U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S.

GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GEOMORPHOMETRY
WITH A TOPICAL KEY TO THE LITERATURE AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NUMERICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TOPOGRAPHIC FORM

by Richard J. Pike

Open-File Report 93-262-A

1993

This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards. Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government

Menlo Park California 94025

CONTENTS Page 3 3 5 5 6 7 9 16 17 17 18 19 21 22 23

Abstract Introduction Land-surface quantification The problem Toward a solution Morphometry demystified Current practice Implementation The bibliography Background Purpose and scope Subsets of the main list Amendments Acknowledgments Bibliography

ILLUSTRATIONS Table 1 2 3 Goals and applications Topical key to the literature The DEM-to-watershed transformation 4 10 20

Figure 1

Cognate disciplines

8

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GEOMORPHOMETRY WITH A TOPICAL KEY TO THE LITERATURE AND AN INTRODUCTION TO THE NUMERICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TOPOGRAPHIC FORM
by Richard J. Pike

ABSTRACT
A compilation of over 2100 references provides one-source access to the diverse literature on geomorphometry, the quantification of land-surface form. The report also defines the discipline, describes its scope and practice, discusses goals and applications, and identifies related fields. The bibliography documents the current, computer-driven state-of-art of geomorphometry and furnishes the historical context for understanding its evolution. Most entries address at least one of ten aspects of the science its conceptual framework, enabling technology, topographic data and their spatial ordering, terrain attributes in vertical and horizontal domains, scale dependence and self-organization of topography, redundancy of descriptive parameters, terrain taxonomy, and the interpretation of land-surface processes. A subset of some 350 references, divided into 49 topics that outline the field of geomorphometry in more detail, guides the reader into the longer, unannotated listing. Lastly, over 100 references trace the development and application of one of the discipline's outstanding new contributions: the DEM-to-watershed transformation.
Topography is perhaps the single most important land surface characteristic that determines the climatic, hydrologic and geomorphic regimes.

Isacks and MouginisMark (1992)

INTRODUCTION
This report is a research bibliography on the numerical representation of topography, or geomorphometry, a technical field within the Earth sciences. (I use topography in the restricted sense of grounJ surface or terrain, excluding vegetation and the cultural landscape.) Also known simply as morphometry, this old and widely practiced specialty has been revitalized over the past 25 years by the digital computer and related developments. Geomorphometry serves both

applied and basic ends, supporting society's use of technology as well as contributing to scientific understanding of natural processes (Table 1). The main applications of morphometry to technology include engineering, transportation, public works, and military operations. Morphometry for the interpretation of natural processes and events has two principal functions; it leads not only to new discoveries in Earth science, but also to application of those results for improving the condition of human settlement most explicitly protection from environmental hazards and the management of natural resources. I hope to address several issues by compiling a reference resource on geomorphometry. The first, and overriding, purpose is to improve access to thn scattered writings of this diverse field. A related goal is to promote scholarship in understanding the development of the discipline and in

highways. canals. water supply planetary-surface exploration . siting & design of: bridges. dams. Develop & manage natural resources: ACTIVITIES inventory & mapping zoning risk assessment mitigation prediction benefit-cost analysis emergency response restoration RESOURCES water soils & arable land vegetation & forests open space & parks minerals & fuels wetlands wildlife II. Pure (primarily Earth) Science discoveries in: geomorphology geology hydrology geophysics soil science climatology meteorology oceanography planetary science B. above) to: 1. airports. UNDERSTAND NATURAL PROCESSES A. Evaluate natural hazards & reduce their effects: HAZARDS slope failure wildfire earthquake flood coastal erosion volcanic eruption severe storm tsunami 2. & Public Works: cultivation urbanization & land use telecommunications navigation waste disposal B. irrigation. Transportation. Engineering. Applied Science uses of new discoveries (A.Table 1 Some Goals and Applications of Geomorphometry I. SUPPORT TECHNOLOGICAL NEEDS OF SOCIETY ACTIVITIES inventory & mapping environmental protection engineering benefit-cost analysis reclamation commodity extraction depletion-modeling A. Military Operations: concealment & avoidance cross-country mobility logistics & engineering reconnaissance & targeting weapons design & deployment tactical & strategic planning vehicle design planning.

1945. The basic problem. even to the extent of modeling physical processes numerically (for example. 1992). and plain are equally imprecise an old shortcoming inherent in applying everyday language to technical questions. The sixth aim is to prompt colleagues to investigate the field's related disciplines (Fig. Graff. topographic data in addressing important issues in science and technology that require information on land form. 1992) and other elements that contribute to new knowledge of synoptic meteorology and global climate (Henderson-Sellars and Dickinson. Rolling hills in North Dakota. Hoffman. For example. Frank and others. Reasons for this include the great complexity of terrain. what is a hill and when is it not a hill but rather a ridge or a mountain? These questions. hill. for they restrict the role of . 1990. affect the perception of hills as rolling? And. and neither resembles the rolling hills celebrated in songs of the Scottish Border country. My final goal is to call attention to the need for higher standards of accuracy in the mass-produced digital elevation data on which progress in the field depends so critically. The different shades of meaning that reside in qualitative terms greatly impede the communication of information about topography. Over the past few decades much progress has been made in describing agents of geomorphic change and how they work. for example. Seventh. 1988. what distinguishes them from nonTolling hills? How does an observer's location. plateau. for that matter. I have taken the opportunity afforded by this compilation to organize the science of geomorphometry to identify its components and arrange them in a structure that is consistent with current research directions and applications (Table 2). Isacks and Mouginis-Mark. the resulting difficulty in describing it numerically. Anderson. of continuous land-surfaces. just what are rolling hills? What makes them rolling to the eye and to the mind. rough. Third. Such adjectives as hilly. 1992. are not trivial (Gibson. and flat mean different things to different observers. The fifth goal is to provoke new inquiries into the nature of topography. 1964). or parameterization. which is essential to understanding the regional distribution of precipitation (Tarboton. Table 3). 1986). The common nouns mountain.citing its literature. One result is that very different landcapes may be characterized in identical terms. 1) and activities (Table 2) for solutions to operational problems in topographic analysis. Most recent among such problems is the numerical description. 1979. Phillips and Renwick. Stahler. 1992). except for individual drainage basins (Horton. through the cross-fertilization of ideas that the diversity of this bibliography is intended to create. Descriptions of continuous topography tend to be qualitative and subjective. 1950. which are of great interest in applied linguistics and the psychology of cognition. and some reluctance to abandon the qualitative approach that has long seemed adequate for much research and teaching. even among experts familiar with landscapes worldwide. steep. Representation of the topography itself. however. gentle. is this: language used to represent continuous terrain is not systematically LAND-SURFACE QUANTIFICATION The Problem Form has lagged behind process in the quantitative understanding of the Earth's surface and its evolution. has been less successful. depending on their experience and the scale of the landscape under scrutiny (Wolfanger. Obstacles to quantifying terrain must be overcome. The fourth objective is to foster a sense of unity within a field that is complex and fragmented and to provide its workers with a focus a sense of place within science and technology. does not mean the same thing as rolling hills in Tuscany. 1992). I want to encourage the continuing development of computer software that implements new approaches and procedures in morphometry (for example. both on and above the ground surface. Such confusion reflects several underlying issues. because the prevailing nomenclature is verbal and nonunique. 1941.

