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New York.How TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES "i AUTHOR OF INDIAN BASKETRY. ETC. (L . 1 William Street. THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO RIVER ETC. ' "1903 HENRY MALKAN. IN ARIZONA.. THE INDIANS OF THE PAINTED DESERT REGION.

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The young man was "Lige. learned the art and was a good workman. other fads it will have its day and then die. a season when coal was dear and scarce. always a man of originality." or he never could do it. Like Just now the making of Indian and other baskets is a fad. It is singularly appropriate that I. bent over for a few minutes my childish back seemed to be and when I asked Lige how ihe could endure it for hours at a broken." and into my youthful ears he used to pour his tales of of woe at the hardships of a basket-maker's life. and after a fire of coals was well alight my father would take a coal scuttle full of this mixture which he called "backing. but personally a skilled workman himself. time his solemn asseveration was that "he'd had his backbone taken out. the worker bending down almost double over the work. I wish to do my share in helping it along by making a book of helpful instructions and hints that will be worthy the dignity of the subject. are for children. throwing its grateful heat into the cold room and cheering all who came within its influence. as a child. treading on the work itself the weavers were woven in." Now that the work of Basket Making is being taken up in earnest. were pinned through the center with a large steel bodkin to a heavy flat board. of course. and made a mixture of coal dust and the thick ends or "nubbins" cut from the ends of new splints or "weavers" introduced into the coarse kinds of all My baskets.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. oldest brother. HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. After I came to the United States the work of the Paiuti Indians soon arrested my attention. as during the recent Eastern coal strike. The earlier lessons. INTRODUCTION. named Fields. the son of my father. My father. too. The earliest remembrances of my life are connected with that art. practically usable. Well do I remember. should write a treatise on basket making. but it will do I When ." and throw it up on the top of the fire and well back into the throat of the chimney. Two of his workmen were father and son. rose at once to meet the occasion. from the simplest to the most complex. when those who practised it merely as a fad have forgotten that they ever were interested in it. In the making some of the larger and coarser baskets the bottoms. as my father was a basket maker. We used the old-fashioned English grates. It has been my purpose in arranging the following pages to introduce all the stitches. But unlike many fads there is something in the making of baskets that will keep the art alive. after being started. and. and I began the studies which culminated two years ago in the publication of my "Indian Basketry. In half an hour or less it would be a bed of fire. not simply a trader in baskets.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

director of the Industrial School of Columbus. educated. and dyes. ing and interesting pictures. telegraphs.HOW no harm TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Especially do I wish to thank Mr. If I have failed to do so I gladly apologize and in later editions the necessary acknowledgements or corrections if will call my attention to them. any subject and it enlivens it. dyeing. and. and the thousand and one things that mean our progressive civilization. water gas. A pile of rocks means little to an unimaginative child. indeed. John Sheridan Neligh. electric cars. That the Indian had to learn everything in that way. one of the first. let him make his own selections. Where possible. 7 do the work here outlined. design. Teach them the value of That failure means endeavor. at least. Show him that all progress comes that way. Indian felt let them select as the Indian did. It was arbitrary. and their preparation in the shape. and Gray. never failure. while what we read or are told may be inaccurate or positively false. Let him know that while he is doing this experimenting he is following exactly the plan of Edison. . and returned flushed with victory or sad and despondent through defeat that it was a place where children were born.. make some divisions. and endeavor persisted in is failure. She had no other teacher than experience. who lived in stirring times achieved things who went forth to war with all pomp and ceremony. For material for these pages I have ransacked everything I could find. Stimulate his and inventiveness in the use of materials. In this work I have tried to suggest to the teacher how to make Put human interest into the subject more interesting to her pupils. . coveries be the result. walked and plighted their troth. and weave of his baskets. and that knowledge gained by experience is sure and certain. It is this thought that should animate every teacher and worker in In going out to choose materials let the children feel as the basketry. Teachers should encourage their pupils to try every possible Thus invention is stimulated. where lovers. Let me at the outset say that the divisions of the subject are purely It does not necessarily follow that the coil weave is harder than the mat weave because the latter comes first in the book. to show what may be done and to 'Stimulate to personal investigation and experiment. into an object from which imagination may conjure countless fascinatnecessary to for the . as far as I can learn. and others of our great inventors who have given us telephones. let him determine what is best adapted for this basket and for that. peopled by lords and ladies. teacher of basketry in the schools of the will make some kind reader . but tell that same child that this pile was once a who castle. married and died. or. . Let the child experiment in the drying. The skill and dextbe exceedingly useful in the later work. and the lifeless pile is transformed into a palpable living entity. and Lowe. and general preparation of the material. where all the events that go to make up life transpired. I have given full credit for everything borrowed. A variety of materials has been introduced purposely. true and false. and not only may valuable dismaterial. and Bell. and these were thought the best purpose in view. Ga. if not the first. but individual thought and expression are to adults to erity thus gained will secured.

States. she can. and And these thanks also include his help given in a variety of ways. from whose "Cane Basket I Work" I have bodily taken much will find as valuable material. MASS. DESIGNED AND MADE BY MARGARET C. has been most generous in her helpfulness. B. Miss M. 3. helpful wife. Columbia University. of Teachers' College. I assure her she is most heartily welcome. Miss Mary White's "How to Make Baskets'' has also been drawn from. baskets to photograph. hope in return Miss Firth much in If suggestions that she can avail herself of for English readers. Hyde. CORN HUSK POPPY BASKET. Firth. DEERPIELD. for original suggestions.8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. For all the photographs of my . My grateful acknowledgements are also tendered to Miss Annie United FIG. WHITING.

The plait. 143. . SPOKES TURNED UP FOR SIDES. To any person the exercises will be helpful. In these lessons' I have begun with the simplest materials and work. The purpose is to give to the solitary student every advantage for self training and to every teacher suggestions which will aid in her work with children. The coil. While in some regards these five methods overlap each other. PIG. The mat. The two chapters respectively on The Choice and the Preparation are five of Materials may be skipped or not as the reader desires. There stand.HOW work made by TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. IV. V. II. the students at the college and the major part of the on dyes I am indebted to her. and the practical character of chapter her work will prove a boon to all my readers. The net. I have deemed it best to discuss each one separately. simple methods of work. all of which it is well to underThese are distinguished by the following names: I. III. The \veb.

.PIG. FANCY SPLINT BASKET. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 4. New York.

a conscientiousness of endeavor in the gathering of the materials. the spirit. it would be better to say. should not I also seek to do the same ? An affirmative answer then compels a study of Indian Basketry This will produce a growing love form?. de. impossible deSimplicity signs. If the poor uncivilized Indian thus basket-maker clearly should be felt when she approached her work. inharmonious colors." and in the work of basket-making much will depend upon : the motive." There is more in life than the mere outward expressions of it we call "work. who said out of a room. their preparation. Browning well wrote "Not on the vulgar mass called work Must judgement pass. emotion-full. This at once eliminates the hideous and grotesque in shape.. the tout ensemble. at least feel as/ much ? If she sought to present the highest she saw in Nature in the most perfect fashion. national pride. in spirit as far or fancy." or "because it is quite But to the the rage. inadequate weaves. right the veriest nonsense to the person who is merely money there is in it. for them. From this the natural process will be a reference of the Indian work to their original source. more or interwoven. to the all uncontaminated Indian meant a work less ration. Nature herself. the product of a sweeping believe. . desire. that made basket-making to the old Indians almost an act of religion. in which it is approached and done. And in NaThe Indian's forms are natuture the true inspiration will be found. or indifference. perhaps. color . The true imitator of Indian work or. sentient. . passing whim it was from that of levity. religion. poetic of my readers the ideas given will clearly The attitude of mind and heart in the illuminate what follows. which hope. There was an earnestness of purpose. glaring. their liarmoniousness. designs. the weave. There are no fanciful forms. poetry. colors and weaves. viz.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. THE SPIRIT IN WHICH BASKET MAKING SHOULD BE APPROACHED. sign. were Hence the work was approached in a of art. It was a perfect exemplification I of the idea suggested by the good of the sublimity of the poet Herbert. the design. the must approach it in true worker desirous of emulating Indian work the true Indian spirit and this I have endeavored to describe in my Suffice it to say here that the basket larger book on Indian Basketry. carelessness. should not I. is something Xow all this making baskets for "the : higher civilization." and such people had better read no further. I I CHAPTER II. . and then in the shape. aspimythology. love. her colors are natural her weaves are ral her designs are natural natural with all the perfection added of conscientious art. and weave. as removed from that of mere commercialism.

yet all based upon natural simplicity. and your work will gradually take upon itself the character. Learn to imitate in form. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS FAN.12 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER this BASKETS. the power that come from purity and simplicity. is the keynote. your children. the unnaturally complex from your line of observation. effects incalculable. New York. the grotesque. 1 Banish the hideous. variety illimitable. the grace. your pupils. simple things. . design and color the built. the dignity. and upon the triad and gamut naturally are Diversity without end. to love the simple in nature. Begin then by training yourself. 5. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIG.

its own. 6. then the shape." and whose "loveliness will increase and never pas* into nothingness. too. from elements as TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as well as a useful aid in training towards manual dexterity and skill. the design." The pleasure of such achievements as this who can tell. FIG. . but can be learned only from the In your work endeavor to follow this Indian idea. design and This personality cannot be deciphered by reading weaver's the exponent of something within yourself. 13 I have shown the marvellous personality of the basket. who can estimate? Thus the basket becomes a factor in moral and spiritual development. New York. and the moral uplift as desire and endeavor are crystalized into actuality. your painting. your cathedral. your sculpture. as the Indian own Make your basket in hieroglyphics. lips. You can thus make the basket your poem. color all How that each one has a significance in shape.HOW Elsewhere. Thus work and worker are both ennobled and there are given to the world more things of beauty to be "joys forever. the colors will all mean something more to you than what merely shows on the outside. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. has done.

The Mono found the willow. CHOICE OF MATERIALS. 7. BASE OF BASKETS SHOWN IN FIG. raffia or willow ready dyed and done up in bundles to her hand. knowledge of local materials gained. the best to follow. the yucca and a desert grass called wu-u-shi. sweet gras-s. as elsewhere. where the art is stimuused . 6. the squaw-grass. She had no store to which she could go and purchase cane. The powers of observation are lated. senses alert. CHAPTER III. some of the chief benefits that should accrue from basket-making are lost if they do not largely do so. the method one would get the real value out Indian of basket making. maiden hair fern stem.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Though trade and barter were common with the primitive Indians. She must find the materials in her own environment. and. FIG. the root of the tule. So with eyes a-down. filling and dye. the martynia. the red bud. she set of the is if Here. to its weavers the materials' required for the exercise of their art . forth to seek for splints. it was not to trade that the weaver looked for her basket-making materials. The Haida found the cedar bark and spruce root the Poma slough Thus each locality yielded root. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. Now while it is not essential that white weavers of baskets should closely confine themselves to material they personally gather. The Hopi found the willow.

8.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. imagination and skill. MASS. . We know that by commercialism. . The cattleman among The miner near the range where his cattle roam the foundryman near the foundry which employs him the clerk near the store in which he is engaged. In some instances there can be but little question that the location all of materials for the pursuit of the art of basket weaving has deter- FIG. This principle should be applied to this art. which is a new and direct gain to the community. have a tradition which clearly points in a measure in that direction. mined the settlement of a tribe of people. for instance. canyon or mounthere he finds the precious metal. SWALE GRASS TRAY. DEERP1ELD. tain lives camp because civilized races habitat is largely determined locates i>n the desert. There are few really useless things under the sun. hitherto useless material is converted into a financial benefit. DESIGNED AND MADE BY GERTRUDE ASHLEY. and the (history of commercial growth is largely the detailing of how the useless was converted into the useful by invention. . The Chemehuevis. 15 to help the poor commercially.

" . FIG 9. should pitch our We permanent camp. a zest and purpose to a ramble to "On this trip let us imagine ourselves Indian women and Indian children going out to hunt grasses or other material for basketwill do this for several weeks. RED BIRD BASKET. AND advantage feel there is in field trips. MADE BY MADELINE T. our explorations we will decide where we. So the Indian woman's voice was naturally raised in favor of a location where her basket-making material was easiest obtained. It gives an object in view.i6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. DEERFIELD. MASS. as Indians. and then as the result of making. in stimuIt can also be used to excellent lating the imagination of the child. This hint can be made interesting by teachers of the art. WYNNE.

sunlight and odors. Experimentation follows observation in this field. throw physics to the dogs. New York. send melancholia and depression to the devil. when one thinks that he has found a material that is suitable either for weaver. Breathe in it drink it in absorb it in. . defy the demon of dyspepsia and come back into the world of men and women con! ! . the highest faculty in true education. pure air. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIGS. it must be tested. and thus both senses and brain. For. come from such trips should not be This. \J Put such a thought as this into the mind gives added pleasure to outdoor rambling. fullness of it. fullest sense who trains another to habits of observation. Selection of the best next follows. nerves and brain with pure life and health. There is His chemical labratory where Get out into the health. CHETEMACHE MATS. filling or dye. broken-down adult would find new life and health in doing what Out of doors Into God's Out of doors I have here suggested. of child or adult and it Then the incalculable benefit in the necessary stimulation of the will powers of observation that overlooked. . blood. power are hourly being manufactured. vigor.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. should ever be kept in exercise. 10 AND 11. Many a nervous. scious of strength and power to do what you will. And this is not merely good for a child. are healthfully exercised and stimulated. dyspeptic. Fill up lungs. He is a benefactor in the highest.

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perfectly beautiful. If it be true. Personal experimentation should be the keynote in the mind of every adult who seeks to gain the greatest good from basket-making. even though her methods may be bettered. of centuries of practical experience and therefore. its habitat. It is merely suggestive. and methods of preparation. The overcoming of difficulties exercises the faculty of invention. To teach others how a useless weed may be converted into a commercial commodity is to create wealth. One who has learned how to use willows cannot immediately work in reed or rat- and yucca strands need very different handling from squaw grass or pine needles.it can be made. In that chapter the student will find many suggestions that may aid her in utilizing the material df her own section. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. possibly. Each material demands personal study and use." With all our scientific knowledge we cannot improve upon the methods and results of the Indians. however. and to she can use from her own stimulate the weaver to find out what \Yhen any new material. For her selection is the result. except. she -may be sure of. to Pasadena. 19 CHAPTER IV. viz. with its local and Indian name. 72 to 85. wealth means added cojnfort and happiness. as most of us firmly believe. habit or growth. not named here. at the outset it will be well their colors in your locality. and among the poor and needy. their In "Indian Basketry. It must not be supposed that familiarity with and skill in the use of one material can be transferred at will to some other material!. is found I shall locality. that wherever an Indian has been over the ground. "I will know for myself! 1 will experiment and test and find out everything that can be found out as to the resources of my neighborhood that can be utilized in this work." pages material as perfect as. One thing. THE PREPARATION OF MATERIALS. following the suggestions given in this chapter every teacher may enThe following list large the sphere and scope of her benefactions. quantity. One may be cut sevtan. to avoid the grasses with saw-toothed or other sharp edges. appropriate and harmonious. and a caution given to children. I gathered together much information as to materials used by the Indians. The Indian's judgment may be relied upon. perhaps. be obliged if a sample be sent to me. Their dyes are unfading.. that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew before. how prepared and any further particulars that may be of interest. Care should be taken. California. it is equally true that he is a benefactor who finds a use for that which has hitherto been deemed useless. In this diversity the true student will find pleasure. makes no pretention to completeness. in the work of that Indian will be found the very best basket-making material of thai region. By to see. what they if you have any Indian workers have been in the habit of using in their basketry work. in the matter of speed.

20 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 13. New York. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. .

Raffia is the native name given to a Madagascar palm of the tribe Lepidocaryeae. stripped from its outside is tough and pliable. who has a large number of children to direct. materials can be used. light. and again ascending.HOW erely TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the workers there at once perceived its adaptability and seized upon it as an excellent and ideal weaving material for beginners. the chief type. 5 and 6 being used for the coarser work. poses. a^ type of the sub-tribe Raphieae. numbered from i to No. i. growing to the height of 20. tough. is one of the most popular of basket-making materials because it is long. 4 are common sizes. have gathered them they can be shown in one lesson how that. and was originally shipped to France and England to be used mainly as florists' twine. It grows erect in dense tufts. is an arborescent grass. 3. Prepared for commerce rattan is stripped of its leaves and bark. 21 such grasses. for tying up fruit trees and other gardening purWith their native economy the French. 50 and even 120 making . The material purchased from the seed The leaf stores is the epidermis of the leaf stripped on both sides. and there are plenty of in handling if careless other materials without using these that may do injury. It is a palm of the genus Calamus. flexible and fissile. whereais in the use of the shorter splints of the Indian much time would be occupied and patience exhausted in rethreading or reinserting these thus teacher much preferable to the shorter splints of the Indian. ideal weaving material for the untrained fingers of be- It is soft and flexible and ginners or the weak fingers of children. and when the children his work. to the a compajratively easy task to see that each pupil has her needlefull of raffia. allowing them to create any &hape they RAFFIA may is desire. it is short and soon used up lengths. is the most expensive. As strength and digital dexterity increase stronger easily handled. The rattan of China and Japan is of the genus Raphis. COCKLE-BUR. and is put up into bundles of round cane or flat strips. and is known as ground-rattan. and it is For. and would be useless for this work. 2. and then the Germans. and thus the tree is often from 60 to 70 feet high to the tips of the leaves. being the finest. and 15. and seldom exceeding an inch in thickness. The recent awakening to the importance of basketry has brought rattan into marked prominence. Nos. Sometimes it attains the astounding length of 500 feet. majnly found in the East Indies. by Then it is well to sticking them together. especially as they afford so much greater opportunity for the exercise of skill and artistic effort. but the fibre It is tied in long hanks. itself is very brittle. RATTAN climbing the tallest trees. though the BamIt busa. Nos. and when the revival of the art of basketry reached England. to use it in connection with cane and reed in the manufacture began of sma'll baskets. leave them to their own imagination. 'holds an important place in the list of basketThe BAMBOO materials. falling in festoons. a form can be created. The much-despised and hated cockle-bur may be used as a stimulant of the child's imagination in the beginning of These burs can be found anywhere. Its long strands are from one and a half to two feet in length. over 50 feet in length. It has a long leaf. is found only in Southern and Eastern Asia. It grows in all warm countries.

.22 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

The Southern variety referred to above . a type of a tribe of aquatic plants which grow immersed in shallow bogs and other waters. The (Scirpus) of different species may be largely BULLRUSH basketry. PINE NEEDLES. CORN SWEET LONG for the inner coil. ponds. From Virginia to Texas there grows along the coast a pine which has spiculae or needles from ten to twelve well The>se needles dry easily and are inches in length.HOW feet. though. elsewhere pictured. In the South there grows in va'st quantities the (Tillandsia usneoides) whose dense pendulous tufts drape the trees. bluish-green. The ingenious teacher will find many ways of using even as the Indians do. The leaves of the palmetto (Sabal palmetto). a tree growing from 20 to 35 feet high. wide strips. as has already been shown. used in A grass that can be used is SENECA-GRASS. leaves Good soft. and the root purposes. smooth. This moss is largely used for the 'stuffing of mattresses. sometimes also known as holy-grass and vanilla-grass. dries well and is excellent for many In California the Scirpus Tatora is called tule. of from 4 to 8 inches. are peeled and make excellent material for wrapping splints. the BUCK-EYE kinds of which are well adapted to this purpose. it is cut into The wood splints of the desired width. adansoni). whose tall. spongy and easily commerce are purchased in long. which is used by the Cahuilla Indians as wrapping splint for their coiled ware. the Bamboo-palm. The broad strip is placed inside the grooves of the "sheer. adapted either for material for the inner coil of coiled baskets. and also for splints for the mat weave work herein described. The PALAI family affords much material for basketry. can be expected from such perishable material. though rattan is more common in America for general purposes. lacustris). As the splint is drawn through the cutter. are found throughout the whole country and children should be encouraged to do the best they can with such as they can find." which has three or more tiny but sharp knives protruding from its base. the knives being set by gauge and screw. of this has a cuticle of a rich. properly Zostera. pools and rivers. To prepare these for basket work two cutting implements are used. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. round stems are seen projecting above the water in lakes. longer or shorter. in the larger speeies. and can be used for filling for the inner coil of baskets. but this rs a slow and laborious task. and of the dwarf palmetto (S. Where mo cutter is to be had the strips may be made with scissors. giving the raffia now so largely used. one species alone. GRASS is largely used in some parts of the United It is States and Canada for the making of simple and pretty baskets. Pine needles. also makes excellent filling better than the moss. several wood being white. MOSS. A chapter is devoted to sweet grass weaving. and stems are used in basketry work. 23 Both with a diameter. Raffia vinifera. of course. and even for weavers. nothing durable HUSKS. The special kind (S. brown color. the (Aesculus). splints are made from worked. or as unwrapped BROOM CORN LONG and is (Sorghum Vulgare) much cleainer and coils sewed together as illustrated elsewhere.

New York.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . FIG. REED BASKETS MADE AT DEERFIELD. SPLINT BASKETS. 16. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 15. FIG. MASS.

which is the same as The SILK the pita of Central America. is a valuable fiber produced principally from' the Bromelia Sylvestris. and generally known as the Georgia pine. Pseudo known as bull-brier. a kind of wild pineapple. of the Adiantum pedatum. WEAVER FIG. a slender branching shrub with tough.HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. too late. When FIG. the There are some pliant species of China). tities of being made by The Basket Fraternity to secure these seeds for sale. could be so prepared as to make a fairly good wrapping splint for coiled work. of British Honduras. SPLINT CUTTER. 17. The fibre of the cocoanut. 18. the black is rusty and poor. Gathered too soon it is greenish. This bark is prepared and the fibre used for textile purposes. called COIR. Apache and Havasupai baskets are worked out with it. stringy bark. FOUNDATION SPLINT CUTTER. which are used in basket-making. and all the designs of the Pima. All lovers of the fine basketry of Northern California know the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry. This is* the stem FERN. though the name pita is given indiscriminately to the fibre obtained from the MAIDEN HAIR SMILAX GRASS . In Australia and New Zealand grows the pimelea. It must be gathered when the pod is at its blackest. whiclh will grow enough for a small class. (S. Arrangements have been made for the gathering of abundant quanthese long pine needles and a sample bunch will be sent by mail free on receipt of twenty-five cents. An effort is five cents. The MARTY NT A is a plant capable of cultivation in any part of A small package of seeds can be purchased for twentythe country. picked at the right time the black is perfect. the long-leafed pine (pinus palustris).

