendinning. March 1993.. New Jersey. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.. H.500. 1981.. R. 1937. A method for establishing some parameters of the morphologic structure of landscapes (translated from the Russian): Soviet Geography. no. W. Report R-1277-1-ARPA. 115-141.W. v. Morphometric comparison of Icelandic lava shield volcanoes versus selected Venusian edifices. W. 2. D. Gibson. Digital terrain map of the United States: U. A characterization of the spectral density of residual ocean floor topography: Geophysical Research Letters.B. p. [republished 1986. 1931. 461-478. KP. The development of drainage systems a synoptic view: Geographical Review. Prentice-Hall.M. 14.S. v. p. no. Gassmann. supplement. Godson. 8. 41-53.15. Heinrich. v. 45-54.J. MA. Gilbert. p. UK. 1989. MA. Garvin. 1970. 523-524. v. 4.. 262-271. R. no.. J. 1961.S. 176-178. Gilman. 152. 21.. Procedure for assessing visual quality for landscape planning and management: Environmental Management.. a reader in statistical geography: Englewood Cliffs.K.] Gilbert.R. 1954. and Itami. 388416.A. Glock.E. v. Kotenstreuung und Relieffaktor (in German): Geogr. 1.. v. Fitzgibbon.N..G. Fessehaie. v..). Terrace channel design and evaluation: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering. 58-59. 3720. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception: Boston. TX. Gerrard. no. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Glock..R. George Alien and Unwin.000. 1988. 1992. p. The slope and slopedirection map: Michigan Papers in Geography. A.S.. 1/2.. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV. Ghidey. Alberto. p. Houghton-Mifflin. RAND Corp. 55 R.J. Numerical land systems mapping.. and Marble. Geary. J. p. 1947.L.I. J.S. and Topchiyev. 12. p. 1. I. Gattrell. Variability in slope measurements a discussion of the effects of different recording intervals and micro-relief in slope studies: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers.C. D. no. Clarendon Press. Spatial Analysis. no.E. and Robinson. v. p. J. The contiguity ratio and statistical mapping: The Incorporated Statistician.. 359-367. 3. 1981. 131. no.. v. New Jersey. Bechard.. v. no. 1981. and Thompson. The Perception of the Visual World: Boston. LE. Calif. 40.. A. Information theory after 18 years: Science.. Morphometric analysis and the worldwide occurrence of stepped erosionl surfaces: Journal of Geology. The manual/photomechanical and other methods for relief shading: American Cartographer. 5. 24th. no. Geyl. 1971. Are topographic data sets fractal?: Pure and Applied Geophysics. and Malinovero..p. Gorash. W. v.J. 1. C. p. v. Gibson. 1993. Hillsdale. Gimblett. Houghton-Mifflin. p. and Gutersohn. A new (revised) tabulation of the Scripps topography on a 1° global grid II. 5. 7. 54. R. 1975. Distance and Space a geographical perspective: Oxford.. eds. 1987. 1979. Ocean depths: Santa Monica. no. Gates.H. Fritz. 1983. Helvetica (Bern. Anthony..

and Acosta. The fractional Brownian process as a terrain simulation model.M.C. v. JA. p.. Rozema. 12531256. Goodchild. Jay. Digital model for threedimensional surface representation: GeoProcessing. MD.F. B13. 21. Goodrich... in Auto-Carto 4. 96. no. Automated contour mapping using triangular element data structures and an interpolant over each irregular triangular domain: Computer Graphics. Pick.L. G. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing-American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. December 1962. Goodchild. 2.M.. v.. 6. The quantitative characterization of the complexity of a terrain and its application to irrigation planning (in Russian): Dissertation for the degree of Candidate (Moscow). 18. in Annual Pittsburgh Conference on Modeling and Simulation. 1133-1137.. Technical papers. 18. D. 175-186. and Lee. 1978... G. 1977. v. in Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Symposium. p. Section of Geology. p. Gomez. Golubkin.. 77. p. Proceedings... M. D. unpublished typescript of presented paper.L. C. JA. Arizona. Fractals and the accuracy of geographical measures: Mathematical Geology. 995-1003.. 22. M. Lakes on fractal surfaces a null hypothesis for lake-rich landscapes: Mathematical Geology. 1989.1978. in Annual Pittsburgh Conference on Modeling and Simulation. TA. Topographic data analysis system (computer program documentation): Flagstaff. no. Triangulation-based terrain modelling where are we now?. Triangulation and spatial ordering in computer cartography: Canadian Cartographic Association. M. Proceedings. 1987. v. M.713-21. 4th. Dennis. Woolhiser. Seiner. 4 (Cartography). v. A.F.M. Socio-economic Systems. Glieca. v.737. p. Pittsburgh PA: Proceedings.. The fractal nature of geographic phenomena: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 13th. Quantitative comparison of bathymetric survey systems: Geophysical Research Letters. Environmental models. 317-323.. DA. 20. 201-211. and Kleinrock. 1982. Goodchild.. 1980. The James River basin project Digital elevation data supporting a hydrologic study. D. 6. v. May 9-May 11.. Baltimore. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography.F. Kinematic routing using finite elements on a triangular irregular network: Water Resources Research. Goldberg. and Wiche. 16th. v. 1978. A global and regional stochastic analysis of near-ridge abyssal hill morphology: Journal of Geophysical Research. 2nd. Part 3.. 1987. and Ramsden.. V.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. American Society for Photogrammetry: Proceedings... n..C. Goodchild. 69-81. no. Goldberg. 170-175. Statistics of hydrologic networks on fractional Brownian surfaces. 11 (Proceedings SIGGRAPH 77). 85-98. PA. p.. no.M.S. C. MO. March 29-April 3. 1979. 1962a. T. Computer Center Division.Godson. 265-278. G. M. Tessellation of triangles of variable precision as an economical representation for DTMs. and Hasan.F. 1991. p. J. 1991.. no. U. 4. a quantitative tool: Western National Meeting of the American Geophysical Union. p. 615-630. G. Geological Survey internal document. 1. p. C. Pittsburgh.. St. U. 16.F.. 2.. 537-548. Goodchild. 27. p. 1979. M. p. M. 3rd annual meeting. Klinkenberg. 1991. 18 p. J.M. no. Gold. Gomez. 7. 1. v. McMacken. p. 1988. 1962b. Brian. 104-111. 1954. Goff. T D. Proceedings. 56 R. Louis.. no. Gold. 100 p. p. annual convention. Charters.F. v.V. p.. and Maydell. p. The coverage problems and visibility regions on topographic surfaces: Annals of Operations Research. no.O. D. M.L. Gold.H. v. and Keefer. The derivation of quantitative surface data from gross sources: Surveying and Mapping..I. and Mark. R. M. v. v.. M. p. 1987. Goldberg.M. Goodchild. 12. 1985. 53-70.. 1970. 506-515.J. Goff. W J. M.

D. p. Contouring by computer some observations. 347 p. ?. v..L. Geological Survey open-file report OF 92-327...H. 3-4. L. Goter. Madison. A technique for preparing desert terrain analogs: Vicksburg. no. 1969. [see also 1991.. Corps of Engineers. 59.S. in Van Lopik. 1959. Fluvial Processes in Dryland Rivers: New York. Gould. David. v. p. 192 p. v.R. v. 1971.. 3. Quantitative analysis of Pinedale landforms.L.L.M... 1572. and Kolb. 58 p. 59A. 587-641. W. 1980. W. 1966.): Geological Society of America Bulletin.. Grassie.. Univ. 49 p. and Kawas. 253-261.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Interrelationships of watershed characteristics: Journal of Geophysical Research. VA.H. Computers in Cartography: British Cartographic Society (London). v. and Krasovskaia. R. [see Sect.E.] Graff.. 130.. 176 p. Topological properties of random crack networks: Mathematical Geology. W. S.S. p. 1961. Appendix A. Spatial Concepts. 177-194. Statistical laws and dune ridges in southern Africa: Geographical Journal. no. Goudie.. 1961. Characterization of the rill geometry over straight hillslopes through spatial scales: Journal of Hydrology. ed. 1-4. v. Andrew. RHO 22. N. Automated classification of generic terrain features in Digital elevation models: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. U.. Area Evaluation Section. p. Graf.S. no. processing and display of comprehensive hydrologic information: Norrkoping. 55-65. Graf. 1982. and Adams. 1993. Army Corps of Engineers Topographic Engineering Center.. and Kwasnik. Grabau. Montana and Wyoming: Arctic and Alpine Research. 3. no. no. J. 570 p... W. Gray. 135.. discussion: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1988. p. 2. p. 833-834. v. C. Earthquakes in the conterminous United States (1534-1991): U. Synthesis. 1992. 10 p.5. 66. 1914. Govindaraju. Derivation of a numerical description of the characteristic plan-profile.2.. JJE. Technical Report No. Goudie.4. 1976. and Pike. & 2. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Quantification of the plan profile in landscape classification (abs. unpublished typescript. 1977. H. p. R. Flusskunde Grundriss der gesamten Gewasserkunder (in German): Berlin (& Leipzig). Wisconsin.J. Grabau. The classification of terrain for mobility purposes: Vicksburg Mississippi. 1215-1223. Unwin Hyman.E.M.K. Sveriges Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut. Special Publication No. 339-365. (viii-179) Gray. p. no. Tim. Mississippi. D. Grabau. 404-406. 2. thesis. 617-626.000 scale.D. 69. eds.500.E. Gravelius. Ice-scoured topography and its relationships to bedrock structure and ice movement in parts of northern Scotland and west Greenland: Geografiska Annaler. 12. Gordon. Goschensche Verlagshandlung. Allometry and size in ontogeny and phylogeny: Biological Reviews.. Report no... p. part 2. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. September 1961.H. Anderson.. Springer-Verlag. 1981. Report TEC0013. 4.P. 1974. WI. Scale] Graff. no. 55. no. 5.. Geomorphological Techniques (second edition): London.J. J. 1 sheet.E. Lars. v. U. in press.Gordon. in Rhind. J. E. Gray. M. 1990. 8. no.M. 3-506..B.L. 41. 93-116. Morphometry of cirques in the Kintail-Affric-Cannich area of northwest Scotland: Geografiska Annaler..R. no. J. Beartooth Mountains. 1958. Irina. Automated classification of basiclevel terrain features in digital elevation models: Fort Belvoir.N. Andrew (with the assistance of six others). 6. L. Devine.. p. v. and Usery. Thelin. p. 63A. 1-2. Corps of Engineers. Paper prepared for Third Conference of Tripartite Working Group on Ground Mobility. for the British Geomorphological Research Group. same title. v. J. U. Use of chi-square on percentage orientation data. S. 1-10. unpublished MA. v. 1992. 1992. J. p.1:3. Gottschalk. 57 R. W. G.S.. D.S. 4..

Groenewoud. geodeziya i aerofotos"yemka. [published in translation. p. 89. NASA/OSSA. 1975.56111. D..B. in Beran. D.J. S. University of California Press. dated November 15.. Lectures in Pattern Theory. v. 82 p.L. 168-173. 21. 1983. p. Volume 9: Berkeley. no. p. 1964. 10. Computing Dirichlet tessellations in the plane: Computer Journal. Greysukh. 1966. + appendices. and Garvin. R. D. 9 p. 2. p. v. [also. p. A geometric model for excavation and modification at terrestrial simple impact craters: Journal of Geophysical Research. Topo III a FORTRAN program for terrain analysis: Computers and Geosciences. MA. Grist. no. Stancalie. Griffith.1987: Proceedings. p. SpringerVerlag. Pattern Synthesis: New York. S. Issue 26 (October. 1987. Models in Geography: London. in Soviet Geography Review and Translation. eds.1962.. 1987. p. Association of American Geographers. Chapter 12. R. 4901. v. Technical Paper 64-2.. 1976. Raster and vector processing for scanned linework: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. and Sibson. 287-298. J. 7. 10. 461-509. Grieve. 3. 6. P.. eds. H. 31-38. 166-173. v. M. and Bonaci. 6. Grigg. March 29-April 3.L.. M.. The analytical representation of local relief in a digital computer (in Russian): Izv. Greenberg. v.. Remote-sensing techniques for determining the regionally variable characteristics of drainage basins.. no. 1978.. [AD450591] Grigg. Vincent. 509 p. A. 244. 1966. Baltimore. p. Peter. in Auto-Carto 8... 267-278. Department of Geography Publications. 640-649] Gregory.. A rapid method for simulating three-dimensional fluvial systems: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Griffin. and Brown. 1992).M. 424-441. Spatial Autocorrelation. 1975. Digital ground models an account of recent research: Photogrammetric Record. 1984. v.V. 1964. 3. 1989..W. 1992.. 1965. 8. seria Geograficheskaya 1966. M. no. Light reflection models for computer graphics: Science. 1. Using the Delta for solar system visualization: Information Systems Newsletter. Grenander. Greig-Smith. Regions. MD. Gregory. Volume 1. C.P. no. Peter. Data processing and the study of land forms: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. p. models and classes. no. 359 p. 1976. 170-236 most applicable to topography?] Grender. 1990.W. 1967.. Ulf. 1969. 46-47. No.. vyssh.. The logic of regional systems: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. v. Brilly. p. G. 8th. V. 102-110. 3. T. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory Inc. 12.F. v.W. no. p. 1987. KJ. KJ.Green. 237-263... paging unknown. [pp. v. mimeographed typescript CG:jj:65. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography.572.. Proceedings of the symposium 58 R. 1962... prepared for U. 465-491. VX. no. Dynamic models of geomorphological patterns: Mathematical Geology.H. and Haggett. Groom. p. V. 55. B13. 2. no. v. G. p.C. The role of elevationrelief ratio in terrain analysis: Buffalo New York. 53. Grenander. Greenlee. zaved.H. Griffiths.. Cornelius.C. David. Army under contract DA-31-124-ARO-D79. no. and Ungureanu. David. Grist. 1967.. 2. 3. v.. 11. 137-149] Greysukh.. E. 4.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . no. v. and Gardiner.. DA. 3. p. p. A comparative study of terrain analysis techniques: University of Denver. 195-209... and Watson. 1383-1387.. Ulf. Becker. in Chorley. and Kosmin. 7. Drainage density and climate: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. A Primer: Washington. p. The possibility of studying landforms by means of digital computers (in Russian): Izvestia Akademia Nauk SSR.S. O. Digital terrain model: The Consulting Engineer. 1972. Grumazescu... Methuen and Co. no. 7-12. v.D. 1987. no. p. uchebn. Quantitative Plant Ecology (third edition). 33.. RA. Memo For Record. Studies in Ecology. M. 19. J.

T. p. Technical papers.G. fall convention.E.... Lyon. 10. and Loon. p. and Argialas. F. 114-122.T.1950... Hadipriono.P. no. 136-142. Symposium '89. v.. 6.C. Guth. p. 12. Hadipriono. Gugan.. L. II: Oxford. MicroDEM+.C. Guptill. Hack. International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Guth. Guilcher. nos. Topographic mapping from SPOT imagery: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 4.. 149160. v. Hack.S. PI... Rapid determination of hypsometric curves: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. Gustafson. comparing digital elevation models on a personal computer: Defense Mapping Agency Systems Center. RP. 1. 905-909.. TERRANAL: Microcomputer terrain mapping package.T. The development of a knowledge-based expert system for analysis of drainage patterns: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 1214. 421-429.P.1990. p.C. 1990. and Dowman. August 3-8..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Habesch. A drainage pattern knowledge based expert system. no.T. 191. 13. 1. no. H Haan. v. 1973.. v. 1966. and Bacastow. Guth. InaguralDissertation..J. 59 R. Hack.C. H.. J. 1967. D.S.M. Microcomputer Applications in Geology. I. 3-10. Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. Making maps with computers: American Scientist. p. D. v. Spatial analysis of DEM error. D.. J. 1965. 123-125. p. p. 54. 1989. p. no. C. p. 288. 1990. no. Lyon. Geological Survey Professional Paper 294-B.L.P. S. no.K. v. Reston. eds.C. 1987... 187-196.J.L... 1989. 40 p. Gupta. Guth.S. S.. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. and Joshi. H. J. Stream-profile analysis and stream-gradient index: Journal of Research of the U. 1988.S.T. 1986: Proceedings. Yugoslavia. Thomas.T. 4 .L. Geological Survey. 2. Pergamon Press. Landslide hazard zoning using the GIS approach case study from the Ramganga Catchment.. P. G. Studies of longitudinal stream profiles in Virginia and Maryland: U. J. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers.. 209-213. 1992. 56. 42. v. 116124. p. 1409-1414. Proceedings. E. D. Michigan: U. v. 2. 2 (Photogrammetry and Surveying). no. P.. VA. 1932.G. p. and Johnson. 119-131. Microcomputer program for manipulating large digital terrain models: Computers and Geosciences.. Thomas. 1.. 91-110. 1986. F. Ressler.. P. p. 1-2. 1982. C. J..F. Washington. Ljubljana. Li W. J..C. 1990.T. Li W... 45-94. Guth.Regionalization in Hydrology. Himalayas: Engineering Geology. Washington. p. Publication No. 1988. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention.H. p.L.. p. B.C.. 42. 385-402. 6.P. and Starr. in Hanley. Andr6. 77. Relief und Flussdichte (in German): Universitat Zurich. 1992. Gutersohn. 389-394. and Johnson. no. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Annual Meeting. J. v. D.C. Postglacial drainage evolution and stream geometry in the Ontonagon area. April 23-26. p. v. Morphologie et morphom6trie: Revue de G6omorphologie Dynamique. The evaluation of poregeometry networks in clastic reservoir lithologies using microcomputer technology. No. D. p. Heinrich. Geometrical properties of depressions in north-central Iowa: Iowa State Journal of Science. and Argialas. Contour accuracy and the national map accuracy standards: Surveying and Mapping. 1.H. March. v.. 91 p. 3. v. PC's manipulate large gridded data sets: Federal Digital Cartography Newsletter. 1990. P. and Merriam.. Haan.. Geological Survey Professional Paper 504-B. 1957. no. 1989. 76. p. 28.

and Haggett. 1954a. v.. Contract No. The Israeli DTM (digital terrain map) project. no. 1930-31. Volumetric analysis of complex lunar craters implications for basin ring formation: Journal of Geophysical Research.Haggett. A mathematical model for establishing numerical values of topographical roughness for lake bottoms: Geografiska Annaler. Professional Paper 501-C. nature and methods of description in the geography of land form: Madison. Land form geography and land form description: The California Geographer. p. p. p. 54. 1978. Microcomputer Applications in Geology.K. 228-233. Hale. 10. 1-2. + color plates. On lake form. 44. Proceedings. 6. J. Halliday. Its Nature and Methods: London. 1986..H. Methuen. Nonr-1202(01). 4. v. Supplement (Lunar and Planetary Conference. Hamann. no. Physical Geography. TX. E. 1988. Peter. in Hanley.. 9. Peter. 1962. 1982.. 85 p. Pergamon Press. W. 1. J. RJ. p. p.L. v. 111-118. Procedures in the Descriptive Analysis of Terrain: Madison. Hamilton. no. 1967. eds. 79-84. Office of Naval Research Contract Nonr 1202(01). 1981. Final Report. J.. On the place. C190-C193. p. J. eds. 1982. 25. p. E. Lars.v. 458-466. 56 A. Geological Survey. A statistical index of topography: Social Forces. Hakanson.. Small-scale continental landform maps: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 1986. CJL.S. 87. Lars. U. Hammond. A65-A76. March. E. The length of open geomorphic lines: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.S. Spatial self-organization in geomorphology from periodic bedforms and patterned ground to scale-invariant topography: Earth-Science Reviews.H. Eric. Lars. no. 1-29. 29. New Series 8. Geomorphologische Karten zur Beurteilung der optischen Qualitat von Landschaften (in German): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. R. v. lake volume and lake hypsographic survey: Geografiska Annaler. 1958. p. Proceedings). v. Bernard. 33-42.H. Department of Geography. Hakanson.H. Nos. p. RH. Hammond. 141-167. 2. 609-668. and Cleave. p. 11. 1988. no. p. James.. Hamilton. paging unknown. 230 p. 125-141. v. Haines-Young.H. Houston.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . An objective approach to the description of terrain (abstract): Annals of the Association of American Geographers:.H. 183-200. R. 1954b. p. v. + 72 p. 60 R. 1990. p. p.R. RAJ. no. Hakanson.. University of Wisconsin. 2. in Geological Survey Research 1964: U. 1974. Procedures in the descriptive analysis of terrain. Harper and Row. v.. The length of closed geomorphic lines: Mathematical Geology. p..R. E. E.W. 1990. Hammond. NR 387-015. 1983. and Petch.K. Schwartz. Project No.. 3-4. 204-205. A terrain modeling methodology for use in aircraft and surface-to-air missile encounter models: Applied Geography Conferences. Technical Report No. v. 1964a. 59 A. p. 1.. 1. Hakanson.. Hammond. v. v.. and Merriam. Models in Geography: London. 69-75. RX. Analysis of properties in land form geography an application to broadscale land form mapping: Annals of the Association of American Geographers.S. Hall. 210. in Chorley.. and Cleave. no. 11-19. DP..W. Supplementband 68.T. Photogrammetric contouring of areas covered by evergreen forests. Haines-Young. 3. Hammond.. p. J. Hammond. Lars. no.. Office of Naval Research. 9. 1964. J. Network models in geography. C. Multiple working hypotheses equifmality and the study of landforms: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers.. University of Wisconsin. E. of appendices. Geography Branch. 57-75. 369-382. v. and Petch. Hallet..R. and Grieve. p. 13th. 1-4. II: Oxford.H. 44. Hall. 1977. The DTM (digital terrain map) project: Geological Survey of Israel Current Research. 1957...

3. no. p. W.500.T.. 1. 22-7). 22.. 1991. 50-72. Technical Papers. S.M. Alaska. and Image Processing. v. 1964b. 163-181.C. p.. Hardy.L.. Pollock.H. v. Haralick. E. 1986. no. Shanmugam. 180-184. paging unknown.. eds. The analytic geometry of topographic surfaces.K. p. Washington. D.000. Azriel. D..M.M. 2. 1983. G. 6. the University of Maryland. 1935.. and Rozenfeld. v. J. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. May 31-June 2. v. Wang. M. 54. J. Hansel. 411-456. 1963. R. Man and Cybernetics.1978.: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. no.H.. H. p. and Dinstein. Textural features for image classification: IEEE Transactions on Systems..000. Haralick.B.. Combined spectral and spatial processing of ERTS imagery data: Remote Sensing of Environment. 1991. 76. p. Statistical and structural approach to texture. 1972. 1973. no. International Symposium on Remote Sensing for Observation and Inventory of Earth Resources and the Endangered Environment. July 2-8. Haralick.. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. E.000.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . p. J. 3-13. 1965. and Boehnel.M. 1985. Proceedings: Washington. S. J. Atlanta.K. Hanson-Lowe. Geological Survey. 12-13.. no. Archives of Photogrammetry. 61 R.. R. K. Shapiro. Hansen. 62-63.H.. Error detection and correction in digital terrain models: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. F.T. 1040-1053. Haralick. dissertation. Multiquadric equations of topography and other irregular surfaces: Journal of Geophysical Research. University of Illinois. 1981. MA. v.. scale 1:5. in Hildebrandt. 1986. A. 1968.: Proceedings. B-67 to B-75. The topographic primal sketch: International Journal of Robotics Research.. Extraction of drainage networks by using the consistent labeling technique: Remote Sensing of Environment.M. p.. D. Improved interpolation by inverse distance squared weighting A comparative quantitative evaluation. [effect of terrain height & type on intervisibility] Hansen.S. p.. v. p. 163-175. 1905-1915. Classes of land surface form in the forty eight states.. Ledley. and Tou. Haralick. fall convention. in GIS/LIS. September 28OctoberS. v. no. eds. p. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. GA.J.G. 18. 1980. K. 1971.. 1978. v. 8.. Digital techniques for terrain simulation. 28-38. Graph Theory: Reading. no.-J. 2. no. Ridges and valleys on digital images: Computer Vision. and Laffey. J.L.. 73. M J.. 1 (Intl. Automatic inference of elevation and drainage models from a satellite image: Proceedings of the TKEK. L. Haralick. Army ELRDL Technical Report 2347. 1974. paging unknown. J. 6. p. Anchorage.. R. and Hurst. The clinographic curve: Geological Magazine. Haralick.SA. 1. 1.M. Freiburg. Hannah. R..] Hammond. Hankley. and the Pattern Recognition Society. p.Hammond. Sinkhole form as an indicator of process in karst landscape evolution: UrbanaChampaign. R. scale 1:7. p. unpublished PhD. v.. Addison-Wesley..C. in The National Atlas of the United States of America: UJ3. 3. R. v. 1. and Campbell. and Wang. R. 1983.C. 4. Pictorial Pattern Recognition Symposium on automatic photointerpretation. R. no. no. T J.. I. Thompson Book Co. v..S. [adapted version published as Hammond. 379-431. Washington.S... no. Germany: Proceedings. SMC-3.. p. and Shanmugam.. October 28-November 1. in Cheng. 226-231.. Campbell. Map visibility study: U. 1967..J. Map Supplement Series no.S.. R.. L. fall meeting. v. paging unknown. R. 17. 63-69.. p.M. Automatic fingerprint interpretation and classification via contextual analysis and topological coding. p. 1. 47.H. Watson. U. Harary.. William. Technical papers. AD 339-360. Hansen. What is a landform? some further comments: The Professional Geographer. 72. 1969. sponsored by the Office of Naval Research. 610-621..B. 32nd annual meeting. 1985. E. Graphics.C. G. v. 4. Hardy.

Harlin, J.M., 1978, Statistical moments of the hypsometric curve and its density function: Mathematical Geology, v. 10, no. 1, p. 59-72. Harlin, J.M., 1979, Reply to Hypsometry, statistics, and simplicity In defense of a second function: Mathematical Geology, v. 11, no. 1, p. 91-92. Harrison, C.G.A., Miskell, KJ., Brass, G.W., Saltzman, E.S., and Sloan, JL. II, 1983, Continental hypsography: Tectonics, v. 2, no. 4, p. 357-377. Harrison, R.E., 1969, Shaded relief, in The National Atlas of the United States of America: UJ3. Geological Survey, scale 1:7,500,000, p. 56-57. Hausdorff, Felix, 1919, Dimension und ausseres Mass: Mathematische Annalen, v. 79, no. 2, p. 157179. Haverlfk, Ivan, and Krcho, Jozef, 1973, Mathematical generalisation of forming isoline thematic maps by computer examplified by morphometric analysis of relief and dynamics of relief insolation: Acta Geographica Universitatis Comenianae, Geographica-physica No. 1, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, Slovak Pedagogical Publishers, p. 235-424. Hay, A.M., and Abdel-Rahman, M.A., 1974, Use of chi-square for the identification of peaks in orientation data, comment: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 85, no. 12, p. 1963-1966. Hayden, R.S., ed., 1985, Global MegaGeomorphology: Workshop sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the International Union of Geological Sciences, Oracle Arizona, January 14-16,1985, Proceedings, NASA Conference Publication 2312, 134 p. Haynes, V.M., 1977, The modification of valley patterns by ice-sheet activity: Geografiska Annaler, v. 59A, no. 3-4, p. 195-207 He, D.-C., and Wang, Li, 1990, Texture unit, texture spectrum, and texture analysis: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 28, no. 4, p. 509-512.

Head, C.G., 1984, The map as natural language a paradigm for understanding: Cartographica, v. 21, no. 1, p. 1-32. Head, J.W., 1977, Origin of outer rings in lunar multi-ring basins evidence from morphology and ring spacing, in Roddy, D.J., Pepin, R.O., and Merrill, R.B., eds., Impact and Explosion Cratering: New York, Pergamon, p. 563-573. Heerdegen, R.G., and Beran, M.A., 1982, Quantifying source areas through land surface curvature and *shape: Journal of Hydrology, v. 57, no. 3-4, p. 359-373. [*misprint for "slope"] Heezen, B.C., and Wilson, Lee, 1968, Submarine geomorphology, in Fairbridge, R.W., ed., The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology: New York, Reinhold Book Co., p. 1079-1097. Heil, RJ., 1979, The digital terrain model as a data base for hydrological and geomorphological analyses, in International Symposium on Automated Cartography, 4th, November, 1979, Proceedings, v. II, p. 132-138. Heil, R.J., and Brych, S.M., 1978a, An approach for consistent topographic representation of varying terrain, in American Society of Photogrammetry, Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Symposium, May 9-11, St. Louis, MO, Proceedings, p. 377-411. Heil, RJ., and Brych, S.M., 1978b, The digital tarrain model a tool for quantifying terrain characteristics, in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, Fall Convention, October 15-20, 1978, Albuquerque, New Mexico, Proceedings of the Fall Technical Meeting, p. 156171. Heinrichs, M.R., Smith, Kip, Pick, HX., Jr., Bennett, B.H., and Thompson, W.B., 1992, Strategies for localization, in Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Image Understanding Workshop, San Diego, Calif., January 1992, Proceedings, p. 321-325. Heirtzler, J.R., ed., 1985, Relief of the Surface of the Earth, computer generated shaded relief: Boulder, Colo., U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, Report MGG-2, scale 1:39,000,000.



Helmlinger, K.R., Kumar, Praveen, and FoufoulaGeorgiou, Efi, 1993, On the use of DEM data for Hortonian and fractal analyses of channel networks: Water Resources Research, v. 29, inpress. Henderson-Sellars, A., and Dickinson, R.E., 1992, Intercomparison of land-surface parameterizations launched: Eos, Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 73, no. 17, p. 195-196. Herzfeld, U.C., 1990, Geostatistical software for evaluation of line survey data applied to radioecho soundings in glaciology, in Hanley, J.T., and Merriam, D.F., eds., Microcomputers in Geology, II: Oxford, (UK) Pergamon Press, p. 119-127. Hettner, Alfred, 1928, Die Oberflachenformen des Festlandes (2nd ed.): Stuttgart, E.G. Teubner Verlag, paging uknown. [republished 1972, as The Surface Features of the Land, Problems and Methods of Geomorphology: (translated and with a preface by Phillip Tilley): New York, Hafher, 193 P-1 Hibler, W.D. Ill, 1975, Characterization of coldregions terrain using airborne laser profilometry: Journal of Glaciology, v. 15, no. 73, p. 329-347. Hibler, W.D. III, Weeks, W.F., and Mock, S.J., 1972, Statistical aspects of sea-ice ridge distributions: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 77, no. 30, p. 5954-5970. High, James, 1963, A reappraisal of terrain appreciation: The Professional Geographer, v. 15, no. 1, p. 11-16. Highway Research Board, 1964, Nuclear Excavation 1963, 5 reports: Annual Meeting, 43rd, January 13-17,1964, Washington, D.C., NASNRC, Highway Research Record, No. 50, 53 p. Hill, A.R., 1973, The distribution of drumlins in County Down, Ireland: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 63, no. 2, p. 226-240. Hirano, Masashige, 1977, Preparation of a digital map of the Rokko Mountains as a multi-purpose data-base: Geological Data Processing (Japan), No. 3, p. 33-44.

Hirano, Masashige, 1983, Estimation of the rate of topographic change based on a mathematical model and digital map of the Rokko Mountains (in English): Transactions of the Japanese Geomorphological Union, v. 4, no. 2, p. 241-249. Hirano, Masashige, and Ishii, Takayuki, 1984, Precise measurement of microforms and fabric of alluvial cones for prediction of landform evolution, in Burt, T.P., and Walling, DE., eds., Catchment Experiments in Fluvial Geomorphology: meeting of the IGU Commission on Field Experiments in Geomorphology, Exeter and Huddersfield, UK, August 16-24, 1981, Proceedings, Norwich, Geo Books, p. 465-475. Hirsch, F., 1965, Application de la morphom6trie & 1'hydrologie (In French with English abstract): Revue de G6omorphologie Dynamique, v. 15, nos. 10-11-12, p. 172-175. Hjelmfelt, A.T. Jr., 1988, Fractals and the riverlength catchment-area ratio: Water Resources Bulletin, v. 24, no. 2, p. 455-459. Hoadley, P.G., and Krenkel, P.A., 1963, A Technique for Macrogeometry Terrain Analysis, Interim report (Contract No. DA-22-079-eng-300) for U.S. Army Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg Miss, (and Appendix A to Report of meeting of the Board of Consultants for the project Military Evaluation of Geographic Areas, MEGA): Nashville Tenn., Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil Engineering, 45 p. Hobba, L.J., and Robinson, G., 1972, A suggested new approach to the analysis of drainage basin shapes: Area (UK), v. 4, p. 242-251. Hobson, R.D., 1967, FORTRAN IV programs to determine surface roughness in topography for the CDC 3400 computer: Lawrence, Kansas Computer Contribution no. 14, 27 p. [republished 1972 as Surface roughness in topography: a quantitative approach, in Chorley, R.J., ed., Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York, Harper and Row, p. 221-245] Hodgson, M.E., 1989, Searching methods for rapid grid interpolation: The Professional Geographer, v. 41, no. 1, p. 51-61. Hoffman, R.R., 1985, What is a hill? An analysis of the meanings of generic topographic terms: Fort



Belvoir, VA, U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories, Delivery Order No. 1380, Contract DAAG-29-81-D-0100, Final Report, 61 p., + 30 p. of appendices, [also February 1991 report, ADA231 413] Hoffinan, R.R., 1987, The problem of extracting the knowledge of experts from the perspective of experimental psychology: AI Magazine, v. 8, no. 2, p. 53-67. Hoffinan, R.R., 1990, What's a hill? Computing the meaning of topographic and physiographic terms, in Schmitz, U., Schutz, R., and Kunz, A., eds., Linguistic Approaches to Artificial Intelligence: University of Duisberg, Germany, Duisberg Papers on Research in Language and Culture: Frankfurt, Germany, Peter Lang Verlag, p. 97-128. Hoffinan, RJl., and Pike, R.J., 1992, On the specification of the information available for the perception and description of the natural terrain, in Flach, John, and Hancock, P., eds., The Ecology of Human-Machine Interaction: Hillsdale, N.J., L. Erlbaum Assoc., v. 2, in press. Holroyd, M.T., and Bhattacharyya, B.K., 1970, Automatic contouring of geophysical data using bicubic spline interpolation: Ottawa, Geological Society of Canada, Paper no. 70-55, 40 p. Hood, Joy, Ladner, Lyman, and Champion, Richard, 1989, Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 55, no. 9, p. 1323-1329. Hook, J.C., 1955, The Relationship Between Roughness of Terrain and Phenomena Related to Agriculture in Northeastern United States: Iowa City, State University of Iowa, unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, 176 p. Hook, J.C., 1959, The quantification of landform characteristics a roughness index: Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science, v. 68, p. 277282. Hooper, David, 1985, Raster-based contour plotting from digital elevation models using mini- or microcomputers*, in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, fall convention, Indianapolis, IN, September 8-13,1985, Technical Papers, p. 196-202.

Hoover, KA., Foley, M.G., and Heasler, P.G., 1991, Sub-grid-scale characterization of channel lengths for use in catchment modeling: Water Resources Research, v. 27, no. 11, p. 2865-2873. Horgan, John, 1990, Claude E. Shannon: The American Scientist, v. 262, no. 1, p. 20-22. Hermann, Klaus, 1968, Rechenprogramme zur morphometrischen Kartenauswertung (in German): Schriften des Geographischen Institute der Universitat Kiel, v. 29, no. 2,154 p. Hermann, Klaus, 1969, Geomorphologische Kartenanalyse mit Hilfe elektronischer Rechenanlagen (in German): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 13, no. 1, p. 75-98. Hermann, Klaus, 1971, Morphometrie der Erdoberflache (in German): Schriften des Geographische Institut der Universitat Kiel, v. 36, 179 p. Horn, B.K.P., 1981, Hill shading and the reflectance map: Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, v. 69, no. 1, p. 14-47. [originally released 1979, in Workshop on Image Understanding, Palo Alto, CA, April, 1979, Proceedings: p. 79-120; reprinted 1982, in Geoprocessing, v. 2, no. 1, p. 65-146.] Horn, B.K.P., 1990, Height and gradient from shading: International Journal of Computer Vision, v. 5, no. 1, p. 37-75. Horn, B.K.P., and Brooks, M.J., eds., 1989, Shape From Shading: Cambridge, MA, M.I.T. Press, 577 PHorton, C.W., Hoffman, AA.J., and, Hempkins, W.B., 1962, Mathematical analysis of the microstructure of an area of the bottom of Lake Travis: Texas Journal of Science, v. 14, no. 2, p. 131-142. Horton, R.E., 1926, in Jarvis, C.S., Flood flow characteristics: Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, v. 89, p. 1081-1086. Horton, RE., 1932, Drainage-basin characteristics: American Geophysical Union, 13th Annual Meeting, April 28 and 29,1932, Washington, D.C., Transactions, v. 13, p. 350-361.