topography is just geometry and topology. dates back at least to Tricart (1947). and other non-Euclidean attributes that comprise the spatial arrangement of topographic features (Horton. Its application is most mature in the study of drainage basins. peaks. or morphometry. Beckinsale and Chorley. Nonetheless. Melton. Application of morphometry to the Earth's surface has come to be known as geomorphometry. More importantly. 1945. parameters ofX. b. the term is no more so than many others in the Earth sciences for example. 1958b. and thus numerical. and passes is captured by slope. 1964a. 1992) and sedimentary petrography (Krumbein and Pettijohn. which was simply morphometry in the early 20th century and previously orometry (Hettner. The term. areas. Wood and Snell. 1917. 1959. Lastly. Geometric measures have long been used to describe the three-dimensional form of topographic features that are expressed as points. some of them taken at several spatial scales. are required to effectively represent the shape of a terrain surface (Van Lopik and Kolb. which directly reflects geomorphic process. However. and other landforms that are readily isolated in the landscape. for example. and watersheds. Bookstein. is comparatively well developed (Evans. both within and outside of geology and geography. 1988). Reduced to its analytic essentials. Pike and Rozema. without precise description of the what there can be no meaningful why the operation of geomorphic processes at the Earth's surface cannot be explained convincingly in quantitative terms without measures of the resulting topographic forms. 1938. or equifinality where different processes and conditions yield similar landforms (Thorn. Y) domain. 1960a). or to use topographic form effectively in related applications. whatever they might be. slopes. and other derivatives of terrain height in both the vertical (Z) domain and in the horizontal (X. Euclidean geometry vastly oversimplifies so complex a surface as continuous topography (Frank. 1967. Specific morphometry is less well developed for landforms that can be difficult to identify or delimit. such as drumlins. Hammond. geodistinguishing this craft from its practice elsewhere. it has gained acceptance mainly through the work of Evans (1972) and Mark (1975a). Without such measures and an orderly taxonomy of form it is impossible. connectivity. geomorphometry is . Mark. 1988a. ridges. Toward a Solution The need for repeatable. This approach has been particularly successful in such fields as biological systematics (Thompson. curvature. well established and nothing is to be gained by searching out an alternative. description of observations in many sciences has led to the measurement of shape. Marshall. or landscapes.Y attributes other than those based on stream order are essential to fully describe the topology of landscapes particularly where fluvial degradation is not the dominant process. it is impossible to incorporate those differences. 1992). to define rolling hills or to specify in exactly what respects the hills of Tuscany differ from those of North Dakota or the Scottish Border. lines. or landforms. 1987a. sand dunes. Jarvis and Clifford. Hoffman and Pike. depressions. 1987). Such measures should be sufficiently comprehensive to provide a signature of process (Pike. The geometry of basic elements ridges. 1935. Although a little awkward. impact craters and volcanoes. 1979a). and volumes in Euclidean space (Smith. b). The topology of these elements is most frequently expressed as a hierarchy of channel links and nodes. 1972): specific describing discrete features. save in cases of convergence. valleys. 1928. 1978. Topologic parameters have been introduced more recently to describe sequential order. into numerical models of terrain that can be related to spatial variation in climate and other natural phenomena. paleomagnetism. Finally. Specific morphometry. 1990). 1986. Two approaches to geomorphometry are often distinguished (Evans. Warheit. 1991). Many measures of both types. 1975).equated with measurable attributes of land form (Frank and others. 1988). and general describing continuous topography. Shreve.

Dikau.cirques. The content of geomorphometry (Table 2) may be more familiar to Earth scientists as terrain analysis. and morphometry includes much of each field. Frank and others. some of them marginal to the Earth sciences (Fig. The computer revolution and related technology. notably through work starting with that of Horton (1945) and more recently through the computer-partitioning of watersheds from matrices of terrain heights (Table 3. the unknown degree of scale dependence of land form. It is identified with many military and engineering applications (for example. 1992b). it is still more derivative and interdisciplinary than primary and independent. 1). 1969). The alternatives are many. a toolbox for solving terrain-related problems in science and technology. 1988a. p. Its several connotations particularly military. The field is recognized as a specialty within geology. interacts with or feeds back to. In the United States. and geomorphology (Graf. 1990). Morphometry borrows from. Acevedo and Card. Geomorphometry is evolving from a vaguely bounded and supportive role between various disciplines into a coherent academic field. Although morphometry has predictive capability (Wood. all three approaches to land-surface quantification overlap. geography. ambiguity of guidelines for sampling terrain. and karst features (Evans and Cox. a theory of morphometry might build formal geometric and topologic structures of the Earth's surface for . For example. The practice of morphometry is most primitive for the general case. it remains highly empirical and like geomorphology (Cox and Evans. Tribe. General geomorphometry today offers many challenges (Pike. and developments in topology and in surface characterization since 1957 warrant an updated definition. It is not just a set of approaches and techniques. Evans. Whatever the definition. engineering. geomorphometry is an emerging discipline of land-surface form that transcends method. but a research specialty of its own. Bekker. 1962. in somewhat the same way that crystallography provides the geometric foundation for mineralogy. as well as a subfield of digital cartography (Clarke. 1988). Peuquet. 1993) lacks unifying theory. which might be based less on physical processes and laws and more on spatial properties and relations derived from graph theory (Bunge. 1969. Such simple analogies as this would have to be developed much further and incorporate geomorphic processes. 1988a) that could be implemented by computer (Frank. Its research agenda includes the problem of nonstationarity (azimuth dependence) of much topography. 1988. geomorphology. 1990a). Much work lies ahead before a theory can be formulated for geomorphometry. Richards. continuous topography. or terrain modeling. and other engineering problems. terrain roughness. 1988. Such a theory for geomorphometry would require first a general theory of geographical space (King. exploration of the planets and Earth's seafloor.Y domain. 1967). Geomorphometry as a science is still immature. 1957. Although none of these terms is synonymous or entirely correct. two possible approaches are noted briefly here. 1989. One path is through geomorphology. or remote-sensing often address such problems in general morphometry as the classification of continuous surfaces according to roughness Morphometry Demystified Geomorphometry has been defined as the science "which treats the geometry of the landcape" (Chorley and others. 1979a). However. They range from simply quantification of topography to numerical extraction and expression of the information content of terrain surfaces. Pike. but these few words are now inadequate. quantitative geomorphology. morphometry is allied closely with surface hydrology. and difficulties in describing the organization of continuous topography in the X. 1974). 1990). 138). 1990). 1987. perhaps the most closely allied discipline (Thorn. Geography offers an alternate path to morphometric theory. Terrain analysis tends to be applied. which least directly reflects geomorphic process and is commonly applied to line-of-sight (viewshed). Mark. and furnishes information for longer-established areas of study. 1986. Rhoads and Thorn.

Remote sensing. Communications engineering. Resource management. Rural-land classification. Medical imaging. Hydrology. Mathematics. Navigation. Cartography. Meteorology & climatology. Economics. Geometry. Machine visualization. Military terrainanalysis. Computer science. Tectonics. Rural-land classification. Soil science. Risk assessment. Theoretical geography. Information technology. Oceanography. Psychology. Ecology. Microscopy. Law. Pattern recognition. Terrain modeling . Geophysics. Biological systematics. Civil engineering. Tribology >^ \b <^/ *ny \y GEOMORPHOMETRY ^^ \^ \^ \y \^ APPLICATIONS OF ANALYSES AND RESULTS Agricultural engineering. Psychology. Planetary science. Machine visualization. Topology. Physical geography.Figure 1 Some Cognate Disciplines of Geomorphometry SOURCES FOR APPROACHES AND T ECHNI QUES Artificial intelligence. Cartography. Statistics. Automotive engineering. Forestry. Land use. Geotechnical engineering. Geomorphology. Civil engineering. Physical geography. Geomorphology. Surveying. Digital image-processing. Military terrain-analysis. Engineering geology. Planning & zoning. Hydrology. Photogrammetry.