FIG. Teachers' College. . RAFFIA BOUND PICTURE FRAMES. 25. New York. Work of Students.26 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

(Salix Amygdalkia) and especially the Golden Willow or osier (S. 27 Agave. as do the California and other Indians. Most of the coarse basketry Vitellina) are used for this purpose. are made more pliable by slight soaking and then running between the thumb and dull edge of shears. of England is made from this latter species. and Sisal grass The Century Dictionary gives shall be glad to be enlightened. WILLOW FIG. perience will soon demonstrate the best method of "curing. which is the fibre of the agave ixtli or I henequen. as resists damp- ness better than the simple hemp. or sisal it hemp." A . is 160. DEERFIELD STRAW BASKETS. In their preparation most of the common grasses will dry if put in little exa warm but shady place. Other materials will be found referred to in later pages showing the infinite variety the ingenious teacher may utilize. but can find no reference to Sisal Willow. also known as henequen. There are two or three species of that are largely culIn Europe the Almond-leafed willow tivated for basket-making. and the finer work is made by splitting the willow into splints and using them for wrapping. especially when made of palmetto or similar material. Somehow the words "Sisal Willow" have come into use in I am free to confess I do not know what the Sisal Willow basketry. and kept turned over every day.HOW various species O'f TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER This is BASKETS. and is largely used for making ship's cajbles. and Sisal hemp. Mat splints.

third and every other place. second. delicate.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. however. fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are " anathema " to ajll " " true basketry lovers. CHAPTER V. They are the accursed things which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful. In the first place. Miss White tells of "one basket-maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. Alum is a good ordinary mordant and can be had. . As a general principle. led astray the Indian with aniline dyes did he make mistakes in color. if you have in some long forgotten closet a copy of your great-grandmother's old recipe book. and the chapter on colors is well worth another reading in connection with these hints. And who that has done this has not felt the charm and delight of sweet. when they are rubbed on rattan. mix in a little of it. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not -suit such soft and flexible work as basNever until the white man of no artistic taste perverted and ketry. As a rule all materials and dyes need a mordant. Discourage their use in others. and. Thus a valuable and interesting discovery may be made. color it a beautiful shade which is We quite as fast as most dyes. Hence to get rhe true conception of color one has but to study the old baskets. reminding you of the days when your ancestors spent many hours over the dye pot or tub. and. know 'somewhat of their methods. exquisite melodies of soft. and better in accord with basketry work. In "Indian Basketry" I tell of some Indian mordants. and test the result. more harmonious. chemistry teaches that where you have an acid dye it is well to have an alkali mordant. Also. and they cannot be improved upon. Vegetable dyes are softer in tone." Hence. ten to one you will find wonderfully suggestive helps there. so may you. So begin with determination and courage. and when an alkali dye an acid mordant. Explicit directions in so subtle and elusive a matter as dyeing is not to be expected in a book of this character. anywhere. experiment in every way. Remember that experience will widen your horizon and enlarge your capacities. DYES At : HOW TO MAKE AND it USE THEM. Just as an artist experiments in color on his palette board and thus finds what he wants. work ? In this chapter I desire to stimulate each thoughtful and earnest student to the endeavor to reach what these wild weavers reached. restful harmonies in these masterpieces' nay mistresspieces of ancient the outset let anything more than a . This is to "fix" the dye. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid. get it out. To learn to dye well is a liberal education in many things. tender. Experiment will soon teach the value of this. In "Indian Basketry" I have said something about them. and happen to 'have some other dye at hand. cheaply. If you are preparing a red. more permanent. be understood fully that this is not presented as chapter of suggestion and hints. Do not touch them.

. This can be bought from the druggists powder form in the South it can be found growing in the fields. Sulphuric acid will dissolve it. Use a stick to stir it with. Cochineal. to be purchased of any druggist. and beets a color similar but more The poke berry gives a purple red. There is nothing to fear. though animal. Onion skins give a dull yellow that is> very satisfactory. Saffron can be bought from the druggists. and is easy to handle. RED. deep Combined with cream of tartar it gives a bright red. Be sure to keep your hands out of this mixture. This gives a light yellow that is very pleasing. and stirred vigorously. and stems give a good tan. Butternut bark. When the alum is well dissolved place the liquid in a small tub and soak the material to be dyed in it for fully two hours. Logwood extract gives a fine brown. YELGather St. can also be used with good results. Sumac leaves. It is well to make plenty of this mixture. Madder gives a dull red. 2Q Miss \Yhite suggests the use of a solution of three ounces of alum dissolved in a quart of water. gives the color must be confessed it is difficult to handle without exMiss Hyde found Chase's Recipe Book give her help. is suggested for a dark. Indigo. with ammonia a good purple. This allows the fibre of the raffia or rattan to take up the mordant. in used. . This gives a bright yellow. But this dye is never strong even though a large quantity of the leaves The powder of BROXVN Blood Root gives a deep yellow. the stems. The powder can be bought from any druggist. but the acid will rot the material to be dyed. as water will not readily dissolve the stick. and one will find great pleasure in experimenting with bark from different trees. leaves and flowers. and the root is the part to use. Dragon's blood gives a pleasing orange. but it GREEN. Cranberries give a dull red. the acid must be neutralized by the addition of soda. This allows the soda to completely neutralize the sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid is poured on the indigo. and alcohol must be used for the purpose. perience. and combined PURPLE. drop by drop. TAN. which keep stirring often. Miss Hyde prefers much less. add water and put in soda until it stops foaming.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Learners will find that indigo will not dissolve in water. for blue. and are used. The powder is easier to handle. So before the materials are immersed. preferably about fo-ur ounces to two gallons of water. You will not care satisfactory. while the fruit gives a reddish or what might better be termed a light or pink tan. and thus prepares for the permanent fixing of the dye a thing much to be desired. The bark of the maple and pine both give nice shades of brown. diluting with water when red. ORANGE. As> soon as the indigo is dissolved fully. John's wort (hypiricum perforatum). Inj the making of dye here are a few hints as to material. which can be found growing everywhere on the roadside. though not as strong as logwood gives satisfactory Walnut and hickory nut shells results if an extra quantity is used. causing the liquid to foam in an alarming manner. Do not buy it in stick form. LOW. to handle the poke berries as they stain the hands. however. and the dye can be used with safety.

of the Pocumtuck Basket Society of Deerfield. that can be held in both hands. fustic. a society whose work in fine basketry other pages of this book will well testify to. is of taking on soft and harmonious colors. It can be diluted. in either doing their or employing someone own dyeing who has in indigo. walnut shucks. DYES. skill and time to do madder and copperas. Experience has demonstrated that the best time to collect these materials is in October or November. The following is from the pen of Miss Margaret C. The green coloring matter had gone new matter or changed matter was in its place. If these do not produce the desired color. For a dye pot a good enamel kettle is as serviceable as anything.30 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. if necessary. By . and they secured a delicious shade of green. and went and gathered more walnut shucks. all > DYE THE arrest the work of the dye and give irregular color effects. It does not need much suggesting to show how that to an intelligent teacher this practically prepared the hearts and minds of her pupils for a valuable lesson in natural history. Three or four weeks later they again wished some green dye. Mass. have only lately begun to produce good and is a fundamental it need. All the materials are to be boiled. "Basket workers. If this is not Let it remain in the liquid from 15 to 20 minutes. Even in this work one is liable to . This time their green dye came out "brown. enough (as experience will soon demonstrate). are following the exampe of Deerfield. In u sing beets. Cranberries. onion skins. put in more. MATERIAL. In every case the dye must be boiling when the material is immersed. always using a wooden stick for the purpose." and the disappointed children were unable at first to comprehend the reason for the change. use about one pound to a gallon of water. one teacher had her scholars gather walnut shucks for dyeing purposes. In an early bulletin 'of the Basket Fraternity I hope to publish a full and detailed account of Deerfield and its work. let it remain longer. and no craftsman will continue long to rest satisfied with seeing his design developed in the loud and vulgar colors that raffia dyed In itself raffia is a material that in chemical or aniline dyes produce.. makers. For instance. as if there is any sediment it is liable to etc. general proportion to be observed is two ounces to one gallon of water. so that the color evenly reaches: all the parts. put in about five or six large beets to a gallon of water. sumac. All of the above will generally give their color with a half hour's good boiling. when the seeds and fruit are ripe and the sap is well down in the trunks of the trees. On the other hand.. stumble upon many interesting facts. First mordant as before described. TO MAKE THE A Butternut bark. This gives a fairly strong dye. poke berries. Keep turning the material over and over. who work in raffia. . or groups of workers. and if found not strong enough can either be boiled down or more material used. it for them. cochineal needs fully two hours to C* C? produce good results-. \Yhiting. TO Be sure and strain the dye. realize the necessity of natural dyes in order to and lasting color combinations in their designs. or of becoming an capable It is fortunate that many individual basket offence to the eye. a little more will do no harm. Thus observation and interest are stimulated the first elements of all true education. TIME TO COLLECT MATERIALS.

how their mere possession gives suggestion of patterns and combinations to the eye of a skillful basket-maker. another that bore trees." and still another developed in orange and black with a barbaric design in white beads. of Brooklyn. of baskets made by a group of amateur but skillful basket-makers in a surburban town belonging to Greater New York. of Students. yellows. tried by the garish modern colors that it is impossible to be'lieve the future will consent to accept. for a charity. Such an one is Mrs. Quite recently a modest sale. The basket with a holly design. The much lamented decay of good design and of excellence in ornamental work has been largely helped by the manufactured dyes how great an influence toward the tasteless and tawdry has been wrought by the invention of aniline colors. whose maker whimsically proclaimed to grow in "the vale of cedars. which her own desire to produce turns to admirable account. Miller. browns. all show the inspiration harmonious colors give to the designer. . greens and blues done in small vats prepared by old rules of tried permanence. that which was decorated with a stiff row of tulips. from Mrs. who can say?" . obtain from the color harmonies of vegetable dyes. are so pleasing to the eye. whose "Colonial Dyes" of over a dozen shades and tones of reds.HOW these TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Work SIMPLE WEB BASKETS OF College. New York. Teachers' RATTAN. Miller's colors proved the charm possible to FIG. 3! means the dld-fashioned processes of hand-dyeing are being revived. and far-reaching effects may quite reasonably be hoped for from the individual dyers who are thus being encouraged. 135.

SINGLE WEAVING. a yard measure and foot rude a sharp knife a pair of small. FIG. pressed upon With a pair of scissors the the knives. A . A SPLINT. resulting splints is the name given to the strip or splint. 17 consists of a number of knives set apart for the 'making of splints for weavers. or weaver. CHAPTER VI. is adjustable. indeed an old rasp file Rubber thimble and finger caps will answer the purpose very well. In both these cutters the broad . when these members are tender. 19. FIG. in width. the 26 West 23rd street. are cut to the required length. are useful. flat pliers or pincers a narrow piece of heavy. PAIRING. Miss Marie Toxuse. DOUBLE WEAVING. flat iron or steel that can be used as a hammer between the spokes of a basket. employed by the Hyde Exploring Expe: . 21.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The student should be provided with the follotwing tools needle (about a No. an awl about four inches long. . to have Fig. 18 and the an inch at the proper distance Fig. New York. 22. FIG 20. . Cutters for preparing wood splints are used by the Eastern Indians.splint is inserted. 19 tapestry needle is good to begin with) strong scissors. and can be set by means of the thumb screw brass fillers to cut the splints from an eighth of an inch to dition. This should be about five or six inches long and two inches broad. or strand A . TOOLS AND TERMS USED. FJG. and then rapidly pulled. a small hamimer. kindly permitted me accompanying engravings made from her two cutters.

either for beauty or strength. the other behind the where two weavers are used. Then as the FIG. The fingers in Fig. though four or more weavers may be used. It is also used as a border finishing weave. ROPE TWIST. 20. 21. The woof splints are the weavers which are wrapped. This weave is used where a break or dividing line in a basket is desired. and before the next. This is a variation of the triple weave. For starting. see Fig. 24. Each in its transit to the back of the fourth spoke must be laid on the top of the other three weaver?. the bones.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Three weavers are placed behind three consecutive spokes. or worked in various ways in and out of the warp splints. ROPE TWIST. 33 piece of material used for wrapping. The weaver is placed behind one spoke or foundation rod. (This is before. TRIPLE WEAVE. . as in Fig. see Fig. being laid at the same time on the top of the weavers that preceded it. the spokes. the framework. splint. four weavers are placed behind four consecutive spokes. but one is placed same spoke. thus alternating. upon which the basket is built up. PAIRING. 23. This is shown in Fig. and if one or more weavers have already been used. then each weaver is brought in succession before two spokes and behind one. 19 hold a The warp the foundation splints are the ribs. It is to pack tightly together this kind of weaving that the flat piece of iron referred to in the list of tools is so useful. WEAVING. weavers are taken on to the next spoke twist them so that the lower weaver takes the place of the upper. 23. or twined. FIG.is where two weavers are used DOUBLE instead of one. they must be included in the four to make up this twist. This is clearly shown in Fig. 22. 24. TRIPLE TWIST. SINGLE WEAVING. This.

this cut a circle. RAFFIA WRAPPED ARTICLES. Teachers' College. New York. Work of Students. Miss Hyde suggests: "One may combine bristol board with FIG." In all the following exercises it is well to PICTURE FRAMES. The greater the variety of materials used. here given. HOW TO BEGIN. raffia to advantage in teaching little children illustrating the use of two materials of different degrees of flexibility. 26. CHAPTER VII. bristol Cut a 6-inch square from being three inches.34 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the more readily does one see the possibilities and limitations of each . and from dampen the raffia several hours before using. even though the immediate results are not the ones you individually are seeking. One of the first and most important results to be attained is the familiarizing the student (be he child or adult) with the materials to Hence the wisdom of following out alii the suggestions be used. the radius board Cut an inner .

MAGAZINE HOLDER OF WRAPPED RAFFIA. Thus the heart of the child. This for a small picture. "artistic. . a napkin-ring." possibilities in this use of materials are suggested made of Here are a book mark. This is the prime element in all work we designate Other interesting in Fig. too. giving a diameter of 2 1-2 inches. It is not simply a frame for any kind tion. FIG. or some beloved friend or scene. as well as its mind and of a picture. Then. as preferred. merely "a frame anyhow.HOW circle with radius i TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. opening allows A In the making of these picture frames cultivate a senise of proporThe frame must not be too large for the picture it is to hold nor too small." but it is a frame especially for a picture of papa or mamma. or dyed. For the book-mark any kind of splint may . 26. 28. 35 1-4 inches. Then wrap the board with raffia in its native color. all wrapped raffia. let the child feel that this frame is to enshrine a picture that means something to him. or the baby. simple loop may be made of the raffia with which to hang up the frame. or made fingers are engaged in the work. and a toy umbrella.

Q El k CU <! tf fo o tf o ^ o H R d tf H J O ffi H N <J O 9 p H 8 O .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

The napkin-ring is made by wrapping the raffia around a splint or card-board base. make small holes and glue therein seven lengths of No. The coiling of natural colored raffia and wrapping with a strand of dyed material is an easy method for children. sewed on. For the umbrella take a Glue a piece of cork upon one end. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and the stitches should not be noticed. Teachers' College. 2 rattan. New York. as clearly engraving. Into this piece of No. To finish let the coil gradually diminish. of Students. page 160. 37 raffia is wrapped from one spoke to another. i or No. and later in the chapter on Indian Stitches. Then begin to wrap with raffia. Then shown in the Work \ PIG. SIMPLE COILED BASKETS. circled into ring form. shown in Indian Basketry. A SIMPLE BASKET FOR CHILDREN. forth holding the coil to the left. giving one twist around each spoke and going on to the next one. .HOW be used. Take a sufficient number of strands of raffia to make 1-4 inch coil and wrap with a strand of colored raffia Coil and sew back and leaving distances of 1-2 inch between wraps. as. This mode of wrapped weaving was long ago used by the Mohave Indians in the making of their carrying baskets. 30. 4 rattan. and then edged with plaited raffia.

accuracy and speed in the manipulation of mat and good exercise will be had by imitating Figs.. 33. the material is so different in character. OPKX. Then take same number and weave them. and then unravel or split the splints as It is well to gain shown in the illustration.) palmetto. After a little practice in this with coarse splints>. A width of paper. et or bowl of water. etc. CLOSED. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. 36 . While mat weaving uses the warp and woof in exactly the same manner as they are used in what I have termed the web weaving.\' ii-L FIG. size desired. over and under the warp at right angles. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. ^ ft J-i . 31. number of splints of equal MATERIALS REQUIRED. This simple checkenvork is the basis for good work later on. wood (such as ash. It will be seen that the splints are fine. and needs such different handl- ing. A buck- CHECKERBOARD. awl or piercer. sew the edges tight with white thread.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.'. This makes the warp. splints. FIG. 34. 32. 35. knife. and width. etc. Figs. 31 and 32 clearly show the simplest forms of this kind of work. that it is deemed wise to differentiate and give two separate sets The earliest stages of this form of weaving of lessons in their use. scissors. one at a time. Take a number of splints of equal length Place ten or a dozen side by side. CHAPTER VIII. all kindergarten teachers are more or less familiar with. oak.nJ f>- ' r| \a. let the pupil undertake the making of a table mat of any suitable material similar When it is the to Fig. THE MAT WEAVE.

with result is the accordeon fold (B. TABLE MAT. Fold the perpendicular splint up over the horizontal one.) In Figs. many splints as desired. taking care that each fold is absolutely even. Fig. holding them with ends at right angles. or fold one long splint as shown in A. 39 with weavers of two colors. 39 and 40 are seen four beautiful specimens of . open it and fold around long splint to the right. Pull tight. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. 11. from left to right. 38.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. place them side by side. Back and forth the folds then go retaining them at right angles. 37. splint to left and through long as FOLDING EXERCISE. The . Fig. (See C) in the fallowing order: down. Take the two long FIG 33. These weaves making of many beautiful baskets later on. right and left. can be utilized in the Fold all the splints lengthwise. So on alternating. 10. . The next short splint fold around long splint to the left. (See Fig. splint to right.) Take a short splint. Take two weavers of equal width. with ends reversed. thrusting splints through the long Pull tight.The accordeon fold. 38. then the horizontal over the perpendicular. ones. up. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. from right to left and so on.

!!<. 39 AND 40. ETC. FIGS. CHETEMACHE MATS. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. 38. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. ACCORDEON PLAIT. .

MAT FOUNDATION WORK. 37. The colors are a dull Indian red PATTERN PRODUCED PATTERN PRODUCED BY INTERLACING BY INTERLACING STRANDS OF STRANDS OF DIFFERENT COLORS.. DIFFERENT COLORS. using splints of palmetto. and makes beautiful baskets of a variety of shapes. Lay two two vertically.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. and later on. FIG 36. The binding is simple. Their dyes are evidently vegetable and the exquisite color effects produced are worthy of imitation. and then sewed on with a fine on the upper edge of the mat. 34. holding in left hand. as seen in the illustration. the designs are worked out with different colors. and black. PIG. oblique or diagonal. Change \vork to right hand. bringing edge parallel with the right edge of the perpendicular splint. ISOLATED FIGURES PRODUCED BY MODIFYING ORDER OF INTERSECTION. This tribe of Indians lives on Avery Island. fold backwards. A flat splint is laid lengthwise FIG. under and over as if going to make ordinary square mat weave. with the natural greenish-gray of the palmetto. La. In these mats. . conjure up designs from her own imagination. Take top splint. horizontally and weaver Take four long splints. 4! Chetemache weave. The design is easily followed and the learner will find it excellent practice to endeavor to imitate.

42. FIG. 43. SPLINT MAT WEAVE BASKETS. SPLINT PICTURE FRAME FOUNDATION. FRAME. SPLINT PICTURE FIG. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 41. FIG.

and binding it to the fourth warp splint from the other end. Prepare foundation as described for Fig. These sizes determined it is easy to cut splints the required length. making. This crosses right perpendicular splint. Pass under first folded splint. fold upper horizontal downwards as before. it is merely twisted in a curve back to the place it would have had if folded and creased. which can have cardboard or leather back glued or sewed upon it. in great variety of shapes and sizes. the woof splints of the sides can be continued around the corners and used as the woof splints of the ends. Here. 41. 4 on Fig. When the corners are turned up. two ends. may be made upon these principles. 43. folding as directed. A little practice will make the weaver perfectly conversant with this pretty variation.. or easel.) be made by leaving a little longer ends to the diagonally woven strip. tucking (G. Fig-. 2. Then insert small splints and fill up the vacant spaces marked I. and proceed. 43 fold left splint obliquely. is A D . boxes. A of napkin ring can be made from in the edges. hanger. is "doubling" cover skilfully. and two horizontal. then wrapping one of the folds with the other in an oblique wrap. These even widths can best be made with the cutter shown in Fig. There are now two perpendicular sets of splints. Material required: eight long splints of one or various colors necessary number of short splints. fastener for the cover to the handle of the basket made by taking a long splint. When the It is made same as A. 43. The question of basket size can always be determined with a little In mat weaving the width of splint must be considered. there are practically five sides. one set to the right. Where the splints meet they can be tucked in. with ring . Cornucopias. Then Hold now left perpendicular folded horizontally as before. taking care. obliquely and press edges towards center to keep the work evenly. Trim off loose edges and the result is Fig. 42. one set to the left.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. however. as long as required. Open up as Fig. C. 38. in B. to allow two inches or so for turning in (tucking in) at the edges. one of which is illustrated Another form napkin ring may PICTURE FRAME. 3. this strip of diagonal weaving. Fig. the upright or warp splints are turned over and deep enough is tucked in. 38. Fig. (F.) A beautiful variation of the lower edge of the weaving of a diagonal band is shown in H. 37. In Fig. Fig. 41.its upper edge lie parallel with the bottom horizontal splint. Then study. the lid for D. (See D. covers. bringing them together and then proceeding to unite them with the ordinary flat mat weave.. two sides. bottom. 38. 43 is shown how this square mat weave may be utilized. instead of obliquely folding and creasing the splint. The bottom of A is of mat foundation (simple checkerboard). Fig. Work held in left hand. etc. 18. It should never be forgotten that good work of any kind can be done only with splints of perfectly even width. viz. 38. thus strengthening the A little practice soon enables one to do this "tucking in" or parts. Fig. folding it around the fourth warp easily splint from either end. tucking in the edges as per the illustration.) NAPKIN RING.

clothes baskets. over and around right foundation splint back between the two. Teachers' College.44 HOW The basket deeper. down and around left splint. Then wrap around left foundation is D made To produce : FIG. Hold required to be. The result will be an interesting collection. New York. of Students. up between the two. cotton . MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. foundation canes in thumb and forefinger of left hand with weavers under one and over the other. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. it is in the same way as its cover C. forms of baskets in actual use. showing market baskets. Take two pieces of rattan. taking care always to overwrap or tuck in all ends. or palmetto. alternating over and under. 44. Work splint. and then urge them to imitate or reproduce in minature. and so on. A little practice will soon teach how to affix to basket. The handle is made as follows willow. Figs. the thickness desired and the length the handle is For weavers use long mat splints well soaked. 44 and 45 show a variety of small models of baskets made by Excite the interest of children in the students at Teachers' College. cane. grocers baskets. except that the narrowing together towards the top the warp splints should be made to taper a little.

etc. which will each basket readily suggest themselves to the teacher. It of splints. Now bring long end of cane. leaving an end two and one-half inchee long. . and fine fine. etc. medium. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. can well be exemplified and important lessons given. Teachers' College. such as is used how carried what it is to carry whether carried by one or : How . Hold the frame on the Count the holes. locality used. yet Work FIG. 45. Cane is coarse. different methods of work. keeping is practically useful. To practice. Here adaptability to purpose. New York. to use. top and bottom. . etc. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. and pull a piece lap top uppermost. P'jii peg into both of these holes to keep cane in place. in which holes an inch apart are bored. and down through center top hole. Show how environment influences everything and that the use of different baskets in different localities for the same purpose is the result of different growths. It must be soaked in water before using. up through next hole on the right. of Students. fine. overcome the problems involved. at bottom row. two persona. hampers. CAXING CHAIRS. purchase from a kindergarten suppy house a small. The children will readily structions further than those already given. and has a decided value in teaching the handling legitimately comes under the head of mat weaving. 45 All these are simple and need no detailed inbaskets. Buy or make pegs to fit these holes. To cane chairs is not a difficult art. square frame. of fine cane up through the center bottom hole.

run a splint to the up- Now. from the lower left corner to the upper right. CANING A CHAIR. (See Fig. 49. 46. right. continue taking care not to and lace as on the the frame will be horizontal splints right and center to to corresponding hole on top row. over single. take a splint of binding cane. This diagonal weaving must be done in the two ways. inserting one end down splint of fine cane is now brought through the hole at one corner. pull the cane tight. 46). FIG. over a single splint. WEAVE OF CHAIR CANE. CANING A CHAIR. from lower left-hand corner. The frame is now a network of squares. wide enough to cover the holes of the edge. FIG. FIG. then to the left. At the fourth row from the center. working from center to left. 47. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.. under a cross. however. Now start to the left of the center This done. Take cane now this lacing Peg. actual weaving must beThe splint must be taken under a cross. CANE TIE. starting n PIG. working first to the right. viz. process until right side of frame is reached. gin. HOW Peg it. A . and from the lower right to the upper left. filled with lines of vertical splints. per right-hand corner and continue these diagonal lines exactly the same as the vertical ones. 48.46 it flat. but towards the left side of frame. For a binding stitch over the holes. Now put in the in exactly the same way.