Topological and geometrical properties of braided streams: Water Resources Research. no. p. Hsu. no. 16. 3415-3428. p.. no. 1974. 9.. 151-166. Albuquerque. p. p.C. in ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute. 1990a.PIKEAJSGS OF93-262A ... 116-132. 332-345. in Apollo 15 preliminary science report: Washington. 6. Role of hypsometry and planform in basin hydrologic response: Hydrological Processes. Optimal angles of stream junction geometric. 4. Hsu. The pattern recognition problem / man. On the use of spectral methods for the determination of fractal dimension: Geophysical Research Letters. A mathematical method for measuring visual difference in multiple map comparison. 1961. Keetch. Texture analysis a cartographic approach and its applications in pattern recognition: The Canadian Geographer. 2107-2117. Alan D. 61-79. 863-873. Shin-Yi. stability to capture. in 1992 ASPRS-ACSM annual convention. B. 1945. 3. 1984. v. no. fall convention. 138. Runway roughness studies in the aeronautical field: Journal of the Air Transport Division. J.. Desert Storm a focus on terrain analysis support. p. 16. and Meine. 1978. v. 12-31. p. v. no.. and Larsen. 117134.. 1991. U. 2. and minimum power criteria: Water Resources Research.C.E. p.): Eos. 7. Alan D. R. Alan D. 1989. and Spock. p. M. Philippe. September 10-13. Howard. no.M. S. 84. p. no. p. 1972.. Howard. 1979. Howard. 139-145. 1940.. 51. 2. v.. v. C. 1970. 373-385. 17.R.. Automation in cartography with remote sensing methodologies and technologies: The Canadian Cartographer. 14 (supplement). 11. 3. 9.. p. Howard. Shin-Yi. 1979.Horton. v. p. 24. 7. Drainage analysis in geologic interpretation a summation: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. Houbolt... and Johnson. Shin-Yi. 1993. 1980. Hsu. hydrophysical approach to quantitative morphology: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Bonn-Bad Godesburg. New Mexico. Howard.W. R. 1990b. International Cartographic Association. Hsu. Arthur D. in Kirschbaum. Shin-Yi. 10. p..-H. 56.S. no. v.E. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.. 87. Houssay. International Yearbook of Cartography. 101-117. 1. G. B. p. Alan D. Germany. p.E. v. 2. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Special Publication 289.L. no. Arthur D. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 26. machine and their interaction: Cartographica. Exploitation cartographique de Modeles numeriques de terrain en vue de 1'Amenagement. Modified contourgeneralization procedure as applied to the Santa Lucia range. Shaoli. Classification of landforms: Journal of Geomorphology.B. 275-370. 4. The Mahalanobis classifier with the generalized inverse approach for automated analysis of imagery texture data: Computer Graphics and Image Processing.. eds. 1. v. 4. v. v. California: Geological Society of America Bulletin. K. v. and Vincent. v. K. 673676. W. Theoretical model of optimal drainage networks: Water Resources Research. 1980. no. 73. Alan D. p. 65 R. Howard. p. Lineaments that are artifacts of lighting. v. v. no. 2246-2259. Technical Papers. Howard. Howard. The physiographic region in physical geography and geomorphology historical appraisal and re-evaluation: The California Geographer. no. no.E. v.. D. Using GIS in powerline route selection applications for landscape quality assessment. 25-58 to 25-62. 15. 98-110. p. Shin-Yi. v. Howard. Hsu. Morphometric definition of drainage density (abs. p. 1674-1688. Howard. AT 1.A. no. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. Proceedings: p.. L. 1973. Shepherd. 183194..C. 6. 1992. 1967. no. 1971. T. v. Arthur D.. 4.E. Hough. 1974... 20.. Howard. Huang. Erosional development of streams and their drainage basins.

. Cartographic Relief Representation: New York. p. no. G. in American Society for Photogrammetry / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping..und Gipfelhohen der wichtigsten Gebirge (in German): Annalen der Physik und Chemie. Australia. Ruprecht. A continental hydrological assessment of a new grid-based digital elevation model of Australia: Hydrological Processes. Alexander von. 63-64. and Dowling. in Davis. 4.R. v. Technical Papers. 57. p. Display and Analysis of Spatial Data: NATO Advanced Study Institute on Display and Analysis of Spatial Data. p. Eduard Imhof. M. 1981..K. Nottingham. 7491-7495. v.. 2. J. Ohio State University and the International Geographical Union. Numerical surface techniques and contour map plotting: White Plains. 651-660. 94. CSIRO. in Research Report 1983-85: Canberra.F. 45-58. M. 117-133. M. 27. v. D. 389 PJ Inaba. no. prepared for Marshall Space Flight Center by TRW SYstems. K. Redondo Beach. 1969. C J. 1984. M J. 106. p. 3/4.. v. 1975. and McCullagh... and Stevens. International Business Machines.. p. in/10 l-III/l 10. 13. [English translation published as Steward. Hutchinson. 36 p. Fitting surfaces to terrain data. Japan). 1991. Hutchinson. 683-693. Spatial data processing for digital simulation of erosion. Humboldt. Huijbregts. 1842..J. Humboldt. Data Processing Application. 23. 407.. 1.Inc. 1982. A. Lunar surface models: Space vehicle design criteria (environment). R. Special issue on image processing: Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Heinrich.... 1965. part B9. Past glaciers and the present topography of the Japanese Alps: Science Reports of Tokyo Bunrika Daiguku. A summary of some surface fitting and contouring programs for noisy data: Canberra. nos. Hunt. v. H. Proceedings. Alexander von. 1988.I.. The morphology of the Aegean Sea a discussion of morphometrical data: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.. 425 p. 69.) Annual User Conference llth. no. meeting. Walter de Gruyter. Walter de Gruyter.C. and Schleyer. IBM. Kartographische Gelandedarstellung: Berlin. 5. 1979. Aumann. p. v. p. 1. Hugus. and Mark. 396-414. 7. p. p. in Third International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling.55 p. Hutchinson. Hutchinson. v. 1973. John Wiley and Sons.. Imamura. C.24 p. M. 1989.. August 17-19. Regionalized variables and quantitative analysis of spatial data. 1984. and Turcotte. NASA Special Publication SP-8023. Proceedings: London. v. 1965. 1988. DIM generation from digital contour data using aspect information: International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (Kyoto. 1989. Fractal mapping of digitized images application to the topography of Arizona and comparisons with synthetic images: Journal of Geophysical Research. p. T. p. p. Geography Department.1988: Columbus Ohio. CSIRO Division of Water and Land Resources.. 1984. Hillert. v. Imhof. Huang. New York. England. 1. T.. M. ed. and Ebner. Sydney Australia. 66 R.F.. Consulting Report 84/6. G. 61 p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .F. Calculation of hydrologically sound digital elevation models. Versuch die mittlere Hohe der Kontinente zu bestimmen (in German): Annalen der Physik und Chemie. B6. (principal author). Hutton. D. 1988. 1937. p. eds. Quadtree storage of vector data: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. Australia. M.F. I Ibbeken.. Eduard. 5.. A new procedure for gridding elevation and stream line data with automatic removal of spurious pits: Journal of Hydrology. Hutchinson.J. ed. B. CA. Division of Mathematics and Statistics. v. p. 1986. Kamm.. no. 1816.M. Redlands.E.L. Ibbs. 499-654. Calif. 38-53. 43-56. J. 521. no.F. 211-232.

P. 29-35. 56.. Odesskiy gos. v. R. Moscow. 311 PIseli. no. TX. paging unknown.I. no.5-minute and 1-degree digital elevation models: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 33] Isaacson. Sweden. v.. 1964. JJR. U... 67 R.J. Reidel Publ. p. JJR. VA. Andrew... v. Ivanov. A. 1964. no.. I. D. Massey): Melbourne (Australia) Univ.. and Chalova. Peter. J. paging unknown.. no. 63-70.L. R. March 1985. 1973. 1523-1527. Contract DAAK 02-72-C-0256. 6.M.V. 72-88.G. C. and Junkins. 1981. v. 1215-1225.). 1992. and Sham.L. no...R. 8.. p. p.. 16th. p.Irons. 1984. R. 12. 39. p. New measure of topologic structure of dendritic drainage networks: Water Resources Research. Isachenko. R. An experiment in systematizing the cartographic images of geomorphological features: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. p. Unwin Hyman. 1946-48. Jancaitis.S. Palaeoecology (Global and Planetary Change Section). Co. 24.S. 6. Houston. Julian. 4. Ivanov.. and Clifford. Jarvis.L. 1976. p.J. 5.. C. W. Texture transforms of remote sensing data: Remote Sensing of Environment. p. v.S. Jarvis.. 11. Spatial Statistics and Models: Boston. ECAC topographic data processing capability: Annapolis. 4. J.. Principles of Landscape Science and Physical-Geographic Regionalization (translated from the Russian edition. 1976. J. G... U. N. 1972. 91. R. in Goudie. in-t im. Topology of tree-like networks. eds. Mechnikova (Odessa). 1966. 1019-1027. and Mouginis-Mark. Basilevsky. Jarvis. p. Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center.S. Specific geomorphometry. TERROR the influence of terrain on optical and radar visibility: Stockholm. Ye.. p. B.M. v. Classification of nested tributary basins in analysis of drainage basin shape: Water Resources Research.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . v. 1. Navy Marine Engineering Laboratory. 1973. Comparison of 7. N. The quantitative characterization of the dissection of relief and its application to geomorphological maps (in Russian): Dissertation for the degree of Candidate.H. D. Geomorphological Techniques (second edition): London. 413-420. in Gaile. v. Research Institute of National Defense. no. Jackson. no. Palaeoclimatology.L.. Jarvis. Press. IV. v.V. Isacks. MD. Izmaylova. 4. BA. no. 17.. MA. Report ECAC-TR-64-21. Hints on the subject of geographical arrangement and nomenclature: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society.S. 1973.L. no. 98. p. A. Modelling irregular surfaces: Photogrammetric Engineering. 8. Link length organization and network scale dependencies in the network diameter model: Water Resources Research. 11. 12. Jansson.. eds. 1990. V. 5.J. v. and Chernaya. no. Drainage network structure and the diameter-magnitude relation: Water Resources Research. and Semiring.. Jancaitis. 71. Jarvis. [see topography. Jarvis. B4.. 1987. Solid earth sciences in EOS Report of the Solid Earth Panel: Palaeogeography. R. 1965. Report. 359-370. Kryuchkov. Army Engineer-Topographic Laboratories. Mathematical Tecniques for Automated Cartography: Fort Belvoir. Osnovy landsaftovenija fisiko-geograficesko rajonirovanije.S. Final Report. and edited by J... 1151-1164.S. p. 2023-2028. v. Spectrum analysis of terrain of Mare Cognitum: Journal of Geophysical Research. 1990. V. and Junkins.P.. v. Part 2 (Journal of Geophysical Research.T. and Ripple. p. Proceedings. Jaeger. 271-292.S. paging unknown. p. 1981. 292296. B. 1934.. p. 1986. in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.S.. 1265 -1271... J. and Willmott. D413D430. Impact craters of Venus analysis of Venera 15 and 16 data. N. R. no. and six others..J.

C.... 5. 4.G. 58. Vladimir. F.. v.J. 129-135. concerning computers.K. p. p. MD. 8th. p. NR 389-146. HI... 2. Technical Report No.G. NASA. no. p. 379 p. Fundamentals of Geostatistics in Five Lessons. p. v. no. Digital detection of pits. Choice in classification the subjectivity of objective methods: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 54. Automated derivation of hydrologic basin characteristics from digital elevation models. p. Douglas. Jones.. and Trautwein. S. peaks. C. v. D.R. 1991. Vertical exaggeration in three-dimensional mapping: Lawrence. Roger. 10. and the laws of physics. March 11-14. 72. 1967. D. University of Kansas. Jenson. Oxford University Press: The Sciences (New York Academy of Science). Available relief and texture of topography. 'Any milleniums today. 575-589. 1990..344. Application of a Fourier data smoothing technique to the meteoritic crater Ries Kessel: Journal of Geophysical Research.. 1987. 3.F. D. 1988. Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information system analysis: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.K. p. Johnson. 1989. Jenson. no. E. minds.K..O. no. Wright.K. Prentice-Hall. 38. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. and Caspall. Jenson.342... 293-305. 1988.338. 45-49.. 1990. Dak. v. 6. 1741-1750. S. v. J. v..C..R. 1969. Johnston. Jenson. in Auto-Carto 7.: Proceedings. Proceedings: Washington. 30. 116. and Rosenfeld.C. 11. Johnson.A. Johnston. S. volume 8. v. SMC 5. 115-133. and Maidment. S. 1986. 137144. lady?' the geomorphic bandwaggon parade: Australian Geographical Studies. N. 1988. Jones. 1933.G.1985. 337. Jennings. in International Geographic Information Systems Symposium. no. Jensen. D.C. ASCE. v. 34 p. 2. p. RJ. 407-422. So.. v.. S. The Emperor's New Mind. no.. Michael. 68 R. Johnson. p. N. 1975. 1987.L. Watershed delineation with triangle-based terrain models: Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 1973. Erkki. 1. 1968. 31-44. J. 219-230. UNIX. and Vand. v. Jeffery. 40 p. no. Analysis of bimodal orientation data: Mathematical Geology. Azriel.R. Help file DEM drainage software VAX.W. short course in geology. N. American Geophysical Union.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . no.. p. 3.G. TA.. Geography Department. VA. T. George. 4 (July/August). Office of Naval Research. no. 1593-1600. Washington..K. v. Introductory digital image processing a remote sensing perspective: Englewood Cliffs. PRIMOS: Sioux Falls. 2. 11. 340. 1.. 14. S. Applications of hydrologic information automatically extracted from digital elevation models: Hydrologic Processes. 1987. v. Contract Nonr 583(15). 472-480.. Jenks. November 15-18. Man and Cybernetics. 1975. The development of small computer geographic analysis systems for military applications. and Faust. v.N. J. p. 12. A. Journel. Mimicking mountains: BYTE. 4. no. Morphometric analysis of drumlin fields in northern central Europe: Boreas. and Domingue. Jones. and James. 1968. Tom. B. p. March 29-April 3. Rowan. Baltimore. p.L. ridges and ravines: IEEE Transactions on Systems. 1232-1251. 4 p. v. p.1987: Proceedings. for Geography Branch. no.Jauhiainen. presented at the 28th International Geological Congress: Washington. p. G... 61-67. Methods and applications in surface depression analysis. 1967. New mind no clothes. Arlington. 41.. a discussion: Journal of Geology. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. G. 1. Statistical analysis of orientation data: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. review o/Tenrose. in Auto-Carto 6. Jones. 1985.M. p. Jenson. 301-310. EROS Data Center. 7th. no. W.

Miinchener Geographische Abhandlung. 3-10. DX. A.E.. 19. 1965.. Malin. seriya geograficheskaya. 1988. 1950. M.B. p. p. 1965. 3. Vivek. 212. and Melhorn. v. 1975.M. W. 4.A. 2. 3. 2-11.R. Autocorrelation and regularization in digital images II. 12B. Julesz. v. JA. A digital terrain model for geomorphological data banks: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. and McLaren. 23032310. v. Supplementband 66.. 36 p.M. v. Publications in Geomorphology. China: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. p. B. BA. 1. N. Experiments in the visual perception of texture: Scientific American.E. Kazanskiy. v.Y. revised: Perception. Geomorphic landscapes: Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers. Kesseli. p.R. Terrain simulation using a model of stream erosion.. No. p. 1986. and Troutman. no... 1.. 1989. J. Modelling for digital terrain and landscape visualization: Photogrammetric Record. Peter. 25.A. 51-57. no. Classification of merged AVHRR and SMMR K Kamalov. 2. and Woodcock. p. 72. Bedforms and fluvial processes in alluvial stream channels selected observations. 227-248. 5.M.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 219-231. Fat fractal scaling of drainage networks from a random spatial network model: Water Resources Research. Kangning... no. p. no. Kartogr. P. 1989. v..D. 247-258. E. and Nielson. Spatial uniformity of power and the altitudinal geometry of river networks: Water Resources Research. 232. p. 1992. A random spatial network model based on R. C. no. p. western Guizhou. 114-119. v. M. no.E. 12.. A. B A. 711-745. v. B. Kennedy. J. Strahler. Keppel.. 27. no. G. Approximating complex surfaces by triangulation of contour lines: IBM Journal of Research and Development. 4. Inability of humans to discriminate between visual texture that agrees in second order statistics. 1078-1086. simple image models: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 34-43. 1973. p. 1990. 655-671. 11.C. 27. Karlinger.. Bela. 1987. 1989. p. elementary postulates: Water Resources Research. v. no.N. in Morisawa. Xiong. 26. Kazanskiy. 10. 12.. no. M.. Spatial analysis of a karst depression population clues to genesis: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Key. and Schweiger. no. 1989. v. 793-798. The geometry of coastlines a study in fractals: Computers and Mathematics with Applications. proceedings of the 4th annual geomorphology symposium: Binghamton. ed.J. Bela. 36. v. Kapoor.. p. B.. 177-184] Keller. p. Peter. On the determination of relief of morphometrical features (in Russian): Geod. Maslanik. Kennie. 1982.. Kammerer. and Troutman. v. R. B A. p. 2. 26. Kelley. p. 6. p. Morphometry and evolution of fenglin karst in the Shuicheng area. v. Proceedings: Computer Graphics. 3. 3.. no... 1975-1981. 391-405.A. 1992. v. 38-48. Germany. 1975. v. Jupp. p. Bela. Kammerer. p. Julesz. T. p. J. 1973.. v.Julesz. SUNY. M. 1978. in Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. v. E. v. 1989. Kemmerly. 1987. 22... 93.R. Karlinger. 1988.. AJL.M. 263-268. 135-154. 7. 10. Computergestutzte Reliefanalyse unter Verwendung des Digitalen Gelandemodells (in German): Munich. 64-65. After Horton: Earth Surface Processes. Kappraff. 253-283. Quantitative characteristics of the shapes of geographical features (in Russian): Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR..J. no. Fluvial Geomorphology. Moglichkeiten des Einsatzes der Computerkartographie und des Digitalen Gelandemodells bei der Herstellung geomorphologischer Karten (in German): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. p. no. Texture and visual perception: Scientific American. no. in SIGGRAPH '88.. [translated 1990. 28. p.

6. Kiracofe.. No. 1971. Separation of topographic and intrinsic backscatter variations in biscopic radar images a "magic airbrush".. Glasgow. no. 4. R. 93. and Smith. dissertation. 1968. Canada.. Adaptive mesh in visualization of terrain elevation data. 1969..Arctic data with neural networks: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Hutchings. 537-546. Soil Conservation Service. p. 210. Andre. in Opitz. in Cole. 4. 1967.J. v. 1961. B.. 1. no. C.. 1331-1338. 1986. and King. R. 1. v. Wiley.B.B. 1988.B. Kim. uchebn. vyssh. March 1993. no. G. Compression of digital elevation models by Huffman coding: Computers and Geosciences. v. Proceedings.. 9.'740743. UK] Kidner. B. v. 70 R. BJ3. Land Capability Classification: U.. TX. Department of Agriculture. v. Klingebiel. zaved.. J. 7. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention.. p. no. C. Klinkenberg. p. H. A comparison of information theory interdependence and product-moment correlation analyses as applied to geomorphic and soils data: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie..D. Kiefer. 3.M. 1992. p. p. v. and Edwards.A. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 19.. 803-804. 1976. UP4. v. The analysis of spatial form and its relation to geographic theory: Annals of the Association of American Geographers.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Brian.. v. Kheoruenromne.J. 1975. Paper 5649. VA.R. unpublished Ph. 393-404. AA. 271-276. of Mathematics and Computing. p. p. 24th. L.W. 1964. DJH. Washington. 1972. p.1985. v. Irb. Kentigern House. 2. D. A parametric approach to land system classification: Geoderma. August 3-8. Digital terrain models for radio path loss calculations: University of Wales.K.. paging unknown. Kidner. Implicit triangulations for large terrain databases: European Conference on GIS (EGIS). v. 1983.. Nash. 39-53..J. Brown St.B. R. 5 (Resource Technology 92). King. Dan. 10131034. Statistisch-analytische Landschaftsforschung (in German with English abstract and figure captions): Geoforum. 573-595. 8. 1970.. A. Journal of Urban Planning and Devlopment Division... Quantitative Geography: London. 8. 59. King. Hampton. 319-334. R.. 269 p. B. Houston. 119-139. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers.1992.. no. D. no.. 55.S.. unpublished Ph.A. v. Proceedings. and Jones. and Montgomery.. An example of factor analysis applied to geomorphological data for six areas in northern England. 1991. no.L. The fractal Geometry of Nature: Earth Surface Proceses and Landforms. no. Geographic Information Systems in Government: Workshop on GIS in Government. no. L. 18. 5. Belgium. Sharp.P. Kirkby. J. W. J. [available from Defence Research Information Centre. 4.B. 406.. 595-603.B. P. 1992. Terrain analysis for metropolitan fringe area planning: Proceedings of the American Society for Civil Engineering. Tests of a fractal model of topography: University of Western Ontario. D.M.D dissertation. 2nd. 12. Niedzwiadek.. p..H. King. Kilchenmann. VA. p. Agricultural Handbook No. Relief-stream frequency (R-F) diagram method of displaying physiographic regions: Journal of Geology. paging unknown. R. 80.E. Kirk. Springfield. v. v. 1. 919-923.B. Review of Mandelbrot. Dept. eds.B. C. p. King. 1993. D. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV. ed. Deepak Publishing. Brussels. p.. p.C. p.. CAPIR/DEM A collection system for geographically based digital elevation data. No. and Gardner. Variation of link magnitude with map scale: Water Resources Research. 1991.. 3746. 2. M. p. King. geodezia i aerofotos"yemka.. Kidner. Kheyfets. An approximation of a topographic surface by means of Chebyshev's orthogonal polygons (in Russian): Izv. December 10-13.

815-816. 36 p. 408 p. G. N. eds.S. and Goodchild. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. L. Koz'min. U. 1. IAHS Press. and Dornbusch.R. Krabill. I. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Fractals and morphometric measures.. September 3-5. Data-base for controlling disasters on Rokko Mountain region.. Shevchenko. IAHS Publication No.R. Koshinsky. v. Komatsu. Houston. 5. Taylor and Francis. 11. Fractal Models in the Earth Sciences: New York. and Skaggs. Brian. A coupled. Meander properties of Venusian channels..Klinkenberg. ca. p. 1970. 1992. no. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology. p. Tsukuba. April. TX. 1992. M.. v. Kiyevskiy Gosudarstvennyy universitet im. R... v.. Collins.W. Shevchenko. and Baker. and Gulenko.. V. 53-55.E. Link. Masashige. UK. The morphometry of shield lakes in Saskatchewan: Limnology and Oceanography. R. Larry. p. v. Swift.1985. and Mayer. v.. Kolb. Kraak. Kraak. No.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .G. Nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut geografii. The fractal properties of topography A comparison of methods: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 695-701.. Japanese Geomorphological Union... 1984. no. Airborne laser topographic 71 R. 24th.D. 133145.F. eds. M..0 (1991)]: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. volume I of project No. and Hirano. Corps of Engineers. The lemniscate loop comparisons with the shapes of streamlined landforms: Journal of Geology. T. 15. Klinkenberg. v. p. p. p. Koehmstedt. G. Applications of Geographic Information Systems in Hydrology and Water Resources Management. W. p. Brian. H. report 4. 20. and Hirano. Elsevier. v. 92.. 1992. no. Konovalov.N. Three Dimensional Applications in Geographical Information Systems: London. Kobayashi.. K. 11. + appendices. 1984. 1989. Cartographic terrain modeling in a three-dimensional GIS environment: Cartography and Geographic Information S> stems. p. and Nachtnebel. 1963. 1993: Wallingford. no. 1992. 3. p. 3.P. v. no.A.J. K. v. 1. R. 1993.] Komar.. P.B. 651-654.. 463-468. Sumiji. 217-234. and Butler. 1985. W. 1993.. Kovar. 13-18. in Raper. 99-113. Korvin. 6. review o/"Quicksurf ADS [version 4. 1952. Koz'min. A hypsometric method for the determination of the coefficient of prominence of ground relief (in Russian): Nauchnyye zapiski Kiyevskogo Gosudarstvennogo universiteta im.S. plate I: characteristic plan-profile. Jr. V. 1/2. Shapes of streamlined islands on Earth and Mars experiments and analyses of the minimum-drag form: Geology. Analogs of Yuma terrain in the Middle East desert: Vicksburg Mississippi.K.D. 35. Masashige.L. Kobayashi.. Debris Flow and Disaster Prevention. 14311440. proceedings of conference. p. Austria. 1-V-0-25001-A-1 31.P. 6. field hydrology-open channel flow model theory: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering...... 1985. no. T. Nos. 11.. HydroGIS 93. 205-224. 694 p. J. J. [volume II is 19 map plates. 17. 1993.N. G. Konyha.D. March 1993.. no.J.P.. N. 3-630. p. in International Symposium on Erosion. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV. Japan (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions): Transactions.. p. 1. Jonathan. Computer-assisted cartographical 3D imaging techniques. M. is there a relationship?. 1983. Vienna. 20. 1993. v. 1950. 5-20. Japan: Proceedings.Ye. 211. P.D. 1966. Sabo-engineering and geomorphic information data base for controlling disasters on Rokko Mountains. Sumiji. C. A numerical model of terrain for plotting alignment by means of a computer (in Russian): Transportnoye stroitel'stvo. Morphological indices of topographic ground relief (in Russian): Dissertation for the degree of Candidate. 2. 5. Komar. no. Technical Report no.G.G.. ed. in Snow.. M.

72 R. March 29-April 3. Miss. Krumbein. Krcho. S. v. 2.C.. paging unknown. Ldk. Technical Papers. 1962. Modeling spatial knowledge: Cognitive Science. Martin-Luther Universitat. unpublished document. no. Krenkel. p. v. 3. 1964. 209. no. Geographica-physica No.. Krenkel. Jozef. Petermanns Mitteilungen. 1974. Kubik. 169-193. 68. v. 238-240. 389-150. v. Baltimore. p. Krebs. v. 7.. p.. H. Norbert. Ky (final report for 1961): Vicksburg. 1989. 1965.W. no. Kuipers. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Kugler.. v. 15..mapping results: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Dt. 1964. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. TV-end surface analysis of contour-type maps with irregular control point spacing: Journal of Geophysical Research. p. no.. Jozef. A Technique for mMacrogeometry Terrain Analysis: Nashville. + maps. p. Geology Department.C. 7-233. 1922. 49-53 & plate 3. Szabo. v. 1. Contract Nonr-1228(36). Irina. 6. 1988. paging unknown. and Frederiksen. unpublished Doctor of Science dissertation... Reliefanalyse.. p. Hans. 1978. 45 p. 64. 132-366 & figs. Matthias. J.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 1970. 4 (Cartography). in Czech): Bratislava. annual convention. Northwestern University. [part 1. 3. Manual of Sedimentary Petrography: New York. 685-694. 1973. Die geomorphologische Reliefanalyse als Grundlage grossmassstabiger geomorphologischer Kartierung (in German): Leipzig. 3. Report 13. bibliography. Krcho.. Geographica. Quantificational reductionism as a risk in geography and cartography: GeoJournal. p. 70 A.. 1930. Contract No. Morfometricka Analyza A Digitalne Modely GeorelieTu (Morphometric Analysis and Digital Models of Georelief. p. U. Digital elevation models review and outlook. Office of Naval Research. Some statistical properties of dendritic channel networks: U. Paul..S. Das Georelief und seine Bedeutung. 129-153. Geology Department.. F J. Kubert.S.. 1963. Krebs. Acta Geol. Veda. 4. 45. 191-201. no. 18. Wiss. 1987.S. part 2. Slovak Pedagogical Publishers.. et Geogr. Morphometric analysis of relief on the basis of geometric aspects of field theory: Acta Geographica Universitatis Comenianae. Krumbein. and NSF Grant GA-1137. P. Kartographische Modellierung des Georelief. Benjamin. DA-22-079-Eng-300. Inst. 453-517] Kuhle. Krcho.L. U. and Pettijohn. Jozef.C. f. 1-8. Geography Branch. 21/22. PA. 1938. Germany. Das Georelief und seine kartographische Modellierung (in German): Halle/Wittenberg. Hans. and Menard. Krumbein. Tenn. 823-834. 4. 549 p. and Shreve. p. No. B. p. Application of terrain descriptive techniques to Fort Knox. 517 p. 50. 9-57. Czechoslovakia. Army Corps of Engineers. 1968.A. W. p. 193-204. 2. 541-655.C. A study of mesoscale runoff variability: Geografiska Annaler. Kugler. 916.. Kurt. no. D. Maryland. W. Special Project Report. Mass und Zahl in der physischen Geographic (in German): Hermann Wagner Gedachtnisschrift. v. UCLA. Corps of Engineers. Bratislava. 1-131 & figs. W. 441-450. Veroff. 368-452. p. N.F. Inc. no. Vanderbilt University. p. Krasovskaia. part 3. p. 1959. and Giulieri. Norbert. 1990. Vydavatel'stvo Slovenskej Akad£mie Vied. 117 p. Univ. Eine Karte der Reliefenergie Siiddeutschlands (in German): Petermanns Mitteilungen. The perspective representation of functions of two variables: Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery. ONR Task no. 427 p. Erganzungsband. Krause. p. R. Manual. Department of Civil Engineering. Depth distribution and bathymetric classification of some sea-floor profiles: Marine Geology. AppletonCentury-Crofts. p. Com. Morphometric analysis of the slope conditions of the Kosice Basin (in Czech): Bratislava. v. Waterways Experiment Station.

3. and others.113 p.. Fundamentals of spatial information systems: New York.. 972-975. 16. no. LJE. 1990. 3. 4. R.. 6. v.S.B. 26. 3. 285-293. 43-47. 125-158.. and Merry.. Magnus. Larson. On the fractal dimension of stream networks: Water Resources Research. N.. 787810. in IEEE Workshop on Computer Vision. 1991..F.UJ3. A quantitative comparison of regular and irregular digital terrain models.. 1988. Application of image processing techniques to digital elevation models of southern Africa: South African Journal of Science. F.. Malan. Contractor Report 4149. Boston. Lammers. Lamb. p. Geodesic methods in quantitative image analysis: Pattern Recognition.. Automating object representation of drainage basins: Computers and Geosciences. Conference on the use of space systems for planetary geology and geophysics. Laffey. 17. 205224. p. and Thompson.D.P.S. v. A new technique for selecting the vertices for a TIN. 1984. 735-741. 7. 83. K. The University of western Ontario. 1980. Kundert. v. p. Latty. v. J. 11. 977-981. Academic Press (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich)..R. Langbein. 179. LaGro.. Sweden. Mass. and Rosso. Theory. May 25-27. A fast algorithm for automatically computing Strahler stream order: Water Resources Research. Contributions to the hydrology of the United States.. 1944 (prepared in 1941): U. Report No. Geoprocessing Reihe.. 1988. 680 p. ed. AD. Laurini.). v. Proceedings. + appendices. p. Lambiotte. Laboratoire de G6ographie de I'Universite" de Strasbourg (L. Department of Water Resources Engineering.. Peter. 1990. Controls of eolian dune size and spacing: Geology. Lantuejoul. Lanfear. 6. Laut. and a comparison of TIN's and DEM's over a variety of surfaces (abs.. Quantification of beach profile change: Lund. A photometric technique for deriving slopes from Lunar Orbiter photography. 1. Kumler. no. in GIS/LIS '90 Convention.A.J.S. no. Proceedings.120 p. in ACSM-ASPRS annual convention. Proceedings. p. 1990. and Goodchild. no. Kaspar. N. p. Indiana. Mars.G. 255-263. Derek. Renzo. Ch. James Jr. 1989. and Watson..T. November 1990. dissertation. TWR-1008.. p. 1991. 1947. v. A bibliography of dunes Earth. cooperative agreement NCC2346. no. O. West Lafayette. and Control: Proceedings.P. Paolo. J. p. Geography Department.1991. Lund University. p. 305-314. Proceedings: Annals of American Science and Technology Series. 2 (Cartography and GIS/LIS).Kumler.. p. L. 1. v. 73 R. R.. p. G.L. Geological Survey WaterSupply Paper 968-C.. 1952. and Maisonneuve. v. unpublished Ph. 171-177. W. Lancaster. 10th. Scene segmentation through region growing: Symposium on Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data. Haralick. and Venus: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 16.PIKBUSGS OF93-262A . v. 1982. M.. L'6tude statistique des versants (in French): Revue de G^omorphologie Dynamique: v. 1968.. March 25-29.. 1988. Lancaster. Untersuchungen zur Automatischen Klassifikation von Raumlichen Einheiten (in German): Geographisches Institut Universitat Zurich. no.M. 177-187. 1984. C. Anaheim. 1987. v.1967. MD. RJB. no. 1988. and Paine. T. paging unknown.LG. in Enzmann. 293 p. Method and problems of areal interpolation: London. M. T. (Canada). 57. R. Lam. M. Assessing patch shape in landscape mosaics: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. and Taylor. 143147. Robert.J. 1992. Baltimore. p. N.D. p. 1984. Topographic clasification of digital image intensity surfaces. Topographic characteristics of drainage basins.). 1982. CA. p. and Band. 25.. A step towards an objective procedure for land classification and La Barbera.