1973. Such attributes of terrain in the X. Quantitative geomorphology is a research discipline with a more strictly scientific focus. 1988c). Spatial ordering of topographic information is concerned with designs for sampling terrain. I have simply found the structure of Table 2 to be helpful in my own research. The topics and relations shown in Table 1 and Figure 1. some topics could be consolidated. almost certainly lies in what is now termed terrain modeling. but also capture much of the visual perception of surface form. The remaining six topics in Table 2 cover the technical details of terrain representation and the applications of geomorphometry. in teaching. 1964. To . 1969). and more recently a discipline in its own right. 1963. 1989). such computer-based procedures as the delimitation of watersheds from elevation matrices (Table 3) are blurring the operational distinction between general and specific cases between landscapes and landforms. Terrain analysis also can be entirely qualitative and commonly incorporates attributes of landscape other than geometry of the surface as in the mapping of land systems and similar types of natural units for land-use appraisal (Mitchell. it also addresses such complications of morphometry as its inherently spatial context. Much of the ambiguity arises from an ever-growing and diversifying technology that provides so many new ways to model topography by computer (Fisher and Lindenberg. Terrain modeling is largely an automated implementation of general geomorphometry. As a rule. Derivatives of elevation in the vertical (Z) domain include relief and slope angle. with special attention to the fidelity of digitized elevations obtained from contour maps. and with structuring the resulting elevations in ways that best describe surface form. however. The ten general areas in Table 2 are reviewed briefly here. notably drainage basins (Strahler. Pike. or surface. Morisawa. Much of the future growth of geomorphometry.Y (horizontal) domain as spacing and arrangement are more difficult to compute than Z-domain descriptors. quantitative geomorphology involves specific morphometry and rarely addresses continuous topography. It generally interprets physical processes that create discrete features or orderly groups of them. Among these are different approaches to feature measurement as well as the most common means of machine visualization relief shading. Enabling technology includes several computer-based techniques for the description of land form. Conceptual framework sets forth an approach to the numerical representation of both discrete forms and continuous topography. Increasingly. and others could be added. Way. 1990. The heading topographic data emphasizes the production of information that is used to capture surface form. but it also indicates virtually any spatial ordering and geometric or topologic rendering of the land surface by computer (Dikau. and in communicating with colleagues. modeling describes recent applications of digital-cartographic technology to topographic data (Petrie and Kennie. further aid in this attempt to define the field as it exists today. often from contour maps. which outline some applications and cognate disciplines of geomorphometry. it is not synonymous with geomorphometry. 1985) and impact craters (Baldwin. for the topics could be arranged differently. including development of its theory. 1991). geomorphometry remains diffuse and ill-defined. 1990a). Terrain modeling commonly includes relief shading and other means of machine visualization.(Bekker. and are the most easily generated descriptors of topography. save in the context of regional landscape evolution. Weibel and Heller. I have identified 49 groups of activities or topics that characterize its current state-of-art and suggest a further ten-fold ordering of them (Table 2). Terrain. Because the term was rarely used to describe quantitative work predating the computer. This classification is not unique. the first four subject headings treat introductory topics and method. 1973). Current Practice Although long established as a research endeavor. consolidate and more sharply focus the discipline of geomorphometry.

1986 Monkhouse and Wilkinson. DISCRETE FEATURES Evans. 1986 Krcho. 1988 Gibson. 1968 Dikau. 1991 GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS Aronoff. 1978 Young and Yamane. 1988 Petrie and Kennie. 1992 Hsu.1979 Heinrichs and others. 1992 Tamura and others. 1991 Franklin. 1990 ESRI. 1990a Frank. and Robinson. Palmer. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK TOWARD A THEORY OF GEOMORPHOMETRY Berry. 1986 Carrara and others. 1941 Wood and Snell. 1990 Hammond. 1991 Savitt and others.Table 2 A Topical Key to the Literature on Geomorphometry INTRODUCTION 1. 1991 Cowen. 1982 Richards. 1992 Hoffman. 1974 Mark and Frank. 1973. and Robinson. 1990 Hoffman and Pike. 1954a. Goodchild. 1965 MORPHOMETRY AS ANALYTICAL CARTOGRAPHY Chervyakov. 1992 Frank. 1974 Lay. 1990 Weibel. 1988 PERCEPTION & COGNITION OF TOPOGRAPHY Aloimonos. 1945 Mark and Warntz. 1989 Burrough. 1990 Dikau. 1965 Jarvis and Clifford. 1972. 1990 Clarke. 1990 Strahler. 1992a Maguire. 1976 METHOD 2. 1989. 1990 Mark. 1960a LAND FORM VS. 1975b Renwick. 1990 Dikau. 1971 Peucker. Palmer. 1954a. LANDFORMS: CONTINUOUS SURFACES VS. 1992 Wolfanger. 1992 Weibel and Heller. McCullagh. 1989 Thorn. 1992 QUANTIFYING TOPOGRAPHY NEEDS & CAPABILITIES Clarke.1990 Kugler. 1989 REMOTE SENSING Eppler and Farmer. 1966 Greysukh. 1972 Tobler. 1988 Davis and Dozier. and Rhind. 1991 Raper. 1991 10 . 1965 Horton. 1982 Ktty. 1990a. ENABLING TECHNOLOGY DIGITAL TERRAIN (SURFACE) MODELING Clarke.1987a. 1992 Weaver. 1967 Hammond. 1950.

TOPOGRAPHIC DATA ACCURACY OF CONTOUR MAPS El-Tahlawi and Rashad. 1988 Pike and Thelin. 1992 Yoeli. 1985 Peddle and Franklin. 1991 Nagao and Matsuyama. and Berlin. 1984 DIGITAL IMAGE-PROCESSING Fabbri. and Thelin. 1988 Schut. Defense Mapping Agency. 1990 Cole and others. 1989 Schenk and Zilberstein. 1976 Sharif and Makarovic. 1988 Hadipriono and others. Acevedo. 1986 11 . Pike. 1988 Moellering and Kimerling. 1991b. 1981 Dozier and Frew. 1991 Yoeli. 1967 AUTOMATED PATTERN RECOGNITION & FEATURE EXTRACTION Argialas and others. 1987 Turner and Miles. 1990 Topographic Science Working Group. 1991b 3. 1992 McCulloch and Marinaro. 1987 Lay. 1981. 1990 Rosenfeld. 1982 Mahoney and others.Haralick and others. 1987 Greysukh. 1989 AUTOMATED RELIEF SHADING & PHOTOCLINOMETRY Batson and others. 1990 Muller and others. 1984 Jensen. 1990 Hutchinson and Dowling. 1991 Fahsi and others. 1975 Dubayah and Dozier. 1983a DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS (DEM's) & DIGITAL LINE GRAPHS (DLG's) I CREATION & AVAILABILITY Berry and others. 1991 Raggam and others. 1992b Evans. 1987 Grender. 1985 Ivanov and Chalova. 1991 Toriwaki and Fukumura. 1978 Wang and others. 1990 Collins and Moon. 1981 Graff. 1980 Thorn and others. 1988 Thelin and Pike. 1980 Franklin and Peddle. 1968 Wolf. 1985 Leberl and others. 1991 Horn.1990 Kennie and McLaren. 1990 ESRI. 1988 Rinehart and Coleman. 1986 Elvhage and Lidmar-Bergstrom. 1989 Riazanoff and others. 1983 Hall and others. 1989 Smith and Wessel. 1988 Gustafson and Loon.S. 1987 Hobson. 1988 Buttenfield. 1986 Ounnazd and others. 1991 Kidner and Smith. 1967 Haralick and others. 1992 Narasimhan and Argialas. 1990 Schaber. 1976 Guth and others. 1988 Nogami. 1988 COMPUTER ALGORITHMS & SOFTWARE PACKAGES Barchi and Guzzetti. 1989 Sasowsky and others. 1992 Wolf and Wingham. 1990 Usery and others. 1987 Friedhoff and Benzon. 1992 EXPERT SYSTEMS & ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Argialas and Narasimhan. 1980 Pao. 1988 Elassal and Caruso. 1990 Gugan and Dowman. 1991 Mark. 1988 U. 1979 Pike. 1990 Mackay and others. 1967 Jenson and Domingue. 1989 Peuquet.