52. Now follow these by putting in another set vertiThe fourth cally on top of the first ones and through the same holes. finish off with the bind- FIG. In many chairs there are little problems in the corners that the good sense of the weaver will easily solve if he is careful to have a due regard for proof these as a pattern close at hand. When the diagonal weaving ing as before described. 48. as shown in Fig. and going over or under as the case may require. Sit on a small stool or hassock and tilt the chair forward upon your Find the center as before described. Put in the splints vertically lap. which should always be on the under side of tlhe frame. : : portion. under lower vertical. Pass it underneath the loop. The one thing of importance to remember is that the first row of splints must be put on loosely. then once again. bring the loose end to the nearest loop. is completed. 47. This will be found to hold securely. and horizontally. creasing firmly. 49. (See Fig. thus couching it. In finishing off the ends.) Everyone is familiar with the octagonal meshed weave of the ordinary cane-seated chair. These go under and over the horizontal pairs and vertical pairs as shown in Fig. Now begin the diagonal weaving from lower left corner to upper right corner. without any attempt tO' tie. for there are six rows of splints and the later woven rows tighten up to the others. 47 up through every other hole. . at the same time pulling the upper vertical to the right. While doing the work endeavor to have one The explanations that follow will then be perfectly simple. FIG 53. HOOP AND SCHOOL BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA. DOLL'S HAT AND TRAY OF PLAITED RAFFIA. draw tight. across the binding and back again through the same hole. row is horizontally put in and must be woven as follows over one upper vertical.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

Sew on one side only. 50 is the beginning of a small mat. and the bottom belt shows that tttie ends are utilized for tying. for the boy's own use in playing horses. toy harness and the like are easily made from this plaited work. to plait the entire length needed before beginning to use the plait. A little These laces can be dyed so as to give design in the plait. 51 is composed entirely of plaited belts. another shape. Figs. sewed with the edges outermost. Fig. Above it are two wall pockets. doll's hat. used for car- rying books. used by boys and girls in one of their out-door games. a handle. not by tying. When a length of raffia is about to give out. etc. Fig. To gain digital dexterity it is well to introduce it into a Course of Basketry. using for thread a fine strand of raffia. bag-handles. Both boys and girls can be much interested in this plaiting if the articles made are converted into playthings. First of all. Every schoolboy and girl is more or less familiar with the simple forms of plaiting. To facilitate this place a screw hook in the wainscoting or on the under side of the work table. To give purpose to the work. CHAPTER IX. New York. Ga. 52 shows a hoop of plaited raffia. Columbia University. stimulate interest by showing how these plaits can be utilized. let the child practice on simple plaiting with strands of raffia. and the other without. beginning first with coarse and later using finer material. Alternate plaiting and sewing give variety. The saddle girth above is of braided sisal hemp expressly for that purpose. Fig. made of corset lacings. on which the A little practical experience will raffia can be placed while plaiting. both made of plaited All the articles of Figs. and a tray. In these three the plaits are flat and sewed edge to edge with a large darning needle. experimentation will soon show that the design depends entirely upon how the colored lace is placed at the beginning of the plait. 54 and 55 are composed of model hats made by the students at Teachers' College. They are all of braided raffia. lengthen It is not necessary it by splicing. covered with the lace. or something useful.53 sihows a small raffia. Belts. 52 and 53 were made by small children at Mr. The rings are ordinary brass rings. one Below it to the left is one of with.48 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. for their own personal use. To the right and below is a band made by sewing the plaits together. 50. THE PLAIT OR BRAID. soon demonstrate >how much raffia must be used to obtain a plait of any given size. Neligh's school in Columbus. In the making of these hats seek to draw out the individuality of . thus avoiding knots. In the center of Fig. and below is a school-bag. and see that it is closely and evenly done. Under the direction of the teacher this can easily be converted into a harness. with the edges outer- most and sewed as the coil grows. In this the plaits are coiled flat.

the Coolie. etc. the outing hat. To add interest to the work the child know something of the wearer of these different kinds of hats. the policeman's helmet. another a A Southern girl will naturally try a colonial. still another a Puritan. social and domestic customs. Others will try the Panama. ive shapes. Let one make a continental hat. while in the hats of the peasantry of the world a host more FIG. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 50. sombrero. the Chinese. Here come in opportunities for fascinating little chats on history. etc. ETC. ARTICLES OF PLAITED RAFFIA. the reasons that used to exist for the different kinds of headgear used in the various regiments of the ^ame army. whilst a girl from the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania will make a Dutch farmer's hat. the poke In army hat>s< of different nations are a score of suggestbonnet. let of excellent suggestions may be found. 49 each child or student. geography.

Figs. and good shape are all sought after. the color of the hair. "If you make a modern hat. Remember that a good milliner in choosing a hat studies. and the effects manner of making is clearly shown in Fig. individuality. Work of Students. 51.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER taste BASKETS. choice of a able to produce a hat that will harmonize with the individuality of the wearer. native in the may be exercised and called into existence modern outing hat. Then try to make a hat that would suit some friend. Firmness of weave. the shape of the face and Thus she is head." This demands personality. 56 and 57 are various baskets of plaited raffia made by the Various colors are used and pretty students of Teachers' College. of the wearer. FIG. . New York. Then. produced. too.. make such an one as you would personally like to wear. Five-stranded plaits of raffia often come in very useful. harmony of color wihere it is used. the form. PLAITED BELTS. the conscious exercise of choice. etc. 58. neatness in sewing the plaits together. Teachers' College. solidity of the basket as a whole.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 50a. . BOTTOM OF DEERFIELD BASKET. 51 FIG.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Work of Students. 54. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. Teachers' College. FIG. .

It should be slightly dampened for several hours before using. 61. Work PIG. yucca fibre.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. Even unbraided raffia may be rushes. New York. Fig. braided raffia. Twisted hemp. "Indian Basketry. 55. From page 158. 53 CHAPTER X. Various materials can be used in this work. used. Teachers' College. Pimas have a carrying basket in which the net is used. as shown in A. THE NET." it will be seen that carrying The nets were and are made by the Mission Indians of California. For a netted work or handkerchief-bag. etc. Hold the stick in any easy position so that a strand of raffia may be doubled and tied around the . of Students. secure twelve strands raffia of two colors and a stick about a yard long and one and one-half inches wide.

Draw the knot tight. bag is A pretty effect of complete. the strands in like manner. Make even meshes all the way across. 56. tom rows is caused by loosely braiding the strands meshes before knotting them. BASKETS OF PLAITED RAFFIA.54 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. At the bottom the whole of the strands are gathered together and tied with a single or braided strand. and the towards the bottom. then knot each strand at about the distance of an inch with the nearest strand of the next pair. and proceed to close up the bag by knotting the loose sides together. of two bot- . Continue this all the way down for five or six rows. a length of plaited raffia put through the upper mesh and tied. 59. as shown in Fig-. The ends are then cut evenly. Teachers' College. narrowing the meshes Work FIG. of Students'. Then slip the knots from the stick. New York. Put on the rest of stick. Separate to about an inch apart.

style of bag made by keeping all the to the bottom.HOW Another TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. 61. and the number of strands When BASKETS OP PLAITED RAFFIA. way by matching t)he knots and meshes together and then knitting two strands from the front and two from the back together for the finishing row. Teachers' College. A . are the bag is lined with silk or turkey red cotton it is a pretty and serviceable article. If tassels Work on. except that the meshes must be much smaller. Fig. then joining the FIG. of Students. The ends can then be cut and thie bag is complete. at the bottom. twine bag may be made in the same manner as A. of raffia and sewed desired they may be made 57. 55 the meshes of equal size two sides. New York.

SNIGLE NET MESH. D is a pretty little basket made of a fibre brought from Puerto . and all different. NETTED BAGS OF RAFFIA. FIG. KNOT OF RAFFIA. ETC. 60. 58. B is a small netted purse of raffia of fine mesh. 61. STRAND DETAIL OF FIVE PLAIT. STITCH AND 59. and tied tightly on the top. FIG. using the single net stitch of Fig. FIG. it can be suspended wherever needed. 62. but has a bottom and top of coiled and sewed plaited raffia. In netting with raffia or other materials! an infinite variety of articles may be made. NET MESH. the twine allowed to come through one of the meshes. With a tassel on the bottom. Fig. C and D. 61. 60.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. limited to the size of the ball of twine. FIG. FIG. as suggested in B. C is netting the same as described in the work-bag A.

64. 69. These may be imitated from any book of fancy needlework." Any of these may be imitated in raffia. . 62 to 66. 65. 66. through. knotted or fastened These fancy stitches give wonderful variety to basket work and can be introduced here and there as taste and skill dictate. Book for 1903. as slhown in Fig. It is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. NET MESH. The size of rings may be varied to suit the size of napkin. 67 and 68. for which I am indebted to the "Priscilla Needlework as required. NET MESH. etc. yucca fiber. FIG. and then join by passing a ribbon or five-strand plait of raffia (see Fig. similar to Figs. FIG.HOW Rico. NET MESH. When all the rings are covered. 58) an inch wide. NET MESH. overlap them. stitch shown in Figs. A pretty napkin-ring can be made by taking ten curtain rings about an inch in diameter and covering them with the buttonhole Raffia or any fibre may be used. then under and over. 63. FIG. 57 composed entirely of fancy stitches.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. <! H H a fe .

the stitches being is needed for the sewing. the coiled ware may be are made within an inch of space. Fig. : etc. such as grass. of the best the world. There are specimens delicately made that will pass through a lady's finger ring. or whatever is to be used for sewing. 72 is of a group of mats and baskets made of long pine needles. . taken just past the proceeding one.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. shredded The plain mat of Fig. in design. while cat-tail. Of these Miss Hyde writes and thus instructs how to make They are made of hemp. 36. with colored quills). strong tapestry needle The coil is then begun. The center may be birch bark (ornamented. raffia. the root material is shredded so fine that nearly 100 stitches In form. or of A leather. It large variation. made exactly as the mat in Fig. The zig-zag introduced and the mat then completed with three rounds of coil. twine. Let the children go out and gather their own material for these 'simple trays. or built up into the most exquisite jar shape. raffia. The is coil is one of the favorite weaves. as in a table mat. with a center of cedar-bark. when performed by an exquisitely beautiful. Fig. sweet grass. and in o-thers. is The first grass coil is sewed to its outer edge. This gives the even and beautiful spiral effect.. As Professor Mason has well written: "Coiled basketry in point of size presents the greatest extremes.. THE COIL WEAVE. viz. lege." The simplest form of coiled work is shown in Fig. it is tightly wrapped with thread. and. sedges. split willows. thus giving a radiaTo finish allow the tion from the center as the work progresses. . the Indians of the simple and yet capable of artist. as in the Pima granaries. broom corn. is basket makers in American West and Southwest. the upright stitches lend themiselves to the greatest variety of intricate patterns. perfectly flat. The variation of B. as this is. 70 is of raffia. each time inserting the needle with point toward you between every wrap. 70. 70. 59 CHAPTER XI. plenish the coil. the fancy one is of sweet grass. coil to diminish gradually and make a secure fastening. except that an oval center was first made by bending a strong and thick needle to the . combined with grasses. as the work progresses. D is an oval mat. Taking a length of the coil material. They are pretty and useful. The material of the coil may be almost anything capable of being coiled. and made with comparative ease. Great care should be exercised in putting in new material to reUpon this depends the evenness of the work. stitching material one-half inch wide. will be easily mastered. Dye the hemp and take an amount equivalent to three-eight inch coil wrap for a distance of three-fourths of an inch. Colis of coiled trays made by the students of Teachers' Fig. etc. straw. and others as large as a flour barrel some specimens have . rushes. 71 gathered in the immediate neighborhood of New York. corn husks. allowing spaces of one inch between wraps then fasten and sew.

72.FIG. . Work of Students. SIMPLE COILED TRAYS. 71. PINE NEEDLE COILED BASKETS. FIG. New York. Teachers' College.

E and G. 73. Cushings description: simple coiled weave. A grass stems or osiers softened in water was first spirally wrapped a little at one end with a flat. two and a half inches in diameter. yet made in the same way. to which A tom and 1 the lid is. 73. No "wobblety" bottom. usually willow. and sewed to the sides-. the beginning small wisp of fine flexible at the center of the bottom. 75. was rounded upward and the sides were made by coiling the wisp higher and higher. to produce the bulge of the vessel. It is two and a quarter inches across at the botis the lid. with the aid of a bodkin. The handles of G are each of two circular coils. 75 clearly show the Indian method of making the "In the I quote Lieut. This wrapped portion was then wound upon itself. When FIGS. amples was made of the helix or spirally coiled type of basket. A basket must sit firmly on the table and be tightly woven. Here are two important things to be attained. to form the tapering upper part and neck. sewed on after the basket was elsewhere finished. 6l This was then filled up with darned work. limber splint of tough wood. the width of brim three-quarters of an inch. the diameter of bottom. or a mat dinner table. manufacture of the Havasupai. including brim. as the basis. 74.) tiguous inner coil. flanged and fits snug. which are good exand firmness. and no slovenly work in the sides will be tolerated. The top is an inch and a half in diameter. these long pine needles baskets are known they will become wonderfully popular in a short time.) er coil thus formed (Fig. Fig. decked off with a piece of ribbon. 74) being firmly fastened as it progressed to the one already made by passing the splint wrapping of the wisp each time it was wound around the latter through some strands of the conThe bottom (Fig." circular in shape. a "cute little hat. Each 'has a base of two coils.HOW shape required. then inward. slight protuberances which act as handles. are dissimilar in shape. 74. for the It TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 72. Figs. first outward. In the making of all these baskets stimulate the student to stability . 73." This su'bject will be found more fully discussed in the chapter on . three and one-eighth inches. 75. and used makes an excellent tray for the toilet table.boiling baskets. the height two and a quarter inches. the out(Fig. MANUFACTURE OF SPIRALLY COILED WEAVES. F is C is smaller and the two upper coils are made oval so as to afford two B is a dainty little basket. into which the two little twigs or splint-loops were firmly woven.

(2) a stem with . E. but not inclosing the foundation underneath (2) under one rod . . These will now be taken up systematically and illustrated (fig. Splint foundation. 76). Single-rod foundation.62 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. angular position (6) by '=. two stems laid side . F. matting. with a welt. (5) three stems in tria bundle of splints or small stems (7) a bundle of grass or small shreds. K. (i) a single (3) stem or rod. . CROSS SECTIONS OF VARIETIES IN COILED BASKETRY. The stitches pass around the foundation in progress (i) interlocking. and in book on Indian Basketry. I. of the coil beneath. Coiled work without foundation. H. B. ill A iJ) B & // \] C -> FIG. One rod inclosed. Scores of exquisite baskets made by this stitch are pictured. there are nine different varieties of coiled basketry which he analyzes and describes as my follows : "The foundation may be a thin welt laid on top of (4) it . With these explanations it is possible to make the following nine varieties of coiled basketry. in some cases systematically splitting the sewing material underneath. or bagging: A. D.ide. Indian Stitches. however many there may be (3) under a welt of the coil beneath (4) through splints or other foundation. Grass-coil foundation. Double-stem coil. two rod and splint foundation. Packing inclosed. three-rod foundation. G. Fuegian coiled basketry. two or more stems over one another . C. two rod foundation. rod and welt foundation. As Professor Mason has shown in his bulletin. . Packing inclosed. 76. Simple interlocking coils.

HOW
A.

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

COILED
of this class

WORK WITHOUT FOUNDATION.

Speci-

have been already mentioned. The sewing material is babiche or fine rawhide thong in the cold north, or string of some In the Mackenzie Basin will be found the former, sort farther south. and in the tropical and subtropical areas the latter. If a plain, spiral spring be coiled or hooked into one underneath, the simplest form of An improvement of this is effected the open coiled work will result.

mens

FJG. 77. DETAIL OF INTERLOCKING STITCHES.

FIG.

ROD COIL

78.

DETAIL OF SINGLEIN BASKETRY.

FIG.

TWO

79.

RODS, VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION OF

FIG.

SO.

COILED WORK.

ROD AND WELT

when the moving thread in passing upward after interlocking is twined one or more times about its standing part (Fig. 76 A.) B. Simple interlocking coils. Coiled work in which there may be any sort of foundation, but the stitches merely interlock without catching under the rods or splints or grass beneath. This form easily passes into those in which the stitch takes one or more elements of the foundation, but in a thorough ethnological study small differences can not be overlooked (fig. 76 B). Fig. 77 represents this style of workmanship on a coiled basket in grass stems from Alaska, collected by Lucien M. Turner. The straws for sewing merely interlock without gathering the grass roll.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

C. In rattan basketry and Pacific coast Single-rod foundation. ware, called by Dr. J. W. Hudson Tsai in the Poma language, the foundation is a single stem, uniform in diameter. The stitch passes around the stem in progress and is caught under the one of the preceding coil, In a collection of Siamese basketry in the U. S. Naas in fig. 76 C. tional Museum the specimens are all made after this fashion the foundation is the stem of the plant in its natural state, and the sewing is with splints of the same material, having the glistening surface outward. As
;

FIG.

SI.

FOUNDATION OF THREE RODS.

FIG.

82.

OF SPLINTS.

FOUNDATION

FIG. COILS,

S3.

STRAW FOUNDATION.

INTERLOCKING

FIG.

84. OPEN COIL, INCLOSING PART OF FOUNDATION.

this is

somewhlat unyielding, it is difficult to crowd the stitches together, and so the foundation is visible between. In America single-rod basketry is widely spread. Along the Pacific coast it is found in northern Alaska and as far south as the borders of Mexico. The Poma Indians use it in some of their finest work. The roots of plants and soft stems of willow, rhus, and the like are used for the sewing, and being soaked thoroughly can be crowded together so
as to entirely conceal the foundation
(fig. 78).

rod in this style lies on top of the other the stitches pass over two rods in progress and under the upper

D.

Two-rod foundation.

One

;

HOW
one
of the pair

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

65

cal series.

below, so that each stitch incloses three stems in a vertiattention to fig. 76 D will demonstrate that the alternate rod or the upper rod in each pair will be inclosed in two series of stitches, while the other or lower rod will pass along freely in the middle of one series of stitches and show on the outer side. Exbe seen among the Athaamples of this two-rod foundation are to tribes of Alaska, among the Poma Indians of the Pacific coast, pascan and among the Apache of Arizona. An interesting or specialized variseen among the Mescaleros of New Mexico, who ety of this type is us'e the two-rod foundation, but instead of passing the stitch around the interlock the stitches so that neither upper rod of the coil below, simply

A

little

FIG.

INTERLOCKING COILS, 85. SHRED FOUNDATION.

FIGS.

86,

87

AND

88.

FUEGIAN COILED BASKET AND DETAILS.

one of the two rods is closed twice. This Apache ware is sewed with yucca fiber and the brown sterns of other plants, producing a brilliant
effect,

and the

result of the special technic

is

a flat surface like that of

pottery

(fig. 79).

of precisely the

The U. S. National Museum possesses a single piece same technic from the kindred of the Apache on the

lower Yukon. E. Rod and welt foundation. In this kind of basketry the singlerod foundation is overlaid by a strip or splint of tough fiber, sometimes the same as that with which the sewing is done at others a The stitches pass over the rod and strip which strip of leaf or bast. are on top down under the welt only of the coil below, the stitches inThe strip of tough fiber between the two rods which terlocking.
;

o ^ g 02 Oc 0) i-H - 5J5 ^5 o .w 55 pq 4 r^ g O o I-H O t ( fe a .

which may be in splints of willow. Among the Poma and other by tribes in the western part of the United States the most delicate pieces Dr. younger portion of the stem will do for sewing. worked into the foundation. or stiff grass (Epicampes rigidum). or shredded yucca. and patterns of coiled basketry. 76 E and fig. D. ware is rude when the sewing passes carelessly through the stitches In the Klikibelow. Three-rod foundation. In the California area the materials for basketry are of the finest quality. as shown in fig. only the outer and : . examples this upper rod is replaced by a thin strip of material serving fora welt (see fig. J. . where the has no standing in that tribe. F. among the pueblos and missions. 67 serves for a welt has a double purpose strengthening the fabric and This style the space between the rods (fig. and the like. chinking of coil work is seen on old Zuni basket-jars and on California examples. under In some the upper one of the bundle below. pliant material of the California tribes is wanting. rhus. Hudson bam-tsu-wu. In this style the foundation is made thicker and stronger by laying two rods side by side and a splint The surface will be or welt on top to make the joint perfectly tight. and in northern Africa. This is the type of foundation called Dr." The technic the most elaborate character can be wrought on them. or. rush stems. passes around the three stems constituting the coil. 76) C. The sewing. In basketry of this type the foundation consists of a number of longer or shorter splints massed together and sewed. 81 also in cross section in fig. Splint-foundation. is most compact.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. On the surface of the barn-tsu-wu basketry the Poma weaver adds pretty bits of bird feathers and delicate pieces The basket represents the wealth of the maker. 76 H). of the stems of rushes (Juncus acutus). the stitches interlocking. and the gift of shell. of one of these to a friend is considered to be the highest compliment. The sewing may be done with split stems of hard wood. willow. and F. fig. 83 and the cross section given baskets of the Pima a bundle of straws furnishes the foundation. Tribes practicing this style of coiling generally have fine material and some of the best ware is so made up. tat basketry the pieces of spruce or cedar root not used for sewing material are also I. as in the case of the Mission baskets in southern California. or cercis stem. So). but it coil beneath (fig. 82). The effect in all such ware is good. be seen in the southwestern portions of the United States. for the reason that the maker has perExcellent examples of this kind are to fect control of her material. The type of foundation passes easily into forms (fig. G. in others the splitting is designed and beautiful. corrugated. the stitches passing under one or more of the splints in the In the Poma language it is called chilo. of small midribs The foundation is a bunch of grass or from palm: leaves. W. 76 G. Two rod and splint foundation. 76 F). black or white carex root. Surfaces are beautifully corrugated. Grass'-coil basketry. Three or four small uniform willow stems serve for the is as follows foundation. 76 I). Hudson calls them the ''jewels of of basketry are in this style. and when the stitches are pressed closely together the foundation does not appear. (See In the larger granary in fig. H. The willow stems and carex root are Sewing done with these susceptible of division into delicate filaments. In the Great Interior Basin. The interior parts Such in such examples are made up into the foundation (fig.

.68 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 90. FIG. COILED RAFFIA BASKTES.

It is so-called by him because each stitch is not bound to* the preced- work made by a ten year old boy. Asiatic types on the Pacific is most striking (fig. but instead of being in the ordinary over-and-over stitch it consists of a series of half hitches or buttonhole stitches (fig. 85). which were brought very early in contact with Spaniards and African slaves. 90 is the next step in coiled basketry. reached. as in fig. In B. the sewing is done with rushes. with rush stems interlocking. the pure coiled work of the Indian." The student can utilize almost all of these methods in one kind of or another. Mass. In the Fuegian coiled basketry.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Though made of raffia. show the fundamental traits of sound workmanship and an intelligent use of material.. Fuegian coiled basketry. has some beautiful specimens of the weaver's art done in this. 89. two different methods of coiled basketry are shown. 86). the patterns. Mr. herewith in presenting a description of the baiskets illustrated and the work of this Society by Miss Margaret C. 84.. of course. what we might term. built upon a thick bundle of the woody stems of the yuccas. great similarity will be noticed in the size of the coil. which furnish also the sewing material from the split leaf If this be examined in comparison with a style of basketry (fig. In this ware the foundation is slight. 89. wihich will be read with interest and profit. of DeerI have pleasure field. The diameter increases up to five inches. the same method is followed. lazy stitch. L. as in A. of the a work-basket of the same stitch. are made in the stitch shown in Fig. McLeod. Among the basketry belonging to the grass-coil foundation type are the Hopi plaques. then it is sewed to the preceding coil. A. 90 is another specimen. what he calls. though. and their example has to the production of the good work . and. might easily mistake this for a genuine Indian basket. with the addition of a cross stitch over the stitch which binds the two coils toThe Indians of Kern County occassionally use the former of gether. consisting of one or more rushes the sewing is in buttonhole stitch or . The suggestion is here made that this particular form of workmanship may be due to acculturation. 86). E. these stitches. is the other crafts of that little been a source of encouragement village display. Most of the celebrated baskets of the Pocumtuck Society. ing coil as in all their finer work. and the stitches. of which a figure is given. Mass. after the center has been begun. K. We have now C. The resemblance of this to half-hitches. The bottom is two and a half inches in diameter. when time permits. found in Egypt and in northern Africa as far as the Barbary states. it is well to experiment in the various styles with the home materials. B. fig. In fig. fig. and is then decreased until it is 3 1-2 inches at the top. the new part of the coil is wrapped for a certain number of stitches. "The baskets produced at Deerfield. and my friend. 69 while the sewing is done with broad strips of tough bark. Whiting. many people looking at the photograph. which coiled lazy stitch. no one but the merest tyro could be deceived if he held the basket in his hands. inasmuch as this type of basketry is confined in America to the Hopi pueblos. the color of the sewing material. Here.

COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. New York. Work of Students. Teachers' College. New York.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. 92. Teachers' College. Work of Students. . 93. FIG.

Turn up the basket and one will find. This charming surprise. raffia have.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 2) another chooses the piccotee pink for chief decoration upon the cover of her shallow bowl. with much thought given to the perfection of form. may not be imitated by those whose taste is sophisticated and minds trained to other and different standards of beauty. and with the varying shades and tones their old-fashioned dves offer they produce harmonies the public is quick to value. 9). slyly prepared for the observant. 8). One . One craftswoman decorates her carefully shaped basket with a nice drawing of white mice on a dull olive background (Fig. as the raffia workers have named themselves. . a beautifully drawn black-berry flower in white raffia in the black bottom. the way it is translated into the medium of raffia furnishes the herself. Or another weaver produces her effects from the use of color and exquisite stitches in a basket all done The in greens. for it lightens the dark interior of the basket. a house in red with windows a<nd doors in black and a lighter green foreground on the opposite occurs exactly the same landscape all dark in blues and greens. problem large basket woven of the natural colored raffia for a ground color bears two landscape designs for its decoration on one swelling side is seen a group of trees in dull rioh greens against a blue sky. fustic. A different temperament has chosen a blackberry for a motive of form and decoration. other groups of village workers in basketry in In the matter of color the Deerfield workers in their baskets probably. the seeds being divided on the black surface by dull green lines while the cover with its brown stem for a handle rising from the green calyx. the flower is worked out in red and black upon a white background with a conventional border in the same colors upon the side of the basket (Fig. ." Only a bold designer could carry out with success so simple Another covered basket by the same workyet complicated a scheme. beauty that lies in the natural corn husk when laid smooth in large . er is made with a useful handle that holds fast the lid on double braided cords it is developed in blues with a row of red birds solemnly hopping for the individual craftswoman to solve for . With indigo. like all masters in art. for from the first have owed a good part of their reputation to the natural dyes they employ. An individual preference is shown in one worker's use of the swale grasses grown in the meadows about Deerfield (see Fig. and . She combines their varying lines with colored raffia in large card trays and plaques. . an animal or even a landscape may serve for suggestion. copperas and logwood these craftswomen hiave uttered their convincing protest against the crude and vicious color discords of the chemical dyes. about its circumference (see Fig. been of chief public service. Jl now being done by different localities. and have frankly refused to use designs or color combinaIn their designs they pretions that belong to the red man's choice. serves a useful purpose. 14). have wisely recognized that the Indian. madder. is all black with a row of large dull black beads pointing the edge of the lid. a fer to work out the themes and harmonies of Nature flower. the house in black and and the upper edge of the roof and trees just touched with the pink reflections from a big pink moon that rises in the pale sky it is almost needless to say this is named "Night and Day. a butterfly. The Pocumtuck Basket Society. after the longgone earliest inhabitants of their valley. worked with a much finer stitch.

each weaver seeking to produce the best possible effect. BOOK MARK OF WEB WEAVE. 6 FIG. 93 are all of coiled raffia baskets made by the students at Teachers' College. each rising from two spreading gray-green leaves. Wrapped spaces of . a cover must fit.3)In choice of shapes the Pocumtuck basket makers cling to the strictly useful and simple forms a bowl must stand firm on a bottom sufficiently large to sustain it. and bearing big blossoms worked from the many4iued pinks of the crepe-like husks (see done in Fig. a handle must be strong or the jury of society will not give its approval. are introduced but are not allowed to interfere with structural strength." and consists one smooth turn about the coil and a stitch down into the space on the row beneath the coil is formed of split or whole reeds. . and sometimes varied from large to small in the development of a single basket. SPLINT AND 94. WEAVING ON EVEN SPOKES. 95. FIG. different sizes being chosen to fit the desired effect. employed is that which has been dubbed "lazy stitch. 91. Here variety in shape and design were worked out. is shown in still another basket of a large cylindrical form shaded indigo blues for background to four poppy stalks.HOW surfaces TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." Figs. The stitch chiefly . 92.

96. Indeed the division into miat and web weaving is purely arbitrary. of the raffia weaver pretty little book-mark may be made with rattan or other material for the foundation of raffia. over two AND STARTING WEAVER. 95. the effect of a single weaver can be obtained by using two weavers. there must be an odd number of spokes. palmetto. weaving only in the fact that the warp elements are rigid and mat BOOK MARKS. 73 CHAPTER XII. under 4. A little practice will soon teach the better way to the student. throughout. It must never be forgotten that proper web weaving can never be clone with an even number of spokes and a single weaver. To have the woof of one over and one under. SPOKES. Weave over 5. both starting together. however. and so Tuck the end of the on.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Figs. then under 8 and under 2. 21. over 7. over under between 8 and i. one ahead of the first round. Where. i. Tuck the end i. 97. A wooden splints. HOLDING SPOKES FIG. and with a long weaver splints are required. 20. Next round pass under two. over 3. until five or six rounds have been woven. uniformly. We iniow woof is come to the most common of all of the basket weaving of the the pliable material. Take eight . etc. The odd spoke may be used in starting. DIVIDING INTO SINGLE SPOKES. THE WEB WEAVE. little care at first will soon render one expert in thus using two weavers. 94. as shown in Fig. one before and the other behind the same spoke. the web. Yet this differs from the checkerwork of the civilization. FIG. or can be inserted later. and when tips of spokes are cut into points a book mark is ready The following exercises will all be useful for later work. The result is a series of ridges on the surface. 23 and 24 show the simple stitches. under 6. weaver into the part woven so as to hide and firmly fasten it. One long and three short flat Place these as shown in Fig. it ODD AND EVEN NUMBER OF is essential to vise an even number of spokes for the warp. 22. A MAT OR BOTTOM FOR ROUND BASKET. for use.

ac2. in front of the next. one spoke. Another simple border is made. In making these borders remember always to soak. and a weaver of No. . 100. as a STARTING NEW WEAVER. Soak ends for a few minutes. Weave one row. as allowing from i 1-2 inches to 5 or 6. If it is OPEN BORDER NO. It will then dry as left. 101 and 102. 8 or 9 inches Hold the eight long spokes as long. 99. leaving an open curve as shown in Fig. underneath. This separation must be done with great care and evenness. under the four at left. just before it reaches the next spoke. It will often be necessary. the further the better. Then weave under flie four to the right. After placing the weaver under one side and over another. 98. Sharpen one end and thrust it into the center. cording to taste. so as to readily evenness. it is passed under the last row of weaving Then pass it around that spoke. 14 to 16 inches long. for the loop. and the appearance of the basket improved. 96. Now cut spokes to a point and of even length. 2 rattan. over the four at bottom. shown in Fig. for ten or fifteen minutes. finish the last row by binding it as overcasting is done. 97 and begin to weave behind and before each spoke separately. 2. and so on until the whole edge is bound. shown in Figs. spokes of No. to weave as shown quired. PIG. as the beauty of every edge depends upon its making everything It is well to soak a border after it is made. making two complete rounds.74 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the splints to be bent. 4 rattan. 98. as strength and beauty both depend upon the way this is done. This would spoil the looks of the basket. RIGHT SIDE OF CENTER WITH ODD SPOKE. Then be absolutely accurate in even. When the weaver has been placed across each side of the top set of spokes. so the odd spoke is >now inserted as shown in Fig. in Fig. separate the spokes as shown in Fig. under the last row of weaving before next spoke. Run the spoke down as far as possible. and it will be found that the weaver comes behind the same spoke with which we begun in the first row. i down beside No. as strength is thus added. Then turn over and continue FIG. 99 until the mat or base is the size redesired to make a mat of this. INSERTING ODD SPOKE. and so on. Then push spoke No. allow its being bent into perfect shape.

103. sires. 102. 104. When the weaving the object desired. STARTING of the work of his pupils. 2. In Fig. 100. SIMPLE OPEN BORDER. 101. OPEN BORDER NO. Neligh informs me that he has found it to be excellent practice to have hi's pupils make the web weave with raffia. with about three-quarters of an inch to spare. 2. OF NO. the shape the object is to be. Cross this with an equal length of the new weaver. 75 Leave the end of the last weaver [weaver runs out. Mr. Pins are firmly fastened into a board. behind a spoke. The warp strands of raffia are then tightly tied around these pins. Then FIG. When the basket is completed and dry the unnecessary ends If it is desired to hide the point of new with old weaver. The student is now ready to make simple . FIG. FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to start a new one. SPLICING. and the woof strands then woven as in other work. 104. One may use a needle or not as he de- shown some specimens FIG. is done the edges are sown together to make SIMPLE BASKETS. NEW WEAVER. DETAIL. the two may be spliced as shown in Fig. 105 are may be cut off. 103). (See Fig. OPEN BORDER PIG. SPLICING WEAVERS. proceed.

76 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The basket below the mat is begun in exactly the same way. closed border No. WEB WEAVING WITH RAFFIA. 106 as an example. 105. but after about an inch of the mat is woven draw the weaver tighter. i. which will be described in the . 96. and 99. This FIG. finishing off with border as desired. baskets of the web weave. 97. Begin the mat as described in Figs. Use the mat in Fig. slightly curves up the spokes and gives the soon as the basket is as large as required it bowl shape desired. As must be finished off with next chapter. 98.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS,

77

CHAPTER

XIII.

INSERTION AND BORDERS.
Before proceeding further with the chapter on Web-Weaving well to gain a full knowledge of insertion and borders. These "In descriptions are taken from Miss Firth's "Cane Basket Work." making open borders where it is necessary to run one spoke down
it is

FIG.

106.

Work

SIMPLE RATTAN BASKETS,
of Students, Teachers' College,

WEB WEAVE.
New
York.

beside another, the awl must be first inserted to open a passage for the extra spoke, and care must be taken to have a smooth end, or the weaving will be pulled out of place. It is al'so important to have each spoke double the length of the height of the basket, allowing the extra length necess'ary for the loop at the top. For convenience

7

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

spoke may be cut half an inch beyond the length required for the sides, and extra spokes, a little more than double that length, inserted when the weaving is finished. This will give the appearance of three spokes, and if well varnished will not be likely to get out of place.

The extra

half-inch

must not be

cut off the

first

spoke

till

the others

have been inserted.

"As the extra length necessary for each border is given with the directions for working it, one can be easily substituted for another according to taste."

FIG.

107.

DETAIL OF INSERTION.

PIG.

108.

INSERTION.

Pretty effects are caused by insertion, the details of which will The spokes of readily be comprehended from Figs. 107 and 108. the trellis work of the insertion are finer than the foundation. "This can be used with any border but looks well with open border, Fig. 102. The fine starting on the right hand side of a coarse spoke, crossing the open space to the next on the right, following it inside

FIG.

109.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

3.

FIG.

110.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

4.

the bend till the open space is again reached, where it crosses to the left-hand side of the same 'spoke from which it started." NO. 3. "This is only another variation of the same prinicple, the spokes being cut about 3 inches longer than double the height needed for the sides of the basket. At about 2 inches from the top weave one row of pairing and fasten off ends. An

OPEN BORDER

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

79

inch farther up start another row of pairing, add three rows of single Proceed as for Open weaving, and finish with another row of pairing. Border No. 2 as far as to the insertion, but instead of inserting the spoke in hand beside the same spoke as in the upper part, miss one, and slip it down beside the next. This border needs careful manipu-

FIG.

111.

DETAIL, OF PLAIT.

FIG.

112.

PLAIT.

lation to
size of

OPEN BORDER
ple as

keep the spokes in place. It can be varied according to basket and taste of worker." NO. 4. "This border necessitates double

spokes, on which two rows of pairing are worked at any desired distance. See Fig. no. The upper part is done on the same princiis brought up behind the next, the last being gathered under the first, as shown in Fig. in. For the next row this movement is reversed, each spoke being passed down behind the next, the last threaded under the first. When the

SINGLE PLAIT.

Open Border No.

5."

Each spoke

FIG.

113.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

FIG.

4321
114.

DETAIL, OF LAST

THREE SPOKEa

work

thoroughly dry, the protruding ends must be cut off as closeSee Fig. 112. PLAIT. Insert an extra short spoke beside each of those already in use, and proceed with the two spokes together as
is

ly as practicable.

DOUBLE

in single plait.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

"Take spoke No.

i,

and

at

about 11-2

beyond the edge of the basket bend it downwards, passing it behind No. 2, before No. 3 and behind No. 4, leaving the end at the front
inches

113). in and 112. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. CLOSED BORDER NO. i. 117. In order to keep the pattern. Length of spokes needed for borthe der 10 inches. 2.8o HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as spoke No. and will complete the pattern. and working on the same principle bring it down behind No. BORDER 116. DETAIL OF NO. Proceed in this way till all the spokes are down but three Take the first of these. FIG. and before the third. . which must be threaded behind and before and behind the three spokes first Finish with plait already deused. before No. 4. See Figs. bring it down behind the second (Fig. and spoken of FIG. 3. 1. this must now be threaded from behind under the spoke first used. 2. "This is the same border and worked FiG. and behind No. 2. bring i. 5. again leaving the end at the front of the basket. Take spoke No. it Take the first before and behind two spokes first used. as just described. 115. CLOSED BORDER NO. One upright spoke is still left. of the basket to form the plait. of these. scribed. it Two upright spokes are still behind the second and thread left.

Two pairs of ends will still be left. 5. FIG. and which may be marked by a piece of cotton till the worker becomes familiar with the border). Take No. and if correctly worked. Take the longest end of the last pair. and slip it behind and under spoke No. Take the longest of the first pair. there will and behind No. one have been brought down. and passed under the same spoke. bring it in front of and beside spoke No. The shortest of each pair in turn is left to be cut off at the front when the work is finished. The canes forming these side (the longer of the two "pairs" must each in turn be kept side by till the next being to the right) and held perfectly flat under the thumb Pick up No. 6 (Fig. 4 and behind is down. I (the spoke first used. FIG. CLOSED BORDER NO. longest of the first pair must now be brought before No. Take the longer of the first pair. down beside it in the usual . 5 (which is still upright) and behind No.HOW right) bringing TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. making one "pair" of ends turned down. 122. the last upright spoke still left being brought way. 3. 121. it down beside No. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. passing it under No. 120. bring it before No. and bring it beside No. but never more than two. 118). always be two pairs of ends after the first pair is started.'' The 5. FIG. 8l I and behind No. 2. "pair" No. No. BORDER DETAIL OF NO. making the edge still more Proceed on this principle till all the upright spokes but substantial. 2. or to be threaded through to the inside and cut off there. 3. 4 (which is still upright). 3 and the spoke in I. 5 being brought down beside it as before. CLOSED This will make a second "pair of ends. 3. 2 FIG. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. lay it in front of and beside spoke No. bringing it out to the front under spoke No. 2. 117). 2. 4 (Fig. 119.

5. and that these must never vary till not one upIn Border No. always remembering that the number of single spokes turned down at the first determines the number of pairs. 2 behind No. above the weaving. 6 (which is still upPick up No. spokes as easily as with two or five. / (which is still upright) down beside it. class No. PIG. but the same kind of border may be worked with three. Pro. "Before attempting this border. down. and after the pairs are started there will always be five to work from till the end is reached. or four. ceed thus . 2 is the simplest of this principles. 3. bringing it behind and under spoke No. No. 1?6. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. 2. 124. the last upright spoke being brought down beside it.82 HOW it. 3 as large as would be needed for any ordinary basket front of Each spoke must be brought Length of spokes . 3 five spokes are at first turned right spoke is left. Pick up No. FOR ROUND BASE. 121). TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. i behind No. . DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. bringing No. all the spokes are down but one. SPLIT SPOKE FOR ROUND BASE. SPIRT'S THREADED No. 4 behind No. 123. FIG. I and lay it behind No. 6 (Fig. bringing No. No. which are much the same." CLOSED BORDER NO. . No. 3 No. 120). 7. the worker will do well to work out No. till Take the longest spoke of the first of the five pairs left. 4. 2. 125. FIG. 3 behind . or more. FIG. until familiar with its No. 8. lay it down behind right) down bes de it (Fig. i. 2 No. "Lay spoke No. to the front immediately needed 8 inches. 5 behind No.

HOW
Five pairs are

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

Take the longest of the first pair, bringing still left. Take beside and in front of spoke No. I and under spoke No. 2. the longest of the first of the four pairs left, bringing it beside and in In threading through front of spoke No. 2 and under spoke No. 3. these ends, it must be remembered that the short spokes come out immediately above the weaving and under the roll of spokes which forms the edge. Take the longest of the first of the three pairs left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 3, and under spoke No.
it

FIG.

WEAVING OP 127. ROUND BASE WITH

FIG.

128.

TWO WEAVERS.
Take

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES IN PAIRS.

the longest of the first of the two pairs left, bringing it beand in front of spoke No. 4 and under spoke No. 5. Take the long spoke still left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 5 and under spoke No. 6. If the two spokes which lie together have been kept lying flat on the edge of the weaving, the border will look even and handsome (Fig. 122). Length of spokes required 10
4.

side

inches.

84

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

CHAPTER

XIV.

MORE ABOUT

BASES.

In her books Miss Firth gives several methods of making bases. BASE. A simple oval base may be made as follows. Take 4 lengths, No. 4 rattan, 24 inches long, 6 lengths, No. 4, 6 inches long and one length, 3 inches long. Place the six short pieces for the width and the long pieces as shown in Fig. 123. The two lower spokes must be placed on the table, and the short ones placed across them in The lower of these two spokes must be pairs, at intervals of an inch. the center pair, and the pair at each end. The upper spoke must be the reverse of the lower, the short piece being placed above that in the same order as the lower spoke. When the base is finished it will be seen that this short piece forms a middle around which the four spokes are woven. The other two long spokes must be placed in a position exactly reverse to the two first, as in Fig. 124. They must then be pressed closely together, the left hand holding them firmly in their place, while the right weaves with the inside spoke of the two which first used, passing it over the two short ends of the second pair of long spokes, and under and over and under the three short The outside spoke must follow, but in reverse order. The secpairs. ond pair of long spokes must be treated in exactly the same way as the

OVAL

UNDER

OVER

first.

ROUND BASE WITH DOUBLE WEAVERS.
spokes
of

Take
of

12

No. 4

rattan, six inches long,

and a long weaver

rattan. In six of the twelve spokes, make a split in inch long as shown Fig. 125. Then thread the six unsplit

No. I the center about an
spokes
in

through the
center.

split

ones.

(Fig.
it,

126).

Keep

flat

and cross exactly

leaving one end several inches longer than the other. Slip loop of weaver over six of the split spokes, bringing under part of weaver over, and top part under the next six spokes (Fig. 127). Repeat this as described with Fig. 95 until Be sure that the under weaver is always three rounds are made. brought to the top before the top one is taken underneath, to prevent the weavers getting twisted. Now separate spokes into sets of two, (Fig. 128), pulling the spokes well apart to allow room for the weavers Then pair around the double spokes for to be well pushed down. three rounds, after which separate each 'spoke and pair as in Fig. 129. round base SINGLE BASE with a single instead of a double weaver may be made by the insertion of an extra spoke after the dividing of the spokes begins.

Take weaver, double

ROUND

WITH

WEAVER. A

BASE, take 13 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 5 inches long, and 5 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 12 inches long. Split the 13 in center as before described, and thread them on the 5 spokes spokes Put the odd spoke in center of the five. Then as shown in Fig. 130. half an inch between the spokes, place them as shown in Fig. allowing

OBLONG OVAL

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

130, but with two spokes together at each end. Double the weaver and Take the underneath part place the loop over the double side spokes. of the weaver and weave down the side, then go back and take upper part of weaver and weave beside it, counting double spokes at end as

one spoke.
base flat on the table, and always from left to take up the base in the left hand, grasping the weavers where they pass the double side spokes. Take the weaver from underneath and bring tightly across the five long spokes, place behind the double side spokes, then put the base flat on the table and weave down the side. Go back, taking up the base again, and take the top weaver behind the five spokes, lay down the base, then weave down the side. Repeat this until you have two
right.

Weave holding the To do the end

weavers crossing the five spokes top and bottom and on either side. Pair around these, Divide the five spokes into 2-1-2. (See Fig. 131). but still weave down the side. When both ends have been divided in this way, take each spoke singly, beginning with the double side spokes,

FIG.

130. COMMENCING OBLONG OVAL BASE.

FIG.

129.

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES
SEPARATED.
of the nine spokes at either end, but
still

and pair around each weave down the sides.

only

both ends are done, continue weaving straight round with one we'aver and then the other, but not pairing. While doing the base, draw the weaver firmly towards the right, and when doing the ends bring the weaver firmly clown between the spokes, which must be drawn as far apart as possible to admit of this In a well-made base the weaving is always being done efficiently. drawn down so firmly that the spokes cannot be seen in between. To get the oval bases of the size required, first take the measurement across the basket. If this is 4 1-2 inches, and the length is to be 8 inches, the spokes across would have to be placed within a distance of 6 inches, measuring from each lot of double spokes at the end. The reason of this is, that enough space must be left at either end to allow 2 inches of weaving, as in a base 41-2 inches across there would be 2 inches of weaving on either side, allowing one-half inch for the five spokes down the center.
first

When

86

HOW
If this rule is

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

in the lids of oval baskets

followed, the right size can always be counted on, and it is particularly necessary that the size should

be assured before starting.

BASE. Another method of making an oval base is to take six 5-inch spokes, four 7-inch spokes and one 4-inch spoke, all of No. 4 rattan, with three weavers of No. 2 rattan. Split the six five inch spokes as described in Fig. 125. Thread them on the four seven-inch and the one four-inch spokes, the short one in the center, leaving about half an inch between each of the six. The six spokes are held horiand the five are vertical. Start a weaver, back of the vertical spokes and lying along the uppermost horizonal spoke, with the end toward the right. Bring it around in front of the vertical spokes (above the upper horizontal one), the>n back and down diagonally to the left, coming out below the upper horizontal spoke. Here it is
zontally,

OVAL

FIG.

131.

OBLONG

OVAL BASE.

brought around in front of the vertical group, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical spokes and above the first horizontal one. It is then brought diagonally down in front of the vertical spokes, to the Next it right of them and just above the second horizontal spoke.
crosses diagonally down and back of the vertical spokes, to the left of them and below the second horizontal spoke, where it is brought over the vertical ones, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical

spokes, and just above the second horizontal one as shown in Fig. 132. The same process binds the other four horizontal spokes making an ornamental cross effect over each one, on the inside of the basket as seen in Fig. 133. After all six horizontal spokes have been bound, the spokes are separated and the weaving begins, and is continued until
;

the size desired

is

attained.

BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INSERTED CORraffia twined basket, having a pespokes at each of the four corners, is shown in Fig. 134. The rubber bands holding three groups of spokes make it more convenient for the maker to manipulate the numerous spokes, When a as each time around a spoke is inserted at its proper place. group is twined with two strands of raffia the rubber band is slipped off the next group and snapped around the set of spokes just finished and so on. Any number of spokes may be inserted according to the size of the base desired. Take 12 spokes No. i rattan 10 inches long, 4 short strands raffia

NERS. A
culiar

base of fine rattan or

way

of inserting the

and these are cut the length of the angle where they are to be placed. colored raffia lasts. If the work is be made practically water tight. When the As . OF CENTER OF OVAL BASE. raffia as desired. raffia pass underneath and the other across the top spokes to the opposite corner diagonally twisting again. DETAIL FIG. under one. 132. and the twinings pushed closely toward the center. This gives a cross of raffia over the grouped spokes. Fig. Now begin to twine the two strands of raffia from the outside in tightly done it may Cross five spokes FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER and add spokes of BASKETS. Care must be exercised so that the crossed spokes always lie flat until the base is well started. 135 Page 126 of "Indian Basketry" shows method of this twined effect. Twine around as many times as this . It thus makes two new Twine the raffia over each of the two new spokes and snap spokes. 133. diagonally bring the strand under neath to the beginning of the diagonal crossing where it is securely Now cross over to another angle and let one of the halves of twisted. r'attan and weavers of Before beginning the work see that the rattan is well soaked in warm In fact this basket should be frequently placed under water water. This group is now securely held with another rubber band and thus continue with the remaining spokes. When the twining crosses to the next angle another spoke is bent in half and again fastened to its place. work increases extra spokes must be inserted. DETAIL OF toward the center. Looping the colored raffia over a spoke and separating each end. carefully impacking each stitch as the twist is made. begin to twine with both colored and uncolored until a corner is reached now drop and clip the raffia not needed and twine in the corner spoke with the colored raffia. a rubber band over the first group of six. 87 in red. Weave around three or four times with uncolored raffia and then bending one of the extra spokes of rattan in half lay it snugly at the bend in the angle of the crossed spokes. letting the raffia continue for a stitch or two beyond a corner before changing to a differently colored strand. natural and green. at right angles to five other spokes and placing a raffia strand across the laid spokes. over one. CENTER OF OVAL BASE.

but is unique For these directions I am indebted to Mrs. ing and with the raffia sew over and over edge. all the way around. Neligh. Ga. Columbus. securely fastening the ends by hiding them under three or four of the twined stitches. Any shaped basket may be formed from this base. 134. four sided. BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INS ERTED CORNERS. . John P. of the Industrial School. S. Finish off by folding down the ends of the spokes and add a coil of three or four rattans the length of the circumference of the open- FIG. in its method of enlarging.88 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This basket is closely allied to the Alaskan baskets. the base is the desired diameter stop adding spokes and gather three of the grouped spokes into one and then shape the basket as desired. round or flat.

106 are now to be described. To fasten lid rattan. loop through lid and border of basket. weave the sides and finish off with one of the closed borders. spokes were. Where they meet tuck in ends and basket is complete. The one to the left and the upper one are both made of No. and weavers of No. 96 or Fig. The bottom basket to the right is made in the same manner. Weave up in this way for about an inch and a quarter. open loop for handle about an inch across. A pretty basket is shown in Fig. Make the lid in like fashion. as soon as base is as large as required. 135 is of -more simple web weave baskets made by the students at Teachers College. The handle is of three long strands of rattan. so that bottom is convex. When about 6 inches across. Begin as before described. When pliable bend up as possible. and thrust into base by the side of the spokes. and a When the side is about an inch the sides close in towards the top. For the upper one take eight spokes of No. BIRD NEST. and proceed to weave as before. Fig. 2. turn up. 136. spokes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Turn np foundation spokes for the sides. 2 rattan. Make the base the size desired. For the base take six spokes of No. Take 24 spokes of No. Then proceed to make closed border No. Make base. then bridge the space by bending the two end spokes . We now return to the making of baskets by the web weave. inserting the extra ones so as to have all the spokes as near equidistant Now soak for a few minutes. i as described in Fig. about two and a half inches long. doubled and twisted while pliable. Begin the base as already described. then twist. half high cut short two of the spokes and turn in as for a closed Then continue to weave. Start the base as described in either Fig. weave plait of straw or any other material either made or purchased until the sides are as high as desired. for sides. WEB WEAVING CONTINUED. The lid is made in same way as base or using both splint and plait and basket together take piece of finest making an one end of handle splint through basket and lid one way and the other way. 15 pieces of finer rattan. Then thread WE WOVEN I'. 96 or 125. then turn up the foundation 125. 115. with simple closed border. turning the weaver back around the spoke on each side of the open space. 4 rattan 14 inches long. Make base as deWhen woven up to the end of spokes take scribed in Figs. leaving open space where these border. The two baskets on the right of Fig. drawing weavers tight so that for weavers. 8g CHAPTER XV. 2 rattan. weave as high as desired and finish off with closed border No. turn up foundation spokes for sides. finishing the border with the rope twist. The lid is made in exactly the same way as the base. 2 rattan for foundation. The covered basket with the handle is equally easy to -make. Finish taking care that the angle of the sides is evenly preserved. 2 rattan for both spokes and weaver. drawing weavers tightly.

-*" . . . W" ' " ..HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. :: jj ii))li o t t fa . .

inserting new spokes shape. even number of spokes is kept. A. fourteen or sixteen in number. through the weaving. much sold wood splints or rattan.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as desired. or as desired. Finish with a simple border as WITH FANCY shown in to the left. woven so tightly that the . 95.bottom is convex. In making the photograph I failed to notice that it was somewhat out of The base is made as any ordinary mat. Leave the ends of the spokes irregular so as to let the top of the nest appear like a bundle of twigs. \Vhen 'the basket all is as high as desired turn down and tuck on a the inside of basket like overcasting. formed by thrusting a piece of rattan the size desired. until it is impossible to weave higher. gi over the space. 139 s-hows the arrangement of the base. The foundation spokes may be of palmetto. and do not be surprised if the following nesting time a pair of birds takes possession. the student may gain a few ideas. taking care to do it evenly. and then wrapping as described for the binding. us ng a weaver long enough to wrap both handle and top. First lay the spokes star shape as shown. Then wrap with broader splint. If an extra odd spoke is introduced a single weaver will do. (taking care to tuck the ends in as far as possible. Now insert double spokes for fancy base and weave about an inch and a quarter finishing it by any form of closed border desired. Place in a tree. working in two of the spokes instead of one. 138 shows an unfinished basket from which. Then sew around edges with a piece of thread to hold them in Bend spokes up for sides. 'BASKET BASE. Now rapidly draw the top together. Now use fancy plaited straw as a weaver for the sides and weave as high as desired. Some prefer to make the handle before binding the top. the spokes. If an place. This adds strength and gives fewer ends to care for. 139 shows two small wood splint baskets of a type Europe. however. until it is about 8 inches in diameter. Fig. with a wide splint above it. the weaving must proceed as described with Fig. and twelve. Fig. The handle is : . thus making a secure binding. down to the base. say five inches. Fig.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

on the Then. while with the right the weaver is worked in and out of the 141). hence it is deemed appropriate to give full particulars as ito the methods of weaving. These are most popular baskets. over which it went in the first round). twined and web weave utilized. when it will appear as Fig. in order as shown in Fig. V length required. As soon as the weaver has been .-taken around once it will be necessary (in order to have the weaver go under the spokes in the second round. and bound with three or four rows of simple web weavThen using twined weaving the spokes are covered as much as ing. and two Then take a narrow wood splint weaver and web 3-8-inch wide. and thread on the . 142. pointed or shaped. The stitch is finished off by tying the sweet grass. held firmly. an Abenaki Indian. All the ten inches long. it of the baskets are easy to make and any ordinary student can make them from the descriptions given. thrusting the end In these descriptions are all will be seen that the mat. or they will be keeping pulled out of place. Exercise great care in spokes. New York. and. Cut the broad splints the book mark. hold it firmly with the left hand (see Fig. take each spoke and bend it up to form the foundation for the sides. Most of the spokes. sortment of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. twining the weaver around the edges and returning from side to side. and is now ready for the weaving of the between two sides. on which the work is to be done. They are placed across each other in a circle. weave the three splints together. to take the weaver over two spokes as shown in Fig. of splints. 26 West 23rd Street.a variety of those The photographs were all made from the asgenerally preferred. When as many rounds are woven as necessary. AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. ends of the spokes may be cut as desired. except the Fig. Now. bend into the ring form. pulling it as tightly as possible. This must be done. 15 contains five articles made solely This is composed of one spoke. For the napkin ring take one wood splint 7-8-inch wide.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The required. and seven others about 21-2 inches long. small spokes are cut so as to be very narrow in the center and widen out towards the edge. place the lap. Now take a 7-8-inch wide colored splint. and. 143. is en- gaged as weaver and teacher. one by one. where Miss Marie Toxuse. each time round. take the weaver in the right hand. tuck in the edges of the foundation splints and complete the weaving. plait. SPLINT BASKETS. the spokes firmly pressed upon the board. 140. taking care that Ithey are equisplints distant and regular at the edges. In starting the base of a splint basket place a small board. either rounded. as the weaving continues. 93 CHAPTER SPLINT XVI.

FIG. 141. . INSERTING WEAVER IN SPLINT BASE.

The first nine rows of weaving on the sides are of doubled splints. with four rows of splints (or rather. Canada. in taking the "over" stitch. editor "The Papoose. When the upper weaver of the lower row comes from under the spoke. Them finish with one row of narrow splint. Following this set of nine rows of looped stitches is a belt of weave made with ordinary white splints. The arrangement of the loops is such that the loops of the second row come over the spokes of the row beneath. The handles are of splints i -8-inch wide twisted with narrower splint and tied to the edge of the basket. Now curl it down and under the next spoke in the bot- . The use of the extra third In inserting the splint is to get the "curl" shown in the design. Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. under two and over two. weavers put in two for the bottom row and follow with one in the row above. the edges being strengthened by turning in the foundation spokes. 4 is a large fancy basket of splints." New York It is 2 feet 9 inches in height. which is simply hideous. 3-4 of an inch wide. and the side splints are also extra strong. For the hand basket take one splint 5-8-inch wide and two 1-2Then 15 splints about 26 inches inch wide. Make of these a mat foundation. Curl a third splint into each double row as described immediately for Fig. curl it back and up under the next spoke in the row above. F. two red. web weave i-S-inch. two double rows). The base is of extra strong wood splints. Thus the loops alternate in the rows. so that it alternates with the lower one over the foundation spokes. two of green. about i -8-inch wide.) three splints are used instead of two. drawing under the next. and web top. missing one weaver. two purple. Barnes. making a bow by The spiral ornamentlacing back and forth and tucking in the end. 4. Q5 outside of the ring. then wrapping around the spiral shape. made by Abenaki Indians of Pierreville. twisting again. but the upper splint. (I am not commending the color scheme. The square basket for the sides is weave and SPLINTS. T. thus particularizing the colors. CLOTHES HAMPER OF belt of six splints of three colors. is left looped. then binding strong splints around the rims. 140. strengthen the rim inside with stout splint. The under of these two splints is woven under one and over one of the side spokes as in all ordinary weaving. simple mat weave for the bottom. Now a . colored. under three and over two. colored. and presented to Mr. turn up for sides and web weave with splints any size smaller than When within three and a half inches of the top. Then another belt of narrow white spl nts. sewed with strong thread to the sides. long and i -2-inch wide. The next belt is of one splint. and about 3 feet long. putting Now the three splints lengthwise and the 15 across ait right angles. thrusting it under one of the weavers. the top and four or five inches less at the bottom. missing a weaver. The diagonal mat weave basket in the left corner is made as is the one described elsewhere. and outside with sweet grass and bind with a narrow splint. ation for the edges is made by taking a 3-8-inch wide splint. i foot 8 inches in diameter at City. Two colors of splints are used and the handles are of plaited sweet grass. the splints to be 6-8 of an inch wide. nearly an inch and a half wide. instead of being pulled tight. in In each of these three pairs of rows. and twisting again over the next and so on. arranged as Fig.

G. JUMPING TWO SPOKES. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIG. BEGINNING BASE OF SPLINT BASKET. 140. 142. P. . New York.96 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

97 complete round is made. and the spokes are turned under. 5 is a The splints are cut so as to be very center and widen rapidly towards the edge. which thus forms a kind of shelf or rim. These are turned up for the sides and twined weaving of sweet When the desired height is attained. as shown by the design. Two or three rows of narrow weavers fix the spokes in position. FAN. 5. 5. spokes are turned down and tucked in. four similar to those below it. 22 and and splint narrow in the This can readily be seen sweet grass Now The sweet grass must be dampened and pressed closely into 134. The lid is> composed (as is the base') of splints that broaden as they reach the periphery. 140. The former is affixed to the latter by lacing the binding of the basket to that of the lid. and eleven or twelve rows of narrow splint weave Then the splints are bent out and split. left the base is composed of simple mat foundation. Upon this place lengths of sweet Then wrap tightly as shown in Fig. ing two. Then the rim is strengthened inside with a colored splint. Place the splints crossed for the Then with a single strand center. the grass composes the woof. taking narrow splint weavers loop the border. as the simple splints of Fig. by looking at the fan in Fig. loop. small wrapped loop is affixed to both basket and lid. five splints each way. as described in Figs. In Fig. when the handle is wrapped on the top. Two rows of loop weave and then the spokes are curved down. and. At the top. and so on woven in like 7 the lid is SWEET GRASS foundation fan. One single row of plain weave with a wide splint and five of loop weave. A . and. the foundation spokes as shown in Fig. fastening it to the last row of splint weave. rows of plain simple weaving gives firmness. The only difference between the basket at the bottom to the SPLINT AXD SWEET GRASS BASKETS. On these are woven twined rows of sweet grass. tion splints are now turned upright again and a row of the "loop" weave with inch-wide splints made. take two strands weave under and over for five or six rows. fastening off the end grass. The lid is made of five broad and two narrow splints.HOW torn row. This belt of ''curled" weave is followed by weaving belts above it. and outside with a row of sweet grass. The finishing border is of these same splints wound under and over and looped as will clearly be seen in the design. the latter at the sides. each splint thus formtaken. wrapped around and bound on with small white splints. both of which are bound on with a narrow splint as is clearly seen in the engraving.- Fig. which has been well anchored by fastening it below. When within an inch of the edge position as each row is woven. take a stout wooden splint. and use the "twined"" weave or pairing. and tuck well under the sweet grass down one of the foundation spokes. Then the spoke splints are bent at right angles and six or seven rows of weaving taken upon The foundathis portion. 5. Each pair manner. after which it is finished off with three strong splinits inside and one colored one outside. trim {weave two or three rows with plain white narrow splint. For a handle. 6 four basIn the bottom one to the kets of splints and sweet grass are shown. complete. followed with three narrow splint weave. Now by tightly wrapping and tucking ' in. of rows is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER until the BASKETS. and the edges bound as is the rim of the basket.

.FIG. New York. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. 144. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

formThen more ing a little nipple or elevation between the spokes. But the two small splints which together are about 1-8 of an inch wider than the broad splint on which they rest are crossed from bottom to top under every other spoke. They are then woven with twined sweet grass until the lid is the size of the basket. The spokes are now turned down. 145. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. The lid The round basket is FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Fig. the edge strengthened by a suitable splint and bound as before. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. which are bound as before made in like manner. as in all ordinary web weaving. and the rim strengthened with other splints and bound with a narrow splint. 6. however. and a study The of them will make the foregoing instructions much more clear. 6 will be described in a later Bulletin of the Basket Fraternity. The handle is fastened to a loop which is held secure by being taken under the sweet grass of the under side of the lid in several places. For this the spokes must be very narrow in the center and broaden towards the edges. The carrying basket of Fig. Then the spokes are turned in. 7 shows the bases and lids of the baskets of Fig. The wide splint is woven. of Fig. twined sweet grass completes the sides. They are then turned up for the sides and described. one over. sweet grass twined in up to the top. . 99 right and the one just described is that after a few rows of sweet grass are twined into the sides one wide and two narrow splints are introduced. and the twining continued until the flange of the cover is as deep as required. is made quite differently. or a trifle larger. The method of making the handkerchief basket in Fig. The spokes are then turned in. 144 is of mat weave and web weave. Three or four rows of simple web weave at the outer edge of the base tighten the spokes. 6 is composed of even splints about halfan-inch wide and laid as shown in Fig. lid. one under. 140.

146. .100 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. New York. FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

140. under a foundation splint. Then take together with two plaits of thickly plaited sweet grass and proceed to web weave. strengthen the edges or rim with a stout splint inside and sweet grass outside. Loop the plait and bind to the side by twisting or curling the third wood splint around the plait. with the third for the curling and wrapping around the plait of sweet grass as described in the carrying basket. web woven. woven with plaited sweet grass. Cross these in simple mat weave with twelve similar Turn these up for ends and sides. one row of simple 'splint weave. . web weave. strengthened and bound as before described.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Now we take three weavers an inch wide and a long plait of extra thick Make two rows plaited grass. This is followed with a splint 5-8-inch wide. The work basket of Fig. Turn down and tuck in the foundation spokes. under the upper part of the next foundation splint. and so on alternating the wrapping of the curled splint around the foundation splints exposed by the upper and lower of the two broad weavers. after which introduce the broad splints. using thickly plaited sweet grass for weaver. and the curl weave to give ornamentation. They are first \voven in web weave with narrow wood splint for about ten rows. however. First hold splints. Then three i-4-inch splints are \voven. When the lid is the right size to fit the basket. In the basket itself. The handle is composed of a heavy triple plait of sweet grass. 18 inches long. the ends being looped as to the edges. then completed with plaited sweet grass. and 3-8 of an inch wide. When the spokes are in place. Then twine weave sweet grass for an inch and a quarter. the edge of the lid being turned down. Then strengthen and bind the edge as before described. In Fig. the thick plaited sweet grass and the curl as on the Then complete the top of the lid with six or eight rows of sides. IOI using plaited sweet grass. and complete the weave with the plaited sweet grass until the flange is the size desired. and the rim strengthened and bound with simple wood splints. splint web weave. the rim being strengthened and bound with wood splints. shown in the figure. Weave five rows of finely plaited sweet grass two of narrow splint. turn the spokes down. The base. Then two i i -4-inch wide splints. and then bind with narrow splint. is formed as shown in Fig. fasten by six or eight rows of ordinary web weaving with sweet grass. The lid requires the splints narrow in the center and widening out . the weaving for about an inch is composed of plaited sweet grass. The edges of the base are made tight with four or five rows of simple The spokes are then turned up for the sides. web weave. 144 is made essentially in the same manner. Now continue the weaving of the sides with six rows of plain web weave and six rows of double plaited sweet grass as before. over the plait. after the turning up of the sides. fastened to the sides with an ordinary wood splint. plain splints. of ordinary web weave with two of these wide splints. Take four splints about 23 inches long. in the center widening towards the edge. 13 the top basket is a very pretty creation in plaited sweet In both top and bottom the foundation spokes are narrow grass.

and the weaving done with twined weave. using 1-2inch wide splints. The foundation spokes are then turned up for the sides. The base is formed as shown in Fig. using plaited sweet grass for weaver. then strengthen edge and finish off. splint and plaited sweet grass basket. 148. The lid is of simple twined plaited sweet made as the lid described in Fig. then strengthen and bind rim as elsewhere described. The round basket has a base as described in Fig. 2. The lid is made as the one in Fig. 6. The lid is made as the round lid of Fig. Turn up for the sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. FIG. finish the weave unis the flange of the desired size. For the lid the splints must be narrow in the center and widening towards the edge. 6 and laced on as there described. 145 shows the top and bottom or a basket and lid of a. together. After laying out the spokes the first inch or grass. In Fig. . MADEIRA BORDER NO. Strengthen the rim with stout splint inside and and sweet grass outside and bind with narrow splint. When within an inch of top web weave with 3-4-inch wide wood splint.IO2 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. simple web woven with narrow splints or plain sweet Then twine weave with plaited sweet grass. the edges being woven with nine or ten rows of splint web weave. until the lid is right size. FIG. 140. 6. PAIRING FOR PLAIT. Fig. Strengthen the edge and bind as elsewhere described. so the til may be grass. The handle is of heavy plaited sweet grass. 147. MADEIRA BORDER NO. turn down the foundation spokes. 146 the square basket is made of mat foundation. the corners being turned over and doubled and then twined with plaited sweet grass. 2. The diagonal handkerchief basket is composed of diagonal mat weave. 140 six or seven rows of simple web weaving with narrow wood splint holding it firmly Turn up sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass.

in front of one. To finish. and suitable for violet baskets and small candy-bas- kets of various kinds. proceed in the same way behind one. and then. on the same principle as for the preceeding border only in this there will be more to thread through." MADEIRA BORDER NO. room of for inserting the last spokes. when the weaving is finished. the spokes should all be double. ''Treat all the double spokes as one. which may be worked in the ordinary way with single spokes. as the border should be about one inch in depth. so as each spoke is brought round the next it should be held firmly in its place by the left hand. and leave the ends on the outside of the basket. inserting beside each spoke an extra one of six inches.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as the last spokes are threaded through to complete the border. in front of one only. 4 rattan or triple ones of as. behind one. . "To make it. so that when you come to the finish you have be treated . Be careful not to draw the first spokes down close to begin with they must be left open. Take one spoke in a close curve behind the next and bring the end down against the border (Fig. threading the last spokes through the spokes already turned down. allowing the four inches for the border. rest. 147). the first swoke. "Repeat this round. Do not draw the spokes down too closely. Allow spokes of eight inches for and use double spokes of No. and the hold should be shifted round as each . No. MADEIRA BORDER It is NO. and leave the end on the outside of the basket (Fig. and now take one lot of double spokes behind the next lot. the further side of the spoke against which they this border. the extra length being pushed into the basket. "Repeat this round. which must be left a little loose. 103 CHAPTER XVII. i. It is not necessary. is threaded over the next spoke which is turned down. drawing all the spokes closely down except the first. FANCY BORDERS. 2. very simple. "It is necessary to keep this plait very close to the basket. the ends are all cut off neatly. turn the basket upside down to do the plait around the edge. i Allow four inches for this border. although many spokes may be used. "Take one spoke behind one. "When the last two lots of double spokes are reached. For the sake will of brevity. after being taken behind one. to have the spokes double throughout the basket. "When this first part is done. in front one. in front of the next. they one in the descriptions. as it has a much prettier effect when they are so. however. 148). and the last is inserted first -behind and then in front of the next two spokes already turned down.

" Allow spokes of 14 inches. when only five upright spokes are left. 4. behind one. therefore it is necessary to keep the spokes straight to the top. and push the end well down inside." of MADEIRA BORDER NO. Take one spoke behind two. leaving the end outside. Allow spokes of six inches. This border is worked on the inside. in front of two. spoke used. behind three and in front of three if kept close together it has the effect of a double ridge or twist. If the edge of the border." BORDER. 2. behind two. Depth of border without plait. This border but it is is called the "Cycle." the last spokes being threaded through the turned-down spokes in their order. Allow spokes 16 inches and use No. to pass . in front of two. turned down." NO. only now the spokes curve round to make the other side of plait. measuring occasionally to keep the border as described for the preceeding borders of of the correct depth. and the ends must be cut off neatly. front of two Take one spoke behind three spokes. Finish off with the plait This border is worked on the outside 5. two spokes together. If uneven the effect of the basket is quite spoilt. and then to bend them to interlace with other spokes. the first of these will be taken in front of two. three inches. Finish by threading the spoke through the loop of the first. This is finished on the same principle as the "Madeira Borders. principally those which have lids. behind one. after going behind and in front of the next six will be the first to be taken behind the first spoke the others following in their course. "Take one spoke in front of two spokes. the plait in the "Madeira Border No. Great care is needed to keep a nice straight edge round the top of the border. in front of two. This is a very light and graceful border. the plait is finished. "Now go round again. Thus. behind two. Depth of border withas for same way NO. Repeat this round. in front of three. and use three spokes of No. and plait the ends. Repeat this round until only seven upright spokes remain. leaving the end outside the basket. i 1-2 inches. 3. . as it is flat outside and the ends are all cut off neatly inside. and then. i rattan. leaving the end outside for the plait. Care should be taken in doing this that the ends of the spokes are left long enough to go over the next spoke.IO4 HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER last BASKETS. "Take one spoke behind three spokes. "The first of MADEIRA BORDER in the usual way. 4 rattan. Finish off on the same principle as for the preceeding borders. When the last spoke has been threaded through the loop of the first. these. 2 rattan together. behind one." as it is ivsed on the cycle baskets very useful on many other kinds. behind three. in front of two. in front of one. in front of one. curving one spoke beneath the next in the same way. out plait. and Use three spokes together. "Do MADEIRA BORDER use No. in and behind one. Materials required "Allow 8 inches for this border. the basket. It must not be spread out. CYCLE .