74 R.W. 1. An explanation of the logarithmic spiral plan shape of headland-bay beaches: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology.mapping: Applied Geography. Technical Papers.. October 28-November 1. C. 194-203. TA. D. R. and Fisher. in GIS/LIS '92.J... March 25-29: Technical Papers. Lawrence.. in Minedland Rehabilitation: New York.F. and Chen. in GIS/LIS '89.M. p. M. Goodspeed. 253-263. Lee. Provisional environmental regions of Australia. no. 7. and Image Processing. annual convention. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 1991. Lee. F. K. 1977. 12. J. Technical Memorandum 82/13. Jay.. P. Atlanta. Jay.. 61-71. no. Hydrologic classification of sub-basins in the Macleay Valley. Academic Press.. v. Ledley. Faith.. Jay. 5. 30-39. 1. v. 1992. C-21. 2. Volume 1 The Regions: Canberra.K. Jay. 1991. Austin. 1. Peter. in GIS/LIS '91.. Graphics. v. J. p. Lee. 1992. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 1. v. 1964. 1979. 1989. Orlando. p. v. Snyder. p. Laut. 2. Software for C-l surface interpolation. 77-30] Lay.S.P. 51 p. [also Jet Propulsion Laboratory. P. November 10-12. Baltimore. JA.P. no. J. in GIS/LIS.. 56-69. Jay. a working document towards a framework for Australian environmental statistics.P.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. v. GA. p. D... TA. no. 10.. 1461-1467. CA: Proceedings.. p. Maurice. 4. 1991a. Lee. and Paine. p. ed. Atlanta. 1982.E. CSIRO Institute of Biological Resources. California Institute of Technology Publication No. p. 3. A drop heuristic conversion method for extracting irregular network for digital elevation models. 71-79. 1985. and Guevara.K. Jinn-Guey. p. Cheng-Hsiu. FL. p. v.. no. p.. Maurice. Lee. Mark. Modeling the effect of data errors on feature extraction from digital elevation models: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.K. KE. p.N. and Snyder.R. Georgia. F. Albuquerque. 267-285. Leberl. J.1991. in 1992 ASPRS-ACSM annual convention. p. 30. October 28November 1. 1991. Mathematical Software HI: New York. Leberl.L. Kikuchi. Thomas. Modelling spatial patterns of digital elevation errors for drainage network analysis. Lee. 58. Firth. and Thomas. 1980.. Technical Papers. Lauzon. Comparison of existing methods for building triangular irregular network models of terrain from grid digital elevation models: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. v. 1561-1570. in Rice. New Mexico. 2-21. D. no. v.. Radargrammetric analysis with Magellan data of planet Venus. Peter.. PJL. 1993. A-191 to A-199. 161194. no. New South Wales: Canberra. Lawson. Analysis of cells: IEEE Transactions on Computers.. p. 1. 1093-1100. LeBlond. annual conference and exposition. CSIRO in cooperation with the Department of Science and the Environment. Sculpturing the surface. Md. 241 PLaut. 3. P. 740753. + illustrations. v. 49.K. Proceedings.. Body. 1972. p.. 1991b.L. v. A new method for determining the angularity of particles: Sedimentology. Law. 57. Radargrammetric measurements from the initial Magellan coverage of planet Venus: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. v.. 2 (Cartography and GIS /LIS). Lees. 1. Division of Water and Land Resources. Proceedings. 426-435. San Jose. 1984. 109126. and Paine.W.1992. Van Nostrand Reinhold. no.. D. p. and Kober. D. Two-dimensional runencoding for quadtree representation: Computer Vision. fall convention. Terrain feature extraction from digital elevation models A multiperspective exploration. Jay. M. v. Fractal encoded data bases for simulating terrain surfaces with TIN models. 1991. Wolfgang. Assessing the existing methods for TIN extraction. G.

.S. Mexico: Revista Cartografica. and Rasmussen.. H. 2-3. Pierre. J. J.G.. 1969.A. Special issue on computer vision: Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Atmospheric Science Paper no. 1986.. 56 p. Hartmut. Accuracy assessment of digital terrain models. L.B. 39..F. 46. 828-832.. March 29-April 3. 283-295. ed.S. 122. Michael. v. I. 455-464.. W. and Mark. and Liedtke.. 1968. 75 R. with applications: Computer Journal. v..S. 650-659. Rongxing.. M. J. Leopold.R. 1969. Auto Carto London. and Robinson.. Geological Survey Circular 620. p. Analysis of surficial landform properties the regionalization of Indiana into units of morphometric similarity: Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science. p. 15. and Maddock. Fort Collins.. H. v. Leopold. Le Roux.B. p. L.C. Wolman. D. Germany. ICA symposium. 184-192.. 115-127. The concept of entropy in landscape evolution: U. Addison-Wesley Publ. p. W. Prediction and Assessment for Metals and Petroleum: New York. 8.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . eds. 1992. Jacques.1986..-Y. and Miller.. Lewis. 15-24. Pergamon Press. p.. Gabor. Lewis. 8th. X. 1967. MD. 1-74... eds. The Fabric of Geology: Reading. W. L. and Merriam. Determining the channel sinuosity of ancient fluvial systems from paleocurrent data: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 1982. Proceedings of the Symposium on Mountain Meteorology. eds. v. p. 1991.G. E. B. Recursive approximation of topographic data using quadtrees and orthogonal polynomials. Note on aerodynamic roughnessparameter estimation on the basis of roughnesselement description: Journal of Applied Meteorology. eds. Li. L. Leifer.. Dardel. 16 p. p. Contributions to the GMK-priority program IV: Berliner Geographische Abhandlungen. Co. 5..M. 1967.. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology: San Francisco. Herbert.R. L. v. p. 1988. no. Photointerpretation and Geodesy. 1963. no. 1799. M. Laurent. Geological Survey Professional Paper 252. no. 78..B. Darstellung einer neuen Theorie der Bezeichnung der schiefen Flachen im Grundriss oder der Situationzeichnung der Berge (in German): Leipzig.A. J. J. and Chen. Thomas. Jr. International Symposium on ComputerAssisted Cartography. 916.H... 1986. Li. 1964. p.1987: Proceedings. 42 (July-December). and Langbein. Leopold.. 1991.: Proceedings. p. Deren. 283-291. A. v. in II Pan American and VII National Congress on Photogrammetry.H. in AutoCarto 8. v. 62. 21. 859-1050..P. Computer-assisted photogrammetric data capture. Leupin. v. No. The use of digital elevation models computed from SPOT stereopairs for uranium exploration... L. CO: Colorado State University. 5. and Kender. Freeman. Shape from shading a method of integration of sonar images and bathymetric data for ocean mapping: Marine Geodesy. D.. Association and indeterminacy in geomorphology. 522 p. Leopold. 8. Leymarie. R. The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic implications: U. in Barsch. ed.. p. nos..B.B. in Gaal. Geomorphological Mapping in the Federal Republic of Germany.S. 1978. 76.. Leser. 1985.P. 1962. Massachusetts. 20 p.M. Lettau. 1953. 1990.. Li. p. 2. Incorporation of the GMK 25 BRD in the international development of geomorphological maps.H. Hungwen. J. Automatically generating triangulated irregular digital terrain model networks by mathematical morphology: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.L. Ley. in Reiter. Lettau.B. Baltimore. September 14-19.B. Jr. Leopold. 26 June. and Langbein. Dietrich. C. Small to large-scale features of boundary layer structure over mountain slopes. Geological Survey Professional Paper 500-A.. v. p. in Blakemore. L. Quantitative comparison of some aesthetic factors among rivers: U. and Renouard. Triangulation of planar regions. Computer Applications in Resource Estimation. 225-238.G. 324-332. 317-328. 1987.Lehmann. in Albritton.. paging unknown. p. no.

p.. and Openshaw. Mass. and Wooldridge.. 255-264. 6. 250. M.Li. no. 1951. 157-174. Redlands..S.F. S. no. Fractal structure and properties of stream networks: Water Resources Research.C. 1992. Cartographic Generalization of Digital Terrain Models: Columbus. 634. p. 11. in Snow. On the measure of digital terrain model accuracy: Photogrammetric Record. no. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories Report no. 1990. v. E. 121. J. Sampling Strategy and Accuracy Assessment for Digital Terrain Modelling: University of Glasgow. A natural principle for the objective generalization of digital maps: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. implications for landcape evolution in the San Gabriel Mountains. London Essays in Geography: Cambridge..S. and Toppe. 1988. 1986. Loutit. Nos. v. 31. Altitudes moyennes et coefficients d'agration dans la Valais (in French): Revue de G^ographie Alpine. ETL-0393. Calculation of maximum snow-avalanche run-out distance by use of digital elevation models: Annals of Glaciology. 79-02171] Loon. 5579. p. v. L.D.. 3. no. 10. M.000-scale shaded-relief map] Liebermann.).. Periglacial and glacial landforms analysed from two relief maps: Geografiska Annaler. 19-29. Loup.. Karstein. J. Zhilin. 249. Bertil. 373-386. Tanzhuo. La. v. 72. v. v. thesis.L. Elvhage. 1957. in Stamp. Digital terrain elevation model analysis: Fort Belvoir. no. v.G. Effects of slope and aspect variations on satellite surface retrievals and mesoscale analysis in mountainous terrain: Journal of Applied Meteorology. in ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute. N. v. v.D. 5.A. 165-177. 1/2.. climatic and lithologic influences on landscape fractal dimension and hypsometry. and Patias. unpublished Ph. eds. Liu.S. Proceedings.C.. p. C. P. Series A. 61-91. p. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology. 1. Effects of check points on the reliability of DTM accuracy estimates obtained from experimental tests: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. A. no. 13. 79. p. Annual User Conference llth. Empirical calculations of snow-avalanche run-out distance based on topographic parameters: Journal of Glaciology. J. 1.. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. U.D.S. 1980.. 28. 94. 67. and Mayer. 1991.. 1985.. Loon. v. 321-387. 164-169. 299 p. paging unknown. and Chase. R. Larry. Li. Variation of the accuracy of digital terrain models with sampling interval: Photogrammetric Record. Linton. S. Zhilin. Ronald. no. 1992. 3. v. no.. Lied. [plate 1 is l:250. MI. p. no. Zhilin. no. v. The statistical analysis of a random moving surface: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 12. Quantitative regional analysis of Chu Chiang Delta area of South China using Landsat images: GeoJournal. and Ringberg. Limiting parameters: Nature. 1963. 1989. 77-114. The Ohio State University. 1976. eds. 51. J. 20. 263. no.. v. University Microfilms Int'l. p. 1978. Christian. Lo. Kama.. Karstein. 1992. Statistical properties of an isotropic random surface: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 14. No. Lidmar-Bergstrom. Loughridge. 2. p. D. Landforms in Skane.. dissertation. v. Calif. Tectonic.. no. M. Zhilin. p. 1982. VA. and Bakkeh0i. Harvard University Press. 73 A. Inc.. south Sweden. Zhilin. 873-877. 2981-2988. 1. Li. Series A. 199-217. p. 26. CP.G. 1957. Longuet-Higgins. p.T. 231-240. The delimitation of morphological regions. Stan. p. 113-128. Relief map of the Earth's surface: Eos. Lipton.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .S. v. 1993.. p. PhD. Li.W. 5-18. 1992. p. Lied. 1333-1340. v. Longuet-Higgins. 10. Lifton. [Ann Arbor.. Calculation of daily and instantaneous potential solar radiation and solar angles on sloping surfaces. p. 57. 1991. 199 p. p. 1991. p. California. v.. 76 R.

. p. 197-202. no.C. G. and II: GSA Today... v. V.C. and Thomas. Lue. 1991. p. 67-74.T. Band. Global climatic change management by watershed basin units. An algorithm for the triangulation of arbitrarily distributed points applications to volume estimate and terrain fitting: Computers and Geosciences.. Macmillan of Australia. p. University of Toronto. 1990. Lubowe.K. M Mabbutt. R. Gary. An object-oriented system for the organization and representation of terrain knowledge for forested ecosystems. Lustig.M. p.. in Analysis of Apollo 8 Photographs and Visual Observations: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1992. and Band. 31-46. v. 2. compilers. 2. An operational image matching package <MATCH>. Kurt. 1968. 70 p. and Pareschi. P. A. Mackintosh.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Yan.. 5159. Trend-surface analysis of the Basin and Range province and some geomorphic implications: U.C. Mackay. 17. v. no. 3. A. and Gambell. 150-159.A. Computer Programming for Spatial Problems: New York. Land Evaluation.1992... MacDonald.. v. p. 325-339. Joint U. 172-183 & 228-239. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers.. Knowledge-based classification of higher order terrain objects on digital elevation models: Toronto. The first electronic computer: Physics Today. October 28-November 1. 1.S. D. 2 (Photogrammetry and Surveying). R.S.1992. R.Sc. The pictographic molecular paradigm: Naturwissenschaften. 1931.. Macedonio. Massachusetts.A.34. 3.A. in Stewart. Suzanne. 1968. Addison-Wesley. Special Publication SP-201. ed. CA.1st die Reliefenergie ein Mass fur das Alter der Endmoranen (in German): Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart. no. UNESCO: Melbourne. Mackay. v. Macdonald. P. 1963. B. November 10-12. G. Proceedings. San Jose.. B.M. and Fox. thesis. D... D. Geological Survey Professional Paper 500-D.2931. August 3-8. John Wiley and Sons (Halsted Press). Washington. J. Washington.. 7. 1.. & 35..1991. 27 p. 9. 1 & 2. 11-28. Liittig.C. and Novak. 4 (Remote Sensing & Data Acquisition). MacDonald. Mackin. Annual conference and exposition. nos.1992. 41. MacEachren.H. Georgia. C. L.Lozar.. D. in GIS/LIS '91. p.C. Scheirer.. 1987.S. It's only topography Parts I 77 R. v. Robinson. 2. 262. VA. Rational and empirical methods of investigation in geologj. K. R. Carbotte. p. The distribution of lunar altitudes: Journal of the British Astronomical Association. M. Lebing. 617-626. 1991.B. 1982. 19. 47-56. 1992. 1992. Geological Survey/Jet Propulsion Laboratory scientific visualization workshop: Norfolk. Review and concepts of land classification. J. August 3-8.S. G. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers. 1993. Luisi. 1970. Papers of a CSIRO Symposium.E.S. Proceedings. The Fabric of Geology: Reading. no.. 1992. 40. Development of an integrated knowledgebased system for managing spatiotemporal ecological simulations.. T. ed. unpublished M. 1964. E. program and abstracts.25. v.. p. paging unknown. in Albritton. Stream junction angles in the dendritic drainage pattern: American Journal of Science. 1990. p. v. 77..J.B. 3. 1969.L... v. MacDougall.. 1992. 135-163... J.24.-L.. Map complexity comparison and measurement: The American Cartographer. v. Evaluation of photoclinometric profile determination. p. 160 p. p. 859-874.E. L.. Lucchitta. p. 494-503.. 25-32. no. May 18-19.K. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention. and Robinson. Atlanta.. V. L. N A. p.K. Mackay.R. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention. 1976.S..B.M. v. and Hathaway. Jr. p. v. D. in GIS/LIS '92. p.

1989. Mahoney. Goodchild.C. Rivista di scienze ambientali e territoriali (Bologna). D. and Eash. 6330. D. 5860... D. p..E. v. in Moore. Branko. in Mallard.T. Pergamon Press.B. 1977. Geographical Information Systems Principles and Applications: New York. Mandelbrot. ADAPT A digital terrain model-based geographic information system. 9-31. 914034. 1991. Kimber. 1. Makarovic. A digital terrain model system: ITC Journal (Enschede. 147-156. G. Monterey.. 3775.B.. Harvard Papers on Geographic Information Systems. Maling. p.).. California. p. Makarovic. L. Majure. 577 p. Mandelbrot. eds.). v.. PA. 10. 1953. 1991.. admirala Makarova. 1975. Branko. Integrated GIS: the importance of raster. 1991b. 70-77.Maguire. Mass. 1978.. [landscape perception and classification] Males. v. 57-83. Measurements from Maps. DA. Makarovic. no.. Netherlands). Neth. Clochastic models for the Earth's relief. and Aronson. 1977-3. USGS Water-Resources Investigations Report no. Branko. p. Cartographic and Statistical Data Bases and Mapping Software: v 8.H. Makarovic. Wiley and Sons. p. p..1991. 1975-1.. Branko. Progressive sampling for digital terrain models: ETC (International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences) Journal (Enschede. 3825-3828. 1968.. 558-561. Malinverno. Alberto. Lo studio del paesaggio naturale mediante indici ambientali sintetici (in Italian): Terra. in Dutton. Data Structures: Surficial and Multi-Dimensional.M. 1989.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Branko. and the number-area rule for islands: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. p. R. no. W. p. Makarovic.-March.H. the shape and the fractal dimension of the coastlines. v. Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis. and Gates. no. Maling. Composite sampling for digital terrain models: I. U. D J. Testing linear models of sea-floor topography: Pure and Applied Geophysics. Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences) Journal (Enschede. 1096 p. 636-638. 1973-3. Journal (Enschede.. B. 1973. 5. 1976-1. Patricia.S. 4. Inst.. 1st. p. Neth. 72.. 28. p. 406-433. and Campbell.. Baltimore. and Rhind. p. How long is a piece of string?: Cartographic Journal. 1/2. 4. 111-130. 1975. no. 2 vols. 182-195.. ed. Neth.. 1967.J. Malinverno. 352. and Chick. Sergio. v. 78 R. Harvard University: International advanced study symposium on topological data structures for geographic information systems. Graduate School of Design.). 131.. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Annual Convention. DA. 1977. p. D. 1976.W. 28. no. no. M J1. Harvard Library of Computer Graphics.. Jan. Md. Alberto. Branko. B. 1972. Julian. no. Malcevschi. Principles and Methods of Cartometry: Oxford. v. 1980. An automated method to quantify physical basin characteristics. 156. Geoffrey. v. The measurement of sinuous or meandering lines on maps (in Russian): Uchenyye zapiski Vysshego Arkticheskogo Morskogo uchilishcha im. Amended strategy for progressive sampling: ITC (Intl. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program Proceedings of the technical meeting. JJ. Inverse square-root dependence of mid-ocean-ridge flank roughness on spreading rate: Nature.W. v. 4 (GIS). Maksimov. Barry. v.. GJ3. (Makarovic) 1-19. 1991a. no. 2. Carstensen. 397-416. no. J. Maguire. How long is the coastline of Britain? statistical self-similarity and fractional dimension: Science. p. 139-155. p. March 11-15.. no. Information transfer in reconstruction of data from sampled points: Photogrammetria. p. March 25-29: Technical Papers. 107-116. no.. Proceedings. eds. Digital Terrain Models a constituent of geo-information systems. 5.B. nos. p.. ed.. 117-128. v. 1991. Dedham. Effects of technological change on relief representation on USGS topographic maps: Cartographica.S. 1987. 4 (Leningrad-Moscow). Makarovic.

M. 243-260. dissertation. 79 R. Washington. Mark. 197-206. B. and Saupe. Alessandro.. eds. Mark.B.B. Andrea. Harvard Papers on Geographic Information Systems.M. Marani. ed. Vincent... D. 581-583. 721-722. B..M. 5. gos. 1st.B. Academic Press. Fractal character of fracture surfaces of metals: Nature.D.M. v. p. 365 p. 2. v.. W.. State Geological Survey. A.46 p. 1975b. The Science of Fractal Images: New York. Fussell. Marinov. D. D. 1978. B. 1982. 4. Dietmar. no. 165-177.. Marcus. D. Mandelbrot. Comments on Freiberger and Grenander's "Surface patterns in theoretical geography": Computers and Geosciences. D. D. 1/2.v. B. Mandelbrot.M.. 1988.. Riccardo. 8. John. Fractals Form. 235-236.. Graduate School of Design. 131. FORTRAN Program for Factor and Vector Analysis of Geologic Data Using an IBM 7090 or 7094/1401 Computer System: Lawrence. Don. Topological properties of geographic surfaces Applications in computer cartography. [also Technical Report #15. Geografo-ekonomiche skiy nauchno-issledovatel'skiy institut pri LGU (Leningr. Louis. Freeman and Company. v. Loren. 1977.B. 27. 1992. Leningrad). 4. Manokhina. California. p. Mandelbrot. 4. v. W.. v. unpublished Ph. Simon Fraser University. 1991. p.. "Geographic Data Structures. Fractal reconstruction of seafloor topography: Pure and Applied Geophysics. 30313049. The coefficient of prominence of topographic relief (in Russian): Trudy po gidrologii.H. no. Chance and Dimension: San Francisco. 1977. no. H.V.-O. 1980. Proceedings. 1975a. American Society of Photogrammetry. 57 A. D." Office of Naval Research Contract N00014-75-C-0886] Mark. May 9-11. Statistic topological segmentation of digital terrain images. v. 308. p. 357 p.. 57 A. 1977. (Mark) 1-12. August 3-8. Computer analysis of topography a comparison of terrain storage methods: Geografiska Annaler. p.. Springer Verlag. Mareschal. 3-4. no. p. 197-210. J.. p. Alan.. p. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers. p. B. Mark. no. Harvard University: International advanced study symposium on topological data structures for geographic information systems. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention.B. 1974. no... Mass.M. Geoffrey. v. The Fractal Geometry of Nature (updated 2nd printing of 1982 edition): San Francisco. and Imbrie. and Paullay. no. St.1992. Passoja. Geomorphometric parameters a review and evaluation: Geografiska Annaler. and Rinaldo. Alain. 1978. 2 (Photogrammetry and Surveying). University of Kansas. p. 12. Computer rendering of fractal stochastic models: Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery. 5. Freeman and Company. Mark. Topological Randomness of Geomorphic Surfaces: Burnaby. 179-188. Proceedings. Manson. un-t. Missouri. 1989. K. Mardia.H. Statistics of Orientation Data: New York.. California. 389-398. First-order drainage basin morphology definition and distribution: Earth Surface Processes.E. 1978. Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis. 1983.C. Comment on Fournier. 1978. 1984. v.J. Dedham. in Dutton. Line intersection method for estimating drainage density: Geology.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . D. p. 371-372. 1939. Special Publication 13. Rigon. Mandelbrot. 1972. no. and Carpenter. Fractal landscapes without creases and rivers Appendix A. D. 2.. v.. 138 p. 1964. Ye.L. 25. v.. Data Structures: Surficial and Multi-Dimensional. 3-4.D. Concepts of "data structure" for digital terrain models: Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Symposium. no. 24-31. 5.M.C. 5961. no.Mandelbrot. p. Mark. British Columbia. A note on fractal channel networks: Water Resources Research. B. 460 p. Mark. p.. in Peitgen.

Pille wizen "Talasymmetrie und Kartometrie:" Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.. Mark. D. 2. Digital elevation models and data structuring issues.M. 9. no. in International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. in Cartographies. 1988. v. 73. in Anderson. v... D. in International Symposium on Automated Cartography. James Clerk Maxwell. 1981. M. P. p. 9. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. 2.M.G. Mark. Seattle. v.. Mark. July 5-10.R. D. D. in Douglas..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . A. Topology of ridge patterns possible physical interpretation of the "minimum spanning tree" postulate: Geology. obliqueweighted. Mark. 19. an empirical examination including the effects of 2-dimensional runencoding: Geo-Processing. Mark. no. 1979b. v. 3. Concepts of space and spatial language. no. 3.M..M. 2. 1989. no. 63-75. 225-234. Hope and Realism: Canadian Cartographic Association. 2. Discussion of W. Mark..M. v.M. Mark. 2nd. p. v.M.M. Relations between fieldsurveyed channel networks and map-based geomorphometric measures. no.. and Frank. Mark. no. reply: The Canadian Geographer. Inez. and Aronson. D. 1980. 14. 90. p. 1984. with applications in geomorphology and computer mapping: Mathematical Geology. 367-383. p. Phenomenon-based datastructuring and digital terrain modelling: GeoProcessing. Michael. D. D. no. 314-315. University of Ottawa...M. 2 & 3. On the misuse of regression in Earth science: Mathematical Geology. 202-204. On the composition of drainage networks containing lakes statistical distribution of lake in-degrees: Geographical Analysis.1989. D. 1983. 15. On scales of investigation in geomorphology: The Canadian Geographer.. 370-372.. Construction of quadtrees and octtrees from raster data.K. Mark. 1979a. 168-178J Mark. Mark. p. v.M. II (Automated Cartography): p. eds. D. Mark. Modelling Geomorphological Systems. no. p.M. 1977. T. 1983c. [republisned 1984.H. Mark. 81-84. Mark. D. Computer-Assisted Cartography and Geographic Information Processing. and Church.M. 1979c.. 288-298... 97-106.M. Kentucky: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. p. v. the first quantitative geomorphologist? Discussion: Mathematical Geology. Network models in geomorphology.. D.. p. Proceedings. 115-120. 81-82. 73-97. 24. and Lauzon. 2. p. no.. no. p. 1986. D. v.M. 358-372. D. p. Chance and Dimension': Geo-Processing. 3. A multidirectional. Department of Geography..M. RJC. Mark.. shaded-relief image of the Island of R. D. 24. p.. Review ofFractals: Form. p. 209212. p.. p.. 8. 1975. v. 1. p.Mark. no. Topology of ridge patterns. Proceedings.M. New York. 1.P. v. 1980.. 1983b. 1983a. v.U. 195-197. Mark.. 1986. DM. 1982. randomness and constraints: Geological Society of America Bulletin. A. no. ed. 1. 18. p. v. Mark. p. and Warntz. 9th. 27-36. Proceedings. 21. 6th. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 7. 16.. Washington. 1985. v. 538-556. William.. v. 4. and Peucker.. D. p.M. and Boyle. Knowledge-based approaches for contour-to-grid interpolation on desert pediments and similar surfaces of low relief. Canada. April 2-7. Scaledependent fractal dimensions of topographic surfaces an empirical investigation. J. D. 2. 164-172. John Wiley & Sons. no.1986. D. The space efficiency of quadtrees. D. 1982. no. IGU/ICA. 671-683. 1. v. Scales of investigation in geomorphology. 1.B. Mark. Mark. Ottawa. D. 1992. Automated detection of drainage networks from digital elevation models. Baltimore. no. a new algorithm based on run-encoding: The Australian Computer Journal. Part I.M.

Marks. Interpretation ge"ographique de I'hypsome'trie francaise (in French): Comptes Rendues hebdomadaires des Stances de 1'Acade'mie des Sciences. W. p. Mark. 439-451. Bela. Using Cesium-137 to assess the variability of net soil erosion and its association with topography in a Canadian prairie landscape: Catena.B. Marshall.S. Paola. Eeltje. R J. A test for error in digital topography (abs. no. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1257-K.S. J. L. E. 1. 14.H. Mark. Computerized exploration of relief features (in Hungarian): Geodezia es Kartografia. 14.S. v. and Molnar.. Pike. 1988. CATCH: a FORTRAN program for measuring catchment area from digital elevation models: Computers and Geosciences. and James Frew. R. Martz. 1993. v. Bortoluzzi. 1971.500. no. 1992). 4... Mediterranean seabed in digital shaded relief: Eos.W. and Ligi. Digital relief modelling (in Hungarian): Geodezia es Kartografia... 74. Mapping the Southwest Indian Ridge vvith Geosat: Eos. 273 & 275.. E. Martz. Geological Survey. 2. Marsik.. and DeJong. 241-254. v. and Reichenbach. and Reichenbach. 1992. 1941.. NASA Technical Memorandum 84984. Pike. Numerical definition of drainage network and subcatchment areas from digital elevation models: Computers and Geosciences. California: U. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Danny. 14 (Supplement). D. Eeltje. No.K.S. p. 1991.. no. McAdoo.. No. Giovanni.. MD. 1983. Issue 26 (October. R. Dieter.M. 1990.. Automated basin delineation from digital elevation data: Geo-Processing. Marco.C. 13-15. Mark. v. and Aitken. 16 (Supplement).J.F. p. Mark. Do-it-yourself visualization: Information Systems Newsletter.W.. K.W. 81 R.. Clastic Particles scanning electron microscopy and shape analysis of sedimentary and volcanic clasts: New York. R J. Goddard Space Flight Center. Z. de. and Brabb. Martz. 1992. 74.K. 81 and 86. R. 1987. 5. scale 1:62.K. Newman. no. Markus. California: U.K. 18. 289-308. R. Bortoluzzi. 50. 346 p. no.500. v. 1987. 1983. E. Jeff Dozier. L. 1984. Hypsome'trie et morphologie. 194. 1992. 6. 15 PMarks. 211. p. no. ed. 1983. and James Frew. RJL. E. no.500. v. 175 p. no. 8. v. +. and Smith. no.. Using Cesium-137 and landform classification to develop a net soil erosion budget for a small Canadian prairie watershed: Catena. p. Marks. p. and DeJong. L. p. Statistics for Geoscientists: Oxford. Mark. Image from combined land and seafloor DEM's illuminates Tyrrhenian tectonics (abs. 627-640. 3 p. Pike. paging unknown. Slope map of San Mateo County. 18.3p. 1992. Van Nostrand Reinhold. v. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map I-1257J. R. 1940. 2. L. Giovanni.. Marsal.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 747-761. Map I-1257-M. and DeJong. Shaded-relief topographic map of San Mateo County.R. Jeff Dozier.K. 280. p. NASA/OSSA. 27. D. v. R. Bela.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . T. paging unknown. 72.. Geological Survey Open-file Report 92-422. v.. no. 1991. 378-380 and 426-428. 26. 299311. v. Martonne. v. p. Mark. 1993.S. determination et interpretation des altitudes moyennes de la France et de ses grandes regions naturelles (in French): Annales de G6ographie. Pergamon Press. Automatic relief shading: Photogrammetria.. 5. Paola.E. Miscellaneous Investigations Series. 1987. scale 1:62.Hawaii: U.. Martin. Danny. 1988. Martz. p. Martonne. p. 73. Map of debris-flow probability.. de. Eeltje. 57-70. p.. Mike. 3/4. and Garbrecht. J.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Automated basin delineation from digital terrain data: Greenbelt. scale 1:62.2 sheets. San Mateo County. Markus. California: U.W.

Test of quantitative terrain description systems at Fort Leonard Wood. Wli. ed. 1991. Waterways Experiment Station. Polygonalism of an experimental crater: Northwest Science. 19: New York. May 3-5. H.. 304-337. p. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Geological Survey Open-file Report 81-656. Quantitative Geography. and Noma. and Wentworth. 1990. Edinburgh. p..L. 319/f.. 4. in Garrison. 78. p. p.. California: Office of Naval Research Project NR 389-042.J. Technical Report No. 1981. P. with particular reference to drainage-basin morphometry: Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers.1970. C. Dean. W. and Danes. and Marble. Matheron. On hills and dales: The London. 1974. R. in GIS/LIS. 1972. Department of the Army..1966. no. 1966. 4.. 4th Series. 305-322. Mays. Matthews. Masson et Cie. Maxwell. Fort Belvoir. General Motors Corp. Interpolating large-scale contour information from digital terrain data. October 28-November 1. Larry. Marcia. 205-210. Mather. Contract N6 ONR 271-30: Nonr 266 (50). Isamu. 1970. Mayer. R. 82 R..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Miss. and Fair.. Matui. Digital national land information: GeoJournal (Japan). 51. Studies in Geography No. Publication No. C. p. 1965. in Chorley. no.. Proceedings: Washington. 88 p. Army Corps of Engineers. 1962. Department of Geography.S. D. AA. p. 1944. Northwestern University. Quantitative geomorphology of the San Dimas Experimental Forest. for U. 31 p. [revised and published 1967. 1991. 313-318. p. eds.. 1980. no.Mason. Maxwell. p. HI. and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science. U. Standardization of Terrain Data for the Vector-InCommander and Engineer Functional Area Models: Vicksburg. Mays.. Atlanta. v. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 1934. Matthees.. J. Missouri School of Mines and Metallurgy.). Columbia University. 163187.S.F. 1970.. 38-4lK(15p. The statistical mesh-method of studying geography: Japanese Journal of Geology and Geography. Mason. Harper and Row. 421-427..R. Z. 273-285.S. Departments of Civil Engineering and Geology and Geological Engineering. RA. J. Report 11170-92. P. T.. Part II. 28-41.. Probability models and computer simulation of landscape evolution: U. 108-226] Maxwell.C. no. Technical Papers. 1960. and Doornkamp. v. Mathematical surface approximation of the terrain: Highway Research Record. Neffra.M. J. George. Maxwell. AC Electronics-Defense Research Laboratories. 95 p. G... Proceedings.05 Quantitative geomorphology of some mountain chaparral watersheds of southern California. 14. 48.175 p. J. Les Variables R6gionalis6es et Leur Estimation une Application de la Th6orie des Fonctions A16atoires aux Sciences de la Nature: Paris.. p. LJ3. 1870.. Mather.V. Dynamics analysis report for the LRV (lunar roving vehicle) mobility subsystem: Santa Barbara.. v. A-120 to A-126. March 1-6. 305 p. Da 22079 Eng. Technical Report GL-90-8. J. Automated terrain modeling. 1970. 1970. Mergner-Keefer. Juky-Dec.R.. Contract No. Missouri. Areal classification in geomorphology. Clerk. Office of the Chief of Engineers. p. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. in Conference-Numerical Topographic Data and Other New Map Products. v.M. DA. Physical and Cartographic Topics: Evanston. 11. + appendices. Engineer model improvement program. v. Va. 40. p.C. paging unknown.. R..M.. Maze. Vicksburg Mississippi. F.H. Matsuda. Editeurs. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. 4.. Multivariate analysis in geography. Report 1. annual meeting. Production of numerical maps. 269. 303: Rolla. Fall Convention. p. CA. The geomorphology of the central eastern area of New South Wales: Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales.. C.. Department of Geology. 4.

no. p.. 1979. Harold. International Conference on Basement Tectonics.. 1988.J. 10. 82. Inc. Inc. Quantitative method for describing the regional topography of the ocean floor: Journal of Geophysical Research. and Marinaro. McArthur. 78 p. 31. M.. lahars. G.. Jr. Colorado. p. ca.L. McGuire. 29. and Ehrlich.. R. v.000-scale digital line graphs from scanned data. 178-182.. Robert. in Abstracts for 1964: Geological Society of America Special Paper 82.. eds. p. 1990. 4. annual convention. no.R. Technical Report VT-2976-D-1. p. v. Terrain and surface modelling systems. no. 205-231.A. 1966. Technical Memorandum No. McConnell. I. v. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. University of Iowa (see Chorley.. p. v. Technical papers. J. McAdams.. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing annual convention... p.A. Horton's ordering scheme and the generalisation of river networks: The Cartographic Journal. 2nd. p. 810-821. v. J. no. M. Automatic measurement of drainage networks: IEEE Transactions on Geosciences and Electronics.. p. Harold. 27. 1972. 747-779.. and Burgess. p. 1971. T.Y. 528-541.. and Earl. McCullagh. 1988. 1989. Northern Illinois University.F. M.. v.. McAdams. R.p.S.. R. H. 1964. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory.. M. Triangular systems in surface representation.T. no. p. at least five unpublished typescripts on various aspects of morphometry: Department of Earth Science.E.1988. 72. v. 712-728. Webster. A statistical analysis of spatial variability of mean topographic slope on straam-dissected glacial materials: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. no.F.J. The design of optimal sampling schemes for local estimation and mapping of regionalized variables I theory and method: Computers and Geosciences.. and Green. H. McCauley. 3.. p. p. Producing l:24. 3.W. 1962-64. 74. McCue. 4th. Evolution of large format raster scanning at Defense Mapping Agency. An efficiency evaluation of four drainage basin shape ratios: The Professional Geographer. for list). 2597-2607.M. and Katz. Jack. D. J. and Department of Geography. 1970. 1971.S. McCusker. 146-153. Pisgah Crater terrain analysis: Photogrammetric Engineering. 83 R. 8.. v.M. 1969.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. Geological Survey open-file report. Proceedings: Denver. 1979. March 13-18. J. no. Trafficability and visibility analysis of the lunar surface: Buffalo. A. v. McCoy. H. 1965. 243-251..B. McConnell. McEwen.M. St. N. U. Proceedings. E. McCulloch. McCullagh.F. 331-334.J. VJ-2330-G-55.. D. McCauley. Techniques for computer-aided analysis of lineaments. Rapid measurement of drainage density: Geological Society of America Bulletin. P. Arizona. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 1965. 4 (GIS). G. v.C. in Auto-Carto 4.. 4. 9. 37. Louis. McDonald.. Slope frequency distributions as a means of classifying lunar terrain (abs. New York.A. no.M. 104-112. Helens' 1980 pyroclastic flows. 3/4. Computer mapping and data presentation (Off-road mobility research): Buffalo. (1965).. Reese.. R. March 25-29: Technical Papers.. M. 1977. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. Missouri.Mazur.. rockslide-avalanche. 290-295. 2 (Cartography).. Inc. 7. p. 130. 2.T. 757-762. 1991. E. 1981. and blast: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. v. 1969.. Dynamics of Mount St. and Castner.J. 106 p. MJH. p..). in Podwysocki. and Lewandowski. McCoy. 56. 117-122. 12. v. Md.M. Terrain analysis of the lunar equatorial belt: Flagstaff. v.. T. and Malin.J.. Baltimore. Basement Tectonics Committee. 1978. A. and Gallagher. McBratney. no.S. theory and practice: Photogrammetric Record. 44 p.