1988 CARTOGRAPHIC DATA STRUCTURES II SURFACE-SPECIFIC Falcidieno and Pienovi. 1991 Lee. 1990 Theobald and Goodchild. 1986 ESRI. 1992 Ostman. 1991b McKenna. 1967 4. 1990 Maling. 1986 ESRI. 1992 Gardner. 1980 Mark. 1989 Mark. Acevedo. 1959. 1968 Ohmori.OEM's & DLG's II ASSESSMENT OF ERROR & QUALITY Acevedo. 1984 Forstner. Palmer. 1989 Carstensen. 1988 Wolf. 1989 Polidori and others. 1990 CHARACTERIZATION 5. 1967 Wood and Snell. 1975 Thapa. 1989 Wood. 1990 Frank. 1993 Raggam and others. 1966 Evans. 1985 Chen and Tobler. 1990 Richards. Z-DOMAIN ATTRIBUTES ELEVATION & SOME OF ITS DERIVATIVES Clarke. 1991a Ibbs and Stevens.1992 Hannah. Kimber. SPATIAL ORDERING OF TOPOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SAMPLE DESIGNS TO EXTRACT DATA FROM CONTOUR MAPS Ansoult. Barry. 1978 Plews and Clarke. 1961 Strahler. 1989 Theobald and Goodchild. 1983 Guth. 1989. 1984 Leberl and others. 1967 Strahler. and Card. 1975b Ming. 1979b Peucker and Chrisman. 1952 Tanner. 1990 Shaffer. 1991 Samet. Fowler. and Mark. 1991 Theobald. 1981 Li. 1982 Peucker.1960 LOCAL (RELATIVE) RELIEF Ahnert. 1991b Goodrich and others. and Robinson.1992 Ebisch. 1988 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES OF DATA ACQUISITION Bjornsson. 1988 Brozena and others. 1992 Gugan and Dowman. 1989 Maguire. 1975a Ohmori and Hirano. 1990 USGS. 1971 Stearns. 1988 Krabill and others. 1986 Mirante and Weingarten. 1978 Pike. 1956 Wood. 1991 Carter. 1992 Evans and others. 199 la THE TRIANGULATED IRREGULAR NETWORK (TIN) DeFloriani and others. 1988 12 . Little. 1992 Snell. 1984 Pike and Wilson. and Chick. 1984 Drummond and Dennis. 1987 Pan. 1960a CARTOGRAPHIC DATA STRUCTURES I RASTER & QUADTREE Cebrian and others. 1986 Mark. 1967 Zakrzewska. 1991 Marks and others.

1984 Pike. 1972a Woronow. 1991 McArthur and Ehrlich. 1970 Evans. 1959 Whalley and Orford.Y-DOMAIN ATTRIBUTES AZIMUTH (ASPECT) OF TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES Abdel-Rahman and Hay. Newman. 1987 Eppler and Farmer. 1975 Hallet. 1984 LaGro. 1978 Heerdegen and Beran. 1968 Speight. 1981 Jones. and Brabb. 1988 Shreve. 1992 Lancaster. 1981 Dale and Ballantyne. 1988 Mulla. 1986 O'Neill and Mark. 1988 Williams. 1987 TOPOLOGY OF CHANNELS AND OTHER ELEMENTS OF FORM Abrahams. 1981 TERRAIN TEXTURE I SPACING & FREQUENCY Dolan and others. 1974 Gregory and Gardiner. 1976 Komar. 1988 Pike and Rozema. 1975 Warntz. 1980 Frank. 1970a Blong. 1991 6. 1977 Howard. 1990 Vincent. 1990 Hsu. 1988 Moore and Mark. 1986 Hallet. 1991 Franklin and Peddle. 1971 Strahler. 1987 He and Wang. 1987 Bras and Rodriguez-Iturbe. 1988 Wadge and Cross. 1986 Trifonov and Shults. 1992 13 . 1956 Young. 1972 CURVATURE OF SLOPE IN PROFILE Carrara and others. 1989 Hadipriono and others. 1982 Papo and Gelbman.1980 Snow. 1989 Van Lopik and Kolb. 1987a Pitiy. 1975 Werner. 1975 Tarboton and others. 1980 Evans. 1990 Haralick. 1967 Montgomery and Dietrich. 1973 Howard. 1965 Williams. 1979a. 1970 Piotrowski.ANGLE OF SURFACE SLOPE Agopova. SCALE DEPENDENCY & SPATIAL SELF-ORGANIZATION VARIATION OF LAND FORM WITH SPATIAL SCALE Church and Mark. and Robinson. 1965 PLANIMETRIC SHAPE OF TERRAIN FEATURES Jarvis. X. 1989 7. 1965 Ahnert. 1989 Haynes. 1989 Troeh. 1978 Mark. 1974 LAND-SURFACE CURVATURE IN PLAN Chang and Toebes. 1988a Troeh. 1968 Wadge. 1990a Mark. Palmer. 1972. 1978 Hill. 1990 Lettau. 1992 TERRAIN TEXTURE II ARRANGEMENT (PATTERN) Anderson. 1977b Gordon. 1975 Mark. 1988 Rossbacher. 1977 Ongley.

1975 Church and Mark. 1973 Pike. 1989 Scheidegger. and Card. 1954a Mather. 1963 RESULTS & APPLICATIONS 9. 1990 Snow and Mayer. 1991 Eyles. 1959 TOPOGRAPHIC TYPES & TOPOGRAPHIC REGIONS Beckinsale and Chorley. 1985 Jaeger and Schuxing. 1977 Gray. 1986 Piech and Piech. 1975a Melton. 1966 SPATIAL AUTOCORRELATION OF TOPOGRAPHY Mark and Aronson. REDUNDANCY OF TERRAIN PARAMETERS MEASUREMENT OF COVARIANCE Engstrom. 1986 Pike. 1984a Miller and others. 1975 Rayner. 1979b Evans. 1966 Tobler. 1990 Pike. 1988 Mather and Doornkamp. 1972 Parry and Beswick. 1988a Schreier and Lavkulich. 1964a. 1970 Scott and Austin. 1972 Hammond. 1987 Liu. 1984 Pike and Rozema.1984a Gordon. 1971 Speight. 1979 Speight. 1960a 14 . II. 1990 Wood and Snell. 1977 Oliver and Webster. 1991 Dikau. 1992 Xia.1992 Phillips.Shaw and Smith. 1972 Woldenberg. 1991b UNIFORM & NONUNIFORM RELATIONS OF SCALING ISOMETRY & ALLOMETRY Bull. Clarke. TERRAIN TAXONOMY CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES & THE GEOMETRIC SIGNATURE Demek. 1989 Thompson. 1958b Pike and Wilson. 1988 PROPERTIES OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC VARIANCE SPECTRUM Bryson and Button. 1967 Ferguson. 1971 Hammond. 1984 Olea. 1966 Weibel. 1976 Van Lopik and Kolb. 1966 Mark and Aronson. 1971 SORTING OUT INDEPENDENT DESCRIPTORS Ebisemiju. 1972 Sprent. 1959 Wood and Snell. and Mark. 1974. 1980 Mosley and Parker. 1957 CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION & MAP SCALE Buttenfield.1988b Wong. 1959c Woodcock and others. b Rrasnovskaia. Acevedo. 1989 Evans. 1968. 1961 Mark.1974 Wood and Snell. 1975 Fox and Hayes. 199 Ib 8. 1972. 1972 FRACTAL DIMENSIONS OF TOPOGRAPHY Burrough. and Plews. Brabb. 1986 Goodchild and Mark. 1981 Clarke. 1989 McMaster. 1992 Wolf.