Repeat this with the second and third spokes then there will be three spokes inside and two spokes outside. POSITION OF SPOKES. In starting this border. : . and through the loop of this it must be threaded to the inside all the other spokes will then be threaded through in their places. but room should be left for the end spokes to After the first two spokes have been used. it will be takem in front of the last upright spoke one turned down. 105 and the again. 149. Use for this No. and bring it down beside the third spoke outside Be careful in doing this not to draw the spoke too tightly (Fig." is efficient in this border six inches for spokes FLAT PLAIT BORDER. FLAT PLAIT BORDER. Hold the three spokes sharply to the outside of the basket (Fig. 150). and with the right WITH PORTION OF FIG. I spoke in a curve over the other two.HOW in front of TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FLAT PLAIT IN PROGRESS. . the fir sit spoke must not be drawn close down to the weaving. Allow spokes 13 inches long. will BORDER SECOND 150. Take the first from inside. as the closer come together the handsomer the border will look when When a pupil be sufficient. '''Turn down 149). FLAT PLAIT hand bring No. FLAT PLAIT draw the border down as firmly as possible. bring the first spoke from inside between the same upright spokes to outside. BORDER FINISHED. FJG. 6 or 7 rattan. When the double spokes arc reached they must be used together . second and third in the left hand. place between the next two upright spokes. COMMENCING FIG. FINISHED BORDER. be threaded through. two first . then draw the first upright spoke down beside it. 152. the spokes finished. from the outside. 151. and place ic between the first two upright spokes bring down the first upright spoke beside it. FIG. Now proceed to plait as follows Take the first spoke from outside. but they must not be more than 1-2 inch apart.

outside. Work of Students. 151. that it may lie flat beside that." Take three twos out of the three threes. To do this the longer one of each of the double spokes inside the basket is used to follow out their course. and these must all be treated in the same way as the first double spoke. Teachers' College. In finishing this border the principle is to make all the single spokes used in starting double to agree with the rest of the border. thus making it double like the others. right spoke has been turned down there will be two lots of double as . so that it may lie flat beside that then follow its course under single spoke No. first threading it just through the first single spoke. 3 and then to the follow the course of the where it . New York. There are four other double spoke s>. 153. one spoke both inside and outside the basket and when the triple spokes are reached the two longer ones must be used together as one.io6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. first single spoke under the black spoke to passes through to the outside of the basket. Then take the longer one of these. Now take the longer of these and thread one up through the single spoke. to . finish the The other four double spokes must be used in the same way border (which is shown complete in Fig. 151). Take the first double spokes from the inside and thread through the place shown in Fig. FIG. in Fig. spokes inside and three lots of triple spokes outside. and pass them under the three that were first turned down. When the last upleaving the short spoke to be cut off afterwards. 151. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. This brings five lots of double spokes to the inside of the basket Take first two lots and thread through as shown (see Fig. and. 152).

Take a twining weaver and about an inch from the center proceed to twine over six or seven until a fiat circle is formed by bringing the twining around to the place of beginning. Tie together with weaver desired diameter or oval of the basket. A. raffia is good. To make this knotted stitch basForm a loop. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. Fig. Above this about the same spaced width a final twining is made. 7 flat rattan. under. This gives a fancy effect and affords a place for decorating with ribbon as seen in the plate. make a larger circle an inch from the first twined circle. Fig. though the long leaved pine may be used. twine around the groups of three all the way round to the last place of beginning. The short ends of the rays are finished bending a first group of And so on in three over a group to the left under the next group. 155. outward from edge of base. Pair or twine weave with raffia six or eight rounds. the ket take a length of No.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. then insert new spokes and continue the twined weaving until base is size desired. inch above this. Continue to twine a second time round to make the base firm and flat. Bend up spokes and proceed with the twined weaving. Tie these securely at the middle and then tie together flat radiating from a center. 153 are two made baskets. and that the wall slants THE KENSINGTON In Figs. 1546. 137. spirally coiling the flat ratof raffia. Examples of this twined weave are shown in Figs. Indian Basketry. and to the left. in which additional spokes are added for base and sides when needed. 140. silk-lined. Kensington colbasket. 154. 133. This is made of rush or tule. Now having secured a firm base it is desired to shape the side of basket. Start the base as described in Fig. Procure six yards of double twining material. About an inch from the outside circle. lar BASKET. Then line with fancy silk or other material. neatly In Fig. An COLLAR .. 136. and six bunches of tule or rush 14 or 15 inches in length and 21 single lengths to the bunch. CHAPTER XVIII. at one end. introducing bands of color according to taste. a raffia collar box and a splint basket. Then begin the knot stitch. Bind the top with natural or colored raffia as shown. A FEW BASKETS. 154 and 155 are shown a rush. first letting a group cross over another group. twine around three rays until you come around to the pdace of beginning. 156 and 157 herewith. Now taking care to twine around three only. succession until the edge is finished. See that this twining is equidistant from the base. An extra twining or three strand twisting over a coil gives additional strength to the edge. See A. BOX. Fig. and in Figs.

O hH fa fa O M H 02 d i i fa fa fa <) tf 72 P a o 02 fa M 01 <JJ M O u fa .i ' / />O' ' <* .

narrow splint. Ornament with narrower bands of colored splint by overlaying the broad bands. Take a wide length splint very narrow. 18 3-8-inch wide splints. fastening spokes in place with raffia or fine splint. The cover to the box is a button-holed band of flat rattan with a wove>n< top made by stringing web strands of raffia one way and weaving closely across the web with raffia. The ornamental banding is made by slipping the colored ray back of and over weave and slipping the end again in place along its un- derlying spoke. knotting carefully and tightly. 140. A very common and useful DIAGONAL" MAT BASKETRY. over two again. the Now take two of the I -8-inch weavers (a green and. After cutting away the holding bands of raffia or cord and modelBut if used for sewing a ing the basket may be considered finished. weavers. then the button-hole loop again. Take the raffia over two bands of the rattan.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. size as the first and place it above letting the rays of the lower mat come between the rays of the upper mat. In an earlier chapter this branch of weaving was fully presented. Continue sewing until all of cane is used and finish with double button-hole stitch. The two-toned effect shown in the plate was made by running green spokes on the upper base before twining. 20 inches long and two yards 3-8-inch white splint. of ash the same width as spoke and weave in over one under one for the beginning of final wall. Fold over the outer s pokes and tuck under twinings on the inside Cut off the alternate rays even with top of to keep them in place. Spread the spokes of the basket on a flat surface. 109 taiv as the weaving progresses. weave over owe. 154. See Fig. Make base as shoAvn in Fig. lining of silk may add to its value. i5 4 C. Now carefully secure the ends of the Take up the basket and place it before you right side up. Overcast the two woof strands together to hold them taut. Use three broad bands in this way and then finish off with six rows of two colored twining. four yards I -4-inch green splint. filling a wall one inch high. THE ASH SPLINT BASKET. securing the ends. The final weaver to be a broad length of splint. of The edgeing rim around around the edge the bottom is an over and over weaving the bate two times round. bottom up. with a fourth inch strap of darker splint. green and white. Twine the two together with a stout strip of ash Then make another base same first. (The splints should always be moist when bending is done). basket. . under one. Bring the edges of the rattan as close together as possible. Bend all the spokes upward from the salver-like rim. and a white). and weave in more of the narrow splint for about one and a half inches. When once round see that the next stitch goes between the stitches already on the first part of the work. Then make a "button-hole" stitch and. Take eight yards Fig. The bottom is made by stringing web strands from end to end and holding them in place by woof strands placed an inch apart.

124. is 157. 6$/ inches long. 2 2. Detail of Magazine Holder 2. and nail the two rings together. I rattan. The main portion is of simple mat con- Then about twenty rows of web struction over two and under two. completes the mat.no HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The top border is made with a double page 65 "Indian Basketry. Make two rings. shows a Hopi weaver at work on this On weave. Wooden base. to a toilet table as a ring holder. l 2 inches in diameter. Tack legs and back to the rings. cross-wrapped with raffia so as to fit perfectly. which easily be Materials are. fold. It should not be forgotten that in making the rings the joints should be spliced perfectly." Fig. Rear legs and back are made from one piece. Cut four pieces of rattan. as is also the large basket to the left on page 83. 27). 28 and 29. 104. Using make one this as a pattern a little care will enable the student similar to it. can patience. On an earlier page (Fig. the outer edge being bound. 4. These may be made of tule. HOLDER. These are home woven as bought are pic- WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. Insertion for back is piece of No. a toy chair is pic- TOY FIG. Bottom brace for side frame. SURFACE EFFECTS OF TWINED OPEN WORK. made from s also a useful adjunct made with a little 4 rattan for front legs. the other 2 inches. same size. one piece. 2 pieces. FIG. as shown in Fig. 107. Bottom brace for main and center frames. and then tacked or sewed in. 20 inches long. Main frame 22 inches long. is made as follows i. 60 is a Hopi Yucca Basket made on this diagonal mat weave. pair of objects which may as well be tured in Fig. of palmetto or any flat and reasonably firm material. Figs." Fig. two lengths of No. soaked and bent into desired shape. CHAIR.y inches long. 3. about 13 inches long. 6^4 inches long. CROSSED WARP tured. weaving. / THE MAGAZINE : . two pieces. Fig. one 2. The bottom is made of a ring. On to page 120 "Indian Basketry. 27). Now wrap the two rings with raffia (Fig. This dainty and pretty little toy. 5. 158. 156. 2^4 inches long. two pieces. Proceed as in ordinary diagonal weave. is shown a Pueblo In- dian mat. Center frame. page 108. TWINED WEAVING.

2 green rattan. 5 rattan. Tack 3 to I and 2. as 158. Handle. 56 of No. WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. 56 of No. Wire scroll. Thoroughly soak Nos. Tack 4 to 5. 21 inches long. Tack 6 to 5 tack the ends of 10 to 6 put 2 into end holes of 5. split thick cane or rattan. . Tack shown. 2. both sides. . made as follows Take two pieces of rattan long and two pieces i% inches long. 15 inches.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 8 rattan make an ordinary round base with an even number of spokes measuring 5 inches across. 19 inches. with ends below wood an inch and a quarter. : 6% FIG. To put together. for at holes to 5. Then wrap them with strands of raffia. one piece. tying them in the center. 3*4 inches long. I. wrapped frame for main frame. 6. with twisted raffia. is not wise. two pieces. four pieces 8. 16. 9 and 10. binding 3 at both ends to i. 16 inches. 3 inches broad. 2 green rattan. Brace for ends. BASKET Get 14 pieces of No. 48 inches. . Nos. Bend into shape required. as the tack soon pulls out from the raffia. . 32 of No. This latter method. 9. then \vrap with raffia. 2 pieces No. The wire scrolls may now be sewed in with raffia. or tacked through the raffia to the rattan or wood of the frame. Then wrap with wide raffia. I. 6 inches long. 2 green rattan. Tack 8 to I. 10. however. 4. Ornamented 7. 8 rattan. 6-Hs inches long. In the middle of each end saw out a hole large enough to allow center frame to rest snugly within. Bottom brace for center frame. 112 of FLUTED FLOWER No. Tack 10 to points where they cross 2. 14 inches long. Ill old box lid. Tack the long pieces to make two of the ends of the short pieces and thus make a frame these. 2. also 4 to i. No. 7 inches long. It is better sewed. With the fourteen pieces No. one piece. 2 green rattan. Tack 9 to 5.

four lots of four spokes. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. weaving. Then twenty-nine rows of plain triple twist with No. but the twelve FIG. BASKETS FROM THE PHILIPPINES. 165). must be bent down to the outside of the basket to form the curve. spokes. and you will get the right spokes at the side. spoke in base.112 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. placing one spoke on either side of the one do three rows of Turn the spokes upright. which remain undivided. 164. placing two beside the next lots of two spokes on either side of the four undivided double spokes added to it. Take the center spoke of each group of seven in the base. Pair round once. 159. excepting 164). FIG. and pushing them right down to the base of the basket (Fig. dividing all the spokes into twos. j> orci er Insert the thirty-two spokes of 16 inches. TURNING DOWN SPOKES. presstwelve (Fig. Now Now insert the fifty-six spokes of 19 inches. 21 inches. The four spokes must be four spokes there will be twelve left upright. so that each curve has four lots of . 2 green rattan. Between each of these lots of double spokes. 2 white cane. Cut off the ends of the spokes and insert the fifty-six spokes of No. placing two beside each two. These four spokes are at equal distances round the basket. ing them down most sharply in the center of each When this has been done do nine rows of plain weaving.

and for the sake of brevity will be spoken of as . Pair of green rattan. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. STARTING SQUARE (All the pairs of spokes are border. TURNING WEAVER ROUND CORNER SPOKES. Do eight rows of weaving. FIG. the depth of which is 3}^ inches. Insert the 112 spokes PIG. CURVE PARTLY WORKED. still keeping the central side spokes undivided. FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. dividing all the spokes into two. Pair round once to divide into twos. 165. round once. 167. in readiness for the FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. WORK BASKET. used together as one. 166. placing two beside each two round the basket.

This border is worked on top of the basket. and then continue the work round. in front of one. nineteen spokes of No. FIG. BASE. push two ends down beside one lot of four spokes on the inside of the Twist the two pieces of rattan round each other. 4 inches. Repeat this round. 12 inches. behind one.) of two. 16 inches. 7^/2 inches across. 6 rattan. 13 rattan. thread both ends from inside round the handle cane just below the border. . 166). spokes of No. 13 rattan. putting in a few spokes at a time. in front of one. "169. Handle Sharpen the ends of the two pieces of No. leaving 2^2 inches below. behind one. 2 rattan. 13 inches. four spokes of No. 16 inches. and keeping the row of pairing even with the edge of the weaving.114 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and weave a short way round the basket (Fig. . 13 rattan. two pieces of No. In doing this. SQUARE WORK WOOD FIG. 168. behind two. Now turn the basket upside down and pair round once. rials SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE MateRequired A square wooden base. 170. TURNING WEAVER FIG. start the border when about six spokes have been inserted. the spokes being curved from left to right. and leave behind. BASKET. draw the four ends to equal lengths and twist round the handle to the opposite side thread through to the outside two pieces on either side of the handle cane. Take two pieces of No. taking two lots of double spokes together each time." using four spokes together to plait with. one piece of No. TWISTED HANDLE. and push basket. 16 rattan and _ Take one piece in front of three spokes. in front one. All this must be worked underneath the wooden base. DETAIL OF 171. When this is done plait round as described for "Madeira Borders. STARTING LID OF SQUARE BASKET. twenty-nine spokes. 7 inches. cross these. Do the border in front of one. for the lid. Forty-four FIG AROUND LAST SPOKE. leaving end inside. 6 rattan. the ends into the basket at the opposite side. Insert the forty-four spokes through the holes in the wooden base.

the base up. leaving one weave out (leave an end of about i inch). 2 cane round it. therefore. cross them. keeping it in a straight line. and then do another row of pairing. and weave a few inches on either spokes side. 13 rattan at each corner must be cut evenly with the weaving before the border is done. Do four rows of single weaving. with 2 spaces of about y inch between each twist. while those on either side are pushed in. Take two spokes of 16 inches and place flat on the table together. Turn this over from right to left. Continue to place the spokes and pair them. 7^ Allowing y? inch on either side for the border round it. Place another spoke flat on the table about y> inch further on and pair round. corners. Border "Cycle" Border. With the ends do the plait in the ira Borders. three rows of triple twist. and place the long spokes into position. behind one. 2 cane and put the loop over the spokes 4^/2 inches from the nearest ends (Fig. 2 cane. in front of one. and weave across the spokes. The piece of No. To finish. so that when flat on the table the weaving will continue from the left hand side. When the other end is reached turn it over as before. for handles.HOW Turn TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as it fits inside the basket. this brings measurement of the center square of lid to 6 l 2 inches. Lid Twenty-nine spokes. place a piece of flat colored cane over the top of the handle. Take a piece of No. the lid. thread round the handle cane just below the triple twist. (This cannot be twisted round Do two rows of plain weaving. weaving. and four rows of single Do - . resting on the plaited border there (it is shown in Fig. until a piece is clone measuring 6 / 2 the / inches (fifteen spokes). 24). If correctly worked this basket should measure 8 inches across. beside the corner spoke. must be used together as one. keeping them l in their places with the left hand. and the shorter end of the spokes will still point towards the work." same way as explained for "Made- To make this basket of a good shape it is necessary to keep an equal distance between each spoke the corner spokes should be pulled outwards.) six rows of flat colored rattan one row of triple twist two rows of plain weaving. one going under and the other over. the last spokes being double (Fig. . leaving end inside. 25). 13 rattan (12 inches) can now be inserted . . Sharpen the ends and push them into the basket beside the fourth (counting from either end) and at the second row of triple twist. bring the other back. In front of two spokes. 13 The two rattan (4 inches). thread the ends through to the inside. 16 inches. turn it over and . Do one row of flat colored rattan. Take the two weaves round the double spokes at the end. 168). and then twist the ends of the No. in each corner. and then place a piece of No. and. one row of flat colored. this is not necessary (Figs. 167 and 168). When the round weave goes behind the double corner spokes it must be taken round them again but when the weave comes on the outside. will be inches. The two pieces of No. one row of triple twist. fold a strand of No.

one spoke. 13 rattan. four weaving. one length No. two pairing. one spoke. Insert one spoke by weaving it in in the ordinary way. front just in the center and directly under the border of the basket. weave down in place of the weaver then take the weaver over or under the spoke and weave down the side. Do two rows of single weaving with one piece of flat cane.Il6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. through the under loop. repeat. The edge is then bound off and finished with the simple border described this in the directions for a basket with a twisted handle in the first part of the chapter. in front of one. one spoke two weaving. and when two more have been woven in this way. Bind the loop with flat cane. piece flat green. and with a piece of wire secure one end of the rattan against the third and fourth spokes. the spokes are drawn in while using the remaining two weavers. one spoke. This pairing must be kept as close as possible to the weaving. rattan. which are then thoroughly wet and bent upward with a slight flare. Take a spoke of 16 inches and. one flat two weav. four rows of weaving. one spoke four weaving. on eight and a half 20-inch spokes. l . 4 rattan which has been soaked until These cut into four pieces and then separated into pairs. Materials for Basket Eight 2O-inch spokes of No. the spokes are flared more decidedly. one spoke. and a short piece of No. and in . one securely. then do two rows of pairing round the lid. weave back again. and dividing the double spokes at each corner. 13 rattan tied to the side of the basket. catching in the ends of the flat cane with the spokes to which they are nearest. are bent into loops at about ten inches from one end of each and Handle is A . counting from the side. When two outside rows of plain weaving have been done (counting in the ordinary way the number of times one weaver crosses the same spoke). . . 4 rattan. one spoke. to slip . and twist the strand of No. one spoke. form a loop by threading a weaver around a few rows of the weaving take the ends inside the basket. two rows weaving. two weaving. 7 inches. one spoke. Now weave in a spoke at either side next to the pairing. cross them. two weaving. four weaving. 4 n-inch of No. will fasten it BASKET WITH TWISTED HANDLE HAVING INTERLACED ENDS Miss White thus describes the method of making basket. . one spoke four weaving. A bottom is woven 2^4 inches in diameter. Every second row of weaving must be taken twice round the double spokes at the ends. . Border In front of two. Get the center of the lid. leaving about /2 inch over at either end. 4 rattan. ing. one four plain weaving. six weavers of No. When two weavers have been used. 2 rattan. and weave each end a short way round the basket. and secure the other end in the same manner on the opposite side. or the lid will have a very untidy appearance. Place a piece of colored rattan over the top of it. Bend the rattan in a half-circle. pliable length of No. make another loop to catch over the first bind this also with fine flat cane. leaving an end of 4^4 inches. . one flat two weaving. one flat. For handle. Handle (on top) One piece of No. behind one. the first side spoke must be woven in. 2 rattan round it in the same way as the side handles sew the lid on with flat cane at the back.

18 inches. fifty spokes of No. for. 171). The long ends are twisted together for about twelve inches. one in each hand of the worker. Make . nineteen spokes of No. see Fig. I. 7 spokes inches. FIG. knotted in this way. 8 rattan. short ends are finished off by weaving one to the right over and under several spokes and the other to the left. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET an ordinary base. it is so simple that one can easily follow its coils. The short ends are now crossed one under a long end and one over (as shown in Fig. This knot is placed about half way between the top and bottom of the basket. HANDLE OF KEY BASKET. Use No. COMMENCING 174. measuring 16 6 inches. putting by one on either side of the five long spokes at each end. FIG. OF KEY BASKET COMMENCING. 171. 173. with the long ends turning up. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET. who passes one loop through the other. FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 8 rattan. and brought together. The Materials required five of No. Insert the fifty side spokes. which makes the loop uppermost on one end of the knot and on the other the ends. 18^ inches. The long ends are also brought together making a knot like Fig. bringing the ends of the loop through which it passed over it. OF 172. DETAIL. nineteen spokes across five. BINDING HANDLE 175. TWISTED HANDLE. 2 rattan. This knot is placed on the opposite side of the basket from the first one and attached in the same way. 3 and 40 flat. although the process cannot be the same. The loops are held firmly where the short end of each comes against the long end (making sure that the short ends are on the same sides of the loops). weave with Nos. PIG. 8 rattan. and are then made into another knot copied from the first one. 172.

and the spokes are drawn together in some parts. and the shape will be spoilt. 174). 16 inches. Put on in the same way as described for the "Key Basket. 3 rattan thirteen rows of plain weaving. Also be careful to keep an even distance between each spoke. colored. required base. and winding tightly. and repeat the cross on the outside leave the end . 3 rattan. carried on top of the handle to the opposite side and 4 inches over. Thirty-six spokes of No. Cross it on the outside (as in Fig. keeping one round of rattan just meeting the next. up against the handle cane. alter- In making this basket great care*is necessary to get it a nice shape with a sharp angle at each corner. . 13 rattan. and forty flat. See Fig. Handle Length of handle according to taste. eight rows of flat rattan (colored) and round rattan alternately twelve rows of plain weaving one row of pairing. and tie the longer ends together. Two Oblong wooden Spokes of No. Put the . sticking . Round the foot do four rows of plain weaving and border. 176. rattan. leaving 3 inches below for the foot. using one white and one colored weaver nately. BINDING HANDLE two rows of weaving. take it over the handles to the opposite side. 175). or allowed to get wider in others. 13 rattan. rattan. 177. Materials u I inches. turn the basket up and do two rows of triple twist and twentywith No. one piece on either side of the center spoke in the side (as shown in Fig. 40 flat rattan. Get a long strand of No. Turn up and do three rows of twist No. . Now with the long end of rattan bind neatly round the handle and flat rattan together." 2 inches high." the result being shown in Fig. . in front of one leave the end inside to be cut off afterwards. Handle Insert the two pieces of No. carry over the basket. 3 Weave pieces of No. behind one. In order to d6 this keep the corner spoke pulled outward and press the one on either side well in. FIG. Now FIG. and begin by threading one end from the inside to the outside beside the handle cane and just bePull the end out until it is long enough to be neath the border. SHALLOW OVAL BASKET.u8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. If this is not done. thirty-six spokes through the holes in the wooden base. OP KEY BASKET FINISHING. the basket will become uneven. Border "Loop. and insert in the same way on the opposite side. 102. KEY BASKET colored and white.