14-20. 1485-1490.K. surface properties and geomorphology: Office of Naval Research project NR 389-042. no. McLain.W. 2. v..F.39 p. December 10-13. 670-679. 1965. M. [see GSAB. Springfield. 26. no. 1.H. and Rose. 1958c. 4305-4325. The inward spiral method for the generation of triangulated irregular networks. no. Peter. Melton. 1979. and McGrath. 1959. Technical Report 11. 1988.. 1984. no. 1987. JGR. 945-966.. v. 99/9. Numerical Generalization in Cartography: Cartographica. Monograph 40. Geo Books. and Lunar Crater volcanic field. Department of Geology... 1969. 4. McKeown. part 2. 2. Drainage development on basaltic lava flows.. Melton. Baltimore. An analysis of the relations among elements of climate. Technical Report 16. VA.. v. A propos des methods de morphom6trie (in French): Acta Geographica (Paris). in Optiz. p. 1976. Melton. Drumlins trends and perspectives: Episodes. VA.S. 1. 67. v. N..101/7. Natural History Press. The inward spiral method.G. Columbia University. in Chrisman. & GSAB.B. southeast California. 18. Hypsometry of ocean basin provinces: Journal of Geophysical Research. McKenna. and Smith. S.. p. John. Meier. 1493-1494] Melton. Correlation structure of morphometric properties of drainage systems and their controlling agents: Journal of Geology. Two dimensional interpolation from random data: Computer Journal. Auto-Carto 8. and Walton. 3. B.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. 1987. no. Menzies. Drumlins A Bibliography: Norwich.G. southcentral Nevada Alternative interpretation: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Geometric properties of mature drainage systems and their representation in an EJ phase space: Journal of Geology.. 1958a. p. Numerische Methoden der Relieferfassung: Geographica Helvetica.S. McKenna. 1969. 1989. 67. Askew. Methods for measuring the effect of environmental factors on channel properties: Journal of Geophysical Research. 1989. Geographic Information Systems in Government: Workshop on GIS in Government. p. M. no. v. 1958b. v. D.. 101. no. New York.McHarg. IX. Proceedings. p. 442-460. 198 p. 67. 1957. D. v.. Department of Geology. p. FA. Area-altitude graph of a mature drainage basin (abs. 1. NJR. 35-56. p. Deepak Publishing. v. A. 4. 8th. no. P. ed. eastern Ozark Mountain region: U. p. 19. 1986. 65.121 p. v. Several methods for representing discrete data by line segments: Cartographica.. v. 1985. p. John. p. 178-181... v. 1954. MA. 595-599. Melton. 1966.. Meek. 1991. 315-359. no... 4. v. Menzies.. 13-20. 1987. D. 10. 1. ASPRS/ACSM. James. Jones-Cecil. R. 12831284. no. Merlin. no. International Symposium on Computer Assisted Cartography.M. MA. 1989. 405-413. p. A derivation of Strahler's channel-ordering system: Journal of Geology. 24. p.982-986] Menard. Design With Nature: Garden City.1987.. p. p. v. [see discussion by Bernard Harris... D. 117 p. 4.): Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. John. Proceedings.. D. Cima volcanic field. M. McMaster. MA. 12. 71. UK. MA. v.Y. 66. ed. Meridee. 56. MA. EX.17 p. 345-346.A. Menzies. no. Meier. H. A review of the literature on the formation and location of drumlins: Earth Science Reviews. 102 P- Melton. an improved TIN generation technique and data structure for land planning applications. ed. MA. 4.J.. Hampton. v. 29-31. 84 R. 28. 66. Maryland. 14.. List of sample parameters of quantitative properties of landfonns their use in determining the size of geomorphic experiments: Office of Naval Research project NR 389-042.B. 146-151. p. Columbia University. no. New York. Analysis of streamprofile data and inferred tectonic activity. March 29-April 3. Melton. Geological Survey Bulletin 1807. v. 1962.

Merrill, R.D., 1973, Representation of contours and regions for efficient computer search: Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, v. 16, no. 2, p. 69-82. Miller, C.L., and LaFlamme, RJL, 1958, The digital terrain model theory and application: Photogrammetric Engineering, v. 24, no. 3, p. 433442. Miller, D.H., 1948, A terrain sample of the Sierra Crest region (abs.): Yearbook of the Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, v. 10, p. 46-47. Miller, G., 1986, The definition and rendering of terrain maps: Computer Graphics, v. 20, no. 4, p. 39-48. Miller, J.R., Ritter, D J1., and Kochel, R.C., 1990, Morphometric assessment of lithologic controls on drainage basin evolution in the Crawford Upland, south-central Indiana: American Journal of Science, v. 290, no. 5, p. 569-599. Miller, O.M., and Summerson, C.H., 1960, Slope-zone maps: Geographical Review, v. 50, no. 2, p. 194202. Miller, S.W., 1985, A spatial data structure for hydrologic applications: Geo-Processing, v. 2, no. 4, p. 385-408. Miller, S.W., 1988, Automatic production of nearcartographic quality contours, in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling, 3rd, Sydney, Australia, August 17-19,1988, International Geographical Union, Proceedings, p. 157-184. Miller, S.W., and Goldberg, J.L., 1984, Integrating digital map data from the national topographic map series with other digital data sets for land and water resource assessment, in American Society for Photogrammetry American Congress on Surveying and Mapping, conference, 1984, Technical Papers, p. 486-500. Miller, V.C., 1953, A quantitative geomorphic study of drainage basin characteristics in the Clinch Mountain area, Virginia and Tennessee: Office of Naval Research Project No. 089-042, Contract N6 ONR 271-30, Technical Report No. 3, New York,

Columbia University, Department of Geology, 30 p. + illustrations. Millett, J A., and Barnett, H J. Jr., 1972, Morphometry of landforms quantification of slope gradients in glaciated terrain: Fort Belvoir, VA, U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories, Report ETL-RN-72-3, 12 p. Mills, HJFL, 1982, Piedmont-cove deposits of the Dellwood quadrangle, Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina, U.SA. morphometry: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 26, no. 2, p. 163-178. Mills, H.H., and Starnes, D£>., 1983, Sinkhole morphometry in a fluviokarst region eastern Highland Rim, Tennessee, U.S.A.: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 27, no. 1, p. 39-54. Mills, H.H., 1987, Morphometry of drumlins in the northeastern and north-central USA, in Menzies, J., and Rose, J., eds., Proceedings of the Drumlin Symposium, First International Conference on Geomorphology, Manchester, England, 16-18 September 1985: Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, p. 131148. Mills, H.L., 1963, Quantitative environmental studies, south Florida, in Military Evaluation of Geographic Areas reports on activities to April 1963: Vicksburg, Mississippi, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Paper No. 3-610, p. 147-167. Mills, Kirn, Fox, Geoffrey, and Heimbach, Roy, 1992, Implementing an intervisibility analysis model on a parallel computing system: Computers and Geociences, v. 18, no. 8, p. 1047-1054. Milne, B.T., 1988, Measuring the fractal geometry of landscapes: Applied Mathematics and Computing (UK), v. 27, p. 67-79. Ming, Tan, 1992, Mathematical modelling of catchment morphology in the karst of Guizhou, China: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 36, no. 1, p. 37-51. Mintzer, Olin, and Messmore, J.A., 1984, Terrain analysis procedural guide for surface configuration: Fort Belvoir, VA, U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories, Geographic Sciences Laboratory, Report No. 12 in the ETL



Series on Guides for Army Terrain Analysis, 244 PMirante, Anthony, and Weingarten, Nicholas, 1982, The radial sweep algorithm for constructing triangulated irregular networks: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, v. 2, no, 3, p. 11-13,1521. Mitchell, C.W., 1973, Terrain Evaluation: London, Longman, 221 p. Miyazaki, K., 1930, A statistical study of distribution of altitude in the Kii mountains (in Japanese): Geographical Review of Japan, v. 6, p. 1371-1384. Mock, S.J., 1971, A classification of channel links in stream networks: Water Resources Research, v. 7, no. 6, p. 1558-1566. Mock, S J., Hartwell, AD., and Hibler, W.D. IH, 1972, Spatial aspects of pressure ridge statistics: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 77, no. 30, p. 59455953. Moellering, Harold, and Kimerling, A.J., 1990, A new digital slope-aspect display process: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems, v. 17, no. 2, p. 151-159. Mohr, PA., and Wood, CA., 1976, Volcano spacings and lithospheric attenuation in the eastern rift of Africa: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 33, p. 126-144. Moik, J.G., 1980, Digital Processing of Remotely Sensed Images: U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Special Publication, SP-431, 330 p. Monkhouse, F.J., and Wilkinson, HJR., 1971, Maps and Diagrams (3rd ed.): London, Methuen, 522 p. [1st ed, 1952; 2nd ed, 1964] Monmonier, M.S., 1974, Measures of pattern complexity for choroplethic maps: The American Cartographer, v. 1, no. 2, p. 159-169. Monmonier, M.S., 1979, Estimates of trend direction vagueness and bias in map reading: The Canadian Cartographer, v. 16, no. 1, p. 45-60.

Monmonier, M.S., 1982, Computer-Assisted Cartography Principles and Prospects: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall. Montgomery, D.R., and Dietrich, W.E., 1992, Channel initiation and the problem of landscape scale: Science, v. 255, no. 5046, p. 826-830. Montgomery, D.R., and Foufoula-Georgiou, F., 1993, Channel network source representation from digital elevation models (abs.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 74, no. 16 (Supplement), p. 152. Moon, G.C., 1978, Digital terrain representation as applied to water resources: Guelph, Ontario, Canada, School of Engineering, University of Guelph, unpublished master's thesis, paging unknown. Moore, E.D., Panuska, J.C., Grayson, R.B., and Srivastava, K.P., 1988, Application of digital topographic modelling in hydrology, in Modelling Agricultural, Forest, and Rangeland Hydrology, ASAE, St. Joseph, Michuigan, Publication No. 0788, p. 447-461. Moore, GA., 1968, Automatic scanning and computer processes for the quantitative analysis of micrographs and equivalent objects, in Cheng, G.C., Ledley, R.S., Pollock, D.K., and Rozenfeld, Azriel, eds., Pictorial Pattern Recognition Symposium on automatic photointerpretation, Washington, May 31-June 2,1967, sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the University of Maryland, and the Pattern Recognition Society, Proceedings: Washington, D.C., Thompson Book Co., p. 275-326. [see especially, 1. nature of the problem', p. 275-279] Moore, H.J., Lugn, R.V., and Newman, E.B., 1974, Some morphometric properties of experimentally cratered surfaces: U.S. Geological Survey Journal of Research, v. 2, no. 3, p. 279-288. Moore, I.D., ed., 1991, Digital terrain modelling in hydrology, special issue: Hydrological Processes, v. 5, no. 1, p. 1-124. Moore, I.D., and Burch, G.J., 1986, Modeling erosion and deposition topographic effects: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v. 29, no. 6, p. 1624-1630, & 1640.



Moore, ID., and Grayson, R.B., 1991, Terrain-based catchment partitioning and runoff prediction using vector elevation data: Water Resources Research, v. 27, no. 6, p. 1177-1191. Moore, I.D., Grayson, R.B., and Ladson, A.R., 1991, Digital terrain modelling a review of hydrological, geomorphological and biological applications: Hydrological Processes, v. 5, no. 1, p. 3-30. Moore, I.D., O'Loughlin, E.M., and Burch, G.J., 1988, A contour-based topographic model for hydrological and ecological applications: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, v. 13, no. 4, p. 305-320. Moore, J.G., and Mark, RJC, 1986, World slope map: Eos, American Geophysical Union Transactions, v. 67, no. 48, p. 1353 & 1360-1362. Moore, J.G., and Mark, R.K., 1992, Morphology of the island of Hawaii: GSA Today, v. 2, no. 12, p. 257-259, & 262. Moore, R.F., and Thornes, J.B., 1976, LEAP a suite of FORTRAN IV programs for generating erosional potentials of land surfaces from topographic information: Computers and Geosciences, v. 2, no. 4, p. 493-499. Moore, R.F., and Simpson, C.J., 1982, Computer manipulation of a digital terrain Model (DTM) of Australia: BMR Journal of Australian Geology and Geophysics, v. 7, no. 1, p. 63-67. Morehouse, Scott, 1985, ARC/INFO: a geo-relational model for spatial information, in Auto-Carto 7, International Symposium on Computer-Aided Cartography, 7th, Washington, D.C., March 11-14, 1985, Proceedings, p. 388-397. Morhange, Christophe, 1992, Essai de quantification de Involution ge'omorphologique d'un archipel volcanique tropical n6 d'un point chaud Le cas des ties de la Socie"t6 en Polynesia franfaise: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie, v. 36, no. 3, p. 307324. Morisawa, M.E., 1957, Accuracy of determination of stream lengths from topographic maps: Transactions, American Geophysical Union, v. 38, no. 1, p. 86-88.

Morisawa, M.E., 1958, Measurement of drainagebasin outline form: Journal of Geology, v. 66, no. 5, p. 587-591. Morisawa, M.E., 1962, Quantitative geomorphology of some watersheds in the Appalachian Plateau: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 73, no. 9. p. 1025-1046. Morisawa, M.E., 1985, Development of quantitative geomorphology, in Drake, E.T., and Jordan, W.M., eds., Geologists and Ideas, A history of North American geology, Centennial Special Volume 1: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America, p. 79-107. Morisawa, M.E., 1988, The Geological Society of America Bulletin and the development of quantitative geomorphology: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 100, no. 7, p. 1016-1022. Morris, D.G., and Heerdegen, R.G., 1988, Automatically derived catchment boundaries and channel networks and their hydrological applications: Geomorphology, v. 1, no. 2, p. 131141. Morris, Kevin, 1990, Evaluating digital elevation models for the identification of geological features in remotely-sensed imagery, in Annual Conference of the Remote Sensing Society, 16th, Nottingham, England, Proceedings, p. 90-101. Morris, Kevin, 1990, The automatic detection of three-dimensional features from remotely-sensed imagery and digital terrain models, in Remote Sensing: An Operational Technology for the Mining and Petroleum Industries, October 8-10, 1990, London, England, Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Proceedings, p. 59-74. Morris, Kevin, 1991, Using knowledge-base rules to map the three-dimensional nature of geological features: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 57, no. 9, p. 1209-1216. Morse, M., 1925, Relations between the critical points of a real function of n variables: Transactions of the American Mathematical Scoiety, v. 27, p. 345396. Morse, S.P., 1965a, Computer storage and analysis of contour map data: Air Force Office of Scientific



Mueller. N Nagao. 1981.. Musgrave.. p. p. 23. 35-45. Mike. Proceedings. 1972. 50. J. Plenum. 12..-C. v. 389-405. 25. S. 3. MERC a FORTRAN IV program for the production of topographic data for the planet Mercury: Computers and Geosciences. no. 313-332. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 31.K. 199 p. v. Digital Image Processing in Remote Sensing: London. Sam. p. no. 1976.. v. no. J. 3669-3674. 1987. Musgrave.E.. D. v. Department of Electrical Engineering. 3. 1. v. 3. and Garbeil. Terrain analysis for crosscountry movement: The Military Engineer.. Tim. 4.-P.N. PREVIEW computer assistance for visual management of forested landcapes: Landscape Planning. NY. no. J. Musin. A mathematical model for the analysis of contour-line data: University Heights. New York University. v. 306-311... JA. 1979. Use of TOPSAR digital topographic data for volcano studies geometry of valleys on Mt. 3. and Wagar.. 147-152. James. Makoto. Muller. Generalized computer techniques for tiie solution of contour-map problems: University Heights. 201-209] Myklestad. Mulai. K. U. unpublished Ph.D.. 3. H. Novakovskiy. 1966.Research. Arai. 1947. F. Day. p. 21-38. no. 15. no. G. Takashi. Dalton. An initial classification of 10-km squares in Great Britain from a land characteristic data bank: Applied Geography. E.. Mouginis-Mark. 30-36.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 1985. p. 1965b. v. D J. Allometric growth A useful concept in geomorphology?: Geological Society of America Bulletin. no.C. Makoto. Moss. CE.. p. Dorian. 74. p. p.S. and Nakazawa. 193.. v. 2. Bronx. p. Muller. 2.S. The synthesis and rendering of eroded fractal terrains. Technical Report 400-124. J. 1988. 45-51] Morse. Y. T. Somma. 169-175. 7. v. 3.A. Proceedings: Computer Graphics. 14011406.. 1988. 1961). Department of Electrical Engineering. John.. New York University. no. no. paging unknown. Lionel.J. and Matsuyama. Richards.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Bronx. no. Mouginis-Mark. v. no. 5. p. Report 400-106 (AFOSR 65-0592). S. and Serbenyuk. p. [published 1968: Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery. in Muller.W. Visualization of topographic data using video animation. p. and Mace. p. Numbers of classes and choropleth pattern characteristics: The American Cartographer.: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms.. 1980. Nagao. and Pearson. Kolb. p. 1993. M. dissertation. Kolbusz. 241-50..P. 1961. BA. The quantitative evaluation of factors in water erosion: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. R.. 131150. Automated mapping of slope angles and orientation from aerial photographs (in Russian): Geomorfologiya. Mulla. Concepts of use in contour map processing: Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery.P. paging unknown. 6. Mosley. Problems in the definition and measurement of stream length: The Professional Geographer. v. R. Taylor and Francis. v. p. 1977. 13. national conference 23rd. 133-138. no. 205-220] Morse. 12. paging unknown.P. 1989. 4. L.. and Parker. S. Morse. 16 (Supplement). 2. 1969. 2. O. p... Mullins. 351 (January-February.-P. and Wilson. P J. v. ed..R.. [published 1968. in Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. Mulla.P. A Structural Analysis of Complex Aerial Photographs: New York. 5. [translated 1988. Ayabe. 35-36. Italy (abs. in SIGGRAPH '89. no. K. p. NY. no. no.S. Distribution of slope steepness in the Palouse region of Washington. Using geostatistics and spectral analysis to study spatial patterns in the topography of southeastern Washington State. as Computer storage of contour map data: Association for Computing Machinery. v. p. A study of reducing abnormal R. 1988. PJ.. 83. S..

Ledley.C. 14731481. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 5. Experimental Statistics: United States Department of Commerce.. 3. No. p. Vienna. Thompson Book Co. Nakayama.S. 331-345. Construction of a digital terrain model: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing... Baltimore Maryland. Forms of bluffs degraded for different lengths of time in Emmet County. p. Neibling. 2. Shinsuke. and Argialas. Ravi.] Nathan. and Rosenfeld. no. 93F. v. 1886. No. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Annual Convention. p.). E. 5075. 1944. scale 1:4. [published 1968.. v. 75-80.. and McMahon. in University of Tsukuba. S..000.. ed.G. The topological information content of the map a means for resolving certain problems in theoretical cartography (in Russian): Izvestiya AN SSSR. A. eine kritische Ubersicht auf Grand der Literatur (in German): Universitat Zurich. 257. p. Identification of homogeneous regions for the purpose of regionalisation: Journal of Hydrology.F. 215-230. p. R. Journal of Lubrication Technology. v. 1983. B4.Yu.L. and Shimojo.K. v. 2. D. D. v. p. eds. v.560. 1972. 1976. paging by section.J. George. 4. M. 167-175. 1984. as Picture enhancement for the Moon.C. 27. Neuenschwander. G. A "fractal" study of some Rias coastline in Japan. p. p. 1991. 227232. p. HI124] Neumann.A. no. v. Orometrie des Schwarzwaldes (in German): Geographische Abhandlungen (Penck. L. 35. Digital video-data handling: Pasadena. p. 135 p. Experiencing and perceiving visual surfaces: Science.. Gustav. Commerce. Department of Civil Engineering.. 1992.1989. 1966. 5. National Bureau of Standards Handbook 91. unpublished Ph.C. Pictorial Pattern Recognition: Washington. National Geographic Society. Nakano.. 398-407. W. Advances in information extraction techniques: Remote Sensing of Environment. [translated 1992.elevations in automatic computation of elevations from satellite data: International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. p. p. Pollock. RJ. 23. Nayak. and man. Ken. T.. Thyagarajan.. 280-288. 1990. ETOPO-5 bathymetry/topography data: Data Announcement 88-MGG-02. p. Nash. Nagy. Mars. 3 (Remote Sensing). 302-310. Narasimhan.. A prediction model of landslips: Catena. no. March 1982. Azriel. 1. Neel. v. Nathan.R. USA: Earth Surface Processes.. Jan. v. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Technical Report no. R.. no. Computational approaches for handling uncertainties in terrain analysis. and Yakolev. no. in Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. dissertation. 2. Herbert. 2. seriya geograficheskaya.P.D.H. Neuland. no. Annual Report for the Academic Year 1982.E. Michigan. and Tyszka. 121. 1989. 1986. Dept.. Colorado. 32-877. 189-238. 2. 239-266.. Random process models of rough surfaces: Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Institute of Geoscience.. 302 p. 52-54. 1988. D.S. in Cheng. Neumann.. p. 1982. Terrace design affects inter-terrace sheet and rill erosion: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering. Natarajan. 1357-1363.A. Boulder. 217-238. no. Stultz. T. R. 1963. D. v. and Thompson. A.. Inaugural-Dissertation.. 1980. Robert. v. National Geophysical Data Center. 1976. Digital terrain analysis data a critical element in future tactical C31: Signal (UK). the first color (Landsat) photomosaic of the 48 contiguous United States: Washington. 29. v. Neumyvakin... A. 4. Natrella.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Japan. p. Digital Terrain Analysis: University of Toronto. U. D. 1992. no.S. 1971. Calif. April 2-7. 3. No. Morphometrische Begriffe. no. P.B. p.J. 122-131. 9. 15. Portrait U. Technical Papers.

. E.S. S. W. 19. Newman.. M.. Research on Intensive Utilization of Geographic Information: Report of Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education and Culture of Japan in 1987.Newell. 42-48.. and Sorenson. p.1966. Norvelle.S. 1957. p. 347-355 Noskov. Japanese Geomorphological Union. p.C. 1327-1333. 1990. F. Norman. 3. Jr. 1969. California: U. v. 27.G. 1. no. no.A. P. v. [also 1993. and Lewis. 90 R. v. 2 (Photogrammetry and Surveying). v. Nogami. 1989. 131. 7. 1988... Steve.F.. Discussion Paper No. in Yamaguchi. Washington.E. p. 1. ed.R.g. D. 47. August 3-8. no. 7. v. New Mexico. Va. 8. AJL. and Misulia. D. F.27 p. Processing system of digital elevation data for morphometry (in Japanese).I. 35. Paradis. p. Out-of-this-world photogrammetry: Photogrammetric Engineering. Programming topographic maps for automatic terrain model construction: Surveying and Mapping.S. Report No. in ConferenceNumerical topographic data and other new map products: Fort Belvoir. J. Japanese Geomorphological Union. in ASPRS/ACSM/RT '92 Convention. p. v. v. Nikolayev. 10-A. v. v..E. and Brabb. Stig. 1955. Fractal structures of river plan forms: Water Resources Research. p. 1991. Dov. 1989. no. p. Nicholas. no. 147-156. A mathematical model of relief.28 p.1992. 1978. 100.. 1970. no. AA. Using iterative orthophoto refinements to correct digital elevation models (OEM's). Noma. D2M] in Japan: Transactions. 1980. 433-439. p. Cascade model for fluvial geomorphology: Geophysical Journal International. Geografiva. The law of allometric growth: Ann Arbor. 6. 1985. The ratio of relative and absolute altitudes of Mt. 1966. U. A method and computer program for preparation of DEM from contour map (in Japanese): Map.. 355-366. Norvelle. 4. Albuquerque. no..L. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1099-C. Nogami.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Noma. Nir. On the quantitative characterization of the sinuosity of a shore line (in Russian): Sbornik statey po kartografii (Moscow). Office of the Chief of Engineers. VA. 105-110. no. 36 p. v. Norton. no. 103-112. 245-264. and the connection of its parameters with geomorphological characteristics (in Russian): Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Nikora. p.. 1991. p. no.. 6. 1965. 1959. Nogami. Interactive digital correlation techniques for automatic compilation of elevation data: Fort Belvoir. 3. Technical Papers..L. Takeshi. 693-701. Variations in geometric measures of topographic surfaces underlain by fractured granitic plutons: Pure and Applied Geophysics. 52A... p. 2.W. Maryland: U. p. F.. Michio.R. Feasibility and cost of using a computer to prepare landslide susceptibility maps of the San Francisco Bay region. p. Current AMS computer processing of numerical topo data.. Carmel a contribution to the problem of relief analysis and relief classification: Geographical Review.. and Turcotte. Michio. ETL-0272. paging unknown. p. Michio. 1969. Denis. A processing system for digital terrain analysis (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions): Transactions. Numerical land information [e. W. V. Geological Survey Bulletin 1443.. V. v. in 1992 ASPRSACSM annual convention. Factors influencing the grain of the topography along the Willoughby Arch in northeastern Vermont: Geografiska Annaler. 564-569. 29. Proceedings. Michio. 27-35. 3.E. 20-26. v. May 3-5. 77-112. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories. v. Nogami.. AA. Newman. Relationships between aerodynamic roughness and land use and land cover in Baltimore. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Technical Papers. E3. 1991. 1/2. Department of the Army.I. 3. 77-97. 1992. Nordbeck. Michigan Inter-university Community of Mathematical Geographers.

90 p. Prentice-Hall. 1983.. October 28-November 1. paging unknown..M. Hiroo... Prediction of slope failure using the estimated depth of the potential failure layer: Journal of Natural Disaster Science. no. and Letters. p. R. Arts.B. p.A. Landform classification in mountain region and geomorphic characteristic values (in Japanese with English summary and figure captions): Japanese serial. v. Olender. A Reader In Statistical Geography: Englewood Cliffs. v. 1989. v. Simulation of change of landform from a geomorphometric method (in Japanese with English abstract and captions): Transactions.... p. v. and Hirano. J. Japanese Geomorphological Union. Odeh. no. v. B. Hiroo. Kansas Geological Survey Series on Spatial Analysis No. and Sohma. Krajobraz Polski w swietle mapy wysokosci wzglednych (Cartes des hauteurs relatives de la Pologne. 1984. Masashige. 45 p. no.. 1980.J. Topographic map revision in northern Iraq using DTMs and orthophotos: ITC Journal (Enschede. 1984. p. in Berry. Ohmori. O'Callaghan. no. Relief structure of the Japanese mountains and their stages in 91 R. MI] geomorphic development: Bulletin of the Department of Geography.S. University of Tokyo.L. and Mark..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . The extraction of drainage networks from digital elevation data: Computer Vision. 1978.F. Robert. Neth. 373-384. Awda. 4. Ohmori. Spatial Analysis. Mathematical explanation of some characteristics of altitude distributions of landforms in an equilibrium state: Transactions. Ohmori. 67-79. D. N. no.29 p. 1981. Kansas Geological Survey Series on Spatial Analysis No. Michigan Inter-University Community of Mathematical Geographers. Japanese Geomorphological Union.A..48 p. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 6. 35-41. Japanese Geomorphological Union. A three-dimensional model for the erosional development of mountains on the basis of relief structure: Transactions. no. Ohmori. v. eds.Numan. 1991. 1. N. and Thannoon.). v. 3. p. 1983.J. 1. I. and Sokal. v. ca. 244-248.R. and Marble. 13. 7. 1985. 28. 5. D. Nutter. Ann Arbor. Analysis of a triangulated irregular network (TIN) terrain model for military applications: Stanford Research Institute Project 6726. J. 1931. Numerical data and computer graphics in geomorphology (in Japanese with English abstract and figure captions): Transactions.M. 48. 1. Identification of some fundamental spatial concepts: Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science. University of Kansas. in GIS/LIS. Hiroo. 107-120. 323-344. Oden. Directional autocorrelation an extension of spatial correlograms to two dimensions: Systematic Zoology.. Systematic sampling of spatial functions: Lawrence. 3. 1966. p. no. 31-85.. fall convention. [Univ.. and McBratney. 10.A.. Janina. Hiroo..A. D.OA. Microfilms No. p. 35. v. and Vincent. Ge"ogr. no. 4. 1991. Ohmori. 1986.D. 95-100. 1963. Final Report. 293-310. in Polish): Trav. 225-244. 3. 1. no. 21. A. Nystuen.J.J. Graphics and Image Processing. p. v. Measuring Spatial Dependence with Semivariograms: Lawrence. 4. Atlanta. Takashi. v. 1992.. no.. title unknown. p. Ochocka. R. Hidehiro.. Effects of boundary shape and the concept of local convexity: Ann Arbor. G. 1991. Publics sous la Direction de E. 1984. N.. [reprinted 1968. 1-32. Olea. Romer. Chittleborough. p.M. Contract N0001477-C-0698.F. A-127 to A-132. 49. University of Kansas. D. Elucidation of soil-landform interrelationships by canonical ordination analysis: Geoderma. Hiroo. Japanese Geomorphological Union.D. p. OP33067. Hiroo. no.. 1992-3. Office of Naval Research. 608-617. 1977. 11. p. Olea. J. 3.L.1 Nystuen. R. Line Trace Plus an enhanced process for digital elevation model production. Discussion Paper 10. H. H. p. p. 2. Ohmori. Technical Papers. 1-12 Okimura.

Capri (Italy). p. v. 1968. CD. MP.. P. 8th. Olsen. Uso dei dati delle quote medie del territorio italiano per studi di geomorfologia quantitativa nei Monti Simbruini-Ernici e nei Monti del Matese (in Italian): Servizio Geologico Nazionale (Roma).. v. v. 1977.. The modifiable areal unit problem. Ventura. Elsevier. C. 5. 4. no. v. 1987. no. A British View: Routledge and Kegan Paul. On the frequency distribution of land slope: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. in Wrigley. Onorati. Watershed simulation by stream path analogy: Water Resources Research. CD. and Poscolieri. 1985. CA.. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography.. and Mark. Oilier. v. Maurizio. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping annual meeting. Terrain classification methods. in Eighth Symposium EARSel. Stan. p. p. N. and Bennett. V. v. G. Sci. 1984.5 pages + tables.M.. Poscolieri. Maurizio. 1986. 1967. J. Semivariograms for modelling the spatial pattern of landform and soil properties: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. 1-12. no.L. Olivier. 5. paging unknown. 1. 965-971. MA. Openshaw. C.Oliver. Oilier.. The use of digital elevation models in slope frequency analysis.D.. D. 1981. 2. Memorie Descrittive della Carta Geologica D'ltalia. in Auto-Carto 8. ed. 118-125. Prediction of surface saturation zones in natural catchments by topographic analysis: Water Resources Research. 12. no.S. Vaud. ED. 1972.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 1987b. a digital data set useful for thematic mapping and geomorphological units analysis. v. U. 96-99. R. Geological Survey Western Mapping Center. 60-69. Landform description without stage names: Australian Geographical Studies. Soc. Giuseppe.. and Crucilla.M. 5. in Hails. Chiarini. Baltimore. O'Neill. O'Neill. The Psi-s plot a useful representation for digital cartographic lines. Onorati.. 1970. 1981.. p. Ongley. and Webster.P. 92 R. D. 231-240. 111-119. Judy. Moscow)..M. Onstad. 14.. p. v. no... Orlov.M. and Brakensiek. 127-136. 147-178. Openshaw. 16th. 1. C. no. p.A. R. p. D. p. D. The Italian mean heights archive... p. R. p. Autocorrelation as a measure of map complexity.. 16. Stan.M. p. Geo Books. R. p. Proceedings. 77. no. v.D. Drainage-basin axial and shape parameters from moment measures: Canadian Geographer.. 1936. Applied Geomorphology: Amsterdam. U. and Mark. Memorandum dated June 1981. v.. 2. 18-20 May. and Mark. Oilier. 38-44.. 12. 121-124. p. Digitalisation du Relief de la Suisse Romande (in French): Bull. 22. O'Neill. Geomorphic indications of contour map accuracy: Cartography. Giuseppe.J. and Poscolieri.1987: Proceedings. Contour map accuracy and analysis: Australian Geographical Studies. p. 2. 1992. 1988. MD. 1. 73-80.R. UK. J. 70. no. April 25-26. no. Quantitative Geography. 1987a.R. 6. Nat. The mathematical characterization of relief using contour maps (in Russian): Nauchnyye zapiski MIIVKh (Moscow Institute of Water Engineers im. R. March 29-April 3. 451-466. p.W.1985. 277-316. v. v. M. Proceedings: p. applications and principles. 1990. M. 1972. Ecoregions of the conterminous United States: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Onorati. The digital elevation model of Italy for geomorphology and structural geology: Catena... p. no. p. 1. London. eds. 1986. Olson. 1.. no. in Annual Pittsburgh Conference on Modeling and Simulation. 11. 1. 1988. V. 491-504.M. 311-315. 251-275. Omernik. VU'yams. no. v.. 38. 5. March 12-17. 1971. O'Loughlin. The Modifiable Areal Unit Problem: Norwich. Oilier. Analysis of digital terrain profile data: Menlo Park... 1963. E. 1967. 794-804. 19. MP.

p. and Horler. v. v. T. 1993. Benmouffok. 775-787. Allometric analysis and stream channel morphometry: Geographical Analysis. v. Measurement of self-affinity on surfaces as a trial application of fractal geometry to landform analysis. 3. 6. Lee. Adaptive Pattern Recognition and Neural Networks: Reading. S. 1. ICA symposium. 8. in Snow. 10.. 309 p.. I. Larry. Taylor. 25. Paradise. 1203-1207. B. 11.. Geoscience applications of digital elevation models. 333-341.. 115-130. Oswald. 1992. 1992.. Yoh-Han. 2. no... AddisonWesley. v. Outcalt.I. Manoj. Switzerland. D. v. summit level maps. p. 3/4.K. p. Pannekoek. 1938. 6.. no. p. Outcalt.. B. and Kirn. J. v.F. M. p. Pappas.A. J. 56. 246. 465-478. v. D. Panov..W. no.L. p. 1984. 2.B. v.. A. Palmer. p. Papo. 1986. Spectral analysis and filtering techniques in digital spatial data processing: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. v. Ouchi. p. v. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling.N. p. 4.-J. 1978. A graphical editor for digital elevation models: Geo-Processing. 1984. no. Bruce.B. 1967. and streamline surface maps as geomorphological tools: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Michael. S. no. Quantifying the information content of lattice images: Science. Symbolic feature analysis and expert systems. G. 67-79.S. Zurich. 3. in Agterberg. Anders. Statistical Applications in the Earth Sciences: Ottawa. 1.. 8. Anders. v. p.... v.2. Bode. Quality control of photogrammetrically sampled digital elevation models: Photogrammetric Record. eds. B. D. no. no. 17. 1/2. 33-37. 68-80. v. 40. 86.Ostman. Auto Carto London. v. A PC-based editor for digital terrain models. p.C. Self-affinity of landform and its measurement: Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University.1986.R. 143-154. C.J. 1989. 81-100. Proceedings. and Bonham-Carter. and Scheps. O. 2. 1992. no. no. Ostman. no. 1989. Digital terrain models for slopes and curvatures: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. p. 1974. and basin delineation from digital elevation data: Journal of Hydrology. P. Ostman. Ouchi. He. Y... ed. R. p. 197-218. Geological Survey of Canada. and Matsushita. v. CM. and Cuevas-Renard. Zhi-Yong.. September 14-19. 299-314.P... Mitsugu. H. 55. August. p. On the methodology of the compilation of river-network-density maps (in Russian): Izvestiya Gosudarstvennogo gidrologicheskogo instituta (Leningrad). Y. Generalized contour maps. 2. 1986. no. MA. 32.P. Shunji. 235-244. and Gelbman. and Mayer... 1986. 695-701. p. A system for generation and display of digital elevation models: Geo-Process (Germany). no. MA. Geomorphic application of the Hausdorff-Besicovich dimension: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Shunji. Landslide hazard mapping based on geological attributes: Engineering Geology... Weathering pit characteristics and topography on Stone Mountain. A. and Yin. 50. eds. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology. E. p.: Proceedings. 1990. Slope measurement from contour maps: 93 R. Ourmazd. 4937.H.. Pachauri. Palacios-Velez. and Pant.. ridge. 69 .. 1984. A. v. no. v. 211-228. Pao.I. Ostrowski. no. 1992. 1986. Automated river-course. 1989. 14. 1984. 12. H. Nos.. 15711577. Park. Gradient mapping of pattern ground characteristics from a photomosaic of the IBP tundra biome site near Barrow. p. An adaptive clustering algorithm for image segmentation: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. 465-474. D. Pan. no. 901-914. Alaska: Mathematical Geology. p.. 1987. Georgia: Physical Geography. 5.C... and Raetzsch. in Blakemore. 3. Anders.H.N. p. Park. H. 1971. 169-182..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 1989. and Melton. T.

no. no. Kochel. 8. Part 2. and Franklin. 3. no.. p. The University of Kansas. 1991. p. Parsons. v.. 37. A review of algorithms for shape analysis: Computer Graphics and Image Processing. p. 2. Some proper'liss of the average topographic slope (abs. 1970. a FORTRAN-77 program for restoration and derivative processing of digital image data: Computers and Geosciences. Wiley. 1966. v.. Schlesien eine Landeskunde fur das deutsche Volk. J. 191-200. p. J.. 3. P. 9. 690 p. [relative-relief map on p. and appendices dated April 1953. Die relativen Hohen von Karnten (in German): Petermanns Mitteilungen. State Geological Survey.M.C. v. Pavlidis. v. 1978. Siegfried. 246-251. Pavlidis.D. p. J.P. 453-486. Flood Geomorphology. 5. 669696. 1911. v. and Beswick.. v. v. Producing intermediate contours from digitized contours: The American Cartographer. 44. 16.. 3.C.S. 1988. 153-186. and Bossier. 29 p.. 129-131] Partsch. no. P6guy.-F. de Gruyter & Co. 6. Parry. 1977. 703-715.R. D.. 1954. 210 p. v. 74. Passarge. no.W. FORTRAN IV program for Qmode cluster analysis on distance function with printed dendrogram: Lawrence..A. p. 3. Pavlidis. no. Parsons. v. Peddle.. S. p. p. M. 1948.. Image texture processing and data integration for surface pattern discrimination: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Peddle. 29. GEDEMON. Joseph.): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 1953... Peltier.. R. Drainage basin morphometry and floods. 51-64.. 1950. Principes de morphome'trie alpine (in French): Revue de Ge"ographie Alpine (Grenoble. v. 1977.P.. v. 30. Loon. no. 16. Parks. 597-616. 4.Photogrammetric Engineering. 996-1005. J. Department of the Army.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 57. 1990.. no. and Patton. New York. 1. T. L.. diagrams. unpublished draft typescript. 1985. L. no. 587 and text on p. and Franklin. I Beschreibende Landschaftskunde: Hamburg. p. v. 1976. A Markov model for the description and classification of hillslopes: Mathematical Geology.C. eds. 829-831. no. v. v. Algorithms for shape analysis of contours and wave-forms: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. Quantitative Geomorphology. 277283.J. Introduction a 1'emploi des m&hodes statistiques en geographic physique (in French): Revue de Geographic Alpine (Grenoble. Ch. v. D. Cluster analysis applied to multivariate geologic problems: Journal of Geology. p. Gerrard and by N J.. Friederichsen. J. 387409. Curvature and rectilinearity in hillslope profiles: Area (UK). Patton.T. II (in German): Breslau. 301-312. 586] Parvis. no. [and two comments.. Peltier. 1989.. p.E. Structural Pattern Recognition: New York. p. 331-333 and 367-368. 7. P.32 p. p. 5. Computer Contribution 46. France). Paschinger. p. The application of two morphometric terrain-classification systems using air-photo interpretation methods: Photogrammetria. 243-258. p. 1973. J.. 30. T. v. T. 1992. Ch. 16. A Progress Report: U. Verlag Ferdinand Hirt. v.C. Cox..R. in next volume. v. A^J. 1919. Peled... Detection and classification of circular structures on SPOT images: TEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 1980. Ammatzia. 1942. Pe"guy.. 5. V. 4. Hind. 413-420.R.C. by A. p. France). Parrot. + maps. J. Drainage pattern significance in airphoto identification of soils and bedrocks: Photogrammetric Engineering. 80.M. Springer Verlag.C. p. 50. AJ. 302 p.. in Baker.E.. 94 R. Viktor. Characterisation of the ruggedness of instant coffee particle-shape by natural fractals: Journal of Food Science. 5-101. S. 36. Die Grundlagen der Landschaftskunde. Peleg. Parks. and Taud. 229-230. 1934. no. 5. p. Merle. v. p.