1973 Stewart. 1992 Dyer and Vinogradov. INTERPRETATION OF SURFACE-SHAPING PROCESSES SURFACE HYDROLOGY I DRAINAGE BASIN MORPHOMETRY Abrahams. 1989 Isachenko. 1987b Fox and Hayes. 1983 Mock and others. 1968 Townshend. 1992 Tinkler. and Mark. 1988 Mills and Starnes. 1978 Lancaster. McCauley. 1978 Chorowicz and others. 1973 ENGINEERING CATEGORIZATION OF TOPOGRAPHY Bekker. 1985 SURFACE HYDROLOGY II MODELING CHANGES IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT Committee on Global Change. 1983 Silva and others. 1987 Vertessey and others. 1990 Davis and others. 1991 Craig. 1980. 1967 Tarboton. 1981 McEwen and Malin. 1964. 1989 Toppe. 1991 Cook and others. 1992 Costes and others. 1983 15 . 1990 Sauchyn and Gardiner. 1963 Wentworth. 1977a Evans. 1987 SURFACE HYDROLOGY III THE AUTOMATED DEM-TO-WATERSHED TRANSFORMATION Tribe. 1992 Isacks and Mouginis-Mark. 1984 Band and others. 1990 Henderson-Sellars and Dickinson. 1975 Tunnard and Pushkarev. 1988 Strahler. 1988 Band and others. 1982 1O. 1972 Fisher. 1990a. 1990 Rowan. 1969 Chiou and others. 1982a Gardiner and Park. 1985 Hakanson. and Holm. 1974 Piotrowski. 1985 Brabb. 1988 MODELING & SIMULATION OF PROCESS Anderson. 1982 Dolan and others. 1988 Elmes and others. 1991 Gardiner. 1992 Pike. 1992b (review paper) (Table 3 has > 100 more references) TOPOGRAPHY SHAPED BY NONFLUVIAL PROCESSES Carrara and others. 1975 Petrie and Kennie. 1991 Norton and Sorenson. 1981 Way. b Patton. 1973 Mitchell. 1984 Mayer and others. 1969 Tsipis.1992 Zavoianu. 1989 Rentsch and others. 1992 Smith. 1992 Lettau. 1971 Rozema. 1985 Zecharias and Brutsaert. Ellen. 1972 Morhange. 1991 Morris. 1977b. 1991 Colleau and Lenotre.1989 Hugus and Mark. 1992 Carrara and others. 1978 Howard. 1989 Simpson and Anders. 1991b Goldberg. 1990 OTHER APPLICATIONS RELATED TO GEOMORPHOLOGY Aniya. 1962a Hibler. 1987 Burbank.TERRAIN EVALUATION & LAND SYSTEMS Burrough. 1992 Young and Pielke. 1971 Zachar.

Carrara. and large sets of topographic data that drive current research were unknown just 25 or 30 years ago. and volumetric analysis. are a major goal of geomorphometry. Carrara and others. The parameters of form that have been found effective for abstracting natural topography are the subject of much current experimentation (Table 2. missile targeting. These computerdriven advances have led to new ways to represent topography (Goodchild and Mark. Kobashi and Hirano. topologic modeling. various types of sampling from both profiles and matrices. Many classification schemes address numerical problems in the interpretation of land-surface processes from land form. numerical taxonomy. Mark. percentage hypsometry. or scale. morphometry has been adapted to regional tectonics (Burbank. and for virtually any number of terrain types. planetary and deep-sea exploration. are especially powerful (Franklin. As a result. progress in specific and especially in general geomorphometry has greatly accelerated. 1993). planning recreational land-use. Many measures may describe the same attribute of form. Combinations of morphometric data with nontopographic information. measuring road and runway roughness. and risk-assessment of slope failure from digital terrain data (Lied and Bakkeh0i. relief. from remote sensing and other cartographic sources. 1991. They include roughness analysis. and the degree of scale dependency and spatial self-organization is itself a key descriptor of form. texture analysis. One of the most successful of these combined applications has been the spatially-based study of natural hazards particularly the recognition. overlapping activities that have long been central to geomorphometry developing new techniques of analysis and testing descriptive parameters. Applications -range from watershed management. 1969. quantifying cross-country mobility. 1988. Topography differs in shape with level of generalization. prediction. feature complexity and connectivity. machine visualization and its complement shape-from-shading (photoclinometry). altimetric analysis. nearest-neighbor analysis. 16 . line-of-sight (viewshed) modeling. 1985. input/output and communications devices. 1972). and geographic information systems (GIS) have revolutionized morphometry. 1983a. 1987a). spectral analysis. Most recently. mainly topics 2. and siting installations for microwave transmission. such redundancy of terrain parameters can be sharply reduced through correlation and multivariate analysis. slope-frequency statistics. The high-speed digital computers. and assessing soil erosion to meteorological modeling. Systems for terrain taxonomy. promising techniques and parameters can now be tested and evaluated rapidly. degree of randomness. Aniya. but the enabling technology is new. multivariate statistics. 1988a. 4. analytical algorithms. 1980. Chorley. alignment (including parallelism). spacing. All ten general categories in Table 2 are active areas of research. and scale dependency. These measures describe various properties of elevation. The resulting innovations in such related specialties as digital cartography. computer graphics. Ellen and others. and 8). 1992. curvature in plan and profile. Operational techniques often are adapted from allied disciplines (Fig. slope. network analysis.These spatial properties do not necessarily require elevation data. but several of them focus on two broad. Bekker. Brabb. direction and strength of aspect (azimuth). 1941. 1992). Bernknopf and others. 1985. I m plem entation Some of the issues in terrain quantification currently addressed by geomorphometry may be old (Wolfanger. 1. Table 2. mainly topics 5-7). Large tracts of continuous topography can now be described in detail rather than characterized from a few samples. The crucial improvement has been in the speed and volume of data processing. 1987. including those in surface hydrology and the geomorphology of landforms other than drainage basins. particularly in continuous topography. mapping eco-regions. signature analysis (fingerprinting). The uses for geomorphometry (Table 1) continue to multiply as computer technology advances and more digital data become available. Pike.