BINDING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. and six rows of weaving. seven at either end. OF OVAL BASKET. three of No. and pull the end of rings (Fig. FINISHING HANDLE do two rows of triple twist to divide the spokes with No. 16 and 40 flat rattan.four of No. When loose enough for about six rings up. 16 rattan down beside the center side spoke and one piece beside the first spoke on either side repeat on the opposite side. Materials spokes the thickness of a slate pencil. these take five of 19 inches. 30 inches.rattan. 6. Then ninety. 178. Rattan may required Willow be substituted. INSIDE VIEW. Cut off the ends of the spokes. (straight round) of flat rattan. and insert the ninety-four spokes of No." See Figs. Weave with 3. STARTING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. . except the center one Turn up sharply and do two rows of triple twist. 4 and continue weaving until the base measures 18 by 12 inches. leaving an end of 3 inches. 3 rattan have been done. Border "Flat Plait. 7. FIG. Thread a piece of No. 119 it When the handle has been bound round as close to the border as can be. 16 rattan.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. it SHALLOW OVAL BASKET then cut off neatly. FIG. one on either side of each spoke. . 19 inches. OUTSIDE VIEW. Handle Place one piece of No. cut the flat rattan. taking at each side. 176). 180. push the end up and pull out between the Twist the rattan back again. Do seven rows of single weaving three rows each spoke singly. FIG. thirteen of 13 inches and fourteen of inches long. Leave one end several inches long. Of FIG. Split the thirteen willows in the center and thread onto the five of 19 inches. 7 rattan. 40 flat round the center handle rattan from the inside just below the border. in the opposite Without unwinding any of the rattan. 149 to 152. Add the fourteen spokes. 4. until quite tight . 179. placing one beside each of the five long spokes and the first of the double side spokes. Weave like an ordinary oval base until twenty rows of weaving with No. Now .it round way to that in which it was wound. and with the other weave to rattan. loosen it by twisting. 181.

182. the end of the flat rattan must be FIG. 176 shows how the handle ought to look when finished. PAPER BASKET Materials required Twelve spokes WASTE . all 183. SECTION SQUARE BASKET WITH threaded round the center handle rattan just beneath it. WASTE PAPER BASKET when the weaving three canes together until within 6 inches of the border. and fro between the three spokes until eighteen rows cross the center one (Figs. 185. SQUARE BASKET. taking OFF THE FLAT RATTAN IN BINDING A HANDLE. FINISHING FIG. STRAIGHT CORNER. 184. Now continue to bind over the top of the handle (Fig. 181. FIG. Fig. LEAVING SIDES. 182). is continued as in Fig. 180).120 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In doing this the short end must be caught in beside one of the handle canes. and the end pushed up against one of the canes and then cut off (Fig. 178 and 179). When the border is reached. FIG.

the number of spokes being The even. 18fi. 183). 6 inches. will be needed. PLAITED HANDLE. 22 inches No. counting the handles as spokes. turn the basket right side up. FIG. Insert spokes for sides wooden base. sloping the foot to taste. 7. and at FIG. 12 inches forty-eight spokes No. and is 9 inches across. 10 inches. The two longest are carried on for a row of pairing. o. BASKETS. i rattan. 16 inches. 20) with two weavers.HOW TO MARK INDIAN AND OTHER . 16 rattan. 183). SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE . 2. Insert the handle in holes made for it in the wooden base. see Fig 184. Above the wooden base weave one row of rope twist. 2 spokes of No. two of 36 inches (to be cut off when the twist is finished) and two longer. Now do your check pattern again ten rounds of triple twist. weaving the border. after which turn the base upside 1 1/2 in Weave finish the foot before proceeding with the sides. The handles can be put on terials at discretion. Weave with Nos. Finish with plaited border . Insert a short spoke close beside handle to be used in its stead for down and Finish with Closed Border No. Weave the base in the ordinary way (see Figs. . : . For this 4 lengths of No. for half an inch. i and 2 rattan. 6 inches square 38 spokes of No. taking each weaver three times around. until it Then insert the forty-eight spokes as usual. For handle. (Fig. Start the weavers on a side of the base which has not a handle through it. Ma- Required One board for base. 6. turn them up after so doing weave ten rows of triple twist and six rounds of two colors to make the check pattern (Fig. 2 spokes No. Work until you have three checks one row of triple twist twenty-two rows of plain weaving one round of triple twist. handle must be still counted as a spoke. 27 inches. Now . 6 rattan. inches from each end make a sharp bend. weave singly. 13 rattan. 125 to 129). six times in all. leaving 6 inches below the wood. singly (see Fig. 6. then another half inch or inch in natural color. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING SIDES. Bend spokes outward and continue weaving for eight more double rows. insert new weaver of dyed raffia or rattan and weave one Put a ten-inch inch. IJI of No. 187.

spoke close to each side of the handle. If for a workbasket. 2 or Open Border No. 187a. to be used in its stead in weaving border. On finishing the plait the ends must all be pointed and thrust as far down to the base on the other side of the basket as possible. Where this handle is desired one of the spokes must be left long enough to form the handle. 186. if preferred. the spokes twined ready for the sides. and finish with Closed Border No. thrust a small awl through the base into the board. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING all up and Fig. one on each side of this long These may all be doubled. place the basket on smooth board. Now progresses. . A handle that is very easy to make is shown in Fig. FIG.122 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. PLAITED HANDLE. plenty of rattan being left for this purpose. KLIKITAT BASKET IN FROHMAX COLLECTION. line with silk to taste. When the sides of the basket are woven insert two other spokes. spoke. making a three-plait with two spokes instead of one. The awl thus acts as a pivot on which the basket may be moved while the side weaving SIDES. 187 clearly shows the base finished. and plait as shown. 2 according to taste.

follow the methods it may be as well to dye the completed work. In all raffia work care should be taken to cut off loose ends as the weaver progresses with her work. splint. If so. FIG. In rattan. suggested make the bottom 1 in Those who desire to varnish or polish " Miss White's "How to Make Baskets their baskets may find recipes . before it is allowed to dry. is madeDyeing. 188. willow and other ware small fibers will split off from the work. TN FROHMAN COLLECTION.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. While the work is damp it can easily be twisted into shape. Only in this way can designs the weaver desires baskets of one color. one should correct all irregularities. not to scorch the basket. hence. of the saire size. f. FINISHING OFF A BASKET. See if the shape is as it should be especially examine the loops of the border . YAKTTAT GOOD LUCK RATTLE BASKETS. be worked out. 123 CHAPTER XIX. yet upon them often lid to fit. should always be done before the basket while the materials are still unformed. and these can be either In singeing be careful singed off or rubbed off with fine sandpaper. I think. in the chapter on dyes. flat and the and see that they are all of this nature seem small. however. Things depends the difference between a poor and a good basket.

190. 189. OLD COILED BASKETRY IN THE COLLECTION OF H.FIG. E. E. JR. SARGENT. WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE BASKETS THE COLLECTION OF H. SARGENT. FIG. IN . JR.

and the warp is the same as the weft. HOW TO MAKE It is INDIAN BASKETS. however.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. mark and inwardly digest" what is there written. which. At the very outset we are confronted by the magnitude of the subject. 192. 125 CHAPTER XX. and he who WORK OR MAT WEAVE. Mason. Many North Pacific Coast as well as Atlantic Coast and Canadian Indians use this weave. thus producing a twilled effect as seen in Figs. In my phase of the subject. Even in the mechanical work the Indian showed a fertility of invention and a skill in execution little short of marvellous. 191. 191). Indeed it is practically impossible to tell the one from the other (see Fig. hence in this chapter nothing but practical hints can be given. TWILLED WEAVING. TWILLED BASKETRY. intelligently cannot do better than "read. COARSE CHECKER- PIG. A variation of the mat weave is that which Professor Mason calls by this name. has written in his "Directions for Collectors of CHECKERWORK BASKETRY. will suffice to start the earnest student upon the true pathway. This is practically the mat weave of the preceding pages. Curator of the Division of Ethnology of the United States National Museum." . In what follows I have done little more than quote what that distinguished savant and sweet-spirited gentleman. how the Indian has well for all students of basketry to learn produced the wonderful results that make her basket work so famous. Professor Otis T. Splints of every imaginable kind of material are used for this work. The fundamental technic of this work is in passing each strand of the woof over two or more warp strands. 192 and 193- American Basketry. Of the poetry and religion woven I into Indian baskets I larger book have fully discussed this can here say nothing. would work FIG.

of twine or yucca fiber. 165 and 167." Figs. all This is the most intricate and elegant of Professor Mason thus writes of the varieties of twined weaving as follows "Twined work has a set of warp rods or rigid elements. 39 and 40). 193. as in wickerwork but the weft elements are commonly administered in pairs. in its southern portions. : 195 and 196. "The North Americans of antiquity were very skillful in administering the twilled technic. the WICKER WORK finest web basketry of civilization is specimens being the plaques of the Hopis. : . all rigidly The warp extends from the top to the bottom. . over single warps.NK1J IN TWO COLORS. or the opposite. The ordinary Indian work. n. though in three-ply twining and in braid twining three weft elements are employed. and specimens of which are found in "Indian Basketry. is fastened to one of the rigid uprights and then wrapped once around each wrap element. firmly fastened to the hoop at the top and the rigid members at the bottom. (See Figs. different structures result as follows I. affixed at the bottom. 10. On the specimen shown (Fig.126 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. TU1. Holmes it will be seen that in the ancient weaving of the Mississippi Valley. but it is doubtful if one can be invented that these Indians have not long known. WEAVING made only at Oraibi. the weft would not pass over the same number of warp elements that it passed under. Scores of designs may be made by the curious. woven work. ISC. 194) the weft goes over one and under three. According to the relation of these weft elements to one another and to the warp. continuing in a coil until the top is reached. FIG. WEFT. In passing from warp to warp these elements are twisted in half-turns on each other so as to form a two-ply or three-ply twine or braid. FIG. Plain twined weaving. From examples reproduced by W. rigid hoop is sustained by four uprights." The Fijians make remarkable baskets by comIn this country the Chetamaches show marbinations of this weave. each time and each way. vellous ingenuity in the working out of designs in this weave by varying the laying of the splints and the use of different colors. and is still used by the Mohaves. H. This type of weaving was employed by the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley. TWILLED WEAVING. The process is clearly shown WRAPPED A in Figs. The weft. TWINED WEAVING.

surface. on the outside. 197. tee or Hudson stitch. OF THE MOHAVES. which is clearly shown in Fig. The ridges. WRAPPED WEAVING FROM A MOUND IN OHIO.HOW 2. cluded in the half turns. therefore. but pass diagonally over the ." This primitive mode of weavPLAIN "TWINED WEAVING FIG. twined work vertical warps crossed by horizontal weft element." (See Fig. over two or more warps. in which one weft element remains rigid and the other is wrapped about the cross3. 4. Three-ply twined weaving and braiding in several styles. around 5. ings. of the Havasupais are made in this of the fine baskets of (see Fig. Fig. Fig. 196. ." WEAVING. by varying the color of the weft splints and The esuwas. 194. 222 Indian Basketry). Latticed twined weaving. 127 Diagonal twined weaving or twill. TWILLED WEAVING PRESSED ON ANC IENT POTTERY OF ALABAMA. Two splints or weavers compose the woof and they are twisted with a The Aleut and Haida baskets in half turn around each warp stem. 198 are made in this weave. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. WRAPPED WEAVING FIG. are not vertical as in plain twined weaving. Other examples will be found illustrated in "Indian Basketry. the Pomas 200 "shows how. 195. and many style. "The is in the manner the woof weavers technic consists in passing over two or FIG. The only difference 2. i. or bird-cage twine. DIAGONAL TWINED this style between cross the and the plain warp strands. more warp elements there must be an odd number at each half turn for in the rest round the same pairs of warps are not inof warps. Wrapped twined weaving. 199). ing requires a set of warp elements arranged parallel to each other. are also made in a similar manner. or water bottles.

artist is trol absolutely the figure 3. ALEUT AND HAIDA BASKETS IN THE FROHMAN COLLECTION. which is the . The variation of one row of stitches TWINED WEAVING. generally on the inside. In this weave one ele- FIG. while the other is wrapped around it and the upright warp. APACHE. the on the surface. inclining to the right and the other to the left is caused by the weaver's from above or below. changing from diagonal to plain weaving. ment of the twine is passed horizontally along the upright warp stem. 202. KLIKITAT. 19S. When the rows of these stitches are wrapping forced closely upon one another the effect is as in Fig. 200. as seen in Fig. WORK VARIETY OF TWINED OUTSIDE." enabled to con- WRAPPED '"TWINED WEAVING.128 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. DIAGONAL FIG. 201. 199.

under the name of the Ti Weave. . 201. Neah Bay weavers. TWINED WEAVING. FIG. the skillful has combined four styles of two-ply twined weaving. it will be seen inside." page 99. INSIDE.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. : . 203 "shows a square inch of the inside of a basket. It is believed that this LATTICE 4. 205. at the right side. see Fig. 129 exact method followed by the Fig. form of weave is confined to the Pomas. NEAH BAY WEAVING. 200). TWINED. On the from which FIG. TWINED WEAVING. 203. In the middle of the figure. WRAPPED FIG. WRAPPED. this drawing was made. TWINED WEAVING. (For example. OF THE POMAS." (See Fig. with plain twined weaving in the two rows at the top plain twined weaving in which each turn passes over two warp rods in four rows just below. how the wrapped or Neah Bay twined work appears on the lower right-hand corner In the exquisite piece is and in the woman the inside view of diagonal twined weaving. It is described in "Indian 'The ti (proBasketry. THE TI WEAVK FIG. 255 Indian Basketry). outside of the basket these various methods stand for delicate patterns in color. 20-2.

this fashion are very rigid and strong. Baskets made in holding the warps firmly together. (a) the upright warp of rods. DITTO. false emb. By referring to the lower halves of Figs. "Three-ply twined FIG. a. weaving is the use of three weft splints and other kinds of weft elements instead of two. 205). FiG. DITTO. nounced tee) twined weaving consists of four elements THREE-PLY TWINED WEAVING. TIIKKK-PLY BRAID AXI> (H'TSIDE. The reason for this is apparent. each one of the strands. After that the process is repeated. is carried behind the warp a whole revolution the three w eft elements have in turn passed behind three warp elements." 5. Skokomish. since in every third T . the basket weaver holds in her hand three weft elements of any of the kinds mentioned. and there are four ways of administering the weft.130 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as FIG. Three-ply twine. INSIDE. In twisting these three.. d. Tlinkit. and also water-tight jars are thus constructed. Frapped. OUTSIDE. and (c. (See Fig. so that in passes inward. On the outside there is the appearance of a two-ply string laid looks like plain along the warp stems. broidery. Three-ply. 206 and 207 the outside and the inside of this technic will be made plain. 207. (b) a horizontal warp crossing these at right angles. 209. INSIDE. TWINED WORK. In this technic (a)' THREE-PLY TWINE (Figs. FIG. I'm. Three-ply braid. it Tn REE-PLY BRAID. c. d) a regular plain twined weaving of two elements. and frequently the hoppers of mills for grinding acorns. 208. while on the inside the texture twined weaving. stem adjoining. viz. 206 and 207).

210 shows a square inch from the surface of a Hopi twined jar. The ornamentation in which mythological symbols are concealed consists of a species of false embroidery in which the figures appear on the outside of the basket but not on the inside. THREE-PLY AND 210. it is carried THREE-PLY FIG. FIG. In three-ply braid the weft elements (b) are held in the hand in the same fashion.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. The lower ply twine. and as each element passes under one and over the other of the remaining two elements. FRAPPED 212. the upper parts of Figs. 206 and 207 and 208 and 209. FALSE EMBROIDERY. which is exceedingly tough. the starting of all Poma twined baskets. . 211. This process is better understood by examining inside a warp stem. warp and two remain in BRAID. Fig. of a revolution one element passes behind the front. when the work is driven home. In the needlework of the civilized c) THREE-PLY. OVERLAID TWINED WEAVING. no matter how the rest is built up. On the surface. it is impossible to discriminate between The three-ply braid is found at three-ply twine and three-ply braid. PLAIN TWINED WORK.is the body worked in ." '( part is in plain twined weaving the upper part is in three- "In Tlinkit basketry spruce root. but instead of being twined simply they are plaited or braided. TWINED WORK.

woman FIG. In this Thompson River FRAPPED FIG. POMO BAM TT'SH WEAVE FROHMAN COLLECTION. IN 218. when each of the weft elements passes between two warp rods outward. Two of them are spun from native hemp or milkweed. An interesting (d) modification of this Tlinkit form of overlaying or false embroidery occurs occasionally among the Poma Indians under the name of bog or bag. Around this twine the third element is wrapped or served. 216. BASKETRY. the colored or overlaid element . WASHOE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. Skokomish type. Straws of different colors are employed (Fig. and it is fully explained and illustrated by James Teit in his Memoir on the Thompson River Indians. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. and form the regular twined two-ply weaving. YOKUT BASKET wrapped around it once. 217. On . the laying of this third element would be called embroidery. but the Indian woman twines it into the textile while the process of basket making is going on that is.132 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and then the whole is pressed down close to the former rows of weaving. YOKl'T BASKET FIG. 211). FIG. IX is 215. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. passing about the other two and between the warp elements. example the twine or weft element is three-ply.

who are Wakashan (Fig. The fastening off is coarsely done.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. YOKUT DANCE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. DECORATED YOKUT BOTTLE-NECK IN use of Mr." little attention to the stitches will A FIG. FIG. FROHMAN COLLECTION. Franz Boas for the s . is 220. 212). IN 219. This combination extremely interesting. show that the bags and the motives on them are clearly Xez Perces or Shahaptian. leaving the surface extremely rough. but on the inside the turns are perpendicular.< . the outside of this bag the wrapping is diagonal. but the wrapping of corn husk outside the twine are not done in Nez Perces fashion. The author says that it "seems to have been acquired recently through intercourse with the Shahaptins. Teit's figure. FIG. 221. KLIKITAT IMBRICATED WORK." . I am indebted to Dr. but after the style of the Makah Indians of Cape Flattery. kS* .

The latter has a circle of dancers and of the rattlesnake dia- monds." Of analysis. The weave is of the coiled variety. sign.1^4 S HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. of old coiled work gathFig. . CALLED Iv^lKITAT. "Indian Basketry. Fig. FIG. and the design is similar to that of Maidu (Fig. with striking designs. with a circle of dancers on the flange. 190 is of new White Mountain Apache Basketry. As a frontispiece in "Indian Basketry" Their materials are. Jr. 222. Portland. WORK OF THOMPSON Mr.. 189 shows some beautiful specimens ered by Mr. Sargent's collection. Sargent. 322 Indian Basketry). Ore. largely from the Frohman collection. 215 is a Washoe basket in the Frohman collection." the latter being a Figs. are seen two Klikitat basket weavers at work. Fig. fully explained on page 96. Coiled Basketry I have already quoted Professor Mason's clear The following pictures show a variety of specimens of coiled work. the weave of which is described in "Indian baskets in Fig. Figs. weave and de- F1G IMBRICATED COINED 223. The whole five are most beautiful specimens. E. 219 and 220 are both fine Yokut baskets. WORK. 216 and 217 are Yokut baskets of good shape. bottle neck. in Arizona and New Mexico. pine cone design. They are all Apache baskets. IMBRICATED BASKETRY RIVER INDIANS. and with quail plumes as an additional decoration on the rim. KLIKITAT BASKETRY. AFTER JAMES TE1T. A. 218 is a good specimen of the Bam Tush Poma weave.

Eells says that some women in every tribe on Puget Sound could produce the stitch. sixty years ago. James the strips not being over an eighth of an inch wide. and so with each one it is bent backward and forward so that the sewing is entirely concealed. and Spokanes. cedar bast and grass stems. '35 for the foundation. Skagit. Strips of cherry bark." Indians. Cowlitz. and he names the Puyallups. In Fig. Mr." In some of the finer old baskets in the National Museum. Chehalis. forming a sort of "knife plaiting. of the Klikitat. Makah. and the ornamentation in strips of Elymus triticoides and Primus demissa (Fig. and Squaxon. doubled on itself so as to be underneath the next stitch. who are Salishan. the entire surface is covered with work of this kind. Snohomish. Nisqualli. 221 the detail of this imbricated method of weave is shown. while the sewing is done with the outer and tough portion of the root. 224. FIG. The Thompson River the art. "The strip of colored bark or grass is laid down and caught under a passing stitch before another stitch is taken this one is bent forward to cover the last stitch. Teit describes and illustrates this type of weaving among the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia. collected . who are Salishan. Yakima. all of whom are of the ShahapClallam. dyed with Oregon grape. are added as ornament. It It is the native art it is a modern acquirement. have long known RC . The body of the basket is in the root of Thuja gigantea.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. POMA SHU-SET WEAVE BOWL AND BURDEN BASKET IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. cedar or spruce root. Twanas. is understood that here tian family. Imbrication is one of the most restricted of technical processes. 222).

Stearns. Co. Review and Herald Pub. Upcott Gill.i 36 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Bulletin of the U. New York. DECOKATED Mason. L. THE SUN BASKETS OF THE POMAS IN FROHMAN COLLECTION.. CHAPTER Firth. O. The Indians of the Painted Desert Region. Mass. XXI. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Directions for Collectors of American Basketry. A School Without Books. Second Series. Little.. Cane Basket Work. Los Angeles. White. Mich. 39. Museum. Part P. How to Make Baskets. New York.. Eliz. Indian Basketry. Nat. 170 Strand. James. Mass. Purdy. Brown & Co. Knapp. Carl.. Battle Creek. 225. Boston. Doubleday. George Wharton. S. Springfield. Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers. Calif. Henry Malkan. 1902. Mary. Page & Co. . Cane Basket Work. Sanborn. Raphia and Reed Weaving... T. First Series. Milton Bradley Co. Martha Watrous. ftu- FIG. London. Annie. No. SHI-BC.

:'.. and send your Fraternity fee of one dollar. organized by George \Vharton James.:~~ . membership are that you are interested Indian or other baskets. '^-.v~-i'f> . It has a large charter membership from roll will The charter in remain open until the end of 1903. and source of information THE among basket lovers that BASKET FRATERNITY has been its start.':"-. Do you want a lecture on Indian Basketry will see ? Read page 4 and you how it may be had. a loan collection of fine Indian Baskets in your village ? Then join The Basket Fraternity and get nineteen others to do and the collection will be sent to you without charge. Its only conditions for Do you want town or so.. rc-.THE BASKET FRATERNITY.r^-' a demand exists for a means of communication between.- L. ."-T :r.".

free to all members of the fraternity. To arrange rials for 12. To prepare such slides also for sale. and issue quarterly an . 4. disseminate information among its members relating to the art and the objects of the fraternity. 14. hastily prepared materials and crude workmanship. and is ready for its travels on call from those entitled to it. to prepare. which encourage the making of baskets merely for sale. 6. a national collection of typical baskets of every weave to be found throughout the world. 8. 10. To discourage among photographs. To encourage the opposite of the spirit referred to above to seek to retain the love for good and artistic work to banish aniline dyes. To make and style 9. and especially for the pleasure and study of members of this fraternity. carefully : . but especially and primarily of baskets made by the aboriginal tribes of North America. study and exhibition. To To To distribute among its members photographs or engravings of makes. To seek in every revive the art and prevent dying out prepared materials and artistic work. 5. ITS OBJECTS ARE a : To form To means of communication between basket lovers throughout the world. native shapes and designs. 13. and of representative Indian fine and typical baskets of all weavers. To photograph aboriginal weavers and make a collection of said its the Indians the modern commercial methods. This collection to be placed in some suitable location where it will be accessible at all times to basket lovers. secure the ends aimed at in Sections 12 and 13. for the gathering and distribution of Indian matebasket weaving which shall be sold to members of the fraternity at as near cost as possible. To prepare a set of stereopticon slides. collect reliable and accurate knowledge of Indian weavers' methods and work. foster the use of aniline dyes. alien designs. when issued. with accompanying lecture.T 1. superintendents and teachers in its service. which will be loaned on payment of a small fee to any member of the fraternity. HE BASKET FRATERNITY is a society of basket lovers. way to among the Indians. illustrated bulletin of general or specific interest to basketry lovers and collectors and to send this bulletin. and to require all young Indian girls to learn the art as part of their school training. and restore the use of native dyes. To seek to influence the Indian department of the United States Government to earnestly endeavor to work to this end among all the agents. 7. organized for the purpose of bringing together those who have felt the charm and fascination of Indian basketry. To organize a "traveling library" of veritable typical Indian baskets and send these as required to members of the fraternity for Such a collection of basketry is already made. 3. 11. 2.