O Dtugosci Krzywych Empirycznych. p. 1974. Ann Arbor.. ed. D. A computer program for hillshading digital topographic data sets: Computers and Geosciences. Fractal-based description of natural scenes: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence. v. no. Area sampling for terrain analysis (abs.. p. Penck. OP-33067. Julian. as On the length of empirical curves. 7. OP-33067. 1955. Department of the Army. 351 p.. 40. Perkal. Harvard Papers in Theoretical Geography. G. On the epsilon-length: Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Science. no.C. L. 25-42. and De Jong. Terrain Modelling in Surveying and Civil Engineering. L. p. 250. 4.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Technical Report ECOM-0246-F. John.M. 1987. v. [average slope calculation: p. 7. 248. Massachusetts. p. Landform classification and soil distribution in hummocky terrain. Petrie. 1809. p. in Polish): Geode"zja 6s Kartografia.J. v. 45 p. p. John. E. T. Microfilms No. Army Electronics Command. 1956. p. Colin. no. in Polish): Zastosowania Mathematyki.R. 1987. Perkal. 1966. G. in Nystuen. Pennsylvania Research Associates. J. no.Peltier. no. Terrain modeling in surveying and civil engineering: Computer-Aided Design. Breslau. nos. 24-28.. B J.. Pelton. and Kennie. 1890. Inc.. Jakowski. L.. 1969.C. ASTIA No.D. Peucker. Peucker. p. v. Peltier. Army Office of the Chief of Engineers (for use in Signal Corps Contract DA-36-039-SC64562).C. 27/28. v. 1959. Morphologic der Erdoberflache (in German). AD124803. for U. v. U.M. Peltier.C. part 2. v.v. p. 1958a. 3-4.. v. 3/4. 545-548. Ann Arbor. Caithness (UK). no. 1958.. 66. Terrain Components in Operational Research: U. George Alien and Unwin. A. Peltier. and Kennie.): Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. p.M. Area sampling for terrain analysis: The Professional Geographer. in Coates. Digitally controlled video displays for helicopter avionics simulation initial design study: Final Engineering Report. v.S...P. Beitrage zur orometrischen Methodenlehre (in German): Dissertation. Ann Arbor. T. MI] Perkal. Geological Survey.J. 12. 6.K. Military Geology Branch. no. Thresholds in Geomorphology: London.. Some thoughts on optimal mapping aiid coding of surfaces: Cambridge. 1. A statistical model for describing and comparing the routes taken by tanks across terrain: Aberdeen Proving Ground. 661-674. Albrecht.H. Peltier. Karl.. p. Campinas. R. p.S. PAMI-6.. L. 5. Saskatchewan. Landform analysis in operational research (abs. Walt. 13. eds. Images (image processing on a microcomputer): BYTE. nos.24 p. T. 4.. 1980. 61-75. paging unknown. MI] Peterson. 1962.. v. 1894. 1716-1717. + maps... Pentland. Discussion Paper 10B. as An attempt at objective generalisation. Discussion Paper 10B. Ann Arbor.D. 1984.. and Hulke. 1155. Memorandum Report No. in Nystuen. Petrie. Proba Obiektywnej generalizacji (An attempt at objective generalization. 297-315. Jakowski.. [translated by W.. 3.C. eds. 1987.J. [translated by W. 47] Pennock.55 p. 32 p. 95 R. Michigan InterUniversity Community of Mathematical Geographers. 1958b. Report prepared for the U.S. 2. 2.. 70. Penney. Univ.. Events in the development of geomorphology. 130-142. v. and Vitek. p. 14. L. Michigan Inter-University Community of Mathematical Geographers. Microfilms No. A computer method for quantitative drainage basin analysis: Notfcia Geomorpholdgica. 399-403. no. v. 256. 14.. 258-283. 171-187. S. Julian. Graduate School of Design. no. Maryland.): Geological Society of America Bulletin.471 p. Julian. 1956. Ballistic Research Laboratories. Canada: Geoderma. Whittles Publ.. 19. 1990. 13. [terrain visibility] Penteado. 1966. M.. ed. D. 14. Univ. 1969. Cl III. Stuttgart.S. 32 p. 1989. Zebarth. 252-254.

D.M. 97-107. J. Little. Detection of surface-specific points by local parallel processing of discrete terrain elevation data: Computer Graphics and Image Processing. 8.S. 73 -95. 17. 1988a. Pfeifer. Fowler. Cartographic data structures: The American Cartographer. Graduate School of Design. 5. 77-93. 375-394. p.J.K. p. no. TJL. Data structures for digital terrain models discussion and comparison. 18. no. I. Digital representation of threedimensional surfaces by triangulated irregular networks (TIN): Burnaby.C. Cartography and Graphics. p. Peuquet.. p. 646-648. Delaware Bay. 1980..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . for Office of Naval Research.. Surface networks: Geographical Analysis. TJL. and Mark. 1978.. and Tomlinson. Little.K. in Mounsey.. TJC. 4. Simon Fraser University. II. St. TJK..M. Phillips... ed. no. 55-69. Peucker.1978. v.. RJ. T. 17. The impact of different mathematical approaches to contouring: Cartographica. Contract N00014-75-C-0886. 34. Digital terrain models.J. 1978. Geography Programs. Proceedings. Peuquet. Peucker.K. eds. Harvard Papers on Geographic Information Systems.M. New Jersey: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 3. D. Fowler. Peucker. 4."Geography and the properties of surfaces" series. Harvard University: International advanced study symposium on topological data structures for geographic information systems 1st. R. Toward the definition and use of complex spatial relationships. B... 516-540. 1979. in Auto-Carto 4. 1977. and Mark. no.L. 1986. Computer Cartography: Washington. 1976. Peucker. 146-164. p.J. 1990. Computer Software for Spatial Data Handling.. J. 78. 129-139..F. Peuquet.. p. Representations of geographic space toward a conceptual synthesis: Annals of the Assocation of American Geographers. 1. and Mark. Canada. p. Little. American Society of Photogrammetry.. Fowler. 66-78. TIN: Triangulated Irregular Network. 1988c. 1972. J. v. 1979. p. Missouri. p. 1979. P. Taylor and Francis.. Association of American Geographers. D.. v. J. Little. U.. Peucker. D. 1978] Peucker. Sydney. Building Databases for Global Science: London. 3.M.14 p.J. Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis.. International Geographical Union Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing. D. Technical Report No. August 17-19. R J. no. International Geographical Union.. D. p. Peucker. ed. no. D.. Geoffrey. in Marble. 1976. Peuquet. 96-103. Issues involved in selecting appropriate data models for global databases.. Australia. 1. 2. Proceedings. Reston. and Mark. Phillips. 10 (revised). no. International Symposium on Computer Assisted Cartography 4th. v. D. Peucker. v. 1988b. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. Nicholas. D. v. v. D. p. 375387. v. and Douglas. T. Data Structures: Surficial and Multi-Dimensional. no. p.. No.. 1-2. in Button. v.. v. 1. The triangulated irregular network: Digital Terrain Models (DTM) Symposium. T. May 9-11. and Chrisman. 1984. T. p. D. TJC. Roger. 50-62. Proceedings. Peucker. 1975. D. [abridged from PFL&M. J J. (Peucker) 1-15. p. an overview. Raster processing. Louis.. Fractal dimensions as a working tool for surface-roughness problems: Applications of Surface Science. VA.J.. Fowler.. 1980. Geological Survey. an alternative approach to automated cartographic data handling: Hie American Cartographer. 211-223. 3rd. Mass. Dedham.. Pfaltz. TJK..H. Commission on College Geography. v. Spatial analysis of shoreline erosion. JD. 2. Geography Department. Proceedings..1988. J. Relative importance of factors influencing fluvial soil loss at the global scale: 96 R. Resource Paper No.C.J. International Symposium on Computer-Aided Cartography 4th. 76... Helen. in Auto-Carto 4. R J... Proceedings. 1975.. 2.K. The triangulated irregular network. J J. 75 p. 63 p... Monograph 25. p. 6. Peucker. v.

. unpublished report UVA-ENV SCIMESO-1980-1.. Geologic Maps and Terrain Analysis Data for Viking Mars '75 landing sites considered in December 1972. p. eds. no.. proceedings of the Binghamton Symposium in Geomorphology.. Menlo Park. 22. R. eds. Worcester. Pike. Landform regions of southern New England. Geometric similitude of lunar and terrestrial craters.C. GJE. R.J. 6878-6884. J. and Mars multivariate classification and mode of origin: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. p. Size-dependence in the shape of fresh craters on the Moon.J. R.D. 6.A. 869-885.J. 142 p.. W. R. 489-509. Some Morphometric Properties of the Lunar Surface A Preliminary Investigation from Lunar Aeronautical Charts: Buffalo. R. Geological Survey Interagency Report: Astrogeology 59.H. p. eds.. paging unknown. P. p. p. v. R.M. v. R. 311-317] Piech. 457-485. Phillips. Report No. p. Slope analysis of the martian equatorial belt at 30 km resolution. 1973. 1990.. in NASA Viking Data Analysis Team (VDAT). 1964. Lunar terrain and traverse data for lunar roving vehicle design study: unpublished U. v. no.American Journal of Science.. 1975. VA. v.. Lunar surface geometry. 35. and Helleiner. International Geography 1972. 18.L.S.J. Preliminary slope-frequency distributions on Mars.. 290.. Mass. Phong. Canada.S.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 5. 112 p. unpublished MA thesis. 4-5 to 4-20. September 25-27.-T. 1961.... 5-12. p. 1972. Pepin.. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory Report No. 5. in Moore. Toronto Press. 24th. Geological Survey internal report. in Adams.J. 78-812. no. in Communications of the ACM.. Pike. R. Planetology: Proceedings. p. Pike.M. 1984. v. B1-B46. 547568. Pike.H. R. 4.19 p.J. 1971. v. Effect of height and orientation (microclimate) on geomorphic degradation rates and processes. K.. B8. Pike. Pieri. in Roddy.. Pike. 1972. in Analysis of Apollo 10 Photography and Visual Observations: NASA Special Publication SP-232. 1972. R. 80 p. p.. MA). 41-47. Papers Submitted to the 22nd International Geographical Congress. R. R.. Q-mode landform regions of southern New England. in International Geological Congress. a quantitative delimitation: Worcester. R. 3.J. no. Experimental method in cartographic communication. and Strobell. 245-255. W.. Mesoscale terrain features: Charlottesville.. R.. Illumination for computergenerated images: Salt Lake City.. and Ulrich. Pierce. 1963. D. Fingerprints and fractal terrain: Mathematical Geology. Lunar Landscape Morphometry: U. 1986. Pielke. Pike. 1977. and Merrill. Canada. J. 365-367. and Renwick. VA. University of Virginia. R. p. no. Pike. Langley Research Center. M. August 1972. MA.J. research on relief maps: Cartographica. University of Utah.J. N. 1980.R. VS1985-C-l. Pike.. eds. v. Preliminary quantitative terrainanalysis results from three Apollo 10 photographs.. B. S. Craters on Earth.. p. p.. 22. Clark University. R. in Masursky.Y. 97.J. D. RJ.J. Geological Survey open-file report no. 1974. Pergamon Press. and Piech. no. 1. Junction angles in drainage networks: Journal of Geophysical Research. CA. 195-487. 1978a. Montreal. Monograph 31. U.. Moon. nos. Pike. and Colman. v. Geomorphic Systems. Report M75-144-0. Section 15. 1992: Geomorphology. 89. late-glacial terrace scarps in central Idaho: Geological Society of America Bulletin. The order of valley depth: The Monadnock (Journal of the Clark University Geographical Society. 1984.P.. 21. Pike. 55-61.B.. 1969. HJ. 1992. 23rd. 7. p. no.. 120-128. Montreal. Elaine. 97 R. Pike.O. p... v.. and Kennedy. no.. J. Impact and Explosion Cratering: New York. Phillips. p. Univ. Pike. p 12-19. Department of Computer Science.. K.J. 2. Section B.S. H. [abridged 1975. UTEC-CSc-73-129.. 3-5. eds.

J. Information content of planetary terrain varied effectiveness of parameters for the Earth. R. 5.3 km to 7.J. CJB. and Acevedo. in Wiltshire. 98 R. Pike. R. Proceedings: Washington.. in Vilas. Arlington. RJ.J. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. p. 1. p. p. 1992. p.S. Scale dependence of planetary surface slope is curvilinear. and Spudis. Mapping geomorphic provinces on solid planets a quantitative example from Earth.J.. A. Pike. 1987.R. 1980.J. Houston. 1988. Pike. 1. p. Univ. 32393273. v. and Matthews. Pike. 77 p.. in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 9th. March 1986... Machine visualization of synoptic topography by digital image processing. 666-667. 664-665. 74. R. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XVin.J. March 1987. TX. 1986c. Faith.. 17th. Geomorphoiogy of impact craters on Mercury (with a section on Calculation of crater dimensions from oblique images. and Mars: Earth Moon and Planets. Houston.D. 1992. 499-516. March 1978. by G. 195. v.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. Apollo 15-17 Orbital Investigations geometric interpretation of lunar craters: U. 1986b. 1987. November 15-18.): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.1990): Philadelphia. and Fulton. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. no.. Pike.J. 1986a.. p.I. TX. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XVII. Proceedings. no. 20. March 1986. VA. R. P. D. p. Pike. Pike. The geometric signature quantifying landslide-terrain types from digital elevation models: Mathematical Geology. p. v. Surface features of central North America A synoptic view from computer graphics: GSA Today. R J. R. 1988c. 780-781. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XVII. Arizona Press. 1993. DA. 1992. Toward geometric signatures for geographic information systems.S.J.. R. 491-511.L. Houston.. R. Pike). 1978b.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.. R. RJ. R. Standards for digital topographic data. New York. TX. How to improve digital topographic data (abs. 1987. no... 1988b.J. Ill. 16 (Supplement).. Pettersson. Spectral analysis of landforms: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Geological Survey Bulletin 2016. Pike. 20. Clow and RJ. p. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XVIII. San Francisco. v. TX. p. 62. 65. 129-194. Pike.1987. TX. 251-253. 1526.Pike. CA.D.0 km. Pike. Pike. Volcanoes on the inner planets some preliminary comparisons of gross topography.500-scale topographies a terrestrial calibration for planetary roughness at 0. 4. in Johnson. 241.. 17th. 17th.S. 18th.. W J.J.. 316-317. 11.. 39. Pergamon Press. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 1975.. Houston. R.. J. M. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 778-779. no. William. v. Basin-ring spacing on the Moon. eds. B1-B12. p. Toward geometric signatures for planetary terrain an assessment of Earth at 1:24. Selected Papers in the Applied Computer Sciences. no. R. and Rozema. TX. June 12-22. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XVH. Mercury: Tucson.. 18th. Pike. Chapter B. v. Imageprocessed maps of southern New England topography (abs.000 scale. in International Geographic Information Systems Symposium. Houston.. p.. p. RJ. J. p. Variance spectra of representative l:62. Special Technical Publication 1126. ed.J. March 1987. 1991. v. U. p.. Houston. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Mapping Practices and Standards (selected papers from a symposium.. C. 1988a.. p. PA. R.. Pike.J. NASA. eds. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1046-C. no. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Chapman. American Society for Testing and Materials. 2. Mercury.. Pike. Pike. Pike. March 1986. 668-669. 165-273.C. R.

. v. A topographic base for GIS from automated TINs and image-processed DEMs. Pike. J. and Schanzer. Sarnano. H. William. and Thelin. Zimmerman. 11-18. 70.. topography from digital elevations: Eos. Proceedings. Denver. 717-720. Mapping the nation's physiography by computer: Cartographic Perspectives (bulletin of the North American Cartographic Information Society.1987. R. no.. Plunkett. D. A. and Thelin.P. Visualizing the United States in computer chiaroscuro: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. R. Winter. International Conference.J. Brian. Pike. R J. R. p.. 12. 82. Mark. 99 R. 1989.S.. Pennsylvania).1989. Arlington. American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing and American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 2. 631-640. Synoptic maps of Italy's topography from a digital elevation model: First workshop 'Informatica e Scienze della Terra'. April 2-7. Topographic grain automated from digital elevation models. v. November 15-18. in International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. and Workshops on Geographic Information Systems. William.J. 1990-91. and Acevedo. 1982.J. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. p. 161 p. Bortoluzzi. 300-302 (see also.J. cover and p. Proceedings. 76.. Proceedings.J. Bennett. Pitty. and Thelin. p. Geological Survey open-file report OF92-420. no. Gordon. October 18-20. GIS '87-San Francisco.Pike. R. p. v. 2nd. Guzzetti. G..S. 1989. R.V..E. Technical papers. R. Piotrowski. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. October 26-30. Adaptive grey level assignment in CT scan display: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography. 82.. p. 1079-1084. Pike.. topography from digital data. GP. Baltimore. 340-351. William. 1989. A. and Thelin. B. v.. A simple device for the field measurement of hillslopes: Journal of Geology. April 2-7.. 2 (Cartography). 15-24. California: U. S. Marco. and Clarke.W. 1971. and Card. no. 8. p. fall convention. 8..S. and Thelin. Acevedo. Plews. Mapping topographic form by digital image-processing in the San Jose 1:100. Pitty. G. 1987. Relationship between drumlin length and width as a manifestation of the subglacial processes: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. 350355. E. p.. p. Fausto..C. Giovanni. no. Pike. p. P.. Shaded relief map of U. 1968.C. A. 3.. G.J. v. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. p. Pike. in Auto-Carto 9.. Pitty. Proceedings: Washington. Acevedo. 56 p. No.000 sheet. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.P. William.. 1992. S. G. University Park. Rzer. in International Geographic Information Systems Symposium. R... 4. Elevation-relief ratio.P. Colorado. 6.. R. 9th. 1989. Technical Papers. Dena. William. Thelin. Exhibits. 843 & 853. no. p. DeFrede.. 429-441.M. Cartographic analysis of U. 1990..H.. March 1823. 1968. Some comments on the scope of slope analysis based on frequency distributions: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. NASA. v. Ligi. The Nature of Geomorphology: London. annual convention. no. RJ. p.K.J. 128-137. v. GP.1989. 1992. Pike. 1989. Some topographic ingredients of a geographic information system. and Showalter. p. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.B. 1984.. Napoli.. R J. K.F.K.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . p. 2. no. hypsometric integral. 27/1-27/7. 1988. 1989. 471-481. GP. Proceedings. 33. 4. Methuen. Pike. and Thelin. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. p. Italy. Problems in implementing the TIN data structure. and Wilson.F.1989. 151-164. Acevedo. VA. 289-300).. v. Acevedo. 38. Baltimore. v.. and geomorphic areaaltitude analysis: Geological Society of America Bulletin. v.1987. Pike. 9th. Pike. R. 1.P.. 300-305.F. The use of synthetic solar illumination for visualizing digital elevation models. and Staab.

. 1977.C. Poggio. Proceedings. v. no.C. John.D. Powell. On the interpretation of state vectors and local transformation operators. T.. ['C version has 1024 p. Albrecht. 1992. W.. 1985..S. v. p.F. Hinsdale County.F. PA. 408-415. and Onorati. 12.F. v. L... Portland.. B.] Preusser.H. 242. Comparison of bilinear and Brownian interpolation for digital elevation models: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and and Remote Sensing. Chorowicz. Application of drainage extraction to NOAA gridded bathymetry of the U.. 2. A quantitative geomorphology study of main carbonate massifs of central and southern Apennines based on a digital elevations archive.1445. p. E. Parallel integration of vision modules: Science.. Teukolsky. W. 1980. no. MJ. 4877. p. 1988. 48. p. v. S. 1993.. 6.. 68. Description of terrain as a fractal surface.1991. in Auto-Carto 7. based on 1985 and 1990 aerial photography: U.. Pollack. Measurement of surface roughness: Mechanical Engineering.N. Colorado. 1969. J. 1972. Geological Survey Circular 1092.H.S. 109. 6. 83. T. Vetterling. HP-1 to HP-33.J. p... 306.T. P.N. 292-301. 1985. Dynamic modeling. LA. 1984. Distribution. and 12. Albrecht. University of Kansas.. and Griswold.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 7th.Z. p. p. 1991. in IGARSS '88 Symposium.. Preusser. Philadelphia. no. 4. colloquium on simulation: Lawrence. A step towards interactive displays of digital elevation models. 3607-3612. and Sabin.3. Laurent.B. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science 100 R. Posey. 305. Richard. N. November 5-7. 316-325. 43-46. Millington. Ordnung mit ci-Kontinuitat (in German): Zeitschrift fur Vermessungswesen. 10.. International Symposium on Computer-Aided Cartography. State Geological Survey. v. W. Washington. W. D. v. Gamble.J. 1993. 10. S.C. no. Surface roughness effects on overland flow: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Computing contours by successive solution of quintic polynomial equations (Algorithm 626): ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software. 3. Proceedings..K. H.. continental margin. Oregon. and size frequency of cinder cones on Mauna Kea volcano. 463-475. p.A.. Hawaii: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Geological Survey Open-file Report 92-535A. L.. in Merriam. 1988. Porter. in Lockwood. D J. 2. Varnes. Price.. MA. Polidori. v. p. no. Maribeth. 1985. Laurent. 3. and application to digital elevation model quality assessment: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. no. 1329-1332. Proceedings: U. T. Studying Venus using a GIS database.F. 1992.Podmore. no. and McGregor. Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN.): Cambridge University Press. p. Preusser. Some hidden features and extensions of IMSL Library routine IQHSCV (smooth surface fit): IMSL User Notes. 23. Lecture Notes. Jean. and Suppe. Piecewise quadratic approximations on triangles: American Society for Computing Machinery Transactions on Mathematical Software. 7-9 November. The Art of Scientific Computing (2nd ed. Giuseppe. and 338. morphology. v. p. Poscolieri. 1653-1654.S. ESA SP-284 (IEEE 88CH2497-6). 1434-1439. 1992. and Muggins.. 1984. p.P. and Flannery. Pratson. in Models of Geologic Processes an Introduction to Mathematical Geology: American Geological Institute short course. eds. no. 1316 September 1988. Computer Contribution 22. C. Maurizio. and Little. Pollack.. v.. Press. p. 1969. Bivariate Interpolation fiber Dreieckselementen durch Polynome 5. Edinburgh. Computer Applications in the Earth Sciences. 436-440. 5 p. B.S.. and Savage. and Ryan.. Albrecht. eds. Polidori. 963 p.B. Poiker. Powers. p. and Cocke. and Chorowicz. March 11-14. 1968. 110-117. Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium on Mapping and Research. p. H. Digital elevation models for Slumgullion Landslide. Jean. 1946. 2. and Guillande. 18-23. 57. B. v.A. Scotland.

Conference, 24th, March 1993, Houston, TX, The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV, p. 1183-1184. Price, WA., 1968, Oriented lakes, in Fairbridge, R.W., ed., The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology: New York, Reinhold Book Co., p. 784-796. Protod'yakonov, M.M., 1925, Chislovyye kharakteristiki topograficheskikh usloviy mestnosti (Numerical characteristics of topographical detail; in Russian): Moscow. Proudfoot, M.J., 1942, Sampling with traverse lines: Journal of the American Statistical Association, v. 37, p. 265-270. Proudfoot, M.J., 1946, Measurement of Geographic Area: Washington, D.C., U.S. Bureau of the Census, 120 p. Provorov, K.L., and Ivanov, A.M., 1978, Mathematical simulation of terrain relief using cubical and bicubical splines (in Russian): Geodeziya i kartografiya, No. 8, p. 39-44. [translated 1977, in Geodesy, Mapping, and Photogrammetry, v. 19, no. 3, p. 163-166. Pruitt, E.L., 1979, The Office of Naval Research and geography: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 69, no. 1, p. 103-108.

Raggam, J., Buchroithner, M.F., and Mansberger, R., 1989, Relief mapping using nonphotographic spaceborne imagery: ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, v. 44, no. 1, p. 21-36. Raisz, E.J., 1931, The physiographic method of representing scenery on maps: Geographical Review, v. 21, no. 2, p. 297-304. Raisz, E.J., 1939, Landforms of the United States, in Atwood, W.W., 1940, The physiographic provinces of North America: New York, Blaisdell, scale about 1:4,500,000. [6th revised edition 1957] Raisz, E.J., 1948, Land-slope analysis: General Cartography, New York, McGraw-Hill, p. 277282. [similar material in 1st edition, 1938, and Principles of Cartography, 1962] Raisz, E.J., 1956, Landform maps: Petermanns geographische Mitteilungen, v. 100, no. 2, p. 171172, & figs. 30,31. Raisz, E.J., 1959, Landform maps a method of preparation: Cambridge, MA, for Geography Branch, Office of Naval Research, Contract Nonr 2339(00), Final Report, Part I, p. 1-23. Raisz, E.J., and Henry, Joyce, 1937, An average slope map of New England: Geographical Review, v. 27, no. 3, p. 467-472. Ranke, Victor von, 1956, Perspecktive im Ingenieurbau insbesondere im Strassenbau: Wiesbaden, Bauverlag Gmbh., 141 p. Rao, S.V.L.N., and Rao, B.S. Prakasa, eds., 1992, Applications of Mathematical Morphology for Pattern Studies: Visakhapatnam, India, J.P. Laser Graphics, ca. 100 p. Raper, J.F. ed., 1989, Three dimensional applications in geographical information systems: London, Taylor and Francis, 189 p. Raper, J.F., and Maguire, D J., eds., 1992, GIS design models: Computers and Geosciences (special issue), v. 18, no. 4, p. 387-475. Rayner, J.N., 1972, The application of harmonic and spectral analysis to the study of terrain, in

Qian, Jianzhong, Ehrich, R.W., and Campbell, J3., 1990, DNESYS an expert system for automatic extraction of drainage networks from digital elevation data: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 28, no. 1, p. 29-45. Quinn, P.F., Beven, K.J., Chevallier, P., and Planchon, O., 1991, The prediction of hillslope flow paths for distributed hydrological modelling using digital terrain models: Hydrological Processes, v. 5, no. 1, p. 59-79. Qiu, H.L., 1988, Measuring the Louisiana coastline an application of fractals, in Association of American Geographers, Cartography Specialty Interest Group, Occasional Paper No. 1: p. 33-40.



Chorley, R*L, ed., Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York, Harper and Row, p. 283-302. Reams, M.W., 1992, Fractal dimensions of sinkholes, in Snow, R.S., and Mayer, Larry, eds., Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology, v. 5, Nos. 1/2, p. 159-165. Reed, Brace, Galvin, C J. Jr., and Miller, J.P., 1962, Some aspects of drumlin geometry: American Journal of Science, v. 260, no. 3, p. 200-210. Reech, M., 1858, Demonstration d'une propri£t6 general des surfaces ferm£es (in French): Journal de 1'Ecole Polytechnique, v. 37, p. 169-178. Reed, T.B. IV, and Hussong, Donald, 1989, Digital image processing techniques for enhancement and classification of SeaMARC II side scan sonar imagery: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 94, no. B6, p. 7469-7490. Reeve, E.C.R., and Huxley, J.S., 1945, Some problems in the study of allometric growth, in Clark, W.E. LeGros, and Medawar, P.B., eds., Essays on "Growth and Form" presented to D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson: Oxford, Clarendon Press, paging unknown, [reprinted in Huxley, J.S., 1972, Problems of Relative Growth (2nd edition): New York, Dover, p. 267-302.] Reich, B.M., 1971, Land surface form in flood hydrology, in Coates, D.R., ed., Environmental Geomorphology, proceedings of the first annual geomorphology symposium: Binghamton, N.Y., SUNY, Publications in Geomorphology, p. 49-68. Reichenbach, Paola, Pike, R.J., Acevedo, William, and Mark, R.K., 1992, All Italy portrayed in digital chiaroscuro (abs.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union, v. 73, no. 14 (Supplement), p. 45. Reichenbach, Paola, Acevedo, William, Mark, R.K., and Pike, RJ., 1992, Landforms of Italy: Perugia, It., Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Institute di Ricerca per la Protezione Idrogeologica nell'Italia Centrale, in collaboration with U.S. Geological Survey, scale 1:1,200,000. Reichenbach, Paola, Pike, R.J., Acevedo, William, and Mark, R.K., 1993, A new landform map of Italy in computer-shaded relief: Bolletino di

Geodesia e Scienze Affini (Istituto Geografico Militare, Florence, Italy), v. 52, no. 1, p. 21-44, with fold-out l:2,000,000-scale map. Reid, M.B., and Hine, B.P., 1992, Terrain tracking for lander guidance using binary phase-only spatial filters: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, v. 58, no. 12, p. 1699-1706. Rentsch, Hermann, Welsch, Walter, Heipke, Christian, and Miller, M.M., 1990, Digital terrain models as a tool for glacier studies: Journal of Glaciology, v. 36, no. 124, p. 273-278. Renwick, W.H., 1992, Equilibrium, disequilibrium, and nonequilibrium landforms in the landscape, in Phillips, J.D., and Renwick, W.H., eds., Geomorphic Systems, proceedings of the Binghamton Symposium in Geomorphology, 23rd, September 25-27, 1992: Geomorphology, v. 5, nos. 3-5, p. 265-276. Reyment, R.A., 1991, The study of size and shape, in Multidimensional Palaeobiology: Oxford, UK, Pergamon Press, p. 99-157. Rhind, David, 1975, A skeletal overview of spatial interpolation techniques: Computer Applications (UK), v. 2, no. 3 and 4, p. 293-309. Rhind, D.W., and Green, N.P.A., 1988, Design of a geographical information system for a heterogeneous scientific community: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, v. 2, no. 2, p. 171-189. Rhoads, B.L., and Thorn, C.E., 1993, Geomorphology as science the role of theory: Geomorphology, v. 6, no. 4, p. 287-307. Riazanoff, Serge, Cerville, Bernard, and Chorowicz, Jean, 1988, Ridge and valley line extraction from digital terrain models: International Journal of Remote Sensing, v. 9, no. 6, p. 1175-1183. Riazanoff, Serge, Cerville, Bernard, and Chorowicz, Jean, 1990, Parametrisable skeletonization of binary and multi-level images: Pattern Recognition letters, v. 11, no. 1, p. 26-33. Riazanoff, Serge, Julien, P., Cerville, Bernard, and Chorowicz, Jean, Extraction et analyse automatiques d'un r£seau hierachis6 de talwegs Application a un modele numerique de terrain



de"riv6 d'un couple steYeoscopique SPOT: International Journal of Remote Sensing, in-press (ca. 1992). Ricard, Y., Froidevaux, C., and Simpson, R., 1987, Spectral analysis of topography and gravity in the Basin and Range province: Tectonophysics, v. 133, no. 3/4, p. 175-187. Rich, John, 1916, A graphical method of determining the average inclination of a land surface from a contour map: Transactions of the niinois Academy of Sciences, v. 9, p. 195-199. Richards, K.S., ed., 1990, Part two form, in Goudie, Andrew (with the assistance of six others), ed., Geomorphological Techniques (second edition): London, Unwin Hyman, for the British Geomorphological Research Group, p. 31-108. Richardson, L.F., 1961, The problem of contiguity, an appendix to Wright, Quincy, and Lienau, C.C., eds., The statistics of deadly quarrels: Pittsburgh, Boxwood Press, 373 p. [reprinted 1961, in General Systems, Yearbook of the Society for General Systems, v. 6, p. 139-187. Rigney, M.P., and Brusewitz, G.H., 1992, Asparagus shape features for quality assessment: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering, v. 35, no. 5, p. 16071613. Rinaldo, Andrea, Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio, Rigon, Riccardo, Bras, R.L., Ijjasz Vasquez, Ede, and Marani, Alessandro, 1992, Minimum energy and fractal structures of drainage networks: Water Resources Research, v. 28, no. 9, p. 2183-2195. Rindfleisch, Thomas, 1966, Photometric method for lunar topography: Photogrammetric Engineering, v. 32, no. 2, p. 262-276. [also, 1965, as A photometric method for deriving lunar topographic information: Pasadena, CA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Technical Report No, 32786] "Rinehart, R.E., and Coleman, EJ., 1988, Digital elevation models produced from digital line graphs, in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, annual convention, March 13-18,1988, St. Louis, Missouri, Technical papers, v. 2 (Cartography), p. 291-299.