1971). 1962. 1992). 1969a. and climatology (Henderson-Sellars. The literature has become so heterogeneous and scattered that it is impossible to command the subject by consulting just a few key serials in geology or geography. 1986. and scores of serials in the Earth sciences and related areas (Figure 1). This body of material is large because so much of modern geomorphometry is the product of the Cold War (1946-1991) and its offshoot. Progress in information technology promises to sustain the current vitality of geomorphometry. (The open literature resulting from such work reveals a virtual who's who in geomorphometry. digital elevation models (DEM's) or digitial terrain models (DTM's) (Case. 1990. Through image processing. 1952. notably by fuzzy-set logic or neural networks. 199 Ib). 1978). Maguire and others. remote sensing. Recent developments in remote-sensing technology should. Despite much progress. promise to contribute to solving this problem and others (Narasimhan and Argialas. Clarke. Strahler. but its early applications were largely military (Noma and Misulia. oceanography (Fox and Hayes. Moore. defined here as anything published before World War II. Today. spatial modeling. Acevedo. spatial statistics.1979. however. Hammond. The chief impediment to a wider practice of geomorphometry has always been the slow capture of data through manual measurement of topography. 1967. planetology (Leberl and others. 1990. THE BIBLIOGRAPHY Background The rapid growth and diversification of geomorphometry have created serious problems of information retrieval. Evans. 1935. Horton and others. Applicable techniques include knowledge-based recognition and extraction of specific features by computer (Chorowicz and others. 1990. The square-grid DEM was first implemented by computer in the late 1950's by Charles Miller and his colleagues in the department of civil engineering at MIT (Roberts. Wood. in time. the Apollo Moon-landing program (1960-1972). usually on contour maps (Raisz and Henry. . 1957). Boehm. Improved description of spatial patterns and their analysis. machine visualization. Soon adapted to civilian engineering and Earth science in limited applications (for example. One problem at the frontier of current research in geomorphometry is the automated parsing and classification of continuous topography at different scales. Hobson. Melton. 1992. 1983). Tarboton. 1992). 1991) as well as greater variety in the applications of morphometry (Burrough. the grid DEM was first thoroughly explored for 17 its potential value to morphometry by Evans (1972. and computer graphics. 1990). shortcomings in the quality of DEM's remain (Theobald and Goodchild. origin was not conducive to publishing in the open literature. Such ease of access has not prevailed since the war. 1992).1980). textbooks. Early work. the digital-computer revolution has laid the necessary foundation for future contributions in the field. 1991). 1937. appeared almost exclusively in a few European journals of geography (Smith. Much research on morphometry is inaccessible because its mission-oriented. lead to removal of these obstacles (Evans and others. 1956). 1985). Falcidieno and Spagnuolo. technical reports. Petrie and Kennie. Tobler. Sui. The stillevolving body of writing on morphometry is shared among increasing numbers of edited collections and symposium volumes. including Strahler. 1992). Neuenschwander. and pattern recognition. 1989. This problem is being eliminated by the mass production of large matrices and networks of terrain heights. Tobler. commonly military.1987. Prolific contributors include the rapidly growing fields of digital cartography. 1991) and DEM coverage of many parts of the world is either lacking or prohibitively expensive (Wolf and Wingham. New developments in morphometry are being implemented in such allied disciplines as remote sensing (Haralick. 1989. Chapman. 1967). 1959. Pike and Wilson. little morphometric work is attempted without DEM data. 1944).

Burrough (1986). The resulting bibliographic entries are cited largely. dating from the late 18th century. The literature search culminating in this report began shortly after that second course. Stewart (1968). McCullagh (1988). Hormann (1971). limited-distribution and in-house documents of military and other governmental agencies (particularly NASA) and their outside contractors (Peltier. Mays.and Van Lopik (1962. no interdisciplinary list of these governmentsponsored works has been compiled previously. The 49 subheadings in Table 2 are the latest iteration of that syllabus. I have referenced related studies from such peripheral fields as tribology (the study of abraded metal surfaces). and Petrie and Kennie (1990). The compilations by Can. Thorn (1988). Mitchell (1973). Hammond. agricultural and military engineering. and other concerns of data capture. It provides access to the entire field of geomorphometry by collecting representative citations of its dispersed and varied writings into a single source. 1963) also are dated and hard to locate. in particular the section on morphometry edited by K.Peucker. Chorley (1972). Richards. Once the best. Most of this material is unclassified but is not well known to the newer students of morphometry and. as well as for the conceptual organization of the various elements of geomorphometry. although technological advances should soon render much of this material obsolete. both on overviews of the subject and on its individual facets. 1979. Speight (1974). became especially evident to me in 1988 while preparing the syllabus for a four-week summer course on the subject. The alphabetized list of over 2100 entries. meteorology. 1969). Zakrzewska (1967). Neuenschwander (1944) now is useful only as a historical source. Mulla. as is the survey of early Russian work by Bocharov and Nikolayev (1957). are appended to more recent research papers. The variety of references reflects the great diversity of geomorphometry. Bekker (1969). Salisbury (1971).S. 1958. 1966. Horn (1981). Xia and others. The listing is biased somewhat toward geomorphology and is perhaps weakest on civilian applications in engineering. in any case. if difficult to find. is 18 . literature reviews. 1975. in the format of the U. See Pruitt. which also served as the outline of a study guide for the course the following year. It emphasizes recent work.1979). The need for such a compilation. it is oriented toward geomorphology rather than engineering applications.S. 1984. or monographs. 1953 and 1956. and vary from obscure to celebrated and from trivial to profound. 1960a. However. To encourage different approaches to problems in morphometry. Perhaps the most useful single source is the volume of Goudie and others (1990). Basic works from the growing literature on geographic information systems (GIS) and related advances in computer technology and digital cartography also are included. but not entirely. and David Mark. The listing is good on the extraction of digital elevations from contour maps. Wood and Snell. is not readily accessible to them. Among these are Clarke (1966). Mark (1975a). planetary-surface exploration. Purpose and scope The bibliography included in this report addresses the problems of informationretrieval just described. Geological Survey. these flaws reflect the occasional use of secondary sources and the short time available for the project. current through 1992. but none of them is both current and has the great breadth required for research in the field today. Helpful reference lists. 199 Ib) and harmonic analysis (Pike and Rozema. include routine applications as well as outstanding contributions to technique. Pike and Rozema (1975).) Major contributions to the field reside in the "gray literature". Some citations are incomplete and others are irregular in format. 1). and pyschology (Fig. Such recent developments in terrain representation as fractal geometry (Mark and Aronson. Morisawa (1985). 1993 abstracts indicate some of the newest research trends. Evans (1972. It has been a part-time endeavor. Bibliographies on various aspects of geomorphometry have been published. Davis. Citations range from abstracts to long books. 1988) are well covered. To my knowledge.