" and originator of The Basket fee the 1." i. Forms STATION A. Whenever twenty members of the fraternity. Whenever fifty members of the fraternity petition for a lecturer. in order to further the work of the fraternity. as well as the baskets made by the Indians. issued quarterly. first . members of the fraternity are assured that they will receive The four bulletins. PASADENA. Orders payable to The headquarters " where the nucleus of of The Basket ' ' ^ THE BASKET: FRATERNITY. The first of these is a beautifully illustrated hand-book entitled "How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. L. prisons. basketry work. one will be sent." and will contain fully twenty illustrations of baskets of superior design. To promote the organization of classes for the teaching of basketry in orphan asylums. it will be sent to them on guarantee of its safety and the payment of freight charges both ways. The fraternity fee is $1. poor houses. Forms of application for such a loan will be sent on request.00 per year.15. unite in asking for the loan of an Indian basketry collection. will guarantee a small fee and necessary expenses. payable on application. of application for bulletin will be forwarded as early as possible after receipt of the fraternity fee of one dollar. insane asylums and other eleemosinary establishments in order that easy and simple employment may be found for the unfortunate which will help relieve the harmful monotony of their lives. author of "Indian Basketry. It will April The and third bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Basket Shapes. : Fraternity. Address all communications and make all P. either to members of the fraternity or to outsiders desirous to organize classes for the teaching of of knowing of its work basketry. with descriptive accounts of their work. and Fraternity is Pasadena. It will be issued October i. referred to in Section 14. living in one town or section. is in The second preparation and will be entitled ' ' Weavers. in order that their makers may derive as much financial benefit as possible from their labors. 17. To set in motion all possible machinery for the creating of markets for baskets so made. O." will contain not less than twenty plates of exquisitely shaped Indian baskets. the national collection and the traveling libraries of Indian baskets are located. CALIFORNIA. 2." by George Wharton James. 1 6. 3.To arrange for lectures on Indian basketry when and where possible. It will be issued July i. and to enlarge the circle of those who know and love good . The membership will be sent on request.iving Indian comprise fully twenty portraits of typical Indian It will be issued weavers. The fourth bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Designs. EnIn return for this trance may be made at any time during the year. California.

NEVADA. Introduction 5 II." . The Spirit in which Basket-Making should be Approached. THE HOME OF THE WASHOE INDIAN. XXI. VIII. XVIII. Choice of Material IV. How to to Make and Use Them 28 32 34 37 Tools and Terms How Begin The Mat Weave The Plait or Braid X. Chap. More about Bases 84 89 93 103 107 123 125 XV. 18 V. of Materials . The Web Weave IX. PAIUTI OR SHOSHONE BASKETRY we can We interest you. Finishing the Basket How to Make Indian Baskets Bibliography 136 If you desire Amerind Art in WASHOE. upon appplication. Borders 77 XIV. The Preparation Dyes . XVII. CARSON CITY. loan 3-011 will for inspection.INDEX. . I. Address THE EMPORIUM. our photo booklet of fine and beautiful baskets. The Net Weave XI. VI. Web Weaving Fancy Borders Continued Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets A Few Baskets XIX. XX. XVI. 10 14 III. Insertion and 48 52 58 73 XIII. VII. The Coil Weave XII.

Deerfleld Weaver Splint Cutter Foundation Splint Cutter A Splint Single Weaving . 101. 32. 56. 17 18 20 22 2 63 63 63 78. 68. Round Base with Spokes Separated Commencing Oblong Oval Base Spoke for Round Base Spokes' Threaded for Round Base. 72. Weave.. etc 50a Bottom of Deerfleld Basket 51. Oi. 2 Open Border No. 11 I. IT 118. 41. 103. 9S. 77. Double Pairing Triple Weaving 24 25 25 32 3 32 32 80.. 106. Plaited Belts 50 Hoop and School Bag Raffia Doll's Hat and Tray Raffia Plaited Raffla Hats Detail of Last Three Spokes of Plaited of Plaited 55. 40. Shred Foundation Rope Twist Raffla Bound Picture Frames Raffla "Wrapped Articles' Toy Chair of Wrapped Raffia 65 86-87-XN. 61. Deerfleld Straw Baskets Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets Picotie Pink Basket. 3. Splint Picture Frame Splint Mat Weave Baskets 105. 109. 82. 126. Open Border No. Articles of Plaited Raffla. Fig 1. 9. 62.wale Apple Green Basket. 94. 85 85 . Mouse Basket Corn Husk Poppy Basket Fancy Splint Basket Splint and Sweet Grass Fan Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass Base of Baskets shown in Fig. 104. 113. 31. Mesh . 53. 65. 25. Magazine Holder 30. 129. 19. 125. 83. Weave 107. 75. Deerfleld Deerfleld 14 15 16 1? 16. 2 Starting Splicing Inserting Odd Spoke Right Side of Center Odd 75 75 75 75 42. 102. Page. 110. 90.. 47. 115. 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 122 123'. 34. Splint Picture Frame Foundation. 23. 117. 1 Detail of Open Border No. 26. 21. 4. 130. 73. 74. 79 79 SO 2. 84. 81. 2829. Red Bird Basket. 6. 33. Fig. Mat Foundation Work 39. Inclosing Part of Foundation Interlocking Coils.. Book Mjark of Weave Splint and Web 95. 17. 112. 89. Detail Plait of Plait 3 4 Open Border No.. 45. 71. 54. 20. Web New Weaver Weavers Market and Other Baskets " Caning a Chair Cane Tie Caning a Chair "Weaving with Raffia Rattan Simple Baskets. Stick and Knot of Raffia Single Net Mesh Netted Bags of Raffia. Weaving on Even Spokes Holding and Spokes' Starting Weaver Dividing into Single Spokes 72 72 73 73 74 74 36. 7. Baskets of Plaited Raffla . 14. 99. Simple Coiled Baskets Simple Mat Weave Open " Closed Table Mat Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Isolated Figures Produced by Modifying Order of Intersection 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 39 41 41 41 41 Fugeian Coiled Basket Details Coiled Raffia Baskets and 65 66 68 66 70 70 93. 97. 13. 79. Weavers Round Base with Spokes in Pairs. Deerfleld Splint Baskets Reed Baskets. 54 121. 111. 64. 96. Chetemache Mat " Grass Tray. Foundation of Two Rods Rod and Welt Coiled Work Foundation of Three Rods Foundation of Splints Interlocking Coils. 128. Weaving of Round Bnsc with Two Split 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 s:. 24. 52. 58 58 10 12 i: Covered Napkin Rings Simple Coiled Baskets with VariSimple Coiled Trays Pine Needle Coiled Baskets Wrapping Before Coiling Beginning the Coil Detail of Coil Cross Sections of Varieties' Coiled Basketry Detail of Interlocking Stitches Detail of Single-Rod Coil in 58 58 60 60 01 61 61 62 10. Accordeon Plait. Detail of Ins< rtiun Insertion Open Border No. 44. with Spoke Simple Open Border No. 6. 11. 2. etc Chetemache Mat Diagonal Mat 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 45 46 46 46 46 49 51 100. 53 120. 15. 27. 66. 108. fc. 57. 43. 46. 85. Five Strand Plait of Raffia. Xi-t etc. 127. 76. 4 6 S 67. 69. 49. 3. 58. 12. 3 Detail of Oval Base " 124. 5. 47 Closed Border No. 52 119.. 91. 59. Deerfiekl. 18. Straw Foundation 63 64 64 64 64 Weave 33 33 26 Open Coil. Button Hole Stitch on Ring " " " ation Page. 63. 22.. 92.ILLUSTRATIONS. IIU. 80 80 so Detail of Closed Border No. 48. 1 Detail of Closed Border No. 75 76 Weave Web 77 78 78 78 78 79 7J of Chair Cane 50. 8.. 5. 70. Closed Border No.

117 118 132. 215. Detail of Twisted Handle Ditto Turning Spokes Weaver Around Last Oblong Carrying Basket Commencing Handle of Key Basket 114 220. 169. 207. . . 217.119 119 182. 173. 206. 146. 196. 142. 175. 201. 147. 149. Twined Weaving. . 154. Klikitat.. Twined Weaving. Outside Ditto. 167. 165. Page. Inside 129 The Ti Weave of the Pomas 129 Three Ply Braid and Twined Work. Plaited Handle Method of Holding Basket Weaving Sides Yakutat Rattle Baskets Old Coiled Basketry When 121 121 123 124 Coarse White Mountain Apache Baskets. 166. 171. 160. 135. Square 113 Spokes' Work Basket. Curve Partly Worked 113 Fluted Flower Basket Starting Square Work Basket. 143. Finishing Base of Twined Weaving with serted Corners In84 31 90 90 92 92 96 94 Shallow Oval Basket 118 Starting Handle of Oval BasketInside 136: 137.110 Ill Wristlets or Cuff Protectors 112 Baskets from the Philippines 27 Baskets Deerfleld Straw Section of Fluted Flower Basket. Commencing Flat Plait Border. 128 Wrapped Twined Weaving NV. Outside Overlaid Twined Weaving 209. 180. 114 221. 177. 148. Outside. 178. 134. 183.-I ii I 129 !.105 Flat Plait Border Second Position 105 of Spokes with Portion in progress. from a Mound in Ohio Twined Weaving in Two Colors 126 128 Apache. 172.. . 133. 195. Raffia 108 and Splint 108 Bases' of Fig.. Pi . 152. Pressed on Ancient Pottery. 114 Starting Lid of Square Basket. 194. . 130 130 130 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 Three Ply and Plain Twined Work. 170. 155. Baskets 128 Diagonal Twined Weaving Variety of Twined Work. 127 Ditto Wrapped Weaving of the Mohaves' 127 127 Ditto. 105 of Finished Border 105 Flat Plait Border. 190.. Wood Base. 185. 124 on Mat Checkerwork Weave 125 150 151. 139. 164.Fig. 176. 156. -in'. Binding Handle of Oblong Oval Base " Key Basket. Jumping Two Spokes Weaver Ditto Outside Binding Handle of Oval Basket. 205. Detail of Center of Oval Base " " 86 87 87 Commencing Ditto. 141. 193. 145. 200.. Finished 106 Splint and Twined Baskets Collar Baskets of Rush. 9 Spokes Turned Up for Sides Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass. 218. 98 and Plaited Sweet Grass Splint 99 Baskets Splint and Plaited Sweet Grass 100 Baskets 102 Madeira Border No. 131. 144. INN.. 117 222.114 216. 192. 157. 117 223. etc. 210..131 Frapped Twined Work Washoe Basket Yokut Basket Ditto 168. Baskets of Rattan. 120 Finishing off the Flat Rattan in 90186. 181. 219. 184. 112 Turning Down Spokes 113 Ditto. ing Inside Inside Three Ply Braid.i \ \Yrappc-d T\\ ined Weav129 Crossed Warp. 187. Imbricated Imbricated Klikitat Poma Bam Tush Weave Yokut Dance Basket Yokut Bottle-Neck Basket Klikitat Imbricated Weaving Basketry Coiled Work of 134 Thompson River Indians Work. Called 117 134 CENTRA OHIL "C. Finishing ditto 119 119 . 159. 197. 191. 179. 2 102 Madeira Pairing for Plait 189. 211. 199. Rattan Basket with Plaited Straw Simple as' Web Web Woven Bird Nest Basket with Fancy Base Splint Web Weave Inserting Weaver in Splint Base. 154 Surface Effects of Twined Open Twilled Weaving 125 Ditto 126 Ditto. 140. Turning Weaver Round Corner . 153. 174. L'lis.. Base of Splint Basket 120 Binding a Handle Waste Paper Basket 120 120 Square Basket Weaving Sides Section ditto with Straignt Corner. 158. 138. Ditto. Work 110 203. 198.

" ' ri''^^^Nit. .. (.. WHOLESALE: AND PORTLAND..(. DETAIL - SEND TEN CENTS FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. CALIFORNIA AND NORTHERN INDIAN BASKETS T- i9O2 AND CURIOS.if si . QBE. FROHMAN TRADING Co ALASKA.. .-'. ji' ^ .'..'i.

Steamer. CAL. SUNSET LIMITED PACIFIC (""TEL m WHEELS. HOUSTON. COAST EXPRESS. COACHING. s. Two NEW DAILY TRAINS NEW ORLEANS TO CALIFORNIA. SAN FRANCISCO.. TOURISTS WILL FIND THE MOST PICTURESQUE LANDS ALONG THE ROUTES OF THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC Through Texas. P. Old Mexico. For Free Illustrated Pamphlets. Excellent Cuisine. HUNTING. POLO. TEXAS. and all information. Passenger Steamers Between Fast Time. CAN BE ENJOYED EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR. New Mexico. WHERE GOLF. BOATING. New York. DRIVING.CALIFORNIA A REGION OF WONDERS. lowest Rates. RIDING. F. NUTTING. New York and Superb Service. Railroad. . Maps. and Time Tables. TENNIS. O. address L.. J 349 Broadway or E. BATHING. H. General Eastern Passenger Agent. New Orleans. to Peerless California. FISHING. M. M. T. T. Battery Place. Arizona. MORSE. P. A. Baggage Checked. McCORMICK. and Pullman Tickets. B.

net. V. $1. A Few PRICE. X. Shapes and weaves of treats of greater beauty and intricacy are described. VII. CONTENTS I. EAST. the making of hats and and numberless other matters about many of which the readers of the initial volume have chair seats written for information. IX. unusual materials.MORE BASKETS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM BY MARY WHITE nPHE success first of White's Miss volume has led to this companion work. with new appliances. Centres and Weaves. which more advanced basket-making. Palm Leaf Basketry. III. Baskets for Practical Use. Hints on Dyeing. Flower Baskets. PAGE & CO. How to Raffia and Rush Seat Chairs. IV. VIII. Hanging Baskets. Unusual Materials. II. VI. Palm Leaf Hats. NEW YORK .00. XI. Raffia Basketry. DOUBLEDAY. 34 UNION SQUARE. Square Baskets.

. . . the Simplest Baskets Borders Covers Handles Work Baskets Candy Birds' Nests Baskets Scrap Baskets the Finishing Touch Oval Baskets How to Cain Chairs Some Indian What the Basket Means to Stitches . Weaving. . . CONTENTS Material. $1. . Raffia and their Some .BASKETS BY MARY WHITE FIFTH EDI T I HOW TO MAKE O X THE new drawn great interest in Indian baskets has attention to the art of basketwith the result that basketry has making. but which now rapidly becoming a lost art. few necessary impledescribes in detail the ments and materials. - net. Mats and . and then tells how to weave. found immediate favor. . the simpler forms. not only in schools and training classes. NEWYORK . PRICE. but as a most attractive pastime and means of occupation among grown people as well. of its Uses . Preparation. next the more difficult patterns. the Indian.00 DOUBLEDAY. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. EAST. This little manual is Miss White the only guide to the work. . . Tools. and finally the complicated and beautiful work for which the Indians first is were once famous.

Rugs. Wheeler has had a leading part. drawn from the author's own experience in spreading this valuable home industry. Woolen . Cotton Rugs. NEW YORK . Neighborhood Industries. based upon principles of art. HPHIS *- admirably clear little volume gives specific instructions for the weaving of rugs. Si. PRICE. Rug Weaving Woven Rag . of PRINCIPLES HOME DECORATION net. EAST. PRICE net. Dyeing. and this bi^ok will be found exceedingly valuable and suggestive to all who are interested in such work. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. CONTENTS. the Pattern .HOW CANDACE WHEELER TO MAKE RUGS BY ILLUSTRATED. Ingrain Carpet Rugs. It undoubtedly be a helpful book to decorators. 20. Linsey Woolsey BY THE SAME AUTHOR. A STUDY will DOUBLEDAY. Portieres . but its chief Held will lie among the thousands of home-seekers whose range of experiment has not been wide enough to warrant successful practice. The healthy modern movement toward the hand-made things of daily use in the home is one in which Mrs. of beauty in house interiors. 80. Si.

^HE many ' PRICE." The first 5000 were sold on publication. EAST. Practical Cooking and Serving." accumulated gastronomic knowledge of centuries and the best modern domestic science have alike been drawn upon by Mrs. because it is practical. There are 200 helpful photographic illusThe book trations. of the Boston Cooking School. which ma\ be washed. S2. NEW YORK . net. preparation and serving of food. Hill.oo DOUBLEDAY. contains 730 pages and is strongly bound in aluminum cloth.FIVE THOUSAND SOLD ON PUBLICATION AND SERVING BY JANET McKENZIE HILL "Cookery. "is gether should match." said PRACTICAL COOKING Yuan hundred years ago. in her new book." life like Alei. in color and black and white. and tells everything a housekeeper needs to know about the selection. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. the Brillat-Savarin of China two matrimony t\vo things served to- And again: "Into no department of should indifference be allowed to creep into none less than cookery.

00 net ." etc. ^^^^p^^l . - ^ff ' ^JE-'A-r^L -'^^. -r- ' ' -~ ' -- A PEAK OF EROSION IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST With 1 6 full-page pictures and 50 half-page illustrations from photographs Crown 8vo Decorated cloth $2.THE INDIANS OF By THE PAINTED DESERT REGION GEORGE WHARTON JAMES of Author "In and Around the Grand Canyon of the in Colorado River Arizona. .vr - . ." "Indian Basketry.

and there much interesting information about Indian basketry and blanket weaving. but the author had to do when he photographed these Indians. his "shampoo the This is considered a great luxury. The women instead of talking about "Women's Rights have for ages possessed and knit their men weave the women's clothing own stockings. giving a picture various Indian tribes and has own will agreeable and entertaining to every one. James written about them in style. one Indian divorcing wife because she declined to shampoo his head. honor of the birth of every child. it Much " of their as the author describes is surely unique. a large portion is of the book domestic life devoted to this interesting tribe. and with no soil fit upon countrv has inflicted for cultivation.The Indians of the like its Painted Desert Region author's valuable book work on the 1 the Grand Canyon is the result of experience. besides visited his of water. When the author first visited the " Navahoes. James also writes of the ill-treatment which our upon the Navahoes. . stranger's the chief ordered his daughter to head. A chapter is given to the religion significance : of the Hopis. fraught Western with many journey ov-er dangers on account scarcity in a of sudden storms and absence of shelter. to The love. The Indian worst insult that is it is possible to offer to a Wallapais this throw her long hair away from her face. j they have Mr. and the women build their own them . Each act has a religious some beautiful religious ceremonies. of personal adventures and hardships desert. chapter upon the legends of the Havasupais is is fascinat- ing and the book full of romantic and picturesque Indian is An entire is chapter devoted to the Hopi snake dance. the homes and invite their husbands to marry them. Mr. and one especially beautiful is sung in accompanied by songs. who were placed reservation without water or fuel. which be quite new The first Indian tribe visited was the Hopis.

.

BIBLIOGRAPHY LITTLE. XI. espe- of those showing the famous "Snake Dance. V. and fifty industries. Hopi. XIV. IX. THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE HOPI. VII. HAVASUPAIS' RELIGIOUS DANCES AND BELIEFS. X. T'HK HOPI SNAKE DANCE. VI.The Indians The series artist of the Painted Desert Region illustrations are faithful reproductions of the beautiful who accompanied him. VIII. XV. A FEW HOPI CUSTOMS. and half-page plates. DESERT RECOLLECTIONS." are unique.. NAVAHO AS A BLANKET WEAVER. THE HOPI VILLAGES. BROWN. religious rites. the Indians generally objecting to the photographing of some of the ceremony. FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE HOPI. XVI. and personal appearance of the Indians. cially several and Havasupai they are a most valuable addition to the text. Massachusetts . Navaho. PUBLISHERS Boston. WALLAPAIS. HAVASUPAIS AND THEIR LEGENDS. PEOPLE OF THE BLUE WATER AND THEIR HOME. ADVENT OF THE WALLAPAIS. of photographs taken by the author or by his special consist of sixteen full-page Accurately portraying the country. IV. Some of the subjects. NAVAHO AT HOME. XIII. XII. THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE NAVAHO AND HIS HISTORY. SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE HAVASUPAI. CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I. III. II. THE PAIN-TED DESERT REGION. & 254 Washington Street CO. AND THEIR HISTORY.

00 CROSSING THE COLORADO TO THE SHINUMO. . James's in these own perilous experiences. Dramatic narratives of hairbreadth stories escapes and thrilling adventures. their legends and customs. and Mr. beauties of the crowded with pictures of the marvels and Canyon. $3.AN IMPORTANT NEW BOOK DESCRIBING THE MOST STUPENDOUS SCENE ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT In and Around the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES Illustrated pictures in with thirty full-page plates and seventy the text 8vo Cloth Price. give a wonderful personal interest wonder on pages of graphic description of the most stupendous natural the American Continent. volume. of Indians. Philadelphia Public Ledger. is of absorbing interest.

TEMPLES AND BUTTES TO THE EAST FROM THE GRAND SCENIC DIVIDE. .

miners. but from historical records. he has quoted wherever he could matter of interest and value. Too much cannot be said praise of Will be the standard with reference historic. There qualified . Argonaut. .IN A & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON veritable storehouse of wonders. from the notes of Indian white hunters. and find explorers and discoverers. San Francisco Bulletin. .. . The most - thorough its the Colorado and Chicago of the Grand Canyon of surroundings to be found anywhere. San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco. is probably no the writing the country in who is better for . New an The Grand Canyon exposition either with has never before received - such pen or camera. --Arizona Daily Journal-Miner. . . a ring of actuality about this book. description Tribune. There York. illustrated work of which too much can is scarcely be said in praise. The Grand Canyon this one of the world's wonsatisfying and volume its is the most thorough and attractions thus presentation of many rugged man of in far offered. Legend and and local drawn upon in for the effect color. in Literary World. to the main features - and scientific of the Great Canyon of the tradition are Colorado. respects the book possesses a charm peculiarly own. Arizona. dramatic . Brooklyn Standard Union.Outing. He feels has told his story so fascinating a manner that one almost within sight and sound of the great canyon. An ders. freely - guides. He own has not been content to describe the wonders in his words. such a book than Professor his James. scenic. One of the typical books of the great West. . . and from the accounts of natives. Prescott. so that its many . is - Boston Advertiser. work.

WRONG COMPANION. POWELL (1869-72). THE RED CANYON AND OLD TRAILS. W. IX. XXXI. THE CLIFF AND CAVE DWELLINGS. XXVIII. XXV. FIRST IMPRESSIONS. XXVII. PHOTOGRAPHING THE GRAND CANYON. BOTANY OF THE GRAND CANYON. XX. LEE AND THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. XXXIII. CONTENTS THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS CANYONS. & CO. W. 254 BROWN. THE OLD HOPI TRAIL. AN ADVENTURE IN BEAVER CANYON. RELIGIOUS AND OTHER IMPRESSIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON. XXVI. THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. XXIX. XII. BOSTON . V. III. IV. II. To THE CANYON BY RAILWAY.. XIV. XXXII. THE SHINUMO AND ITS ANCIENT INHABITANTS. VII. W. EXPLORATIONS BY MAJOR J. LITTLE. Two DAYS' HUNT FOR A BOAT IN A SIDE GORGE NEAR THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. THREE DAYS OF EXPLORING IN TRAIL CANYON WITH THE X. GRAND CANYON FOREST RESERVE. FROM THE SANTA FE RAILWAY TO THE CANYON BY STAGE. AND A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE TOURIST. THE MYSTIC SPRING TRAIL. W. LEE'S FERRY AND THE JOURNEY THITHER. UP AND DOWN GLEN AND MARBLE CANYONS. AND THE DEAD VOLCANOES. XV. XXII. XIII. XXIII. VIII. THE TOPOCOBYA TRAIL AND HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON.IN & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON CHAPTER I. XXIV. BASS AND HIS CANYON EXPERIENCES. PEACE SPRINGS TRAIL. LATER EXPLORATIONS. XVII. VI. THE TANNER-FRENCH TRAIL. EXPLORATIONS FROM THE TIME OF THE SPANIARDS (1540) TO MAJOR J. HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON AND ITS WATERFALLS AND LIMESTONE CAVES. XXI. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GRAND CANYON REGION. POWELL (1869). THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS. THE GRAND VIEW TRAIL. MR. WHAT DOES ONE SEE? ON THE RIM. XI. THE HAVASUPAI INDIANS AND THEIR CANYON HOME. JOHN D. THE GEOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON. XIX. XVI. Publishers WASHINGTON STREET. FLAGSTAFF. XVIII. XXX.

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