Ripley, B.D., 1981, Spatial Statistics: New York, John Wiley and Sons, 252 p. Ripley, B.D., 1988, Statistical Inference for Spatial Processes: New York, Cambridge University Press, 148 p. Rives, J.M., and Besaw, G.A., 1990, Automated terrain inference from digital elevation data, Fort Monmouth, N.J., U.S. Army CommunicationsElectronics Command: Final Technical Report, 65 PRobert, Andre, and Roy, A.G., 1990, On the fractal interpretation of the mainstream length-drainage area relationship: Water Resources Research, v. 26, no. 5, p. 839-842. [see also, Reply, 1991, WRR, v. 27, no. 9, p. 2489-2490] Roberts, Paul, 1957, Using new methods in highway location: Photogrammetric Engineering, v. 23, no. 3, p. 563-569. Roberts, P.O., 1963, The digital terrain model approach to railroad route location: Bulletin of the American Railway Engineering Association, v. 63, paging unknown. Robichaud, P.R., and Molnau, M., 1990, Measuring soil roughness changes with an ultrasonic profiler: Transactions of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, v. 33, no. 6, p. 1851-1858. Robinove, C.J., 1979, Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1102,39 p. Robinove, C.J., 1986, Principles of logic and the use of digital geographic information systems: U.S. Geological Survey Circular 977, 19 p. Robinson, A.H., 1946, A method for producing shaded relief from aerial slope data: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, v. 36, no. 4, p. 248-252. [reprinted 1948, in Surveying and Mapping, v. 8, no, 3, p. 157-160] Robinson, A.H., 1953, Other methods of depicting land surface: Elements of Cartography, New York, John Wiley & Sons, p. 215-218.



p. L. 991-1002. November 10-12. p. Rose.1976.B. A. Azriel.. 435 and 349 p. p. B. Paolo. 710-711. 652-661. v.. 155-174. J. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. p. and Evans.. 4. 4. The Landscape Institute.W. Rosenfeld. 1.K. and Kak. San Jose. Renzo. p. 11. I and II. 1988. Sequential operations in digital picture processing: Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery. 3. E.M. Ross. no.A. no. Nearest-neighbor analysis a technique for quantitative evaluation of polygonal ground patterns: Geografiska Annaler. no. Robinson. CA.. p. Automatic cloud interpretation: Photogrammetric Engineering. G.C. Rossbacher. Azriel. no. R. Arizona. 101-105. no. Rosenfeld. Charles. 507-520. L. R. R. 1986.. Rosenfeld.P. J. 9.B. v. Rinaldo. and Armstrong. Image pattern recognition: Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Rokos. no.. 1985. 7. 1992. 1988. Impact and Explosion Cratering planetary and terrestrial implications. and Pfaltz. and Merrill. 5. 24-32. v.. 112. Rosso. v. 42. Rosenfeld. Andrea. and Letzer. no. v. 1966. and Thrower.O.M. Physical limits to the performance of imaging systems: Physics Today. Riccardo. Rose. v. 47. Pergamon. J. 3. Rodolfi. no.. no. M. Interpolation for contouring an experiment in weighting functions: GeoProcessing. p. RX. 361-371. H. 381-387.. Ijjasz-Vasquez. 1982.G. 1989.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .H. Rigon. 1975. Press 1301 p.Robinson. p. 1981. 85-105. Computer-Aided Landscape Design principles and practice: Scotland. Bras. 1984. v.000 scale topographic maps: Geological Magazine.. Azriel. eds.1992. Flagstaff. 7. p. in GIS/LIS '92.A.. v. v.L. TX. and Orton. Houston. 46. p. 9. no. 1957.. 16th. 1975. James. p. v. March 1985. Ross. and Marani. Symposium on Planetary Cratering Mechanics.K. review of Land Evaluation: Australian Geographical Studies. A. Bacchi. Fractal structures as least energy patterns the case of river networks: Geophysical Research Letters.. 2. and Weimer. 863-868. Drumlin measurements a test of the reliability of data derived from 1:25.. vols. D. v.. 4.E. 1991. 13. Ede. 596-605. Albert. and Charlesworth. no. no. 1965. The necessity of weighting values in correlation analysis of area! data: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 81-87. p. p. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XVI. 471-494. 1986. Baldassare. p. Azriel. Geoffrey. Geomorphological mapping applied to land evaluation and soil conservation in agricultural planning some examples from Tuscany (Italy): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Ignacio. A new method of terrain representation: The Geographical Review. Computer vision. p. 2.. Relation of topography and structure in southcentral Alberta: Mathematical Geology. B.A. and Joyce.. 74-80. J. p. 19. 1992. no. 31. Digital Picture Processing. no. 76.. 1977.. Rodriguez-Iturbi. 1-2. 2nd ed. D. Annual conference and exposition. basic principles: Proceedings of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. in Evans.. ed. 27. 1956. 179-194. Robinson. v. September 13-17. 2. The development of visual resources management and computer aided design in the United States Forest Service. Proceedings. P. p. p. Fractal relation of mainstream length to catchment area in river networks: Water Resources Research. Rosenfeld. New York. AJL. Parallel terrain feature extraction.. Roddy. 1. Academic Press. 68A.. v. Pepin. 233-236. 1969... Alessandro. Azriel. S. Robinson. 104 R. Rossbacher. 8. 889892. 69.M..-KL. and La Barbera. N J. Supplementband 68. v. Quantitative analysis of Martian polygonal ground. v.J.N. Proceedings: New York. Fried.

14. in Lunar Orbiter image analysis studies report. 180-188. The use of spectral analysis in describing lunar surface roughness: U. RJM. Report No. 8. Aerial observer effectiveness and nap-of-the-Earth (Project TRACE): Buffalo New York. E A... Ginette. no.. Proceedings. 6. 1984. 89129. Lunar terrain analysis. p. A morphometrical classification of rivers (in Russian): Meteorol. 1962. v. Gravel. University of Minnesota. ed.V.J. A Geography of Norden: Stockholm. Amend. v.E. 1957.J. N.1966: U. March 29-April 3. Proceedings. 259. 1949. Rozema. v. 1-11.I. a review and appraisal of different methods. p. Geographical geomorphology: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Hanan... 1960. 1984. A generic classification of landforms of Minnesota: Minneapolis.. 1989.3. No. 1967. A. Rybkin. 9-60. Samet. Salisbury. W. N. v.S.V. Natick. Russell. R. in Geological Survey Research 1969: U. no. p. no. Topographic discontinuities of the Des Moines lobe: American Journal of Science. 171 p. unpublished Ph. Maryland. and Cybernetics. SMC-14.S.. no.. P.J... 1971. 2. and Holm. Rowan. 1969. 1947. 435-143.. p. p..M.S. The ridge-seeking method for obtaining the skeleton of digital images: IEEE Transactions on Systems. October 15-16. ed. 46-56. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory. J.. Geological Survey Professional Paper 599-G. 39. in Morisawa.. W-12. p. v. 268-270. Ewald. Department of Geography. p. Geological Survey. 289-310. Baltimore. Graphic analysis of drift topographies: American Journal of Science. Ryder. Computing Surveys. p. v. 4.. 1952. Lunar terrain mapping and relative-roughness analysis: U. The use of spectral analysis in describing lunar surface roughness.388. p. Ruhe. 1..260. prepared for NASA under Purchase Order No.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Rudberg. and 272. N. 1987. McCauley. 27-40 and maps no. Putting DSPs (digital signal processors) to work (in the microcomputer environment): BYTE. Celine. Some aspects of the morphometry of paraglacial alluvial fans in southcentral British Columbia: Canadian Journal of Earth Science. 1. p. and Siy. v. Downs. Geological Survey Professional Paper 650-D. VE-1591-G-1. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Command. Saunders. 10. p. and 4. for U. 82-87.. 2. MA. in Somme. L. Gidrol. 32 p.S. dissertation. 13.E. Salisbury. no. Salari. Threads of inquiry in quantitaive geomorphology.F.C. p. The quadtree and related hierarchical data structures: Association for Computing Machinery. 1. Saffari. Relief-slope relations in glaciated terrain (abs. R. Marie.. and McCauley. v. 16. 1971. 1971. 79.E. May 1. Salisbury. 2nd. p.. Rudyy. Sten.. 1989. An analytical method for identifying structure lines in topography: Mapping Sciences and Remote Sensing. Ryll. 250. 1971. Gerald. R.. 1985. 248. 105 R. no. 1968. Geological Survey open-file report 148. S. W. 2. p. 2. 52.. v. Man. 266. Rowan.. Roy.F.. no..S.S. and Gauthier. 1950.C. Auto-Carto 8. L. 1252-1264.1987. Radar altimetry of large Martian craters: Icarus. 1962. ( Quantitative geomorphology some aspects and applications: Binghamton. Rozema.): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. N. 126 p.Y. L. R.Roth.1965 to January 31. no. 68-77.262264. and Schubert. Bobby.E. 187-260. no.S. v. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography 8th. Measuring the dimensions of surfaces. G. 22.34 p. J. 3. 524-528. N. Interagency report Astrogeology 12.G. 358-359. p.R. Annual Geomorphology Symposia Series.D. A. J. in Chrisman. Ruhe. Geology and morphology. E.

L.. T. Md. Denver... v.. annual convention. 106 R. L. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. 493 p.-g. Hanan. 43-51. 20. 1985. R.S. p. ShafTer. Kansas Geological Survey.W.J. Use of digital elevation models as a water resources planning tool on regulated rain forest basins (abs. in Auto-Carto 9. 240 p.G. in Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Image Understanding Workshop. v. ASPRS/ACSM. Sawatsky. 2.. Topography of random surfaces. p.. Terrain-analysis procedures for modeling radar back-scatter. and VanderZee. v. 1990. 1978... The Design and Analysis of Spatial Data Structures: Reading. 271. Kananaskis area.S. Series on Spatial Analysis. R. Kikuo. 234-246. Feature extraction for localization. 1925. 1978. 1989.25 p. p. v. Mass. Hanan... B.. D. D. March 25-29: Technical Papers. AddisonWesley Publishing Co.G. v. JJL. G. 735 & 741. G. 1986. Image Processing. Seattle. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union.. Samet. ed. J. [republished 1969... Jenson. p. Proceedings. no. U. Recent developments in quadtree-based geographic information systems. C.. Sauchyn. SURFACE n graphics system: Lawrence. G. Pike. Henderson. G. 1989.. Third International Conference on Basement Tectonics. Nelson.. Samet. 5644. annual convention.. Basement Tectonics Committee.S. L.L. University of California Publications in Geography.. 815-824.S. Technical Papers. a selection from the writings of Carl Ortwin Sauer: Berkeley.. 1981. Maryland. AddisonWesley Publishing Co. and Rosenfeld. 1991. reply: Nature. v.A. Huang. Washington. Mississippi. Scarlatos. R. 9th. in Radar Geology: An Assessment. 1992. 1962. Proceedings. v.C.. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. Proceedings. [reinterpretation of kurtosis] Sasowsky. Petersen. 1990. 1978.. John. North Carolina. p. no. R..L.. Baltimore. in Leighly. and Broughton.. and GIS: Reading. 19-53. Sampson. and Thomas. p. 1983. R. D. SAS descriptive procedures (chapter 20). Calif. and Colvin. and Gardner. Morphometry of open rock basins. T. April 2-7.O.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 2 (Cartography). p. L. Applications of Spatial Data Structures Computer Graphics. Saucier.. 55. Schaber. 73. Surface topography as a nonstationary random process: Nature. SJL. no. 1992. in O'Leary. 273. Technical Report No...K. University of California Press.T. An automated critical line detector for digital elevation matrices. Proceedings...L. 91-100. A technique of morphological mapping: Annals of the Association of American Geographers.. A compact terrain model based on critical topographic features. 431-434. Sayles. 1532. p.. no.): Eos. 6 (Auto-Carto 10). p. eds.M. Colorado. KG.L. p. Scarlatos. v. p. and Berlin.C. no. Canadian Rocky Mountains: Canadian Journal of Earth Science. 1980.. March 18-23.R. 58.. 226. 315350] Savigear.J.W. Colorado.L. Geologic uses of linear-feature maps derived from smallscale images. Baltimore.. + 34 pages of appendices. T. A technique for mapping terrain microgeometry: Vicksburg.Samet. January 1992. p.L. in SAS User's Guide. and Earl. C. and Thomas. 514-538. R. 3. 327-331. A. Scarlatos. SAS Institute Inc. 573. Land and Life. 1992. Savitt.R. Accuracy of SPOT digital elevation model and derivatives utility for Alaska's north slope: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. v. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling 2nd. 43 (supplement). Sanchez-Azofeifa. Mass. p. and Raines.. July 510. Fujimura.... 5663. Denver. p.. 1965. S. no. Basics (Version 5 edition): Gary. Azriel. Sauer.1986. Adaptive hierarchical triangulation. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. 1989. T. R. Sayles. 409-419. The morphology of landscape: Berkeley. 507 p. 2. 6. and Evans. San Diego. p. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Hanan. 3-612.J.A. no. Y..D. D. 146-153. SAS Institute Inc. 3. J.

p.M. p. Dawson. p. and Reclamatioin. 2.. A. Tony. P. 1978. RA. 97. Crater formation and modification on the icy satellites of Uranus and Saturn depth/diameter and central peak occurrence: Journal of Geophysical Research. Schlapfer.. 6. Baltimore.] Schenk. A numerical terrain classification scheme for off-road terrain trafficability assessments: Geoforum. p.. Milton. RA. 672-679. 1993.. ICY". p. H. 635-642. 94. 5739-5745. Quantifying terrain roughness on lunar and planetary surfaces: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 2nd Annual Meeting. [1961.K. Melvin. 1990. no. 1277-1284. no. 9.L. Scheidegger. Experiments with a rule-based system for interpreting linear map features: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Schowengerdt. v. 1979.R. Scheidegger. and Russell.. 45. p. A "bottom-up" approach to GIS watershed analysis. and Zilberstein.. Scheidegger.1965. S. R. 1938.. 1979. 1963. 1989. + 41 p. The algebra of stream-order numbers: Geological Survey Research 1965. Geological Survey Open-file Report 791088. 55. CA: Proceedings. San Jose. p.E. B4. A. D. A.. [also 1966. 68. 212-219. v. 1989. Albert.M. in Symposium on Surface Mining Hydrology. San Francisco. v..S. Simulation of the evolution of drainage-basin networks with a digital computer: Journal of Geophysical Research. no.G.1992. v.. p. March 29-April 3. 57 p. Schloss. 3617-3618. 22 p.J. 7475-7498. v..1st ed. Sedimentology.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . D. LA. 1961. and Rubin.M. and Barr..M. Joel.report of the Radar Geology Workshop..S. 1992. annual conference and exposition.. Schaefer. [also 1979. Central pit and dome craters exposing the interiors of Ganymede and Callisto: Journal of Geophysical Research. A general purpose expert system for image processing: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. H. Chadwick. B. 168-199. Zurich. P. Schreier. Paper 65-389.E. p. p. no. L.. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 80-61. D.D. Schenk. Univ. and Wang. 1965.. 1979. A numerical approach to terrain analysis for off-road trafficability: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. p. no. 3. Gaddis. no. Jr. v. J. Schenk. Hilbert S.. 5. Snowmass. and Hoover... 56. L. v.1987. in American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress of Surveying and Mapping. Elifrits. 1987. p.M. Scupturing reclaimed land to descrease erosion. Springer-Verlag. v. 1970. 16-20 July 1979. 283-285] Schneider. 20. B187-B189. in Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets (AIAA). Schenk.W. Schloss. annual convention. p. and Lavkulich. 11. 13.. 3813-3832. v. 1991. Doescher. Proceedings. 3.. 66. Han-lung. v. Schreier. 1965. no.. E8. p. 99/f. p.. 10. California. R. Geological Survey Professional Paper 525-B. Geology and distribution of impact craters on Venus what are they telling us?: Journal of Geophysical Research. U. 435 p. Lexington. JA. L. H. Kirk. Scholz..2nd ed.G. in GIS/LIS '92..J. Effect of map scale on stream orders: Bulletin of the International Association of Scientific Hydrology... Automated generation of shaded relief in aeronautical charts. Technical Papers. E4. 225-234.J. William. A note on the accuracy of drainage densities computed from topographic maps: Journal of Geophysical Research. U. Theoretical Geomorphology (3rd revised edition): Berlin. 1992. 911-917.E. 98. July 26-29. G. 4 (Cartography). Die Berechnung der Reliefenergie und ihre Bedeutung als graphische Darstellung (in German): Dissertation. 3. v. no. 1966. and Lavkulich. Colo. 20 p. p. 56-61. Boyce. no.25713. Moore.. FA.. Soderblom. D. November 10-12. Strom. v. The University of Kentucky. no. v. 333 p. appendix that includes entire FORTRAN code and a worked example] Schaber.301. 434 p.. 107 R. 9. Ofer.

21. J.P. Selenotopographische Fragmente zur genauern Kenntniss der Mondeflache. Progress in Pattern Recognition 2.R. p. Gottingen (v. 45-58. p. Shaffer. p. The shape of alluvial channels in relation to sediment type: U. 8.. 5. R. Is the brain's mind a computer program?: The American Scientist. New Jersey: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. Horst.P. T. Morphometry of drainage basins in areas of pumice lithology. 47. p. 1990. A. Hans.. Sharif. 1983. p. and Shane. Elsevier.N. p. R. p. v. 5th. and Gustard. p. arrays.S. 1930. 67. p. The extraction of ordered vector drainage networks from elevation data: Computer Vision. M. SA. and Makarovic. Drainage basin morphology. ihren erlittenen Veranderungen und Atmosphare (in German): Ldlienthal (v. no. no. 676 p. and Image Processing. 1971. 30.J. Selby. 2101-2109. 28. Searle. K. p. v. 27..15-5. v. 104-111. 1. no.. A mathematical theory of communication. 108 R. eds. p. Searle. Smith... Scott... and Austin. C. 1976. no. Amsterdam. Garth. 1. and Kallner. 1989. p. 77102.. Azriel. 169-174. 2. 224-233. Shapiro. v. Andrew. Engineering Analyses of Fluvial Systems. An empirical comparison of vectors. no. p. Shamos. A full resolution elevation representation requiring three bits per pixel.R.). Sharpnack. O. SA. 35. J. II). Schumm. 225227 & plate 15. Schumm. Li. v. 213-231. 13. in Kanal. 1969. A comparison of the regional slope characteristics of Venus and Earth implications for geologic processes on Venus: Journal of Geophysical Research. 17-30. 1948. Numerical classification of land systems using geomorphological attributes: Australian Geographical Studies. no. Schroter.. p. H. Shaffer. v. 76. 1989. no.. Springer Verlag. Schumm. Branko. and Akin. 1960. 1988.. V. Seemuller... Schut. Measurement of shape by Fourier analysis: Sedimentology.. M. Geological Survey Professional Paper 352-B. Review of interpolation methods for digital terrain models: The Canadian Surveyor. Bullock. p. 45-64.M. 91. Design and Implementation of Large Spatial Databases: New York. and Rosenfeld. Fort Collins. Gunther. Shannon. L.. 1956.. eds. I). v.W. Neth. Rapid calculation of catchment boundaries using an automated river network overlay technique: Water Resources Research.L. Ill. J.. 1969.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . New Zealand Geographical Society: Proceedings. ire New Zealand Geography Conference. M. and Associates. B7.L. W..A. v. 113-123. 5. p. 1. Recent progress in shape decomposition and analysis.-F. L. p. 247-248.W. 7545-7554. and Head. and Wang. Evolution of drainage systems and slopes in badlands at Perth Amboy. Sekulin. 1791 & 1802. 1992. Geometric complexity: Proceedings of the 7th Annual Symposium on the Theory of Computing. A104. Massoud. 53. SA. & 565 p. 1985. Submarine central volcanoes on the Nazca plate high-resolution sonar observations: Marine Geology. Graphics. Die maximale Reliefenergie Westdeutschlands (in German): Petermanns Mitteilungen.C. v.Schrepfer. C A. no. 1989. Parts I and II: Bell System Technical Journal. v. p.I. 1. 389-412. in Simons.C. 26-31. 1975. 99-115. no. p.E. Schwarcz. no. 262. 1968.. Y. Sharpton. 9. 379-423 & 623-656.H. and quadtrees for representing geographic data: Geologische Jahrbuch...H. 597-646. 1986. 33-40. v. no.. Optimizing progressive and composite sampling for DTMs: ITC Journal (Enschede. 5. An algorithm for computing slope and aspect from elevations: Photogrammetric Engineering. C. v. Alan. eds. p. G. DA.G. 1982. 3.. ire Buchmann. Colorado. A. v. 1989-2.

L. 1061-1064. 178-186.. B. Inbar. Moshe.L. no. M.. 19. 1987.. Shelburg. TX. 7582. Harold.S. Nina. Shelburg. Probing space by camera. 843. 7.. Technical Papers: p.C.. p. TX. Ken.C.L. p. v. 527-529. 4. ACSM/ASPRS. 1987. 319-328.K. The probabilistic-topologic approach to drainage-basin geomorphology: Geology.K. D. and Lam. Jaime. Quezada-Muneton. Washington. Canada.. 1975. 1993. v. 41. W. N. no. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 243-245. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV. Shelburg. and Smith. the development of image processing at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory: BYTE. 1966. March 1993 Houston. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. N. no. R. Marin. 1968. v. 217-225.. p. Harold. 109 R. Guinness. and Moellering. 1978. Short.. 1967.E. Shreve. p.. p. 5th. Short. p. and Moellering. J. Kevin. Automatic contour digitizer Photogrammetric Engineering. no.L.C. 1982.. U. p. Sheldon.L. R. M. VA. The Ohio State University. Burke. Shoshany.. Stream lengths and basin areas in topologically random channel networks: Journal of Geology. v.C.R. Suarez. 1983. Infinite topologically random channel networks: Journal of Geology.C. 481-490. Nina. and Urritia-Fucugauchi. International Symposium on Automated Cartography. Lam. and Hall. 2. 3. v. 34. The Landsat Tutorial Workbook. 3. p. 1969. Houston. 165-175. Maxim.M. Reference Publication 1078. Shreve. 74. 1992. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 1993. M. 1283-1284. Shelburg. no.. and Smith. 87058722.Sharpton.. v. 1.C. Proceedings. no. v. Lee. E A. R. 6th. Robust description of statistically heterogeneous seafloor topography through its slope distribution: Journal of Geophysical Research. p. v. in ACSM/ASP Conference. Moellering. Analysis of facet and regional structure relationships in determining digital terrain model (DTM) grid density: Israel Journal of Earth Science. M. 10. in Auto-Carto 6. Shreve. convention. Shreve. SA. Shephard. M. Chicxulub impact basin gravity characteristics and implications for basin morphology and deep structure. Measuring the fractal dimensions of surfaces. Proceedings: v. R. p. Z. March 1993. and Arvidson. IFAS A program to measure fractal dimensions of curves and surfaces. 483-492.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .E. Begin.M.. 12. The development of a curve and surface algorithm to measure fractal dimensions and presentation of results: Columbus. no. 553 p. v. in Annual Meeting. 77. J.. 1293-1294. 2-4. Hall.. research paper. Gerardo. 1990.L. Statistical law of stream numbers: Journal of Geology. 43rd. 1982. D. 11. basics of satellite remote sensing: Washington. no. 1982. H... Shreve. Locally equiangular triangulations: Computer Journal. Sibson.K. R. p. R. p. Harold. March 13-18.. Ottawa. Shaw. 130 p. 75. v.. Geography Department. unpublished MA.. 9. Scott. Crystal City. v. p.. 14. no.K.M. D. Shaw. L. V. B6. August 22-28.. 397-414.): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Measuring the fractal dimensions of empirical cartographic curves. 2.B. 21. 95. Statistical methods for describing seafloor topography: Geophysical Research Letters.1983. 1987. PJR.1982. Shepherd.. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society of Photogrammetry. 1. P. Nos. 17-37. v. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV. no. Terranes as terrains a geomorphic study of the Klamath Mountains (abs. 1979. 24th. Auto-Carto. Models for prediction in fluvial geomorphology: Mathematical Geology. R. p. 1983.. p. The roughness of the Martian surface & scale dependent model. 143148. 24th..H. p.

Basin circularity ratio as a terraintype element A case study of the Hoshiarpur Kangra tract: Deccan Geography.1987.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Ren6. no.. R. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. Skidmore.. p. Simaan. J. This dynamic planet world map of volcanoes.. 6. Sircar. Jones. 36. p. p. and Aminzadeh.H. p. 1986.. 171-184. Advances in Geophysical Data Processing.. J. Artificial intelligence and expert systems in petroleum exploration: Greenwich. P. 3. 1-2. and Cebrian. Department of Geography. SUfer. L.. Jachens. Singh. J. Skateborg.T. Sieber. 6. March 29-April 3. p. Simpson. 323-334. Sirotkin. scale 1:30. 4... B8. July 5-10. M. Tectonics and topography of the western United States an application of digital mapping: GSA Today. A comparison of techniques for calculating gradient and aspect from a gridded digital elevation model: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. 1980. v. Slansky. Geological Survey. 117. Henry. Washington. Kinn. p. AutoCarto 8. p. 8th. no. no. Terrain position as mapped from a gridded digital elevation model: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems... 1355-1364. J. v. no.W.N. Taggart.. 12.C. 1990. Silva. and plate tectonics: U. nos.J... A selected bibliography on spatial data handling data structures. R. generalization and three-dimensional mapping: University of Zurich. Seattle. eds. p. A. Begriffder Reliefentwicklung und Berechnung des wahren Areals einer topographischen Flache (in German): Petermanns Mitteilungen.118. 8348-8372. 2. and Anders. Leonids.I. 1970. R.. Slaucitajs. v.120. v. 1972.. R. A digital terrain model based on a geomorphologic map for computer assisted mapping: ITC Journal (Enschede. Blakely. Neth. eds. ICE. p.L. Fred. 299-306.. 82.. JJC. Measuring concavity on a rectangular mosaic: IEEE Transactions on Computers.307 p. Tom. Prinzipien des CS digitalen Gelandemodells: Vermessungstechnik.R. 7. Jack. R. Geomorphology. no. Singh.M.000.. in cooperation with the Smithsonian Institution. Proceedings..P. and Brassel. Sibson. Proceedings.H. 119-128. 1971. 48-51. 1. 1989. 3. 1992. 17-21. 1937. p. ASPRS/ACSM. M. 151-155. v. 4. v.Sibson. Simkin. Maryland. C. and 121.. D..). R. R. Ruggedness number as a parameter in terrain regionalization A case study of Hoshiarpur Kangra tract: Indian Geographical Journal. v. 1980.W. 1. Geoprocessing Series. v.S. 1992. J. 110 R.J. p. 1936. no. no.. no. A. 1986.000. southeast Spain): Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Tilling. 46. 20. and Goy. A geographic information system utilizing the triangulated irregular network as a basis for hydrologic modeling. 2nd.K. The Dirichlet tessellation as an aid in data analysis: Scandinavian Journal of Statistics. v. Connecticut. 2. and Spall. A. International Symposium on ComputerAssisted Cartography. 78 p. Skidmore..A. and Hassett. 1989. Harvey. 4. no. W. Baltimore.T. v. Anew isostatic residual gravity map of the conterminous United States with a discussion on the significance of isostatic residual anomalies: Journal of Geophysical Research. Simpson. 1972. 87.W. p. ed. 1987. A vector identity for the Dirichlet tessellation: Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 6. p. and Saltus. Sima. J. 4. 129-136.K. 8. in Chhsman.. 1986.. 14-20. 91. v..... 1989. A.. N.. 111-112. Zazo.. 3. 33-49. earthquakes. JAI Press Inc. C-21. p. v. 325-341. p..M. v. L. 1986.G. v. no. 1986. GJ. Mathematical characterization of the complexity of a landform (in Russian): Geodezist (Moscow). Application of image processing techniques to the automated labelling of raster digitized contour maps. depositional style and morphometric relationships of Quaternary alluvial fans in the Guadalentin Depression (Murcia. v. Marwan.

Massachusetts. ed. R. and Wessel.B. 272-284. Academic Press. v. 25. Snell. Mitja. particularly geomorphology: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Hydrostatic airflow over mountains. D.B. Star. K. 3. 3. paging unknown. Morphometric analysis of maps.K. 293-305. Guy-Harold. Claudio. Smalley. 1-41. p. v. C. two-step procedure for extracting channel networks from noisy DEM data: Computers and Geosciences. Fractal sinuosity of stream channels: Pure and Applied Geophysics. The relative relief of Ohio: Geographical Review. Abh. Barry. Environmental Protection Research Division.S. 338-347. in Metal Interfaces: Cleveland.... p. W. 1992. and Gao. 1969. and Mayer. Smith. J. Smith. 1992. 2. 1989.. v. v. Smith.. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center. 4. 1591-1594. Zhan.Slaymaker. p. 655-668.O. Snow. v.... J. p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Smart.... v. Snell..J. v. Advances in Geophysics: New York. Using topographic slope distributions to infer seafloor patterns: EEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering. Quantitative properties of delta channel networks: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.B. 1/2.E. The morphometry of landscape an analysis of slope (abs. 5. p. 1986. A knowledge-based.D. no. 1990. v. no. 457-466. no. Smith. and Moruzzi. paper read at 36th Annual Meeting. 131. R. J. Introduction to special issue Fractals in geomorphology: Geomorphology. R. 8. 777-786. 99-109. Method for predicting line-of-sight capabilities preliminary investigations: Geological Society of America Bulletin. The influence of mountains on the atmosphere.S. p.S. Pierre. in Saltzman. 28.K. 13-31.. 58. Sohlbach. Smith. 9. 1-4. no. 4. U. p. v.G. Statistical properties of stream lengths: Water Resources Research. 1938.. J.S. p. Snow. Smith. J. P.B. 1. and Shaw. Gridding with continuous curvature splines in tension: Geophysics. nos. Automated grid element ordering for GIS-based overland flow modeling: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 1991. Requirements and principles for the implementation and construction of large-scale geographic information systems: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems.. Peng. 80. Computergestutzte geomorphometrische Analyse von Talformen (in German): Gottinger Geogr. no. p.H. v.. Advances in Geophysics: New York. 80. 1969. Smith. 1950. ed. v. 55.. no.. Soille. 1935.R. 87-230.. 1961.22 p. and Estes. 1989. 4. Ann Arbor... 65-113. no.S.L. in Saltzman. no. R. 6. Smith. 1972. 1989. no. Smith.S. Smith. p. and Vita-Finzi. p. I. p. no. 1968. A device and method for analyzing line of sight: Natick. 1988. H. and Brilly. Technical Report EP-101.B. 1979. Smart. Spatial distributions from contour lines An efficient methodology based on 111 R. 1978. v. no.. 14. 16.R. no. 21. Academic Press. p. v. v.. M. 1001-1014. 1937): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Smith. 9. Topological properties of channel networks: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1987..S. Sudhakar. v. Smith. 5. ed. p. J. 63-64. 31. Barry. Standards for grading texture of erosional topography: American Journal of Science. T. Menon. 3. 579-585. 1958. v. p. OH. v. P. no.R. p. 1952. 71. v. 268-282.. V. Transactions of the American Society of Metals. Larry. 1/2. T. 1757-1773.F.L. J. p. 16. British Geomorphological Research Group Occasional Paper 4. no.. 90. p. 479-484. Shape analysis of Pacific seamounts: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 248. The concept of "system" in the Earth sciences. Environmental Analysis Branch. K. Cixiang. 1. Guy-Harold.. p. Smart. 5. no. 1990. 72.. D. Grain shapes and other metallurgical applications of topology. 1.

Department of Commerce. v.. 1963.H. The role of topography in controlling throughflow generation a discussion: Earth Surface Processes. Soille. Principles of Numerical Taxonomy: San Francisco.G. W.120. 5. 290-311. v. K... in Jennings.G. Murat. in Chorley. R. J. p. 1984. 1-191. National Telecommunications and Information Administration. Stablein..R.D. Speight. S. Special Publication 7. GA.. 1873. Spectral analysis of meanders of some Australasian rivers. v. in Stewart. J. 359 p. B. Supplementband 25. 1339-1340. v. Log-normality of slope distributions: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. J. v. R J. Progress in Geomorphology: Institute of British Geographers. no. eds.. NTIA Report No. 2. Reliefgenerationen der Vorderpfalz (in German): Wurzburger Geogr. 1977. and Mabbutt. 9.G.F. 214 p. 23. and 134.. 213230.122. A parametric approach to landform regions. Australian National University Press. The Lunar and Planetary Institute: Lunar and Planetary Science XXIV. p. in Kunt. die Lehre von den Reliefformen der Erdoberflache (in German). 1972. Allgemeine Orographie. 112. Lausanne. 10. Symposium on Visual Communication and Image Processing '90. 171-182. no. 129. S0rensen. Geographies a computer's eye view of terrain: Area (UK). p. Songklar. no. J. Speight.. International Society for Optical Engineering. 1. p. 1-4. 1984.N. in Brown. 161-182. 9.P. TX. a patternrecognition program in BASIC: BYTE.L.J. Soille. 48-63. no. v.S. 1972. ed.G. Cluster analysis.J.. 3. 1967. p. and Vincent.. & 423-426. no. 1976. 1972. Braumuller.130. Spudis. Houston. in Abstracts of papers submitted to the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. S. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. p. J. v. Speight. p.. and Sneath.. Stablein. v. 28. and Sharpton. P. G. 138-150. 1971. 154168. 106-110. Digital simulation of drainage basin development. 239-250....1990. 1980. 20. Proceedings: Bellingham.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. P. PA.. and Water. p. Spencer. p.G..distance transformations: Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. 1968. v.. 54-59. Part One of Three Parts.. no. p. 23-37. Numerical classification of landform elements from air photo data: Zeitschrift far Geomorphologie. 1-15. Speight. Modellbildung als Verfahren zur komplexen Raumerfasssung (in German): 112 R. eds. WA.. V. p. and Ansoult. G. 1981. Oct. R. p. Sprunt. 4. 1.114. v.. Simulating reality with computer graphics: BYTE. March 1993. no.G. no. 2. p. p. KA von. P. 1968. Landform pattern description from aerial photographs: Photogrammetria. TOPOG a computerized worldwide terrain elevation data base generation and retrieval system: U. Luc. Automated basin delineation from digital elevation models using mathematical morphology: Signal Processing. ed. Land Evaluation: Melbourne. 187-191. 1979. W.H. 81-61. Spies.132. v.130. Impact basins on Venus and some interplanetary comparisons. Speight. J. no. Rob. no. and Hatano. 1990.124. B. 1974.. Determining watersheds in digital pictures via flooding simulations. 4.. p. 24th. P J. M. Speight. 32. Sprent. p. 240-250. 5. 3. 3. 254 p. The mathematics of size and shape: Biometrics. 17.G.116. ed. Sprunt. Arbeiten.. J. 371-389..M. Meander spectra of the Angabunga River: Journal of Hydrology.. v. Landform Studies from Australia and New Guinea: Canberra. 1993. Sokal. Vienna.. 1990.126.G. Harper and Row. 2. p. Speight.R.G.. E.128. andPaulson. J. J A. Speight.. p. Macmillan of Australia. Freeman. 15. Methods and significance of slope mapping: Map (Journal of the Japanese Cartographic Association).118.F.. J.S. 1970. 29-30. Speight. Parametric description of land form. 2. v. Switzerland. p. P. J. 1360.