Cox. It thus remains something of a browser's choice. and I have only sampled these.S. 1974). describe provocative analogies to terrain. The quantification of landforms per se is well treated in the literature of geology and geomorphology. among the first to be treated quantitatively (Schroter. Horn and Brooks. Accordingly. 1987). even at the risk of perpetuating incomplete or incorrect citations.S. The topics in Table 2 overlap considerably. 1985.1988c. Many documents came from the estate of Walter Wood. The bibliography is idiosyncratic in several further respects. although I have attempted a token representation of the large non-English literature (for example. Other references are familiar to me from participation in the NASA Apollo program. my referencing of slopeprofile analysis only samples the available information (Pitty. 1968. I knew of some of this material from my early work with Walter F. A similar 19 . although some recent references to the literature on those and other landforms are provided (Table 2). 1969). I have ignored much of the large literature on impact craters the most symmetric and easily measured of all landforms. 1962) and at Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory (Pike. In this respect I have thought it more helpful to be inclusive than exclusive. relief shading. My bibliography includes much historical material. Young. Zavoianu. 1990). provide helpful examples or teaching material. Comparable material from other governments is poorly known to me and little of it is included in the bibliography. and my own area of specialization (Pike. which addresses the shape of landforms discrete units of topography shaped by known or likely physical processes. 1972. 1974. Extensive reference lists are already available for some sub-specialties (for example. This selection provides an up-to-date introduction to each of the 49 sub-fields and activities within geomorphometry as well as guidance in pursuing further study from entries in the main listing. that material is well accessed by other recent surveys (Gardiner. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center (Wood and others. Wood at the U. drumlins (Piotrowski. Horn. 1989). Hermann. For similar reasons. or simply offer food for thought. Pike and Spudis. Some entries. b). 1982a. 1990a. Subsets of the main list The bibliography is not annotated or subdivided by topic. 1978b). 1957. especially old works and those in languages other than English. I have been more selective for specific geomorphometry. 1979). are not wholly germane to morphometry.1977. However. the form of continuous topography. 1990). and in such cases I have relied on existing bibliographies (for example. many more applications of terrain intelligence to military doctrine and tactics are not generally available. the listing makes no pretence to completeness. 1791). only a small fraction of the vast body of writing on hydraulic geometry and the morphometry of drainage basins is included here. Government "gray literature" on morphometry as I have been able to locate without a prolonged search. and few of the references fit comfortably in only one category. even though it is now technically obsolete. such as those on statistics and numerical taxonomy or on evolution of the digital computer and its applications. 1989) and sand dunes (Breed and Grow. The listing is similarly thin on the morphometry of such well defined features as volcanoes (Pike. Howard. 1964). references in Krcho. during the development of design criteria for the lunar roving vehicle (Pike. Although I have touched on many facets of geomorphometry and have tried to omit no important works. Emphasis of the bibliography is on general geomorphometry. Kugler. so that students may trace the development of thought and practice in the field.The bibliography includes as much U. 1971. 1981. These shortcomings are partly offset by the stuctured sample of some 350 references in Table 2. they contain interesting background. Although numerous military-sponsored documents are cited. Bocharov and Nikolayev. I have neither seen nor read many of the obscure sources. English-language publications predominate. none of this classified material is given here.

1990 Finsterwalder. 1991 Lee and Snyder. 1985 Falcidieno & Spagnuolo. 1992 Tribe. 1990 Cuevas-Renaud. 1992 Chorowicz and others. 1988 Martz and DeJong. 1990 Rudyy. 1986a. 1972 Sprunt. 1984 Tarboton and others. 1984 O'Callaghan and Mark. 1981 1983 Carroll. 1992 1993 Chorowicz and others. 1991 Quinn and others. 1988 Jenson and Domingue. 1987 Martz and DeJong. 1987 Jenson and Trautwein. 1991 Jenson. 1992 ESRI. 1984 Ehlschlaeger. 1972 Yuan and Vanderpool. 1989 Yoeli. 1988 Hutchinson. 1990 Douglas. 1987 Weibel and others. 1986 1984 1989 1992 Blaszczynski. 1991 Band. 1975 Johnston and Rosenfeld. 1989c Hugus and Mark. 1993 Garbrecht and Martz. 1990 1986 Quian and others. 1988 Morris and Heerdegen. 1983c Marks and others. 1989b. 1991 Hutchinson & Dowling. 1993 20 . 1986 Theobald. 1978 1988 Band and Wood. 1983 Band. 1990 Nogami. 1992 Martz and Garbrecht. 1986 Van Deursen & Kwadijk. 1986b Skidmore. 1975 1978 Moon. 1988 Carrara. 1991 Tribe. 1989a. 1991 Band and others. 1989 Chan. 1985 Lammers and Band. 1990 1987 Bevaqua and Floris. 1985 Gardner and others. 1989 Miller and Goldberg. 1991 Tarboton and others. 1991 Freeman. 1986 Scarlatos. 1992 White and others. 1983 Mark.S. 1991 Martz and DeJong. 1991 Vincent and Soille. 1984 Connors and others. 1992 Rokos and Armstrong. 1992 Ehlschlaeger. 1993 Helmlinger and others. 1992 Lozar. 1987 Carla1 and others. 1986 Soille and Vincent. 1985 Jones and others. 1991 Fairfield and Leymarie. 1990 Zhang and others. 1988 1981 Collins and Moon. 1985 Jenson. 1991 Moore and others. 1991 1975 Collins. 1986 Smith and others. 1990 Band and Robinson. 1987 Goldberg and others. 1990 Morris. 1992a. 1986 Soille and Ansoult. 1990 Palacios-Velez and Tribe. 1992 Smith and Brilly. 1990 Baglio and others. 1992 Pratson and Ryan. 1992 Wiche and others. 1988 Beven and others. 1992 Chou. 1989 Hutchinson. 1990 Carrara. 1989 1985 Yoshiyama.Table 3 Evolution of Research on the DEM-to-Watershed Transformation 1972 Natarajan. 1989 Palmer. 1991 U. 1989 Marks and others. 1991 Moore and Gray son. 1992 Sekulin and others. 1975 Peucker and Douglas. 1986 Theobald and Goodchild. 1984 Bennett and Armstrong. 1990 Band. 1992b Weibel. 1988 Riazanoff and others. 1985 1990 Kobashi and Hirano. 1990 Frank and others. Army. 1992 Donker. 1989 Weibel. 1987 1991 Aumann and others. 1984 Seemuller. 1991 Majure and Eash. 1990 Miller. 1992 Mackay and others.

Amendments Incorrect and incomplete citations of the literature resulting from failure to consult original works. instances of the first two types of error cited above certainly remain and are my responsibility. Some elements of geomorphometry are particularly important now. Mark. 1992b). karst.ordering of all 2100-odd entries in the main listing would warrant additional. Independent. Blaszcznski. ESRI. 1972) to its practical application (Band and others. Suggestions for revision or improvement in the arrangement of sub-topics within geomorphometry (Table 2) also are solicited. Over 100 references in Table 3 trace this recent breakthrough in digital cartography from inception (Natarajan. Evans. Subsequent enhancements compute a suite of geometric descriptors for each basin (Majure and Eash. The DEM-to-watershed transformation (Table 3) is a computationally intensive procedure that creates a network of surfacespecific lines (ridges and drains) from a matrix of square-grid elevations and delimits areas (drainage basins). particularly in areas of low relief (Martz and Garbrecht. and other landscapes that lack well integrated drainage. 1988). Tribe (1992b) offers a good recent review of the procedure and discusses many of the references in Table 3. or TIN (Kumler. Klinkenberg. The procedure can yield good results in topography that has sufficient relief to define the fluvial net unambiguously from a DEM.S. 1991. 1990. thus enabling much topography to be analyzed by the techniques of specific rather than general morphometry. Although effort has been made to assure that the references are correct. 1944). all entries were collected by one person and compiled in a computer file that was repeatedly checked and updated. To work properly the technique also requires a closely spaced DEM of good quality. The transformation is important because it fundamentally reorganizes topographic 21 information. 1958. Haralick and others. 1930. 1992). from continuous terrain into a mosaic of landforms. Table 3 also omits a few references that describe the automated extraction of drainage networks using digital images instead of DEM's (Toriwaki and Fukumura. These fast-evolving topics include the triangulated irregular network. 1985). Army. mistakes always enter a listing of the size and detail presented here even when. It is less successful in glaciated. 1989. Sprunt. I apologize for them and hope they are not too many or unduly misleading. I encountered many such errors in my survey of the discipline and have tried not to perpetuate them. and their literature warrants special attention. 1979. works. 1991). 1972. To exemplify the evolution of one of these topics. carelessness in manuscript preparation. topics. fractal modeling of topography (Polidori and others. but older or less available. 1978. Hammond. However. or typesetting errors are an irritating fact of life. Lee and others. 1992) and its incorporation into both commercial and public-domain software (U. Lee. eolian. Kundert. Smith. 199 Ib). 1984). Neuenschwander. 1991. as in this case. Mistakes and omissions that are found by readers should be called to my attention so that corrections can be released in an addendum or in a more formal publication of the bibliography. 1991. . and the automatic extraction of terrain features from DEM's and digital images by such advanced techniques as pattern recognition (Chorowicz and others. 1992). Other major contributions to morphometry are excluded from Table 2 because they are unlikely to be found in all but specialized or research collections and large libraries (for example. parallel work on the problem converged about 1982 (Marks and others. They are especially annoying in geomorphometry because much of this diverse literature is unfamiliar to specialists. 1992). 1977. 1935. Because Table 2 is deliberately biased toward recent publications in each category. Most references in Table 2 are published in the open literature and have good bibliographies that provide further access to the specialized literature and cite important. some old classics are absent (Wentworth. I have attempted a comprehensive listing for the automated DEM-to-watershed transformation an area so active that the resulting list (Table 3) is already dated. 1983. more specialized.