K.N. A. Strahler. Stakenborg. v. and Sijmons. 29 p. for U. 1985. Digital terrain models data acquisition. 3. no.-261. p. 1-13. v. p. 1. 1974. 37 (GerlingFestschrift).N. 3. G. Stephenson. Arbeiten. and Tempfli. A. 3/4. p..1968: Melbourne. 392 p. 1. R. Vicksburg Mississippi. Contract DA-22-079-Eng. Stewart.1959. Stevens. 329 p. v. no.. 1952. 1. P. p. 248. 4.N. p.B. Patterns in Nature: Boston. p. A.. as Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories technical report] Steinhaus. 12. no.N.. 89-167. An improved methodology for erosion hazard mapping. 163-166. 1946. Steinhaus. An invasion percolation model of drainage network evolution: Nature. December 28. Geomorphological models as a tool for environmental studies: GeoJournal. Equilibrium theory of erosional slopes approached by frequency distribution analysis: American Journal of Science. James.. 209-213. Stefanovic. Los Angeles. 61-76..P. 6334. Digitizing alpine morphology. p.G. Hypsometric (area-altitude) analysis of erosional topography: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America.. M. p. R. Warping of the Western Highland Rim peneplain in Tennessee by groundwater sapping: Geological Society of America Bulletin. no. J. PS. no. Radwan. G. Star. v. 1117-1142. Hugo. Qalabane. 379-385. Neth. NY. Arthur. 10. Macmillan of Australia. unpublished typescript. no. 1984. v. p. C. v.. 1969. 1985. Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station. v.S.): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 1. Horst.O. shape and area: Colloquium Mathematicum.. 54.. v.. 1991. Computerassisted relief representation: ITC Journal (Enschede. USA: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. 2.. 63. 11.A. Terrain mask angles: paper presented at Joint Session of AAAS Section E and Geological Society of America Symposium on Quantitative Terrain Studies. 1111-1124. v. no. p. 1979. Chakela. processing and applications: ITC Journal (Enschede. Stefanovic... A study of microrelief its mapping. D. Length. 78. Stocking. Geomorphic terminology and classification of land masses: Journal of Geology.. Stearns. symposium organized in cooperation with UNESCO. Digitized physical data of a rangel and watershed: Journal of Hydrology. nos. 40. Sterr. Stein. 40-47. 113 R. Recent developments in quantitative analysis of erosional landforms (abs. 442-450. Mathematical Snapshots: London. Land Evaluation Papers of a C. Neth. (final report). 1988. p. 1954. no.I. classification and quantification by means of Fourier analysis: Engineering Geology. and Dugundji. 1949.. Hugo. and 170. Stark. Michael. Strahler. p. Part I the technique: Geografiska Annaler. Davis' concepts of slope development viewed in the light of recent quantitative investigations: Annals of the Association of American Geographers.L. and England. v.R. Introduction to image processing: BYTE.R. [possibly later published in Buffalo. Little. Canberra. 1950b. G. 1959. 1. Henry. v.R. v. 3. Stablein. no. 3. Strahler. K. 10 and 11. 369-383. Stone. P. 352. Neth. p. Brown & Co.168. v.O. ed. 32-42. no. Stoddart.). A digital terrain model based on a geomorphologic map for computer-assisted applied mapping: ITC Journal (Enschede. 673-696 and 800-814.. 4. August 26-31. 1965. 1986.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 1967. A. no. 4. 315-333. 70A.M. v. p.. no. 299-306. 1965. p.X no. C. 67-93. no. Rates of change and degradation of hillslopes formed in unconsolidated materials a morphometric approach to date quaternary fault scarps in western Utah. and Elwell.Wurzburger Geogr. The shape of Atolls: Marine Geology..N.S. 29. p. [also: 1963. no. 1. v. 169-180. 39. 2. 3. 1950a. 423-425.). J. 161 PJ Strahler. Oxford University Press.f 1968. 3.H. v. no. 9.. p. A. 8. p. 1977. 1960. v. Strahler.. University of Southern California. v. 65. p. Chicago.

annual conference and exposition. I. Walter de Gruyter. 1. v. 1993. 3843.. 1964. Klasky. Hiroyuki. R. v. A. Ronald. and Schumacker. Ill. Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Switzer.. p. 40. James. p. Statistical analysis in geomorphic research: Journal of Geology. Issue 16 (April). no. 67. Tokunaga. V. 2. Project NR 387-021. Maps of two indices of terrain.N.1992. November 10-12. NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. Geography Branch. Mohr. 1989. 1988. v. 1988. A. 1985. 551 p. andHeitman. Reliefanalyse mit dem Computer (in German): Geographische Rundschau. C. Johor. 1. Handbook of Applied Hydrology. 1. Science and Applications Directorate. Suzuki. Objective and quantitative field methods of terrain analysis: Office of Naval Research.E. Quantitative/dynamic geomorphology at Columbia 1945-60 A retrospective: Progress in Physical Geography. 1957. expressed by the statistical analysis of digital terrain model (in Japanese with English abstract): Geographical Review of Japan. no. p..C. p. W. 473-479..S. 1992.. E.. D. Swan. A. 1927-30. Julia..N. An initial investigation of integrating neural networks with GIS for spatial decision making. 101-130. 1964. Mapping Sciences Laboratory. 1974.M. 1960. v. AuN. 65-84. 38. Effects of rock strength and permeability on hill morphology: Transactions. v.. Technical Report.. p. 1. Albuquerque. Bureau of Ships Nobsr8154 SS-050. 5. 1985. Strahler. A. Eiji. Japanese Geomorphological Union. 16. te. A characterization of ten hidden-surface algorithms: Computing Surveys. Geomorphic characteristics of Shikoku Island. P. 6. p. 58A.N. Working Paper. A. Strahler. v..N. T. Department of Geology. v. Development of pc-based water drainage data base system (in Japanese). 1. v.G. 4-39 to 4-76. S. New Mexico. TX.D. 913920.St.N. New York. 727-736. Final Report. Takasuke. 51 p. Donaldson.. Optimized digital elevation data removal of "wedding cake" effect from 3 arc-second DMA digital elevation model data for Colorado. p. ix + 79 p.A.in 1992 ASPRS-ACSM annual convention. 25. 1954a.B. Suga. Tim. p. p. 6. CA: Proceedings. Technical Papers. Strahler. Statistical analyses of ocean terrain and contour plotting procedures: Project Trident.. San Jose. Strong. Sproull. Sutherland. Sugitani. [ref. no. S. 1956. v.. Empirical and explanatory methods in physical geography: The Professional Geographer. 1-55.. 6. Yates. 571-596. Sui.F.E. Strahler. Information Systems Newsletter. Noda. 4-8. ed.Strahler. p. Contract Nonr 266(50). Quantitative slope analysis: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. p. A.. 807-818. Strobl. no. 6015381 Szeliga. Japan. Garner. v. 75 p. in GIS/LIS '92. David. 1. Malaya: Journal of Tropical Geography (Singapore). andKoons. Takeshi. p. Hiroshi.. A.N. 6. Strahler. Research on Intensive Utilization of Geographic Information: Report of Grant-in-Aid from the Ministry of Education and Culture of Japan in 1987. R. no. Haynes. A. 38-43. and Hastings. v.. p. 1992. no.Z. p. New York. 114 R. p. 48-57. Department of the Navy.. in Yamaguchi. Grundzuge der physischen Erdkunde (in German): Berlin. 113-129. 1967. in Chow. ed. Scientific visualization technique for 3-D terrain mapping: National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Space Science and Applications. Supan. A preliminary analysis of photometric/ computer terrain data for lunar trafficability models: Houston. Surface Analysis Group.P. no. 1-25. and Withers. and Arakawa. Strahler. 1968. no. v. J.. R. U. Quantitative analysis of watershed geomorphology: Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Columbia University. McGraw-Hill.. 1954b. 2. 62.

Tempfli. and Rodriguez-Iturbe. no. 4. 8. 6. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 3. 79. The fractal nature of river networks: Water Resources Research. 458-460. Proceedings. 9. no. 6. 1. v.Yu. no. 121-143. 1930. 1992. 81-100.): International Gaological Congress 29th.M. v. p. Kitir6. Terrain approximation by triangular facets. 3412. Tesche. Tanaka. no. 444-456. p. p.. Japan. p. Bras. Takashi. 1980-3. Bras. v. p..). 1984.F. 1930. Nos.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 1983. no. v. 213-219. 131.C.D. C. 1978. T. 478-510. Taylor. Thesis. no. The orthographical relief method of representing hill features on a topographical map: The Geographical Journal (UK). 3. Klaus. Tempfli.. 16. p. v. Ignacio. and Rodriguez-Iturbe. T. 1989. eds. and Rodriguez-Iturbe. D. complexity and generalisation on terrain-map matching performance: Cartographica. in Surveying and Mapping. no. D. R. Klaus. no. Ignacio. p.. no. 1317-1322.C. R. and Bergstrom. v. Abstract Volume 3. Numerical comparison of geomorphic samples: Science.. Tarboton. 1. N. p. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. v. 1960. Ignacio. The analysis of river basins and channel networks using digital terrain data: Cambridge. Tersky. [reprinted 1951. March 13-18. Effects of map scale.1983.. W. in Snow.G. no. 1.. no. Kyushu Imperial University. Technical Papers of the 44th Annual Meeting.. D. v. 257. Mori. R. Scaling and elevation in river networks: Water Resources Research.W.G.L. D.. D.. no.. The relief contour method of representing topography on maps: Geographical Review.F. 28. Man and Cybernetics. 1988. Neth. Kyoto Japan. 1992. 5. and Norton. 1525-1526...F. D. A physical basis for drainage density. R. Use of digital terrain data in meteorological and air 115 R. Memoirs. no. no. 185. 27-37] Tanner.S. paging unknown. Tarboton. v. p. p. and Yamawaki.C. 1-8. SMC-8. p. Tanner. p. 1989. R. 1-26. Tarboton. 1.. Examples of departure from the Gaussian in geomorphic analysis: American Journal of Science. v. Taylor. 460-473. p. 73. p. March 11-16.. 21. Tarboton.. Albin.. D. 129134. 1978. A conceptual basis for cartography/new directions for the information era: Cartographica. and Mayer. Branko. 493-502. p.Tamura. Department of Civil Engineering. 2037-2051. and Rodriguez-Iturbe. Technical Papers. S. Tarboton. 1980.G. p. Taylor.1984. Larry... On the extraction of channel networks from digital elevation data: Hydrological Processes.. v. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society of photogrammetry 43rd Annual Meeting.. and Makarovic. D. 59-76. 11. 1984. Tarboton.R.W. Washington. Terada.L.G.W. v. Sc.1950. 653-661. 1959. W. no. v.. 6. Washington. 1991.G. 1991..L. 40. p. v. Tanaka. Bras. Kitir6. v. Shunji. 1/2.G. Statistical method for measuring the degree of surface inclination in topographical maps (in Japanese): Geographical Review of Japan (Tokyo). Textural features corresponding to visual perception: IEEE Transactions on Systems. 1. 973. Ignacio. D. Tanaka. Bras. 524-532. Transfer functions of interpolation methods: GeoProcessing. Digital terrain modelling based on multibeam echosounder data (abs. Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. p. 1992. p. 5. R. Kitir6. Precipitation in topographically diverse regions (meeting report): Eos. 3. College of Engineering. Spectral analysis of terrain relief for the accuracy estimation of digital terrain models: ITC Journal (Enschede.. A new method of topographical hill delineation (in English): Fukuoka. p. 25. 24. MA. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology. v. 5.1932. Informationtheoretic surface modeling. Tarvydas. R.L. Hideyuki. 1979. 24 August-3 September 1992.

. 955-967. 1955. On Growth and Form: Cambridge. 3. p. 346 p. DJ3. Cambridge University Press. 1082-1084.D.. Hopgood. 1991. Thomas. 25. RJ. Accuracy of Spatial Databases: London. [also 1964. v.. eds.. Thauer. A British View: London. 2.. 4. 51-59.. no.M..103 p. M.. 521-549. [revised. v. 116 R. Staunton. in Goodchild. 511-517. a state of the art review and bibliography: British Hydromechanics Research Association.S. 1-2206. Thomas. p.. S. Sucharita. p. Proceedings. Automated delineation of hydromorphological features on a triangulated irregular network-based digital elevation model: Santa Barbara. D'Arcy W. and Kneidl. no. 1991. scale 1:3. Cambridge. 1958. D. 1959. G. Michael. 1990. Thomas. Theobald. p. K. abridged edition edited by J. p. 49. 58-68. Elsevier. v. Bonner. H... Haschek.... v. 1116 p.. Barbara. R. Anaheim. p. W. 7. Walter. in Hausmann. Taylor and Francis. (651 entries).J. CA. 5. Automated line generalisation using zero-crossings: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. no.. 82-84. Differentiation of drift topography by statistical analysis of slope data: Iowa Academy of Science 1967. W. 1917. Richard. no.. G. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Investigations Map. 1981.. and Tuttle. November 1990. T.. v. 1989. 793 p. J.): Geological Society of America Bulletin. Kober..W. D. G. and King. Cambridge. Point pattern analysis. 30. v.. 12. Longman. 1982. 1942. Thompson.. p. W. 173195. 164-176. v. eds. Visualization of terrain data. no.R. Langley Aeronautical Laboratory. p. and Gopal. v.E. no. Determination of spatial relationships of locally dominant topographic features (abs. no. and Pike. W. 99-106. 1990. 1988. in Wrigley. Pt. Transactions. p. Thomas. unpublished MA. R. Topographic analysis of the Monterey. and Goodchild. J.C.. v. 1814. AH.R. Thiessen. 57. Accuracy and bias issues in surface representation.. no. 1989. Artifacts of TIN-based surface flow modeling.F. R.M. 45. Thompson. 12. and Leberl. 1986. Thapa. 449-457. v.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Fischer. 2. D. Critical points detection and automatic line generalisation in raster data using zero-crossings: The Cartographic Journal. Thomas. 1. v. 74. Routledge and Kegan Paul. M.M. and Harrisonburg quadrangles: Journal of Geology. in GIS/LIS '90 Convention. 2. 1977.M.. 1549-1559. 54.P.. 1.. Measurement of power spectra of runway roughness: Washington. 70. Hamburg. and Bennett. Proceedings: Amsterdam. 2nd ed. F... K. M. 1988. Thompson. Theobald. A current view of the National Map Accuracy Standards: Surveying and Mapping. Dune pattern statistics applied to the Kalahari Desert. Theobald. eds.000. W.T. 1961. 20. southern Africa: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. 1. no. 1960. ed. p. Surface topography in engineering. Landforms of the conterminous United States A digital shadedrelief portrayal: U. Neue Methoden der Berechmmg und Darstellung der Reliefenergie (in German): Petermanns Mitteilungen. 249 p. Thomas. 8-13.. p.F. 231242. 44. and Strasser. Proceedings. Thoman. p. paging unknown... N. Quantitative Geography..D.500. Fluid Engineering Series. p. v. p.. v. 1968. Thompson.quality modeling: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. v. 147-159.] Thompson.. 99. Precipitation averages for large areas: Monthly Weather Review.. A method of constructing average slope maps: Illinois Academy of Sciences.. University of California. p. 1941. T. Thelin. F. Multiple image SAR shape-from-shading: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.. thesis. 1952.. Thiemann. 1911. 39. p. Eurographics '89 conference. Thapa. D. Department of Geography. 1989. NACA Technical Note 4303.G. Rough Surfaces: London.

W. v. University of Michigan Department of Geography. An Introduction to Theoretical Geomorphology: Boston. T. 1973. v.R. 3. no. in Pflug. 25... 609 p. 1964. 49. Reinhard and Harbaugh. p. no. John Wiley & Sons. Tian Chi. Thrower... 1960. variously paged. no. no. p. Tjia.R. no. p. development and application: The American Cartographer. 1966. and Jensen. 1963. v. 5. K. 1965. Regional Geomorphology of the United States: New York. JJ3. 1969a. 4. Burt. p. 8. 155-170.P. 26. no. 224-237] Thorne..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . 73-89. J. 7.R. in Davis. A mathematical model for predicting the extent of a major rockfall: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Indonesia). Final Report on Contract No.. Tipper.W. Army Natick Laboratories Technical Report.1987. 59-83. Erosion and Sedimentation in the Pacific Rim: Proceedings of an international symposium held at Oregon State University. v. no. in Cartographica. 1969.. 322-328. in Beschta. Numerical map generalization: Ann Arbor.. Berlin. Tobler. p. Thrower. p. 337-342. Geographic filters and their inverses: Geographical Analysis. W. Statistical analysis of tectonic patterns in areal volcanism the Bunyaruguru Volcanic Field in West Uganda: Mathematical Geology. Discussion Paper No. v. 8. IAHS Publication no. 3. 4. 1987. H. N. sediment transport. Automation and cartography: Geographical Review. Morphology: p. Breaks in slope on strato-volcanoes: Bulletin of National Institute of Geology and Mining (Bandung. references: p. 1967. Monograph 40. An analysis of a digitalized surface. v. W. Tobler.R. C. Tobler.F. 234253. 1. Landforms developing and basins filling Three-dimensional simulations of erosion. 1976.. p. Thorn. Markov chains and slope series the scale problem: Geographical Analysis. eds. 1. Ann Arbor.U. 1972. 1. Selected computer programs: Michigan Geographical Publications. W. v. 1971. 6. August 3-7..J. p. and Butcher. A study of the land type: Ann Arbor. R.P. Unwin Hyman. no.R. 90-113. Terrain analysis for quantitative description of zero-order basins. 7. v. The orthophoto and orthophotomap characteristics. Corvallis. Springer-Verlag. p.. 7.. 4. 1983... University of Michigan Department of Geography. v. 275-280. v. p.. L.. p. C. no. 24 p. 9-25] Tobler. J. 27. no.D. 1970. 473482.. p. Tillo. 2. 50.W. Tinkler. 35-40. D.L.R.. ch. Geographical ordering of information: The Canadian Geographer.. and deposition.C. Thornbury. 4. Michigan Inter-University Community of Mathematical Geographers... Tobler. p. 121-130. W. 3. 1959.R. eds.E. How and why to distinguish between mountains and hills: The Professional Geographer. 24 p. W. 1969b. 39-56. p. v. Map Supplement Number 1: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. W.J.. p.J. Tobler.R.. 1881. 1992.W.. Of maps and matrices: Journal of Regional Science (supplement). 1988. Tobler. Numerical Generalization in Cartography.R.. no 1. 526-534. p. 203-205.B. Thornes. Thornes. C.M. 4?. 4. and others. J. [reprinted 1989. one sheet. v. Li. 16. 2. 247 p. W. Zevenbergen.D. The mean elevation of the dry land and the mean depth of the sea in the northern and southern hemispheres (in Russian): Izvestiya Russkogo geograficheckogo obshchestva (Leningrad). AA.] Thompson. W. 335-355.S... DA-31124-ARO-D-456. [18 programs with brief descriptions] 117 R. 6-8.W. Cyprus a landform study. no. Debris slopes as series: Arctic and Alpine Research. J. no. 3. v. Computer Graphics in Geology Three-dimensional computer graphics in modeling geologic structures and simulating geologic processes: Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences 41.. N. 4. Space in geomorphology. [Ch. v. 165.

[reprinted 1986. 776785. 1972. terrain modelling.H. 118 R. no. Helen. W. Jun-ichiro.. 1. Report to the Land Processes Branch. 16-22. B. Computational Morphology A computational geometric approach to the analysis of form: Amsterdam. 64 PToppe. 70 p. 7. 5th Series.. no. R. Trefethen. Reflections on the revolution. Recognition of handwritten characters by topological feature extraction and multilevel categorization: IEEE Transactions on Computers.. Tobler. in Photogrammetria. International Colloquium on Mathematical Aspects of Digital Elevation Models.. M...R. Taylor and Francis. Elsevier. eds. 272 p. v. Switzerland. Technical Report 08055-1-T. Elsnes. ed. 129-137. 1976. Ordering of divide segments and law of divide segment numbers: Transactions.R.. C. 1968. 1. Resolution. W. 1989. Tokunaga. Ostman. v.Tobler. Anders. J. p.G.. USDA Forest Service.. no.. v. p. and Tomlinson..T.. v. Alien and Unwin. Movement and Effects.R. Hansueli. no.. no. and Petchenik. photogrammetric data acquisition. p. Roger. Townshend. Army Research Office Contract DA-31-124-ARO-D-456. Symposium on Avalanche Formation. the transition from analogue to digital representations of space. eds. University of Michigan Department of Geography. 1988. PSW-11. 1065-1082.. Proceedings: Wallingford. Monograph 40. 3. A3b.R.. v. 1. 162.G. 1-16] Tou. Earth Science and Applications Division. ed. Ralf. C-21. Regionalization of terrain and remotely sensed data. TX. G. W. p. no. 261 p.D. 1981. UK. slope and aspect for land use planning: Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. v. 1988. Toriwaki. and Gublker. Torlegard. Kennert. 1987.. Davos. 1988. 1988.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . J. 1972.G. Iverson. 1977. p. Tobler. 109-132. resampling. Townshend. U. A method for geographic surveying: American Journal of Science. accuracy: Stockholm. 1936. Numerical Generalization in Cartography. J. A comparative test of photogrammetrically sampled digital elevation models: International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. v. 32. eds. 1975. T. Proceedings volume. Travis. and Davis. 23 p. Alien and Unwin. 1.G. 245-322.J.. G.R. and Lindgren. 1984. J. p. September 14-19. R. Building Databases for Global Science: London. Teruo. v. Terrain Analysis and Remote Sensing: London. 1981. p.C. J. 1. 21-31. no. v. paging by section.R. Kennert. in Salm. p. 41. Digital terrain models general survey and Swedish experiences: Bildmessung und Luftbildwesen. International Association of Hydrological Sciences. Hillslope form and climate: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. v. 1983. 7-8. 3. p. Ronald. v. and Gonzalez.T. Toussaint.M. 25. 88.. 7. C. no. Japanese Geomorphological Union. E. Publication No. p. in Mounsey. Geberal Technical Report No.. 192. 1984. 5. 40. 19581988: The American Cartographer. and Johnson. A Digital Terrain Library: Ann Arbor. 1. no. and all that. Terrain Analysis and Remote Sensing: London. ed. Kennart. p. 1978. ed.. Bruno. in Townshend. An update to 'Numerical map generalization': Cartographica. 454-464. Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. 2130. Torlegard.M.1986. Tomlinson.B. 30-51. 26. Torlegard. p.S. Terrain models a tool for natural hazard mapping. Toy.. W JL.. 71-77.. Analytical cartography: The American Cartographer. NASA Headquarters: Houston. Tobler. Topographic Science Working Group. 1.R. p.. Department of Photogrammetry. no. Royal Institute of Technology. VIEWIT computation of seen areas. and Fukumura. W. Extraction of structural information from grey pictures: Computer Graphics and Image Processing.. p.F. 15. 629638. no.

R. 1... Jean.: New York. 2nd ed. 1992a. 1951. no. v. v. p.. no. and Hammond. v. The morphology of a drumlin field: Annals of the Association of American Geographers.1990. v. 233. Tylor. p. R. J. 3. 17.. 213-218. p. Tribe. and Pushkarev. v. 5. A.T. 5. no. Principes et m6thodes de la ge'omorphologie (in French): Paris.. p. Trenhaile. Fractals in geology what are they and what are they good for?: GSA Today.. 433-473. Jean. 1. p. Alfred. no. p. A. 173-182. no.H.Trenhaile. Cirque morphometry in the Canadian Cordillera: Annals of the Association of American Geographers.S. 616-627. 2. p. 297-312.H. no.. v. 77 (1967). Proceedings. and Muslin. E. 455 refs. [see p. 25-45. Towards the automated recognition of landforms (valley heads) from digital elevation models. 23. 1. and Smith. 139.G. F. chaos or control? An inquiry into selected problems of design in the urbanized landscape: New Haven. p. S. 222-234. no. 1976. 2. 1963. 1968. Terrain analysis by computer: Indiana Academy of Science (Geology and Geography). p. F. Trewartha.. Automated recognition of valley lines and drainage networks from grid digital elevation models a review and a new method: Journal of Hydrology. La ge'omorphologie et la notion d'e'chelle (in French): Revue de Geomorphologie Dynamique.. p.. decade 2. v. no. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. Jr. Tribe. Tricart. G. Tribe. no. Tricart. Proceedings. 27-44.L.. p. v. Trewartha. 2. Cornell University. 263-293. AJC. The internal harmony of the freeway continuity of alignment. v. Action of denuding agencies: Geological Magazine. 177-201.D. 1. Quantitative landform parameters correlated to six soil series in New York State: Ithaca. NY. 496 p. 16.T. 135 overall). E. supplement. A. 30-31. v. no. Troeh. 1990. and Shults. Sur quelques indices ge'omorphom6triques (in French): Comptes Rendues hebdomadaires des Stances de I'Acad&nie des Sciences (Paris). Robinson. p.D. to German work] Turcotte. Trifonov. 1947. 1963. A. thesis. G. 45-52. p.H. 256-270. 9 (no. new series.S.R. 1975.S. 225. The varieties of surface form (Chapter 2): Fundamentals of Physical Geography. Masson. A. and Miles. p. 14-23. 1965. 152 p. no.T. 7. Yale University press. 1952.PIKBUSGS OF93-262A .H. Andrea. 451-462. The morphometry of valley steps in the Canadian Cordillera: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. no. v. 3. Trewartha. [p. p. Troeh. three-dimensional coordination.. Automated recognition! of valley heads from digital elevation models: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Christopher. Jean. Geologic applications of space imagery (English translation of 1986 paper): Soviet Journal of Remote Sensing. McGraw-Hill. Turner. Tribe. 119 R. 1. p. v.3-4. 66. 1. esp. p. McGraw-Hill. p. 1975. Jean. 4.. 747-749. 1968. Problems in automated recognition of valley features from digital elevation models and a new method toward their resolution: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Surface configuration of the driflless cuestaform hill-land: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. in Manmade America. 1. 1992b. Characteristics and classes of landsurface form (Chapter 15): Fundamentals of Physical Geography. 32-42. p.. 1.. 1990. p. V. 1. 6. Zurich. 1979. Andrea. 4th. 437-454. unpublished Ph. 65. 1-4. The accuracy of strategic missiles: Scientific American. Boris. 28-37. Robinson. Trenhaile. Andrea. v. L'6tude statistique des versants (in French): G6omorphologie Dynamique. v. no.. G. ["terrain-matching" principle] Tunnard. New York.. and Hammond. Landform equations fitted to contour maps: American Journal of Science. G. 1875. Tsipis. 1961. v.. 1940-1941..S.-H. 1991. 159-182] Tricart. 1991. Kosta. 33-49. 1965. v. D. July 23-27. v.. 263. Andrea. Tricart. Nos.

[replaces 1987 ed.S.0 User's Reference Manual: Champaign. DMA stock No.. Digital chart of the World (Edition 1. Army Engineer Geodesy. VA. U. Construction Engineering Research Laboratory. revised): Reston.. 1986. 1937. 237 p. Ser. Production of shadedrelief products: Reston. Army Corps of Engineers.S. Digital line graphs from l:24. Version 4.S. p. U. Report on "Classification of regions of the world" by the Committee of the Geographical Association: Geography (UK). 1966. Army. 42. National Mapping Program.F. Characteristics of surface depressions: Journal of Hydrology. 51 p. Fractals and the geosciences.C. for use with the Disk Operating System). 54. and Dickinson. G J. [catalog of summary information on DMA digital data and related subjects] U. 1988. 1623-1628. R.T. G. Digital terrain tapes: Reston. 1990. and Schaake.u Ullah. paging unknown. V Vakhtin. 1989.. John Wiley and Sons. and Barr. 1973.L.. v. Voronezhskogo gos. Mississippi. no. W. J. Geographical Institute.S. Spatial Data Analysis by Example.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Altheide.S.(GIMRADA). VA.G. Knowledge-based GIS techniques applied to geological engineering: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.. Unstead. 3-610. VPFVIEW software.. Geological Survey. Phyllis. A hydrologic geographic information 120 R. 1988. Technical Instructions.000-scale maps. Defense Mapping Agency. 1963. National Cartographic Information Center User Guide. Ragan. 22. Fort Belvoir. Technical Instructions. D. U.. 3-5 May. Conference on numerical topographic data and other new map products. Geological Survey. 1955. Army. 63-75 & 77-90. Army.R. including all 1000-foot elevation contours on 4 compact disks. Reports on Activities to April 1963: Vicksburg. 1985.S. Unwin. 1966. VA. 11.. U. B51. E. data users guide 1: Reston. v. B. data users guide 5 (2nd printing.. 12 p. Upton. and Stehn. John Wiley and Sons.M. 17. 1978. U.W. U. VA. VA. Army Corps of Engineers. Deister. 1990.S. 1989. p. Upton. no. Geological Survey.M. 105 p. v. [DCW data base 1500 megabytes of vector data organized in 17 thematic layers.J. Utrecht. Determination of depression storage. 1/2. Geological Survey. Fairfax. David.. Bernard.S. v. 1989. Roxby. no. v.S.S.. 1991. Van Asch.. Introduction: Computers and Geosciences. July.S. Intelligence and Mapping Research and Development Agency. Defense Mapping Agency. VA.. 118 p. Computerised morphometric analysis of drainage basins from maps: Utrecht... U. p. Rijksuniv. Spatial Data Analysis by Example. and II. Volume II Categorical and directional data: New York. Miscellaneous Paper No. p.S. VA. 18 p. p. U. Digital elevation models. Geological Survey Yearbook 1986. Geographical Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS). W.S. Proceedings. E J.J. of 38 p.. Military Evaluation of Geographic Areas (MEGA).. 1992. 3rd ed.J. 37-38. pedagogicheskogo in-ta. National Mapping Program. 15.. U. U. JX. Neth. 163-165. T. Volume I Point pattern and quantitative data: New York. 416 p. 1986. Myres.G. U. DDIPDIGITALPAC.D.: Fairfax. Publ. L. 2. U. 410 p. R. IL. VA. National Mapping Program. 1979. Technical Instructions. Defense Mapping Agency. J. Van Blargan.P. H. and Flngleton. P. Quantitative description of depression storage using a digital surface model. Bernard. and Flngleton. and Stamp. 253-282. Digital elevation model evaluation and testing procedural manual: Reston.] Usery.S. I. Digitizing the Future. Geological Survey. and users manual paged by section] U. Waterways Experiment Station. A hypsometric equation of local relief (in Russian): Izv. paging unknown.M.

. Geodeziya i aerofotos"yemka. 70. CR-659] Van Deusen. v. K. 609 and 618.C.D. Part HI. Neth. 1967. and McCarron. Veatch. paging unknown. Patterns based upon the distribution of swamp land in Michigan: Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science. Henk. No. p.. Plate reconstructions and gridded data: Eos. 93-106. Chrysler Corp. Veatch. F. J. 178 p. Van Deursen. B.. p.. A statistical technique for the dynamic analysis of vehicles traversing rough yielding and non-yielding surfaces: Detroit. C. NASA Report No. Inst. Vergasov. A new technique for classifying random surface roughness: New York. 62 p. 1990.). v. and Hoozemans. Vergasov. p. eds. 24.. Van Lopik. 1971. 1989. Using the watershed tools for modeling the Rhine catchment. 1939.. Mississippi. 1. Amsterdam.): Eos.C. J. KH.R. no. Vasmut. and Kwadijk. v.... 1988. Tests to obtain a training sample for the problem of recognizing types of topographic forms with a computer (in Russian): Geodeziya i kartografiya..J. Mapping and Photogrammetry. B. W. [also 1967.system (abs. 2. J J. p. Van Driel. 16. no... An algorithm for forming a digital model from normalized isoline charts (in Russian): Izvestiya vuzov. 11. a new method for plate reconstructions the use of gridded data: Computers and Geosciences. 773-778.W. 121 R. W. 21. v. v.R. 1990.O. AS. + 19 plates and 20 p. p. Geological Survey Professional Paper 837. J. Usow. American Geophysical Union. 1935. The idea of the natural land type: Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America. 283-289. 11..Y. no. 1092. 670032. Van Roessel. v. no. 1978. 1988. 2.. [translated 1974. Mapping and Photogrammetry. Vasil'yev. Van Diggelen. no. p.N. Morphological and mechanical aspects of debris flows in parts of the French Alps: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.J. American Geophysical Union Transactions. N. Neth. and Srivastava. p.S. 7. in European Conference on Geographical Informational Systems. 108-111] Verhoef. p. in Geodesy. AS.J. J.O. Proceedings. B. p. The logic of geological maps with reference to their interpretation and use for engineering purposes: U. 16.. v. Short course presented at the 28th International Geological Congress. 91-99.E. 1966. 2. 1937. A photometric investigation of the slopes and the heights of the ranges of hills in the maria of the Moon: Bull. SP..R. 40-44. Verhoef.. G. 212-216] Veatch. v. no. p. 70. 70 p. J. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 1990. Conversion of cartesian coordinates from ans to generalized balanced ternary addresses: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 27. 1951. C. and Kolb. and Roest. de Ruig. Arts and Letters. [translated 1977.. 103-109. No.R.. Geodeziya i aerofotos"yemka. J. Digital geologic and geographic information systems: Washington. 19. 1959. p. Astron. J. p. SAE Paper No. and Davis. 7. Statistical analysis and automatic recognition of the contours of topographic maps (in Russian): Izvestiya vuzov. and Prugalova. 1938. J. v. Van Deusen. 48 p. 1962. 1565-1570. D. Roest. v. no. Technical Report No... American Geophysical Union Transactions. p. A technique for preparing desert terrain analogs (handbook): Vicksburg.. in Geodesy. Graphic and quantitative comparisons of land types: Journal of the American Society of Agronomy. Varnes.. J JR. 43. VA. 51-74. 28. 6... No.. Van Lopik. 54. 143-161.O. J. no. Van Steijn. 4. v.. 1989. 1974. 11. 1. Van Dijke. 1990. J. U..PA. W. 3-506. p. v. 254-262.D. J. 32. v.. 10. Netherlands.. p. and van Westen. p. 505-510. 1st.. 499-503..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Rockfall hazard a geomorphological application of neighbourhood analysis with ILWIS: ITC Journal (Enschede. no. Michigan. prepared for NASA under contract NASW-1287 by Advanced Projects Organization. 1990-1. Optimum utilization of airborne sensors in military geography: Photogrammetric Engineering.S. VA. 1974.. no. of appendices.