Filling one such gap. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories). Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Road Menlo Park. William Acevedo and Steve Ellen helped clarify and reorganize Table 2 and Figure 1. FAX [415] 329-4936 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I am grateful to all my colleagues from the CNR-USGS summer courses in hydrogeological hazards held in Perugia. Address correspondence to: Richard J. Lastly. However.S. if one given name. 22 . CA 94025 U. 1962). issue number. For meetings give location and dates. This facet of geomorphometry. Discussions with Richard Dikau. the exact and complete citation of serial or other form of publication (book. Italy. government agencies and their civilian contractors commonly destroy restricted documents as they become obsolete (for example. Pike M/S975 U. if at all possible. comparable research in morphometry almost certainly was pursued by military agencies of former Warsaw Pact nations. including volume number. especially the Soviet Union. and inclusive page numbers. if accompanied by a translation of the citation (particularly for languages in non-Roman characters). such outdated writings can be valuable in tracing the history of geomorphometry and should be made public. University of Heidelberg. remains unknown to me save for possibly related civilian and academic references in Krcho (1990). To ensure accuracy and reduce ambiguity. for books give name of city and publisher.S. Even office correspondence may be significant (for example. and the name(s) of authors).A. would also require access to sources that are closed. surname plus two initials (or. and Elaine Wood for the professional archives of her late husband. I welcome additions to this bibliography from its users. Staff at the Menlo Park USGS library were unfailingly helpful. conference proceedings. and Ellen suggested improvements to the manuscript. Wood. I thank Waldo Tobler for Krcho (1990) and other books. expanded my view of the field. Lastly. However. please send reprints or photocopies of proposed additions rather than just the citations. in 1988 and 1989 for the opportunity to draw together the literature on morphometry and the incentive to compile this bibliography. ojr. year of publication 3. photocopy of title page. on the military applications of morphometry. the emphasis should be on general rather than specific morphometry. and so forth). Entries in languages other than English are especially wanted. which would be of historical and probably substantive value. I can entertain new entries if just the following information is provided: 1. Groenewood. title of the work.Some voids remain in the bibliography and most of them reflect the limited time available for the project. Walter F. Dikau also provided references to the European literature. respectively. Although the end of the Cold War may lead to declassification of material from that period. then spelled out) 2. Again.

2. p. 1991. 12.. Channel networks..S. 365-380.. p. 1980. v. 4.PIKE/USGS OF93-262A . p.W. v. An approach towards a descriptive classification of slopes: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie. Modelling Geomorphological Systems: London. 11. 38. J. 3. 1978. 1984. Peter. San Francisco. Barry. 2. p. William. Ahnert.. June 2122: Abstract Booklet. and Earl. 44. Adams.. Frank. International Geomorphology 1986: London. p. M. regular or random. 1980. Ackerson. no. M.A.K. V.. A. a geomorphologic perspective: Water Resources Research. 1991. New Jersey. no. Supplementband 9. v.S. William.D. Functional relationships between denudation. p.. Acevedo.). R. p. Channel network topology..D.. p. 3rd. v. Abdel-Rahman. J. Abler. Frank. International Conference on Basement Tectonics. Annual Convention. Chapter 13. 135138. Abrahams. 2. Baltimore. Frank. p. Parsons. and Hay.. and Fish. 77-81. p. 1970a. p. in American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing American Congress on Surveying and Mapping. 145-158. Abrahams. v. and Pike. An evaluation of landscape units: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. ed. eds. 284. Divide angles and their relation to interior link lengths in natural channel networks: Geographical Analysis. no. v. 161-188. p. no. Ronald. Acreman. 1987. AJD. Acevedo. Modelling landform change. 1986. 157-171. Ahnert. Basement Tectonics Committee: Proceedings. 137-151. Classification of drainage basins according to their physical characteristics. in O'Leary.. Ahnert. the Geographer's View of the World: Englewood Cliffs. Abrahams. Agopova. 1537-1548. A.. v. an application for flood frequency analysis in Scotland: Journal of Hydrology. and Pike. 3.. no.L. Part H. ASTM Committee D-18 and U. in Gardiner.B. p.D.. March 25-29. Ackermann. 243-263.. 3/4.M. 12. v. Frank. 1984. no. in Anderson. 268. 2. 73-86. 84.. William. Vincent. Spatial Organization.168 p. Abers.G. 1988. 347-358. D. A. 71-84. J. 23 R. 587 p.. John Wiley and Sons. Ahnert.C.J. Sampling and statistical analysis of multi-modal orientation data. G. E. ed. 1-12. 2 (Cartography and GIS/LIS).. 40. Denver Colorado. no. Quantitative characteristics of bottom slope angles in seas and oceans (translated from the Russian): Oceanology. v.S. in International Symposium on Mapping and Geographic Acevedo. Seamount abundances and distributions in the southeast Pacific: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Experimental investigation into the accuracy of contouring from DTM: Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing.P. Supplementband 25. 1971. R. D.B. v. Abrahams. and Sinclair. 1965. 1035-1055. J. and uplift in large midlatitude drainage basins: American Journal of Science. First assessment of U. C.1991.M. 1. 1990. Technical Papers.. no. F. G. Local relief and the height limits of mountain ranges: American Journal of Science. 1986. p. and Weissel. 46. John Wiley and Sons. Quantitative Slope Models: Zeitschrift fur Geomorphologie.. California (abs. A. Ahnert. 2. Frank. 1970b.000 sheet.D. no. 1988. ed. 1981. v. p. Digital representation of morphology in the San Jose 1:100. 87. 375-400.. Synoptic maps of southern New England topography from a digital elevation model (abs.. 23. p. Geological Survey. 5.): Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs.. and Mark. v. MA. no. 20. p. relief. and Gould. Geological Survey 30-minute DEMs: A great improvement over existing 1-degree data. no. The random topology model of channel networks bias in the statistical tests: The Professional Geographer. 1976.BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GEOMORPHOMETRY Information Systems.

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