The potential of GIS modelling of gravity flows and slope instabilities: International Journal of Geographical Information Systems. L.S.. and Hamilton. RA. 1988. in Ziemer. 1986. Quadtree. 3. v. 89-150. 2. Vieux. no. v. Chapter 1.. 583-598. Quantitative methods for detecting aligned points An application to the volcanic vents of the Michoacan-Guanajuato volcanic field. Vilborg. Fundamental Algorithms for Computer Graphics. w Wadge. 93-98. W. 1.. 1983. CJL. Harry. 223-229. p.J.. 1983. Die Reliefenergie in der morphographischen Karte (in German): Petermanns Geogr. 59A. v. 9. RA. and Poole. 298-308..... no. and Grant. 1976.E. Emma. 16. Fiji. B. 69-88. v. 96. ed. v. p. 1987.. Vincent. Review of Allan Turing. Symposium on Research Needs and Applications to Reduce Erosion and Sedimentation in Tropical Steeplands. Some examples of the use of structure functions in the analysis of satellite images of the ocean: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. H.W. and Ciesiolka. F. An error metric for inexact gray-scale quadtrees. p. 401410. 4A. p. Vertessy.F. 10. 101-113. 8. 205222.. Vincent. H. p. a FORTRAN program to extract the quadtree structure of a raster format multicolored image: Computers and Geosciences.. The Science of Fractal Images: New York. p. p. p. v. Vincent. 1487-1490. Colorado. March 1823. Luc. 2. Technical Papers. R. 21-69. p. Wald. Silburn. no. 156-167.M. 55. Suva.J. 635-647. 192. and Saupe. Proceedings: IAHS Publication No. v. no. and Hill. v. 1 (Surveying). in Peitgen. no. in Earnshaw. Wadge. 805-835. 6. the enigma: BYTE. D. Verts. 3-4. 10. no.M. 6. Connolly. Spatial dispersion of polygonal karst sinks: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. no. and Cross.. Fractals in nature from characterization to simulation. 31. Waldbaur. 1990. Random fractal forgeries from mountains to music.. RJD.. v.J. Jr.F. P. Wilson. p. Springer-Verlag. CA.. D. p. 10. L.R. 1985.. no. and Soille..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Vose. Predicting erosion hazard areas using digital terrain analysis. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. annual convention. and Pearson. Denver. 1991. 1977. eds. no.. 1988. Mexico: Geology. 2. [comprehensive bibliography] Walker. A. p.. no. Geoffrey. G. p. P. 27. 1990. ed.T. Pierre..L. O'Loughlin. C. no. 65-72. 437 p. 5. Science and Uncertainty: IBM Science Reviews. 1985. Vincent. v. P.. Geoffrey. Watersheds in digital spaces An efficient algorithm based on immersion simulations: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence.. Random fractal forgeries. Th. p. S. Geoffrey.Verstappen. 143-152. 1952.J. R. 65-68. 2. 11-15 June 1990..S. p. P. 1985. Geographic information systems and non-point source water quality and quantity modelling: Hydrological Processes. 1991. Vincent.. Terrain roughness quo vadis?: Area (UK).. F17: New York. v. R. 1991. 182-184. GIS for geology: Terra Nova (UK).-O. Wadge. 1978. Voss. no. Voss. v. Lennart. p. p. no. SpringerVerlag. 1. I. in Nash.. 1989. A method for the mathematical analysis of the cross-sectional geometry of tidal inlet channels: Mathematical Geology. 122 R. p. v. eds.F. 3. Dietmar. 12. 1988. The morphology and morphometry of some arctic trittkarren: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Elsevier. NATO ASI Series. C. Mitteilungen.. 1. Voss. v. p.A. v. 13. R. Applied Geomorphology geomorphological surveys for environmental development: Amsterdam.. v. The cirque forms of Swedish Lapland: Geografiska Annaler. 815-818.

v. Complex coastline generalization: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems. v. Canada.27p. v. William. 786-797. 96-106.W. 8. 1992. p. Accuracy of Spatial Databases: London. v. Map Collector Publications in association with the International Cartographic Association.. using digital elevation data: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. Relation between landform parameters and soil properties: Proceedings of the Soil Science Society of America. 1968. and Gopal. no. p.167-172. v.. 101-104.. University of Michigan Department of Zoology.M. p. A. 35-43. Kazuki. Warntz. 1975.S. 1991. 29 (March). Campagna.C. 209-227. p. 1966. 123 R. 1990. eds.. Contour. for Geography Branch. 1989. Harvard University.v. Contouring by machine A user's guide: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin. 33-50.M. eds. G. R. 3. p. 1981. Cambridge. 1984. 1969. Watson. F. J. The study of mountain topography with compound mesh map in the Boso hills (in Japanese with English abstract): Journal of the Japanese Cartographic Association. 5.F. Wallis.A. v. Hachures. Wang.M. p. 2. 1954.. The statistics of orientation data: Journal of Geology.. Watanabe. by Rohlf. Wang. 1981. and Cetin. Hypsometric map. p. (with analytical software on diskette): Systematic Biology. J. no.. 17 . Concepts and applications spatial order: Harvard Papers in Theoretical Geography. William. Morphological map.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Cartographical Innovations an international handbook of mapping terms to 1900: London. eds. Isarithm.J. [see Topographical map. 47-61.. Computing the N-dimensional Delaunay tessellation with application to Voronoi polytopes: The Computer Journal. 1987. A new statistical approach for texture analysis: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.L. J. 1179-1183. 1989. 2324-2340. 4-6.Walker. 1.. 353 p.C. MA.. 1.H. 1984. 16. 2. and Bookstein. and He. Ontario. Houbolt. 56.. 57. D. Sucharita. D. Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis. no. M. p.J. 15. 1327-1334. 2. Some measurements and power spectra of runway roughness: Washington. no.S. Submarine microtopography in the western part of Sagami Bay (in Japanese with English figure captions): Report of Hydrographic Researches (Tokyo). no. & Isobath] Walls.. Review o/'Proceedings of the (1988) Michigan Morphometrics Workshop. 779-795. K.. no. G. NACA Technical Note 3305.H. 392-395.... Walsh. Wang.F. M.. p. The topology of a socioeconomic terrain and spatial flows: Papers of the Regional Science Association.. Warheit. 61-66. v. and Woldenberg. Stream ordering and contour mapping: Journal of Hydrology.. 193215. T. no. p. v. no. Triangle based interpolation: Mathematical Geology. part 2. 74. Fast hill shading with cast shadows: Computers and Geosciences. F.. and Philip.. Taylor and Francis. Watson. Levandowski. 196 p.. no. 1990.J. Colin. 1. D. D. no.. and Protz. p. C. 25.I. v. Willian. 1966.. S.. 1993. H. 53. R. no. v. 32. 1993.J.F. p. Analyzing remote sensing geobotanical trends in Quetico Provincial Park. p. 8.C. no. J. 9. in Goodchild.. no. Graduate School of Design. and Robinson. Relative elevation determination from Landsat imagery: Photogrammetria. 1967. no. User considerations in landscape characterization. Project NR 389-147. 1. 1. Ware. Watson. Ze-shen.. 39. v. p. 14-20. and Press. 20. D. Warntz.. 3/4. no. p. Walters. S... 24. Haluk. 41. no. P.F. p. v. 380 p. T. Waragai. Haralick. Special Publication no. v.. H. G.. Warner. Hall. Warntz. Technical Report. 19. la. Evans. D.-C. and Campbell. R. Ann Arbor.F. and Muller.H.. Office of Naval Research. 11.

143-167. Contributions to Digital Terrain Modeling and Display. Proceedings. D. L. 1993. 94-103. 618-627. 19. a guide to site selection using aerial photographic interpretation: Stroudsburg. ASPRS/ACSM. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co. San Jose. Weibel. Herzog. Robert. in Weibel..T. Robert. 2. T. p. Universitat Zurich. p. 16 (Supplement). no.W. 1987. p. Zurich.. Academic Press. Fundamentals of Threedimensional Computer Graphics.. Contributions to digital terrain modeling and display (revisions of four papers published previously): University of Zurich. 12 PWeibel. 143-163. 1988. p. v. v. Reading. J. Proceedings.J. v. R. D. M. v. 29. Weibel.. 1986. Weibel... 2nd. K. Geoprocessing Series. Photoclinometry from spacecraft images: U. New York. 124 R. 1987. Martin. in Maguire.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Weibel. A. in GIS/LIS '88 Conference. and Haralick. Robert.. Pratson. Kenneth. 1987. J. 1985. 3.. Welch. p. Department of Geography.F. v. 33-37. E.. Dowden Hutchinson and Ross. D..Watson. v. 1989. MINC A gridding program based on minimum curvature: U. Auto-Carto 8. Robert. 1978] Weaver. 112.E. p. 1-23] Weiringa. Texas. in Weibel.. 1991.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 1968.R. D. 1981.. Robert. vol 1. Malinverno.. LafFey. Watt. p. 1992. Models and experiments for adaptive computer-assisted terrain generalization: Cartography and Geographic Information Systems.. San Antonio.. Contributions to Digital Terrain Modeling and Display. v. Univ. Way.. Scaling properties of topographic surfaces (abs. 1986. p. 17. G. Morphometry of the Human Lung: New York. [2nd ed. An adaptive methodology for automated relief generalization. International Symposium on Computer-Assisted Cartography. A response to recent papers and articles on the use of quadtrees for geographic information systems. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. Konzepte und Experimente zur Automatisierung der Reliefgeneralisierung (in German with English abstract): InauguralDissertation. Weibel. 74.M.. 42-49. 1973. 41. Design and implementation of a strategy for adaptive computer-assisted relief generalization (in German): Kartographische Nachrichten. Longman. 1989.D. Roughness-dependent geographical interpolation of surface wind speed averages: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 234-239. July 5-10. Weissel. Waugh. Zurich.K. International Geographical Union Commission on Geographical Data Sensing and Processing. L.. Costa Rica. T. 430 p. ed. and DeLotto. Webring. v.M. Geological Survey Open-File Report 81-1224.1988. and Harding. no. Geological Survey Professional Paper 599-B. 10 p. Univ. in First Latin American Conference on Computers in Geography.R. no. in Chrisman. Robert.. Watson.. Alan.S.C. Pennsylvania. 194.F. 867-889.J. 392 p. p. Robert. and Rhind. 218 p. Washington: Williamsville. Mass. 2. Graphics and Image Processing.S. 133-153. and Brassel.. p.J. Heller. Proceedings: p. ed. Geographical Information Systems Principles and Applications: London. Robert. D. 1991. no. 25-50] Weibel. 269-297. 1963. p. 11-13.. p.. Approaches to digital surface modeling. 8th.S. ed.. paging unknown. 12. and Heller. 78. Digital terrain modelling. What is a landform?: The Professional Geographer. v. Michael. 1989. Adrian. November 30December 2. Martin. eds. 1965. no.100 p. p. + appendices. [revised version published 1989. Proceedings.1987. [revised version published 1989.. N.. 1. Weibel. ed. Automated terrain classification for GIS modeling. 3. Seattle. Terrain Analysis. 1970. J. October 5-9.. Robert.S. Substitution of space for time in a study of slope development: Journal of Geology. Weibel. Goodchiid. Robert. Topographic classification of digital image intensity surfaces using generalized splines and the discrete cosine transformation: Computer Vision.

v.H. 78. Wheaton. The properties of random surfaces of significance in their contact: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. White. 5. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) stereo subsystem a source of digital elevation models (DEMs) for Earth science research (abs. B. Inc.. 253-270. no. p. no. 4. 1987. Weszka. ed. 521527.S. Christian.. and Fink. and Cybernetics. no. International Conference on Basement Tectonics. 125 R.. 2. A simplified method of determining the average slope of land surfaces: American Journal of Science. Committee on Basement Tectonics. C. p.. 968-971.T. 260. 1989. v. A. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. v. J. G. 167-196. 15. Price. 1966. and Orford.J.K. B. review and further exploration: Computers and Geosciences. Smith. and Tsu.F. 2nd. p. 1987. C. Lang. 5110. R. v.S. 4. Graphical display of orientation data for visual analysis. p.. R. p. no.. and Earl.. p.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. Series 5.. Maryland.W. 18. no. 1978. no. Accuracy of stream link lengths derived from maps: Water Resources Research. Exhibits. p. J. International Conference. 1993. Christian. Alexander. no.V. 354-365. 184-194. A comparative study of texture measures for terrain classification: IEEE Transactions on Systems.R.. and Smart. v.. no. Werritty. 144-153. J. and Archard. Ellen. 1988. v. 271-295. Kahle..D. p. H. v. no. 1993. Baltimore. 1255-1264. v. The use of fractals and pseudofractals in the analysis of twodimensional outlines. 1973. 8. DA. October 26-30.. 1976.F. p. 1. 12. K. and Rosenfeld. Whalley. no. White. 74.S. 8.B.. Exclusive Economic Zone. Physiology in fractal dimensions: American Scientist. 1970. no.R. p. in Podwysocki. Improved analyses of regional engineering geology using geographic information systems.. no. Werner. Harper and Row.. 9. 1985. Eberhard. p.. Several duality theorems for interlocking ridge and channel networks: Water Resources Research. Man. Dyer.. 17-27.R.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. J.M. SMC-6.. 66. 636-649.. eds. Beach cusps as self-organized patterns: Science. March 29-April 3. White. Werner. p. JX. T. v. and Workshops on Geographic Information Systems.. 1992. v. Christian. Wentworth. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 75. 1991. p. Werritty. D. E. Werner... v. v. 1979. Convex-concave landslopes a geometrical study: Ohio Journal of Science. 1972. Werner. 97-121. no. v. in Chorley. Whitehouse.. v. 2.B. W. Technical Papers. p. 4. and Goldberger. Wentworth.Welch.. A. annual convention. The topology of stream networks. 3 (Surveying). 6. 27.B. p. Proceedings: Denver Colorado... R A. 1930. and Mark. v. 32373247. and Robinson. Series A. San Francisco... Assessment of line-generalization algorithms using characteristic points: The American Cartographer.K. American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing / American Congress on Surveying and Mapping: Proceedings. M. 2nd. R.1987.L. West. A. 1055-1073. C. Formal analysis of ridge and channel patterns in maturely eroded terrain: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. p. Werner. SD. 194. R. 2. Azriel. H. 316. p. 16 (Supplement). A. v. J. A spatial model to aggregate point-source and nonpoint-source water-quality data for large areas: Computers and Geosciences.J. 5.J. 592-608.. 12.. 185-197. 1972.M. Some new methods of topologic classification of channel networks: Geographical Analysis. 20. C. no. 1524. in GIS-San Francisco. Map compilation of bathymetric data gathered within the U.E. p. 1987. 269-285..

Theorie und Darstellung der Beleuchtung von nicht gesetzmassig gebildeten Flachen mit Rucksicht auf die Bergzeichnung (in German): Civilingenieur. C.L. G J. Army Corps of Engineers.G. 30. Ignacio. v.. 201-210. and application: Johannesburg. Randall. Lee. Technical Papers of the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping.. Report 132. 1966. v. University of Witwatersrand. v. Proceedings. 767-774. Generalized photoclinometry for Mariner 9: Icarus. Terrain modeling shortest path. Wildey. Fractals in Geomorphology: Geomorphology. 1969. G. Witczak. TEC Report. 1972b.J.J.. 6. 4645.1986. Nos. paging unknown. Horton's laws justified in terms of allometric growth and steady state in open systems: Geological Society of America Bulletin. C.S. ed. Willgoose. 25. p.. 1972a. p. Wash. July 5-10. Wildey.. and Rodriguez-Iturbe. 1968.. North Dakota: U. p. v. Slopes. v. 21-37.S. D. Compactness of shape review. Larry. D. 95-189. Geomorphologic process from digital terrain map analysis (abs. R. Baglio. in Proceedings of the ASP-ACSM Convention. 335-364. ed. M. Occasional Paper 7.S. 833-834. no. 1.): Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union. 135-163. J. Washington. and Meyer. p.. Geological Survey Water-supply Paper 2383. 1967. Willgoose.W. 215.E. reply: Geological Society of America Bulletin. no. 23 p.J. no. J... in Fair-bridge.C. v. no. paging unknown. [AD A256 655] Wivell. February 22-27. no. Application of digital elevation models to delineate drainage areas and compute hydrologic characteristics for sites in the James River Basin. 74. H.. Wilson. Wiechel. R. 5.. v..W.M. 85. Witzgall. v.Whitted. VA. 2nd. The analysis of spatial characteristics of karst terrains. Fort Belvoir.. P. Use of chi-square on percentage orientation data. 1974. Harvard Papers in Theoretical Geography. Jenson. 16 (Supplement). v. 158-170.S. 97112... National Cooperative Highway Research Program.. no.. Beavon.. 1981. and Mabin. 1984. 1992.. 613-626. and Karalus.J. G. M.W. 1972. S. 1991. p. 24.L. Williams. Woldenberg. Williams. p. Geography and properties of surfaces: Cambridge. P. Highway Research Board. p. 1993. 1972. drain patterns and interspersed contours: U. 77.J. Carry.. Williams.K. and Domingue. Comparing sources of terrain data for a geographical information system..W. The Encyclopedia of Geomorphology: New York.. 161 p..PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . p... 1.. The geometric modeling and compression of terrain data. 1137-1144. Turner.V. A. Some recent advances in computer graphics: Science. Woldenberg.W. 1982. The relationship between catchment and hillslope properties implications of a catchment evolution model. M.. no. no. Kelly. Morphometric analysis of polygonal karst in New Guinea: Geological Society of America Bulletin.. 1986.. 1/2. 5. R.M.. P. MA.1981. R. Whittington. eds. D. p. theory. 1002-1020. Garry. p. 4. 152. v. Woldenberg. D. p.L. M. Harper and Row. 153-156. and Mayer. Topographic Engineering Center. Spatial order in fluvial systems Eorton's laws derived from mixed hexagonal hierarchies of drainage basin areas: Geological Society of America. 83. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. no.. Reinhold Book Co. K. R. p. in Snow. p. in International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. 80. Steinwand. 1992. p. Wilson.. in Chorley. 1975. 431-434. 4534. National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering. Williams. R. Topography from single radar images: Science. 224.. Bras. Evaluation of terrain models for the geocoding and terrain correction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 1992.O.. Wiche. 1878.S. Relationships between physiographic units and highway design factors: Washington. p. v. v. Christoph. Harvard University.R. 761-796. Department of Geography and Environmental Studies. 3. South Africa. p. 4. 126 R. Seattle. International Geographical Union.C. P.O.

G. Harper and Row.1958. typescript. Wolf. Annual meeting.F. MA.W.F. Gordon. Michael. and Shiam. Michigan State College Agricultural Experiment Station. 1988. W. 306-307. Relief.F. San Antonio. 27. 111. Global Topography Team Report 4010/04-92-002.A. April 1-5.. 298. typescript. 7.F. W. Wolf. 1992a..): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. The status of the world's public-domain digital topography of the land and ice: Geophysical Research Letters. Laboratory for computer graphics and spatial analysis. p.1956. J. 9th. p. in U. 17-29. no. Texas.F. 1941. AAAS.1956. [Paper read at 54th annual AAG meeting. 45. p. 186-204. p. Duncan. Characterization of functions representing topographic surfaces. A FORTRAN subroutine for cartographic generalization: Computers and Geosciences.. R. 27. 2. 6 (Auto-Carto 10). and Andersson.. in Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. 9 p.. 14 p.1955. Woldenberg. v. Harvard Papers in Theoretical Geography. 46. Wong. Increasing the value of smallscale maps for landform study by the use of statistical inference (abs. no.W. Dec.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . and Wingham. no. 1956.S. Generalisierung topographischer Karten mittels Oberflachengraphen (n German): Doctoral dissertation. 3. Horsfield. Michael. Montreal. 24 p. Army Ordnance Corps symposium. 6. 2. and Wingham.F. M. G. + figures] Wood. W. Texas. 1359-1381.): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. no. Landform types: East Lansing. August 18-22. p.): Geological Society of America Bulletin. The average hexagon in spatial hierarchies. 127 R. 1992b. Keith. University of Klagenfurt. Harding. Wolf. 17. v.F.): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Mullard Space Science Laboratory. [Paper read at 51st annual AAG meeting. Keith. 1961.. 8 p. 2325-2328. A multivariate statistical model for predicting mean annual flood in New England: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. L. 1816. Wood. Wolf.. Flat grasslands and hilly forests. 1978. slope. p. no. 27-30 September.. no.T. 1980. 9 p. "Geography and the properties of surfaces" series. W. v. Duncan. 1955. A survey of the world's digital elevation data: Dorking. 298-311.. The dot planimeter a new way to measure map area: The Professional Geographer. 87 p.] Wood. 41 (ONR Contract No. and natural vegetation: Paper read before Section E. v.. Ranges of unobstructed groundto-ground visibility. p. 70. Harvard University Graduate School of Design. March 1978.. Gumming. CA. 56 p. April 11-14. 3. Dec. Wood.1959. New York.E. p. [also paper read at AAAS annual meeting. no. 323-352. 12. Prowse..J. 1954. Pt. 19. Memphis. 12 PJ Wood. W. Technical Bulletin 175. no. No. March 25-28: Technical Papers. Baltimore. Prediction in terrain analysis (abs. Proceedings: New York. 1. 1972. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing annual convention.. 10. Singhal.W. v. 1991a. 387-413. UK. 1959.Woldenberg.. Wood. Los Angeles. typescript. Environmental Factors Influencing Optimum Operation of Ordnance Materiel.. typescript.. Chicago. Tenn. 1970. 53.. New morphometric data for fresh lunar craters. Spatial Analysis in Geomorphology: New York. 282-283. W. The relationships of relief (abs. + tables I-VI] Wood. Wolf. 3/4. LA. typescript. 23. v. [Paper read at 52nd annual AAG meeting. Houston. v. 1956. W. Morphometric evolution of cinder cones: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. 3. paging unknown. 1958. v. ed. S. M. 1960. G.. 199Ib. no. in Chorley. why? (abs. Law and order in the human lung: Cambridge. 48.. Surrey.J. 00014-67A-0298). + figures] Wood. p.. p. Pergamon Press. 3669-3689 Wood. Keith. Md. v. v. C. 1963. C A. 12-14. Proceedings. p. Wolfanger. p.

12. no.. Ohio. 1970.. and Snell. 1960a.E. p. Wood. U.M. Woodruff. N. 227-242. and Snell. Aircraft Environmental Research Study Report AE-5.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Wood. NRC. no. [also.B. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory.F.H. Division of Earth Science. The relationship of mask angles to terrain geometry and its applicability to military problems: Buffalo.Wood.. submitted for presentation at 1966 AAG meeting. J. Appendix IE. Predictive methods in topographic analysis II. slope. p. D.. also paper read at 53rd annual AAG meeting. Wood. and Lewandowski. 5 p.F.F. p. U. 1959b. Woodcock. in Garrison. U. eds. DP. Technical Report EP-112. Quantitative terrain analysis: Buffalo.S.p. and Snell. Quantitative Geography Part II Physical and Cartographic Topics: Evanston. J. no.F. Army Transportation Command. v. & 39. 1231-1236. 1965. Wood.S. 47. W. Inc. Technical Report EP-114.F.): Annals «f the Association of American Geographers. real digital images: Remote Sensing of Environment.L. and Pike..1957. W.33 p . Specification of fabric shapes using an eigenvalue method: Geological Society of .349-379.).B... VA. Further development of a method to predict line-of-sight capabilities: Fort Eustis. Qualitative considerations in quantitative physical geography. JJB.B. VT-1810-G-2.S.. W.. v.F. 40 p. Report No.16 p. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center. and Snell.. MA. W. and Snell.. U. 1966. Preliminary Investigations of a Method to Predict Line-ofSight Capabilities: Natick. The dispersion of geomorphic data around measures of central tendency and its application: Natick. U. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center.. typescript. The use of variograms in remote sensing I. [report. America Bulletin. 18 p.F. MA. [also paper read at Symposium. and dissection on inch-to-the-mile maps in the United States: Natick. May 5-6. 1988. 16. 17 p..F. 8-10.B.J. 1962. 1963. 128 R. Cornelius.. Army Quartermaster Research and Development Center. 88. Cincinnati. p. + figures. Aircraft Environmental Research Study Report AE-2. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center. 1957. Army Transportation Command. Army Transportation Research Command. and Groenewood. Geography.. 1977. R. VE-1871-G-1. 15-19.. W. W.. v.S. 1960b. T.. G.F.F. 1967. 4. v. P. A Quantitative System for Classifying Landforms: Natick.. and Jupp. estimating relief from World Aeronautical Charts: Natick.. 1959c. Report No. p. Research Study Report EA-10.S. no. N. C. Northwestern University Studies in Geography no.. N. 323-348. Air Vehicle Environmental Research Team. 1959a. W. United Business Publications. VA. -. A.. Air Vehicle Environmental Research Team.S. 25. Statistical terrain analysis: Reprographics (New York.H. VS-2860-D. J. v.G.. MA. VA. 14. 1964.. W. typescript.Y. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory.F. relief. JJB. MA.. G. Research Study Report EA-8. W. but not read] Wood. in Wood. J. 3.F. U. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory.Y. Report No.. Aircraft Environmental Research Study Report AE-4.F. J. 20 PWood. W. and Marble. 2. The optimal human operator method for digitizing a map.... but not appendix. Predictive methods in topographic analysis I. U. 9. classified. N.Y. W.S. and Snell. 1957.R.S.19 PWood... HI.19 p.. W.L. April 1-4. 184-185. 2.. p. p. MA. no. W. (abs.. A preliminary test of ground-to-air visibility: Fort Eustis.B. Woodcock. A comparative analysis of selected drainage basins: The Professional Geographer. and Lewandowski. 73 p.. 1-14. Chicago. 4. Magorian. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center. 1962. Maneuvering the dual mode manned/automated lunar roving vehicle: Buffalo. Soderberg.F.31 p. W. WJ?.M. Strahler. Air Vehicle Environmental Research Team. A preliminary model of most-severe contour flying: Fort Eustis.] Wood..1960. Wood. Technical Report EP-124.. scene models and simulated images II. Wood. U.] Wood. Wood.

in GIS/LIS.. eds. Yamazaki. Mars synthetic topographic mapping: Icarus. International Yearbook of Cartography: London. A comparison of regular grid. v. Baltimore. Clarke. International Cartographic Association. 17. 13. Christopher.-H. 163-174. 573-579. Worth. Yaguchi. v... 2. Technical Papers. no. Yu. v. 253-260. S..D..T. Wright. 3. November.F.F. p. 86-92. 4. P. K. Yazdani. 201-216. LJ. Yoeli. Note on the map scale effect in the study of stream morphology: Water Resources Research. 2. 15. American Congress on Surveying and Mapping American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Wright.X. p. 1987. Woronow.. unpublished Ph. 55.L. 33. v. v. Xia. no. 1971. and Evenden. v. K. Erik... Woodruff. 2. p. Morphometric consistency with the Hausdorff-Besicovich dimension: Mathematical Geology. Zong-Guo. 709-712. p. 1971. eds.S. no. 3. 11. 2 (Cartography and GIS/LIS)... 113-808. 1949. Department of Geography. 1978. Pinhas.): Annals of the Association of American Geographers. Rostam. 129 R. 1962. George Philip & Son. 253258. City University of New York. 25. 1955. 7. 1965.. 1981. The uses and limitations of fractal geometry in terrain modeling.. 1991.Woodruff. 85. J. Analytical hill shading (A cartographic experiment): Surveying and Mapping. March 25-29: Technical Papers. and Stall. A. Yoeli. Fritz. 3. p. Yefremov. 29 p. Alexander. 106-110. 1991b. contour digitization. An evaluation of algorithms for estimating the fractal dimension of topographic surfaces. Pinhas. 417-440. Series I. 23-26. Yamaguchi. and Meine. p. Project Report. 1985.und Vermessungswesen. and Plews. R. 16... p. and Aurada. no. p. p. 4. fall convention. Xia. v. H. Digital geographic information collection at Geographical Survey Institute in Japan. in Arnberger. International Yearbook of Cartography: Bonn-Bad Godesberg. Relative relief map of Japan. dissertation. J. J. v. p. 1965. Clarke. Yasushi. v. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing annual convention. C. 1972. 336-352. 1991a. 1981. 1983. Zong-Guo. No. Geomorphic measurements from aerial photographs: The Professional Geographer. and the TIN method for the creation of a digital terrain model (DTM): Canada Centre for Remote Sensing. no.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . J. 1966. K. p. paging unknown. no. p. A-164 to A-180. Atlanta. Prinzip und Methode der automatischen Generalisierung der Reliefformen: Nachrichten aus dem Karten. v. no. Wu. 4.. p. Frequency distribution of elevations as an index to terrain classification (abs.C. 3. An attempt at a morphographic classification of landform elements and simple landforms (in Russian): Voprosy geografii. Wu. Xia. Kirschbaum Verlag.W.C. Image-scale and lookdirection effects on the detectability of lineaments in radar images: Remote Sensing of Environment. The Fractal Characterization of Land Surface: New York. Klaus. no. Yang. Hisao. and Huang.H. no. p. Zong-Guo. Determining a vertical scale for graphical representations of threedimensional surfaces: The Cartographic Journal. October 28-November 1. A method of measuring the surface texture of aggregate: Concrete Research Magazine. Md. KG.F. 26. in Kirschbaum. R.. 14. project No.. 351-373. p. Principles in a geomorphological approach to land classification: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Analytical hill shading and density: Surveying and Mapping.. 1991. no.. v. v. 1978. 11.J. 1965.B. v. 151-160. p. 117-127.

1989. Klaus. no. v. 1-13. Cartographic contouring with computer and plotter: The American Cartographer. and Mehlich. 3. G. p. 1983. v. Pinhas. 1971.C. 288 p. Erik. Pinhas. Oliver and Boyd. 17-27..Yoeli. Young. Yamamoto. Ober digitale Gelandemodelle und deren computergesttitzte kartographische und kartometrische Auswertung (in German): Vermess. p. W. and Meine. 9. 3. 1976. Yoeli. Anthony. 88-103. v. v. and McCullagh. Pinhas. v. Pinhas. v. 22.. no. Drainage network generation and measurement based on digital elevation data: Geographical Reports of Tokyo Metropolitan University. 2/82. Topographic relief depiction by hachures with computer and plotter Cartographic Journal. Yoeli. Yoeli. Slopes: Edinburgh. 24. 46. Kulturtech. 197-206. Pinhas. eds.S. 41. p.. R. p. 3. no. no. Compilation of data for computer-assisted relief cartography.S. UK. 22. 1984. Hypsometric analysis of late mature and old mountains in central Korea an approach to quantitative research of physiographic development of mountains: Japan Journal of Geology and Geography. Supplementband 5. 219-229. Display and Analysis of Spatial Data: London. N. 27. T. Yoeli. v. 1975. Yoshiyama. Technical BulletinNo. Kirschbaum Verlag. Application of terrain height variance spectra to mesoscale modeling: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences.. Pinhas. 1985.. 1937. 1956. p. eds. Young. An experimental electronic system for converting contours into hill-shaded relief. 1989.. eds. G. no. 139-155. John Wiley and Sons. v. p. 7. no.. no. RA. Fractal-based analysis and interpolation of 3D natural surface shapes and their application to terrain modeling: Computer Vision. in Davis. Young. Yoeli. 2. Graphics.10. Pinhas.. p. Young. Special Publication 3. 2. A. v. p. International Yearbook of Cartography: London. v. and Pielke. K. p.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A .. Pinhas. 1984.A. Yoeli. 1972. R. 43-53.. and Image Processing. 13. no. 82-88. 1. Pinhas. Pinhas. 287-297. no. and Aurada. p. p. M J. A.. p. Yoeli. 2. 1984. 352-367. p. 1. p. 11. 75-85. Yoeli. no. p. 1967. Yoshikawa. British Geomorphological Research Group. v.-H. no.. Youden. 111-124. 1971. 1982.... Pinhas. 4. A comparison of the terrain height variance spectra of the Front Range with that of a hypothetical mountain: Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. no. and Funakubo. p..J. The making of intervisibility maps with computer and plotter: Cartographica. International Yearbook of Cartography: Bonn-Bad Godesberg. GeoAbs tracts. Slope profile analysis the system of best units: Institute of British Geographers. N. v. v. Photogramm.. 1986. 2. Computer-aided relief presentation by traces of inclined planes: The American Cartographer.. Fritz. 111-114. 1985. p. The mechanisation of analytical hill shading: Cartographic Journal (Glasgow). 67-78. no. 40.C. 11. K. 3.. J. in Arnberger.il. v. Computer-assisted determination of the valley and ridge lines of digital terrain models. 52 p. Anthony. Slope profile analysis: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. and Kessler. 3. Anthony. Yokoya. Young. Error-bands of topographical contours with computer and plotter (program KOPPE): Geo-Processing. 284-302. Computer executed production of a regular grid of height points from digital contours: The American Cartographer. Yoeli. 2555-2560. 34-39. p. Selection of efficient methods for soil sampling: Contributions from Boyce Thompson Institute. International Cartographic Association. p. 5970. Piolke. 1. 130 R. Slope Profile Survey: Norwich. 1249-1250. in Kirschbaum. 1964. 1974. Anthony. Young. Yoeli. George Philip & Son. 1984.

20. 189-209. Control schemes for SEIS. 653-665. Zecharias. Automatic delineation of drainage basins within digital elevation data using the topographic primal sketch: Mathematical Geology. B. 1954. Steven. 12.A. 59-64.A. University of Wisconsin. L. 1993. Barbara. Digital photogrammetric inversion theory and application to surface reconstruction: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. p. Zevenbergen. [see Evans. 1. p. Statistical characterization of altitude matrices by computer.238 p. Mapping and Photogrammetry. Wilfried. 53. 47-56. 1. 8. no. v.. 5: Durham City. 1327-1331. Canada. 1976. v. and Simaan. 18. 1990.W. p. dissertation. 251-299... C. 1989.D. Trends and methods in land form geography: Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 12. and Haralick. Marwan. I. and Yamane. 59. no. J. A.S. L. Davis. UK. Department of Geography. 22.-J. unpublished Ph. Relief. 1967. 1982. Drainage network simulation: Computers and Geosciences. v. Report No. M. 489-498.. no. p. J. 27 p. Zhang.] Zadeh. paging unknown.. Manual and Automated Line Generalization and Feature Displacement: Fort Belvoir. U. Zachar. Zheng. Zakrzewska. Yuan. I. A. and Thorne.B. 4. p. 309-327. p.. M. Detection of large errors in coordinates and heights during digital modeling of relief: Geodesy. 1977. L.C. 1035-1045..S. 1985. 1989.. v. Barbara. 281-300. unpublished Ph. in Van Ryzin. no. in Soil Erosion. 1987. 29.. Zhang. 57.W. The University of Durham. 4. 135-173. 158 p. p. Academic Press.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . Wisconsin drumlin field and its origin: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. p. VA. Terrain analysis. Distribution of water and soils: Journal of Hydrology.D. and Hugus.S. v. ed. p. Zhou. Campbell.. v. 5. Degree and length of land slope as it affects soil loss in runoff: Agricultural Engineering. 1-4. p. Margaret. Barbara.L.. 1978. Zoraster. 1963. 21. England. Water Resources Research. 1984. no. and Vanderpol. 2. Young. 12.] Young.-P. Water flow in a hummocky landscape in central Saskatchewan. 1992. 21. Ion. 1. p.: New York. v.. Army Contract DA-ERO-59173-G0040. thesis. Fuzzy sets and their application to classification and clustering.B. 107.K. Erosion Modelling using Terrain Analysis: University of London.P. L. Y. no. Report ETL-0359 (+ETL-0359-1). 417-438. N. 1987. 536-568. A Geographic Classification of the Landforms of Puerto Rico: Madison. p. Morphometry of drainage basins: Amsterdam. 33-35.J. Zharnovskiy. [morphometric methods.. 3. no. 18951902. Ground surface slope as a basin scale parameter: 131 R. a rule-based system for segmentation of a seismic section based on texture: Advances in Geophysical Data Processing. Zebarth. v. Quantitative analysis of land surface topography: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms. Shigeru. v. 5061. An analysis of landforms in a part of the central Great Plains: Annals of the Association of American Geographers.. p. and DeJong. p. Army Engineering Topographic Laboratories.. v. 128-165. Developments in Soil Science 10: Amsterdam. Elsevier. p. no. no. Eeltje.. no. M. v.Young. 1992.W. D. Classification and Clustering. Elsevier. Zavoianu. 256. program documentation: U. Sparse population coding of faces in the inferotemporal cortex: Science. p. Qiming. Y. 1985. Relief shading using digital elevation models: Computers and Geosciences.M. v..R. 1986.N.. 1940. Zingg. 185-188. p.. 4. and Brutsaert. Zakrzewska Borowiecka. v. Z. Department of Geography. v. Zevenbergen. Dusan. no. Developments in Water Science. 184 p. no.. 18. 1985. R. Zakrzewska.

A comparison of twodimensional interpolation algorithms. Academic Press. L.1988. 1970. 1983. Fhotointerpretation. Missouri. 1982. 132 R. 2 (Cartography).PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . no. paging unknown. Zoraster. and Geodesy. Mexico. Steven. 139-148. Technical papers. 42 (July-December). Contouring using variable density rectangular grids.Zoraster. Texas. 24 p. Inc. Visual Perception of Form: New York. Konrad. Reston. 25-35. 1988.. Zycor. Steven. for U.S. v. Geological Survey. User's Manual for Contour-to-Grid Interpolation (CTOG): Austin. and Ebisch. p. March 13-18. in American Congress on Surveying and Mapping / American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. St Louis. p. Zusne. + appendices. in n Pan American and VII National Congress on Photogrammetry. 1982: Revista Cartografica.. VA. annual convention.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful