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REFERENC

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1 William Street. ' "1903 HENRY MALKAN.How TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (L . THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO RIVER ETC. ETC. IN ARIZONA.. THE INDIANS OF THE PAINTED DESERT REGION. New York. By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES "i AUTHOR OF INDIAN BASKETRY.

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always a man of originality." and into my youthful ears he used to pour his tales of of woe at the hardships of a basket-maker's life. the worker bending down almost double over the work. In half an hour or less it would be a bed of fire. the son of my father. not simply a trader in baskets. should write a treatise on basket making. throwing its grateful heat into the cold room and cheering all who came within its influence. too. time his solemn asseveration was that "he'd had his backbone taken out. oldest brother. Two of his workmen were father and son. Like Just now the making of Indian and other baskets is a fad.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. It is singularly appropriate that I. INTRODUCTION. treading on the work itself the weavers were woven in. after being started. when those who practised it merely as a fad have forgotten that they ever were interested in it. I wish to do my share in helping it along by making a book of helpful instructions and hints that will be worthy the dignity of the subject. but it will do I When . It has been my purpose in arranging the following pages to introduce all the stitches. other fads it will have its day and then die. but personally a skilled workman himself. The young man was "Lige. We used the old-fashioned English grates. as my father was a basket maker. HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and made a mixture of coal dust and the thick ends or "nubbins" cut from the ends of new splints or "weavers" introduced into the coarse kinds of all My baskets. are for children. Well do I remember. The earlier lessons. The earliest remembrances of my life are connected with that art. learned the art and was a good workman. and. a season when coal was dear and scarce. After I came to the United States the work of the Paiuti Indians soon arrested my attention. My father. rose at once to meet the occasion." or he never could do it. of course." Now that the work of Basket Making is being taken up in earnest. as a child. bent over for a few minutes my childish back seemed to be and when I asked Lige how ihe could endure it for hours at a broken. practically usable. named Fields. and I began the studies which culminated two years ago in the publication of my "Indian Basketry. In the making some of the larger and coarser baskets the bottoms. as during the recent Eastern coal strike. But unlike many fads there is something in the making of baskets that will keep the art alive. were pinned through the center with a large steel bodkin to a heavy flat board. and after a fire of coals was well alight my father would take a coal scuttle full of this mixture which he called "backing. from the simplest to the most complex." and throw it up on the top of the fire and well back into the throat of the chimney.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

dyeing. into an object from which imagination may conjure countless fascinatnecessary to for the . and Bell. That the Indian had to learn everything in that way. and weave of his baskets. and endeavor persisted in is failure. Show him that all progress comes that way. Where possible. Let the child experiment in the drying. Stimulate his and inventiveness in the use of materials. Indian felt let them select as the Indian did. and others of our great inventors who have given us telephones. but tell that same child that this pile was once a who castle. if not the first. or. It was arbitrary. and not only may valuable dismaterial. . I have given full credit for everything borrowed. It is this thought that should animate every teacher and worker in In going out to choose materials let the children feel as the basketry. one of the first. director of the Industrial School of Columbus. A variety of materials has been introduced purposely. and the thousand and one things that mean our progressive civilization. In this work I have tried to suggest to the teacher how to make Put human interest into the subject more interesting to her pupils. and returned flushed with victory or sad and despondent through defeat that it was a place where children were born. educated. Especially do I wish to thank Mr. She had no other teacher than experience. teacher of basketry in the schools of the will make some kind reader . and the lifeless pile is transformed into a palpable living entity. Let me at the outset say that the divisions of the subject are purely It does not necessarily follow that the coil weave is harder than the mat weave because the latter comes first in the book. make some divisions. telegraphs. true and false. Ga. Teach them the value of That failure means endeavor. A pile of rocks means little to an unimaginative child. let him make his own selections. any subject and it enlivens it. while what we read or are told may be inaccurate or positively false. to show what may be done and to 'Stimulate to personal investigation and experiment. and their preparation in the shape. and.. but individual thought and expression are to adults to erity thus gained will secured. who lived in stirring times achieved things who went forth to war with all pomp and ceremony. and that knowledge gained by experience is sure and certain. and dyes. ing and interesting pictures. Teachers should encourage their pupils to try every possible Thus invention is stimulated. . If I have failed to do so I gladly apologize and in later editions the necessary acknowledgements or corrections if will call my attention to them. peopled by lords and ladies. where lovers. never failure. For material for these pages I have ransacked everything I could find. Let him know that while he is doing this experimenting he is following exactly the plan of Edison. 7 do the work here outlined. John Sheridan Neligh.HOW no harm TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . water gas. walked and plighted their troth. and general preparation of the material. and Gray. coveries be the result. as far as I can learn. design. married and died. at least. The skill and dextbe exceedingly useful in the later work. indeed. let him determine what is best adapted for this basket and for that. and these were thought the best purpose in view. electric cars. where all the events that go to make up life transpired. and Lowe.

My grateful acknowledgements are also tendered to Miss Annie United FIG. B. States. MASS. helpful wife. and And these thanks also include his help given in a variety of ways. 3.8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. from whose "Cane Basket I Work" I have bodily taken much will find as valuable material. baskets to photograph. WHITING. I assure her she is most heartily welcome. hope in return Miss Firth much in If suggestions that she can avail herself of for English readers. for original suggestions. For all the photographs of my . CORN HUSK POPPY BASKET. Miss Mary White's "How to Make Baskets'' has also been drawn from. Miss M. she can. of Teachers' College. DESIGNED AND MADE BY MARGARET C. Columbia University. DEERPIELD. Hyde. has been most generous in her helpfulness. Firth.

III. 143. II. . The purpose is to give to the solitary student every advantage for self training and to every teacher suggestions which will aid in her work with children. The two chapters respectively on The Choice and the Preparation are five of Materials may be skipped or not as the reader desires. PIG. SPOKES TURNED UP FOR SIDES. I have deemed it best to discuss each one separately. IV.HOW work made by TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and the practical character of chapter her work will prove a boon to all my readers. The mat. The coil. The plait. While in some regards these five methods overlap each other. simple methods of work. V. the students at the college and the major part of the on dyes I am indebted to her. The net. There stand. The \veb. To any person the exercises will be helpful. In these lessons' I have begun with the simplest materials and work. all of which it is well to underThese are distinguished by the following names: I.

PIG. New York. FANCY SPLINT BASKET. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . 4.

and then in the shape. The true imitator of Indian work or." or "because it is quite But to the the rage. aspimythology. the tout ensemble. impossible deSimplicity signs. desire. should not I. the must approach it in true worker desirous of emulating Indian work the true Indian spirit and this I have endeavored to describe in my Suffice it to say here that the basket larger book on Indian Basketry. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. is something Xow all this making baskets for "the : higher civilization. should not I also seek to do the same ? An affirmative answer then compels a study of Indian Basketry This will produce a growing love form?. the spirit. a conscientiousness of endeavor in the gathering of the materials. for them. glaring. emotion-full. love. poetry. Browning well wrote "Not on the vulgar mass called work Must judgement pass. inharmonious colors. From this the natural process will be a reference of the Indian work to their original source. THE SPIRIT IN WHICH BASKET MAKING SHOULD BE APPROACHED. it would be better to say. inadequate weaves. sign. There was an earnestness of purpose. And in NaThe Indian's forms are natuture the true inspiration will be found. to the all uncontaminated Indian meant a work less ration. in spirit as far or fancy. religion. passing whim it was from that of levity. which hope. designs. her colors are natural her weaves are ral her designs are natural natural with all the perfection added of conscientious art. their preparation. carelessness. right the veriest nonsense to the person who is merely money there is in it. in which it is approached and done. the weave. I I CHAPTER II. It was a perfect exemplification I of the idea suggested by the good of the sublimity of the poet Herbert. the design. national pride. viz. or indifference." and in the work of basket-making much will depend upon : the motive. de. color . poetic of my readers the ideas given will clearly The attitude of mind and heart in the illuminate what follows. that made basket-making to the old Indians almost an act of religion. . were Hence the work was approached in a of art." and such people had better read no further. perhaps." There is more in life than the mere outward expressions of it we call "work. as removed from that of mere commercialism. the product of a sweeping believe. their liarmoniousness. Nature herself. at least feel as/ much ? If she sought to present the highest she saw in Nature in the most perfect fashion. . colors and weaves. There are no fanciful forms. more or interwoven. This at once eliminates the hideous and grotesque in shape. and weave. If the poor uncivilized Indian thus basket-maker clearly should be felt when she approached her work. who said out of a room.. sentient.

the dignity. your children. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. simple things. and your work will gradually take upon itself the character. Learn to imitate in form. your pupils. and upon the triad and gamut naturally are Diversity without end. 5. the grace. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS FAN. is the keynote.12 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER this BASKETS. to love the simple in nature. design and color the built. variety illimitable. effects incalculable. Begin then by training yourself. the grotesque. New York. the unnaturally complex from your line of observation. the power that come from purity and simplicity. . yet all based upon natural simplicity. 1 Banish the hideous. FIG.

BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. too. 6. has done. as well as a useful aid in training towards manual dexterity and skill. FIG. You can thus make the basket your poem. and the moral uplift as desire and endeavor are crystalized into actuality. but can be learned only from the In your work endeavor to follow this Indian idea. lips. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. your sculpture. the design. your painting. 13 I have shown the marvellous personality of the basket." and whose "loveliness will increase and never pas* into nothingness. the colors will all mean something more to you than what merely shows on the outside. who can estimate? Thus the basket becomes a factor in moral and spiritual development. Thus work and worker are both ennobled and there are given to the world more things of beauty to be "joys forever. . design and This personality cannot be deciphered by reading weaver's the exponent of something within yourself. your cathedral. its own.HOW Elsewhere. from elements as TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. as the Indian own Make your basket in hieroglyphics." The pleasure of such achievements as this who can tell. then the shape. color all How that each one has a significance in shape.

She must find the materials in her own environment. to its weavers the materials' required for the exercise of their art . 7. where the art is stimuused . the yucca and a desert grass called wu-u-shi. the root of the tule. sweet gras-s. New York. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. BASE OF BASKETS SHOWN IN FIG. the method one would get the real value out Indian of basket making. The Haida found the cedar bark and spruce root the Poma slough Thus each locality yielded root. She had no store to which she could go and purchase cane. Now while it is not essential that white weavers of baskets should closely confine themselves to material they personally gather. senses alert. CHOICE OF MATERIALS. some of the chief benefits that should accrue from basket-making are lost if they do not largely do so. The powers of observation are lated. she set of the is if Here. forth to seek for splints. So with eyes a-down. raffia or willow ready dyed and done up in bundles to her hand. filling and dye. CHAPTER III. it was not to trade that the weaver looked for her basket-making materials. as elsewhere. 6. The Hopi found the willow. FIG. the squaw-grass. the martynia. the best to follow. and. knowledge of local materials gained. the red bud. The Mono found the willow. maiden hair fern stem. Though trade and barter were common with the primitive Indians.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

for instance. In some instances there can be but little question that the location all of materials for the pursuit of the art of basket weaving has deter- FIG. We know that by commercialism. SWALE GRASS TRAY. The Chemehuevis. 8. have a tradition which clearly points in a measure in that direction. MASS. imagination and skill. mined the settlement of a tribe of people. The cattleman among The miner near the range where his cattle roam the foundryman near the foundry which employs him the clerk near the store in which he is engaged. DESIGNED AND MADE BY GERTRUDE ASHLEY. canyon or mounthere he finds the precious metal. which is a new and direct gain to the community.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. hitherto useless material is converted into a financial benefit. . This principle should be applied to this art. 15 to help the poor commercially. and the (history of commercial growth is largely the detailing of how the useless was converted into the useful by invention. tain lives camp because civilized races habitat is largely determined locates i>n the desert. There are few really useless things under the sun. DEERP1ELD. . .

DEERFIELD. So the Indian woman's voice was naturally raised in favor of a location where her basket-making material was easiest obtained. MADE BY MADELINE T. MASS. and then as the result of making. This hint can be made interesting by teachers of the art. It gives an object in view. a zest and purpose to a ramble to "On this trip let us imagine ourselves Indian women and Indian children going out to hunt grasses or other material for basketwill do this for several weeks.i6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. in stimuIt can also be used to excellent lating the imagination of the child. AND advantage feel there is in field trips. as Indians. should pitch our We permanent camp. our explorations we will decide where we. WYNNE. FIG 9. RED BIRD BASKET." .

dyspeptic. defy the demon of dyspepsia and come back into the world of men and women con! ! . are healthfully exercised and stimulated. blood. throw physics to the dogs. Selection of the best next follows. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. There is His chemical labratory where Get out into the health. Many a nervous. send melancholia and depression to the devil. nerves and brain with pure life and health. fullness of it. should ever be kept in exercise. 10 AND 11. pure air. . FIGS.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. filling or dye. New York. and thus both senses and brain. He is a benefactor in the highest. of child or adult and it Then the incalculable benefit in the necessary stimulation of the will powers of observation that overlooked. . For. come from such trips should not be This. it must be tested. vigor. Breathe in it drink it in absorb it in. power are hourly being manufactured. Experimentation follows observation in this field. CHETEMACHE MATS. And this is not merely good for a child. when one thinks that he has found a material that is suitable either for weaver. the highest faculty in true education. broken-down adult would find new life and health in doing what Out of doors Into God's Out of doors I have here suggested. \J Put such a thought as this into the mind gives added pleasure to outdoor rambling. fullest sense who trains another to habits of observation. Fill up lungs. sunlight and odors. scious of strength and power to do what you will.

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makes no pretention to completeness. and to she can use from her own stimulate the weaver to find out what \Yhen any new material. at the outset it will be well their colors in your locality. be obliged if a sample be sent to me. it is equally true that he is a benefactor who finds a use for that which has hitherto been deemed useless. It is merely suggestive. what they if you have any Indian workers have been in the habit of using in their basketry work. is found I shall locality. For her selection is the result.. "I will know for myself! 1 will experiment and test and find out everything that can be found out as to the resources of my neighborhood that can be utilized in this work. It must not be supposed that familiarity with and skill in the use of one material can be transferred at will to some other material!. in the matter of speed. that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew before. Care should be taken. their In "Indian Basketry. One who has learned how to use willows cannot immediately work in reed or rat- and yucca strands need very different handling from squaw grass or pine needles. 19 CHAPTER IV. 72 to 85. .it can be made. to avoid the grasses with saw-toothed or other sharp edges. in the work of that Indian will be found the very best basket-making material of thai region. Personal experimentation should be the keynote in the mind of every adult who seeks to gain the greatest good from basket-making. of centuries of practical experience and therefore. wealth means added cojnfort and happiness. with its local and Indian name. perhaps. appropriate and harmonious. not named here. however. perfectly beautiful. One may be cut sevtan. In this diversity the true student will find pleasure. The overcoming of difficulties exercises the faculty of invention. except. In that chapter the student will find many suggestions that may aid her in utilizing the material df her own section. Each material demands personal study and use. she -may be sure of. viz. quantity. even though her methods may be bettered. To teach others how a useless weed may be converted into a commercial commodity is to create wealth. possibly. its habitat. Their dyes are unfading. and methods of preparation. and a caution given to children. One thing. as most of us firmly believe. I gathered together much information as to materials used by the Indians. The Indian's judgment may be relied upon." With all our scientific knowledge we cannot improve upon the methods and results of the Indians. and among the poor and needy. that wherever an Indian has been over the ground. By to see. habit or growth. to Pasadena. California. how prepared and any further particulars that may be of interest.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." pages material as perfect as. following the suggestions given in this chapter every teacher may enThe following list large the sphere and scope of her benefactions. If it be true. THE PREPARATION OF MATERIALS.

.20 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 13. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. New York. FIG.

have gathered them they can be shown in one lesson how that. and was originally shipped to France and England to be used mainly as florists' twine. being the finest. who has a large number of children to direct. Prepared for commerce rattan is stripped of its leaves and bark. a^ type of the sub-tribe Raphieae. the chief type. is found only in Southern and Eastern Asia. 21 such grasses. and thus the tree is often from 60 to 70 feet high to the tips of the leaves. i. falling in festoons. growing to the height of 20. The recent awakening to the importance of basketry has brought rattan into marked prominence. is the most expensive. As strength and digital dexterity increase stronger easily handled. numbered from i to No. tough. stripped from its outside is tough and pliable. RATTAN climbing the tallest trees. materials can be used. whereais in the use of the shorter splints of the Indian much time would be occupied and patience exhausted in rethreading or reinserting these thus teacher much preferable to the shorter splints of the Indian. ideal weaving material for the untrained fingers of be- It is soft and flexible and ginners or the weak fingers of children.HOW erely TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to the a compajratively easy task to see that each pupil has her needlefull of raffia. The rattan of China and Japan is of the genus Raphis. and 15. a form can be created. and is known as ground-rattan. Its long strands are from one and a half to two feet in length. and again ascending. Nos. Sometimes it attains the astounding length of 500 feet. poses. especially as they afford so much greater opportunity for the exercise of skill and artistic effort. It is a palm of the genus Calamus. and is put up into bundles of round cane or flat strips. the workers there at once perceived its adaptability and seized upon it as an excellent and ideal weaving material for beginners. over 50 feet in length. It grows erect in dense tufts. It grows in all warm countries. COCKLE-BUR. though the BamIt busa. allowing them to create any &hape they RAFFIA may is desire. 'holds an important place in the list of basketThe BAMBOO materials. but the fibre It is tied in long hanks. by Then it is well to sticking them together. light. 4 are common sizes. is an arborescent grass. 2. 3. The material purchased from the seed The leaf stores is the epidermis of the leaf stripped on both sides. 5 and 6 being used for the coarser work. It has a long leaf. 50 and even 120 making . and then the Germans. and when the children his work. and there are plenty of in handling if careless other materials without using these that may do injury. for tying up fruit trees and other gardening purWith their native economy the French. is one of the most popular of basket-making materials because it is long. and when the revival of the art of basketry reached England. leave them to their own imagination. and seldom exceeding an inch in thickness. majnly found in the East Indies. flexible and fissile. itself is very brittle. Raffia is the native name given to a Madagascar palm of the tribe Lepidocaryeae. and would be useless for this work. Nos. The much-despised and hated cockle-bur may be used as a stimulant of the child's imagination in the beginning of These burs can be found anywhere. it is short and soon used up lengths. and it is For. to use it in connection with cane and reed in the manufacture began of sma'll baskets.

22 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

in the larger speeies. MOSS. are found throughout the whole country and children should be encouraged to do the best they can with such as they can find. To prepare these for basket work two cutting implements are used. round stems are seen projecting above the water in lakes. CORN SWEET LONG for the inner coil. the BUCK-EYE kinds of which are well adapted to this purpose. The (Scirpus) of different species may be largely BULLRUSH basketry. adansoni). Raffia vinifera. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The leaves of the palmetto (Sabal palmetto). the knives being set by gauge and screw. can be expected from such perishable material. the Bamboo-palm. A chapter is devoted to sweet grass weaving. The Southern variety referred to above . wide strips. and the root purposes. The broad strip is placed inside the grooves of the "sheer. From Virginia to Texas there grows along the coast a pine which has spiculae or needles from ten to twelve well The>se needles dry easily and are inches in length. are peeled and make excellent material for wrapping splints. used in A grass that can be used is SENECA-GRASS. nothing durable HUSKS. pools and rivers. a type of a tribe of aquatic plants which grow immersed in shallow bogs and other waters. the (Aesculus). brown color. giving the raffia now so largely used. though. but this rs a slow and laborious task. lacustris). longer or shorter. PINE NEEDLES. also makes excellent filling better than the moss. bluish-green. of this has a cuticle of a rich. and can be used for filling for the inner coil of baskets. of from 4 to 8 inches. several wood being white." which has three or more tiny but sharp knives protruding from its base. and stems are used in basketry work. properly Zostera. As the splint is drawn through the cutter. of course. sometimes also known as holy-grass and vanilla-grass. ponds. smooth. GRASS is largely used in some parts of the United It is States and Canada for the making of simple and pretty baskets. or as unwrapped BROOM CORN LONG and is (Sorghum Vulgare) much cleainer and coils sewed together as illustrated elsewhere. 23 Both with a diameter. This moss is largely used for the 'stuffing of mattresses. whose tall. adapted either for material for the inner coil of coiled baskets. and also for splints for the mat weave work herein described. spongy and easily commerce are purchased in long. which is used by the Cahuilla Indians as wrapping splint for their coiled ware. as has already been shown. elsewhere pictured. a tree growing from 20 to 35 feet high. Pine needles. Where mo cutter is to be had the strips may be made with scissors. and of the dwarf palmetto (S. In the South there grows in va'st quantities the (Tillandsia usneoides) whose dense pendulous tufts drape the trees. The PALAI family affords much material for basketry. though rattan is more common in America for general purposes. and even for weavers. dries well and is excellent for many In California the Scirpus Tatora is called tule. splints are made from worked. it is cut into The wood splints of the desired width.HOW feet. The special kind (S. leaves Good soft. The ingenious teacher will find many ways of using even as the Indians do. one species alone.

15.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 16. MASS. FIG. New York. FIG. REED BASKETS MADE AT DEERFIELD. . SPLINT BASKETS.

called COIR. picked at the right time the black is perfect. which is the same as The SILK the pita of Central America.HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. When FIG. Apache and Havasupai baskets are worked out with it. In Australia and New Zealand grows the pimelea. is a valuable fiber produced principally from' the Bromelia Sylvestris. which are used in basket-making. 18. FOUNDATION SPLINT CUTTER. 17. SPLINT CUTTER. This bark is prepared and the fibre used for textile purposes. An effort is five cents. Pseudo known as bull-brier. of the Adiantum pedatum. This is* the stem FERN. WEAVER FIG. whiclh will grow enough for a small class. though the name pita is given indiscriminately to the fibre obtained from the MAIDEN HAIR SMILAX GRASS . of British Honduras. the long-leafed pine (pinus palustris). could be so prepared as to make a fairly good wrapping splint for coiled work. too late. a slender branching shrub with tough. The MARTY NT A is a plant capable of cultivation in any part of A small package of seeds can be purchased for twentythe country. and all the designs of the Pima. stringy bark. tities of being made by The Basket Fraternity to secure these seeds for sale. All lovers of the fine basketry of Northern California know the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry. The fibre of the cocoanut. It must be gathered when the pod is at its blackest. the black is rusty and poor. and generally known as the Georgia pine. Gathered too soon it is greenish. the There are some pliant species of China). (S. a kind of wild pineapple. Arrangements have been made for the gathering of abundant quanthese long pine needles and a sample bunch will be sent by mail free on receipt of twenty-five cents.

26 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Teachers' College. . RAFFIA BOUND PICTURE FRAMES. FIG. Work of Students. 25.

also known as henequen. There are two or three species of that are largely culIn Europe the Almond-leafed willow tivated for basket-making. Somehow the words "Sisal Willow" have come into use in I am free to confess I do not know what the Sisal Willow basketry. 27 Agave. as do the California and other Indians. and is largely used for making ship's cajbles. or sisal it hemp. is 160. and the finer work is made by splitting the willow into splints and using them for wrapping." A . and kept turned over every day. of England is made from this latter species. Mat splints. as resists damp- ness better than the simple hemp. WILLOW FIG. but can find no reference to Sisal Willow. Other materials will be found referred to in later pages showing the infinite variety the ingenious teacher may utilize. are made more pliable by slight soaking and then running between the thumb and dull edge of shears.HOW various species O'f TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER This is BASKETS. and Sisal hemp. perience will soon demonstrate the best method of "curing. In their preparation most of the common grasses will dry if put in little exa warm but shady place. especially when made of palmetto or similar material. Most of the coarse basketry Vitellina) are used for this purpose. DEERFIELD STRAW BASKETS. and Sisal grass The Century Dictionary gives shall be glad to be enlightened. (Salix Amygdalkia) and especially the Golden Willow or osier (S. which is the fibre of the agave ixtli or I henequen.

DYES At : HOW TO MAKE AND it USE THEM. CHAPTER V. more harmonious. and. Thus a valuable and interesting discovery may be made. and when an alkali dye an acid mordant. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid. Hence to get rhe true conception of color one has but to study the old baskets. and they cannot be improved upon. led astray the Indian with aniline dyes did he make mistakes in color. tender. This is to "fix" the dye. As a general principle. In the first place. Miss White tells of "one basket-maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. experiment in every way. be understood fully that this is not presented as chapter of suggestion and hints. And who that has done this has not felt the charm and delight of sweet. anywhere. if you have in some long forgotten closet a copy of your great-grandmother's old recipe book. more permanent. mix in a little of it. and test the result. Discourage their use in others. second. and happen to 'have some other dye at hand. cheaply. exquisite melodies of soft." Hence. delicate.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. They are the accursed things which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful. so may you. restful harmonies in these masterpieces' nay mistresspieces of ancient the outset let anything more than a . however. Remember that experience will widen your horizon and enlarge your capacities. Do not touch them. and. fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are " anathema " to ajll " " true basketry lovers. when they are rubbed on rattan. Vegetable dyes are softer in tone. Alum is a good ordinary mordant and can be had. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not -suit such soft and flexible work as basNever until the white man of no artistic taste perverted and ketry. third and every other place. So begin with determination and courage. and the chapter on colors is well worth another reading in connection with these hints. As a rule all materials and dyes need a mordant. . color it a beautiful shade which is We quite as fast as most dyes. In "Indian Basketry" I tell of some Indian mordants. Also. Just as an artist experiments in color on his palette board and thus finds what he wants. To learn to dye well is a liberal education in many things. and better in accord with basketry work. chemistry teaches that where you have an acid dye it is well to have an alkali mordant. Explicit directions in so subtle and elusive a matter as dyeing is not to be expected in a book of this character. ten to one you will find wonderfully suggestive helps there. If you are preparing a red. work ? In this chapter I desire to stimulate each thoughtful and earnest student to the endeavor to reach what these wild weavers reached. Experiment will soon teach the value of this. reminding you of the days when your ancestors spent many hours over the dye pot or tub. get it out. In "Indian Basketry" I have said something about them. know 'somewhat of their methods.

though animal. As> soon as the indigo is dissolved fully. and is easy to handle. perience. Use a stick to stir it with. This can be bought from the druggists powder form in the South it can be found growing in the fields. and beets a color similar but more The poke berry gives a purple red. Sumac leaves. ORANGE. This gives a light yellow that is very pleasing. There is nothing to fear. The bark of the maple and pine both give nice shades of brown. diluting with water when red. and the root is the part to use. however. leaves and flowers. The powder can be bought from any druggist. RED. is suggested for a dark. can also be used with good results. . John's wort (hypiricum perforatum). and one will find great pleasure in experimenting with bark from different trees. and alcohol must be used for the purpose. but the acid will rot the material to be dyed. Butternut bark. LOW. gives the color must be confessed it is difficult to handle without exMiss Hyde found Chase's Recipe Book give her help.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Indigo. and stirred vigorously. TAN. Madder gives a dull red. in used. the stems. though not as strong as logwood gives satisfactory Walnut and hickory nut shells results if an extra quantity is used. deep Combined with cream of tartar it gives a bright red. for blue. The sulphuric acid is poured on the indigo. Dragon's blood gives a pleasing orange. causing the liquid to foam in an alarming manner. drop by drop. but it GREEN. while the fruit gives a reddish or what might better be termed a light or pink tan. Saffron can be bought from the druggists. and the dye can be used with safety. But this dye is never strong even though a large quantity of the leaves The powder of BROXVN Blood Root gives a deep yellow. add water and put in soda until it stops foaming. YELGather St. Cranberries give a dull red. This gives a bright yellow. Logwood extract gives a fine brown. to handle the poke berries as they stain the hands. which can be found growing everywhere on the roadside. and are used. as water will not readily dissolve the stick. The powder is easier to handle. . You will not care satisfactory. and stems give a good tan. the acid must be neutralized by the addition of soda. When the alum is well dissolved place the liquid in a small tub and soak the material to be dyed in it for fully two hours. 2Q Miss \Yhite suggests the use of a solution of three ounces of alum dissolved in a quart of water. It is well to make plenty of this mixture. Miss Hyde prefers much less. Cochineal. This allows the fibre of the raffia or rattan to take up the mordant. which keep stirring often. and thus prepares for the permanent fixing of the dye a thing much to be desired. preferably about fo-ur ounces to two gallons of water. and combined PURPLE. to be purchased of any druggist. with ammonia a good purple. This allows the soda to completely neutralize the sulphuric acid. So before the materials are immersed. Inj the making of dye here are a few hints as to material. Do not buy it in stick form. Learners will find that indigo will not dissolve in water. Sulphuric acid will dissolve it. Be sure to keep your hands out of this mixture. Onion skins give a dull yellow that is> very satisfactory.

a society whose work in fine basketry other pages of this book will well testify to. or groups of workers. is of taking on soft and harmonious colors. makers. always using a wooden stick for the purpose. enough (as experience will soon demonstrate). all > DYE THE arrest the work of the dye and give irregular color effects. in either doing their or employing someone own dyeing who has in indigo. Keep turning the material over and over.. It does not need much suggesting to show how that to an intelligent teacher this practically prepared the hearts and minds of her pupils for a valuable lesson in natural history. If these do not produce the desired color. or of becoming an capable It is fortunate that many individual basket offence to the eye. "Basket workers. Experience has demonstrated that the best time to collect these materials is in October or November. poke berries. All of the above will generally give their color with a half hour's good boiling. realize the necessity of natural dyes in order to and lasting color combinations in their designs. one teacher had her scholars gather walnut shucks for dyeing purposes. walnut shucks. skill and time to do madder and copperas. The following is from the pen of Miss Margaret C. who work in raffia. All the materials are to be boiled. have only lately begun to produce good and is a fundamental it need. . stumble upon many interesting facts. The green coloring matter had gone new matter or changed matter was in its place. of the Pocumtuck Basket Society of Deerfield. In every case the dye must be boiling when the material is immersed. when the seeds and fruit are ripe and the sap is well down in the trunks of the trees. TO MAKE THE A Butternut bark. let it remain longer. put in about five or six large beets to a gallon of water." and the disappointed children were unable at first to comprehend the reason for the change. Even in this work one is liable to . if necessary. and if found not strong enough can either be boiled down or more material used. First mordant as before described. put in more. fustic. \Yhiting. a little more will do no harm. and went and gathered more walnut shucks. are following the exampe of Deerfield. TIME TO COLLECT MATERIALS. it for them. sumac. If this is not Let it remain in the liquid from 15 to 20 minutes. This gives a fairly strong dye. general proportion to be observed is two ounces to one gallon of water. This time their green dye came out "brown. Three or four weeks later they again wished some green dye. as if there is any sediment it is liable to etc. cochineal needs fully two hours to C* C? produce good results-. For a dye pot a good enamel kettle is as serviceable as anything. In an early bulletin 'of the Basket Fraternity I hope to publish a full and detailed account of Deerfield and its work. TO Be sure and strain the dye. MATERIAL. and no craftsman will continue long to rest satisfied with seeing his design developed in the loud and vulgar colors that raffia dyed In itself raffia is a material that in chemical or aniline dyes produce.. so that the color evenly reaches: all the parts.30 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. use about one pound to a gallon of water. Cranberries. By . onion skins. In u sing beets. Mass. that can be held in both hands. Thus observation and interest are stimulated the first elements of all true education. and they secured a delicious shade of green. On the other hand. DYES. It can be diluted. For instance.

135. which her own desire to produce turns to admirable account. The basket with a holly design. The much lamented decay of good design and of excellence in ornamental work has been largely helped by the manufactured dyes how great an influence toward the tasteless and tawdry has been wrought by the invention of aniline colors. Miller's colors proved the charm possible to FIG. tried by the garish modern colors that it is impossible to be'lieve the future will consent to accept. . are so pleasing to the eye.HOW these TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Work SIMPLE WEB BASKETS OF College. greens and blues done in small vats prepared by old rules of tried permanence. from Mrs. Miller. all show the inspiration harmonious colors give to the designer. of Brooklyn. Quite recently a modest sale. 3! means the dld-fashioned processes of hand-dyeing are being revived. of baskets made by a group of amateur but skillful basket-makers in a surburban town belonging to Greater New York. obtain from the color harmonies of vegetable dyes. Teachers' RATTAN." and still another developed in orange and black with a barbaric design in white beads. how their mere possession gives suggestion of patterns and combinations to the eye of a skillful basket-maker. for a charity. New York. of Students. and far-reaching effects may quite reasonably be hoped for from the individual dyers who are thus being encouraged. another that bore trees. who can say?" . that which was decorated with a stiff row of tulips. whose maker whimsically proclaimed to grow in "the vale of cedars. browns. yellows. Such an one is Mrs. whose "Colonial Dyes" of over a dozen shades and tones of reds.

A SPLINT. New York. FIG. and then rapidly pulled. flat pliers or pincers a narrow piece of heavy. resulting splints is the name given to the strip or splint. a small hamimer. 18 and the an inch at the proper distance Fig. in width. pressed upon With a pair of scissors the the knives.splint is inserted. or strand A . 22. the 26 West 23rd street. to have Fig. FJG. 21. . FIG. CHAPTER VI.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG 20. . are cut to the required length. are useful. an awl about four inches long. kindly permitted me accompanying engravings made from her two cutters. is adjustable. Cutters for preparing wood splints are used by the Eastern Indians. when these members are tender. Miss Marie Toxuse. a yard measure and foot rude a sharp knife a pair of small. In both these cutters the broad . 19. This should be about five or six inches long and two inches broad. employed by the Hyde Exploring Expe: . flat iron or steel that can be used as a hammer between the spokes of a basket. or weaver. 17 consists of a number of knives set apart for the 'making of splints for weavers. and can be set by means of the thumb screw brass fillers to cut the splints from an eighth of an inch to dition. SINGLE WEAVING. The student should be provided with the follotwing tools needle (about a No. indeed an old rasp file Rubber thimble and finger caps will answer the purpose very well. TOOLS AND TERMS USED. A . 19 tapestry needle is good to begin with) strong scissors. DOUBLE WEAVING. PAIRING.

ROPE TWIST. SINGLE WEAVING. thus alternating. This is shown in Fig. The fingers in Fig. The weaver is placed behind one spoke or foundation rod. This is clearly shown in Fig. 19 hold a The warp the foundation splints are the ribs. Then as the FIG. though four or more weavers may be used. then each weaver is brought in succession before two spokes and behind one. This weave is used where a break or dividing line in a basket is desired. FIG. WEAVING.is where two weavers are used DOUBLE instead of one. being laid at the same time on the top of the weavers that preceded it. upon which the basket is built up. The woof splints are the weavers which are wrapped. It is to pack tightly together this kind of weaving that the flat piece of iron referred to in the list of tools is so useful. or twined. and before the next. 23. splint. This. four weavers are placed behind four consecutive spokes. It is also used as a border finishing weave. 21. 22. either for beauty or strength. PAIRING. . 33 piece of material used for wrapping. 20. as in Fig. weavers are taken on to the next spoke twist them so that the lower weaver takes the place of the upper. but one is placed same spoke. ROPE TWIST. the bones. For starting. 24. the other behind the where two weavers are used. the spokes. the framework.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This is a variation of the triple weave. Each in its transit to the back of the fourth spoke must be laid on the top of the other three weaver?. (This is before. 24. and if one or more weavers have already been used. see Fig. or worked in various ways in and out of the warp splints. TRIPLE TWIST. they must be included in the four to make up this twist. Three weavers are placed behind three consecutive spokes. see Fig. TRIPLE WEAVE. 23.

and from dampen the raffia several hours before using. One of the first and most important results to be attained is the familiarizing the student (be he child or adult) with the materials to Hence the wisdom of following out alii the suggestions be used.34 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. raffia to advantage in teaching little children illustrating the use of two materials of different degrees of flexibility. this cut a circle. even though the immediate results are not the ones you individually are seeking. bristol Cut a 6-inch square from being three inches. Work of Students. The greater the variety of materials used. Miss Hyde suggests: "One may combine bristol board with FIG." In all the following exercises it is well to PICTURE FRAMES. CHAPTER VII. 26. RAFFIA WRAPPED ARTICLES. the radius board Cut an inner . Teachers' College. here given. the more readily does one see the possibilities and limitations of each . HOW TO BEGIN.

opening allows A In the making of these picture frames cultivate a senise of proporThe frame must not be too large for the picture it is to hold nor too small. Then wrap the board with raffia in its native color. a napkin-ring. FIG. 35 1-4 inches. or dyed.HOW circle with radius i TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. giving a diameter of 2 1-2 inches. or some beloved friend or scene." possibilities in this use of materials are suggested made of Here are a book mark. merely "a frame anyhow. It is not simply a frame for any kind tion. This for a small picture. as well as its mind and of a picture. MAGAZINE HOLDER OF WRAPPED RAFFIA. let the child feel that this frame is to enshrine a picture that means something to him. Thus the heart of the child. or made fingers are engaged in the work. and a toy umbrella. all wrapped raffia. For the book-mark any kind of splint may . 26. or the baby. This is the prime element in all work we designate Other interesting in Fig. simple loop may be made of the raffia with which to hang up the frame." but it is a frame especially for a picture of papa or mamma. "artistic. too. 28. as preferred. Then. .

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Q El k CU <! tf fo o tf o ^ o H R d tf H J O ffi H N <J O 9 p H 8 O .

Into this piece of No. and then edged with plaited raffia. page 160. 37 raffia is wrapped from one spoke to another. 4 rattan. as. and later in the chapter on Indian Stitches. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. A SIMPLE BASKET FOR CHILDREN. To finish let the coil gradually diminish.HOW be used. sewed on. . Take a sufficient number of strands of raffia to make 1-4 inch coil and wrap with a strand of colored raffia Coil and sew back and leaving distances of 1-2 inch between wraps. circled into ring form. Then begin to wrap with raffia. For the umbrella take a Glue a piece of cork upon one end. shown in Indian Basketry. giving one twist around each spoke and going on to the next one. 30. and the stitches should not be noticed. The coiling of natural colored raffia and wrapping with a strand of dyed material is an easy method for children. Teachers' College. The napkin-ring is made by wrapping the raffia around a splint or card-board base. Then shown in the Work \ PIG. forth holding the coil to the left. make small holes and glue therein seven lengths of No. SIMPLE COILED BASKETS. as clearly engraving. of Students. i or No. 2 rattan. New York. This mode of wrapped weaving was long ago used by the Mohave Indians in the making of their carrying baskets.

This makes the warp. It will be seen that the splints are fine. Figs. 31. accuracy and speed in the manipulation of mat and good exercise will be had by imitating Figs.\' ii-L FIG. sew the edges tight with white thread. and then unravel or split the splints as It is well to gain shown in the illustration. CLOSED. and needs such different handl- ing. 32. et or bowl of water. OPKX. 36 . Then take same number and weave them. 31 and 32 clearly show the simplest forms of this kind of work. and width. splints. wood (such as ash.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. etc. all kindergarten teachers are more or less familiar with. one at a time.nJ f>- ' r| \a. A width of paper.) palmetto. 33.. 34. CHAPTER VIII. Take a number of splints of equal length Place ten or a dozen side by side. FIG. THE MAT WEAVE. This simple checkenvork is the basis for good work later on. While mat weaving uses the warp and woof in exactly the same manner as they are used in what I have termed the web weaving. oak. over and under the warp at right angles. the material is so different in character. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. After a little practice in this with coarse splints>. etc. knife. ^ ft J-i .'. number of splints of equal MATERIALS REQUIRED. that it is deemed wise to differentiate and give two separate sets The earliest stages of this form of weaving of lessons in their use. size desired. A buck- CHECKERBOARD. scissors. let the pupil undertake the making of a table mat of any suitable material similar When it is the to Fig. 35. awl or piercer. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE.

10. Take the two long FIG 33. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. (See Fig. from left to right. place them side by side. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. The . 11. ones. 39 and 40 are seen four beautiful specimens of . Fig. taking care that each fold is absolutely even. splint to right. then the horizontal over the perpendicular. up. can be utilized in the Fold all the splints lengthwise. These weaves making of many beautiful baskets later on.) Take a short splint. . (See C) in the fallowing order: down. TABLE MAT. Fold the perpendicular splint up over the horizontal one. holding them with ends at right angles. Back and forth the folds then go retaining them at right angles.The accordeon fold. splint to left and through long as FOLDING EXERCISE. The next short splint fold around long splint to the left. from right to left and so on. 38. Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. thrusting splints through the long Pull tight. 39 with weavers of two colors.) In Figs. many splints as desired. with ends reversed. with result is the accordeon fold (B. Pull tight. or fold one long splint as shown in A. So on alternating. 37. 38. open it and fold around long splint to the right. right and left. Take two weavers of equal width.

New York. ETC. FIGS.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. ACCORDEON PLAIT. . 39 AND 40. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. CHETEMACHE MATS. 38. !!<.

In these mats. and black. Their dyes are evidently vegetable and the exquisite color effects produced are worthy of imitation. the designs are worked out with different colors. Lay two two vertically. .. and then sewed on with a fine on the upper edge of the mat. 34. horizontally and weaver Take four long splints. The binding is simple. Change \vork to right hand. A flat splint is laid lengthwise FIG. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. ISOLATED FIGURES PRODUCED BY MODIFYING ORDER OF INTERSECTION. oblique or diagonal. bringing edge parallel with the right edge of the perpendicular splint. La. 37. and makes beautiful baskets of a variety of shapes. holding in left hand. PIG. conjure up designs from her own imagination. and later on. using splints of palmetto. with the natural greenish-gray of the palmetto. fold backwards. 4! Chetemache weave. as seen in the illustration. Take top splint.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The design is easily followed and the learner will find it excellent practice to endeavor to imitate. DIFFERENT COLORS. under and over as if going to make ordinary square mat weave. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. This tribe of Indians lives on Avery Island. FIG 36. The colors are a dull Indian red PATTERN PRODUCED PATTERN PRODUCED BY INTERLACING BY INTERLACING STRANDS OF STRANDS OF DIFFERENT COLORS.

. FIG. FRAME.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 42. 41. SPLINT PICTURE FRAME FOUNDATION. 43. FIG. SPLINT MAT WEAVE BASKETS. SPLINT PICTURE FIG.

38. viz. This crosses right perpendicular splint. Fig. Fig. bringing them together and then proceeding to unite them with the ordinary flat mat weave. tucking (G. making. The bottom of A is of mat foundation (simple checkerboard). in great variety of shapes and sizes. or easel. Fig. Work held in left hand. 3. as long as required. 43 is shown how this square mat weave may be utilized. When the It is made same as A. fastener for the cover to the handle of the basket made by taking a long splint. 2. In Fig.) be made by leaving a little longer ends to the diagonally woven strip. to allow two inches or so for turning in (tucking in) at the edges.) A beautiful variation of the lower edge of the weaving of a diagonal band is shown in H. fold upper horizontal downwards as before. These sizes determined it is easy to cut splints the required length. Trim off loose edges and the result is Fig. Prepare foundation as described for Fig. Material required: eight long splints of one or various colors necessary number of short splints. instead of obliquely folding and creasing the splint. Then insert small splints and fill up the vacant spaces marked I. then wrapping one of the folds with the other in an oblique wrap. 41. it is merely twisted in a curve back to the place it would have had if folded and creased. A of napkin ring can be made from in the edges. When the corners are turned up. The question of basket size can always be determined with a little In mat weaving the width of splint must be considered. 42. 41. (F. boxes. the upright or warp splints are turned over and deep enough is tucked in. These even widths can best be made with the cutter shown in Fig. 43. 18. the woof splints of the sides can be continued around the corners and used as the woof splints of the ends. Fig-.its upper edge lie parallel with the bottom horizontal splint. two sides. may be made upon these principles. A little practice will make the weaver perfectly conversant with this pretty variation. C. 43 fold left splint obliquely. 38. Fig. this strip of diagonal weaving. in B. 37. There are now two perpendicular sets of splints. and proceed.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. one set to the left. obliquely and press edges towards center to keep the work evenly. one set to the right. Cornucopias. etc. Then Hold now left perpendicular folded horizontally as before. Then study. which can have cardboard or leather back glued or sewed upon it. one of which is illustrated Another form napkin ring may PICTURE FRAME. is A D .. however. is "doubling" cover skilfully.) NAPKIN RING.. It should never be forgotten that good work of any kind can be done only with splints of perfectly even width. folding it around the fourth warp easily splint from either end. the lid for D. 43. 4 on Fig. there are practically five sides. folding as directed. and binding it to the fourth warp splint from the other end. 38. covers. 38. Pass under first folded splint. Open up as Fig. two ends. thus strengthening the A little practice soon enables one to do this "tucking in" or parts. Here. hanger. Fig. taking care. and two horizontal. (See D. Where the splints meet they can be tucked in. with ring . tucking in the edges as per the illustration. bottom.

taking care always to overwrap or tuck in all ends. grocers baskets. Teachers' College. A little practice will soon teach how to affix to basket. except that the narrowing together towards the top the warp splints should be made to taper a little. showing market baskets. and then urge them to imitate or reproduce in minature. foundation canes in thumb and forefinger of left hand with weavers under one and over the other. cotton . alternating over and under. 44. and so on. Take two pieces of rattan. it is in the same way as its cover C. The result will be an interesting collection. cane. or palmetto. of Students. forms of baskets in actual use. Figs.44 HOW The basket deeper. New York. Work splint. clothes baskets. the thickness desired and the length the handle is For weavers use long mat splints well soaked. up between the two. Then wrap around left foundation is D made To produce : FIG. The handle is made as follows willow. down and around left splint. over and around right foundation splint back between the two. Hold required to be. 44 and 45 show a variety of small models of baskets made by Excite the interest of children in the students at Teachers' College. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS.

leaving an end two and one-half inchee long. locality used. 45 All these are simple and need no detailed inbaskets. overcome the problems involved. etc. such as is used how carried what it is to carry whether carried by one or : How . Teachers' College. of Students. Hold the frame on the Count the holes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. To practice. . Here adaptability to purpose. and down through center top hole. different methods of work. . etc. which will each basket readily suggest themselves to the teacher. in which holes an inch apart are bored. . can well be exemplified and important lessons given. hampers. P'jii peg into both of these holes to keep cane in place. Buy or make pegs to fit these holes. Show how environment influences everything and that the use of different baskets in different localities for the same purpose is the result of different growths. up through next hole on the right. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. etc. medium. and has a decided value in teaching the handling legitimately comes under the head of mat weaving. Cane is coarse. and pull a piece lap top uppermost. yet Work FIG. top and bottom. The children will readily structions further than those already given. To cane chairs is not a difficult art. keeping is practically useful. 45. New York. purchase from a kindergarten suppy house a small. It of splints. CAXING CHAIRS. square frame. Now bring long end of cane. two persona. to use. It must be soaked in water before using. of fine cane up through the center bottom hole. and fine fine. at bottom row. fine.

over single. but towards the left side of frame. For a binding stitch over the holes.46 it flat. working first to the right. filled with lines of vertical splints. pull the cane tight. viz. from lower left-hand corner. actual weaving must beThe splint must be taken under a cross. continue taking care not to and lace as on the the frame will be horizontal splints right and center to to corresponding hole on top row. A . Now put in the in exactly the same way. wide enough to cover the holes of the edge. 46. over a single splint. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. then to the left. HOW Peg it. run a splint to the up- Now. 48. take a splint of binding cane. CANING A CHAIR. 49. under a cross. Now start to the left of the center This done. and from the lower right to the upper left. right. process until right side of frame is reached. Take cane now this lacing Peg. FIG. The frame is now a network of squares. 46).. inserting one end down splint of fine cane is now brought through the hole at one corner. CANE TIE. from the lower left corner to the upper right. however. starting n PIG. working from center to left. FIG. At the fourth row from the center. CANING A CHAIR. (See Fig. This diagonal weaving must be done in the two ways. 47. gin. per right-hand corner and continue these diagonal lines exactly the same as the vertical ones. WEAVE OF CHAIR CANE. FIG.

Put in the splints vertically lap. In finishing off the ends. 47 up through every other hole. as shown in Fig. creasing firmly. . These go under and over the horizontal pairs and vertical pairs as shown in Fig. HOOP AND SCHOOL BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA. FIG 53. Now begin the diagonal weaving from lower left corner to upper right corner. 48. then once again. The one thing of importance to remember is that the first row of splints must be put on loosely.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 52. without any attempt tO' tie. is completed. DOLL'S HAT AND TRAY OF PLAITED RAFFIA. 49. finish off with the bind- FIG. and going over or under as the case may require. at the same time pulling the upper vertical to the right. 47. (See Fig. bring the loose end to the nearest loop. for there are six rows of splints and the later woven rows tighten up to the others. While doing the work endeavor to have one The explanations that follow will then be perfectly simple. When the diagonal weaving ing as before described. and horizontally. : : portion. across the binding and back again through the same hole. Sit on a small stool or hassock and tilt the chair forward upon your Find the center as before described. under lower vertical. In many chairs there are little problems in the corners that the good sense of the weaver will easily solve if he is careful to have a due regard for proof these as a pattern close at hand. thus couching it.) Everyone is familiar with the octagonal meshed weave of the ordinary cane-seated chair. This will be found to hold securely. which should always be on the under side of tlhe frame. draw tight. Now follow these by putting in another set vertiThe fourth cally on top of the first ones and through the same holes. row is horizontally put in and must be woven as follows over one upper vertical. Pass it underneath the loop.

and the other without. In the making of these hats seek to draw out the individuality of . To the right and below is a band made by sewing the plaits together. made of corset lacings. another shape. Both boys and girls can be much interested in this plaiting if the articles made are converted into playthings.48 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Sew on one side only. The rings are ordinary brass rings. one Below it to the left is one of with. To facilitate this place a screw hook in the wainscoting or on the under side of the work table. soon demonstrate >how much raffia must be used to obtain a plait of any given size. Under the direction of the teacher this can easily be converted into a harness. THE PLAIT OR BRAID. A little These laces can be dyed so as to give design in the plait. Every schoolboy and girl is more or less familiar with the simple forms of plaiting. toy harness and the like are easily made from this plaited work. Above it are two wall pockets. lengthen It is not necessary it by splicing. 52 shows a hoop of plaited raffia. They are all of braided raffia. CHAPTER IX. and see that it is closely and evenly done. for their own personal use. Neligh's school in Columbus. covered with the lace. used for car- rying books. and below is a school-bag. sewed with the edges outermost. let the child practice on simple plaiting with strands of raffia. used by boys and girls in one of their out-door games. First of all. 54 and 55 are composed of model hats made by the students at Teachers' College. bag-handles. 51 is composed entirely of plaited belts. Figs. The saddle girth above is of braided sisal hemp expressly for that purpose. experimentation will soon show that the design depends entirely upon how the colored lace is placed at the beginning of the plait. on which the A little practical experience will raffia can be placed while plaiting. doll's hat. or something useful. and the bottom belt shows that tttie ends are utilized for tying. etc. and a tray. 52 and 53 were made by small children at Mr. not by tying. to plait the entire length needed before beginning to use the plait. Alternate plaiting and sewing give variety. Ga. stimulate interest by showing how these plaits can be utilized. New York. In these three the plaits are flat and sewed edge to edge with a large darning needle. To give purpose to the work. Fig. In the center of Fig. 50. In this the plaits are coiled flat. To gain digital dexterity it is well to introduce it into a Course of Basketry. both made of plaited All the articles of Figs. When a length of raffia is about to give out. for the boy's own use in playing horses. a handle. Fig. 50 is the beginning of a small mat. beginning first with coarse and later using finer material. with the edges outer- most and sewed as the coil grows.53 sihows a small raffia. using for thread a fine strand of raffia. Fig. Columbia University. Belts. thus avoiding knots.

ive shapes. still another a Puritan. the Chinese. Here come in opportunities for fascinating little chats on history. sombrero. social and domestic customs. Let one make a continental hat. another a A Southern girl will naturally try a colonial. the reasons that used to exist for the different kinds of headgear used in the various regiments of the ^ame army. 50. 49 each child or student. the Coolie.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. etc. while in the hats of the peasantry of the world a host more FIG. Others will try the Panama. ETC. geography. To add interest to the work the child know something of the wearer of these different kinds of hats. the poke In army hat>s< of different nations are a score of suggestbonnet. . ARTICLES OF PLAITED RAFFIA. etc. the policeman's helmet. whilst a girl from the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania will make a Dutch farmer's hat. let of excellent suggestions may be found. the outing hat.

the conscious exercise of choice. the shape of the face and Thus she is head. individuality. . the color of the hair. of the wearer. make such an one as you would personally like to wear. harmony of color wihere it is used. produced. Work of Students. solidity of the basket as a whole. PLAITED BELTS. 58. Then try to make a hat that would suit some friend. New York. "If you make a modern hat.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER taste BASKETS. native in the may be exercised and called into existence modern outing hat. Teachers' College. Firmness of weave. FIG. too. 56 and 57 are various baskets of plaited raffia made by the Various colors are used and pretty students of Teachers' College. Five-stranded plaits of raffia often come in very useful. Remember that a good milliner in choosing a hat studies. Then. etc. and the effects manner of making is clearly shown in Fig. Figs. choice of a able to produce a hat that will harmonize with the individuality of the wearer. the form. and good shape are all sought after. 51." This demands personality. neatness in sewing the plaits together..

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . BOTTOM OF DEERFIELD BASKET. 50a. 51 FIG.

New York.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Teachers' College. . 54. Work of Students. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. FIG.

" it will be seen that carrying The nets were and are made by the Mission Indians of California.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. yucca fibre. From page 158. used. For a netted work or handkerchief-bag. Hold the stick in any easy position so that a strand of raffia may be doubled and tied around the . New York. THE NET. Work PIG. as shown in A. Even unbraided raffia may be rushes. Pimas have a carrying basket in which the net is used. Various materials can be used in this work. 61. Teachers' College. secure twelve strands raffia of two colors and a stick about a yard long and one and one-half inches wide. "Indian Basketry. Twisted hemp. It should be slightly dampened for several hours before using. 55. braided raffia. 53 CHAPTER X. of Students. Fig. etc. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS.

the strands in like manner.54 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. bag is A pretty effect of complete. a length of plaited raffia put through the upper mesh and tied. narrowing the meshes Work FIG. Make even meshes all the way across. Put on the rest of stick. then knot each strand at about the distance of an inch with the nearest strand of the next pair. Draw the knot tight. New York. BASKETS OF PLAITED RAFFIA. 56. and the towards the bottom. of two bot- . as shown in Fig-. tom rows is caused by loosely braiding the strands meshes before knotting them. 59. and proceed to close up the bag by knotting the loose sides together. Then slip the knots from the stick. of Students'. Separate to about an inch apart. At the bottom the whole of the strands are gathered together and tied with a single or braided strand. The ends are then cut evenly. Teachers' College. Continue this all the way down for five or six rows.

twine bag may be made in the same manner as A. If tassels Work on. of raffia and sewed desired they may be made 57. and the number of strands When BASKETS OP PLAITED RAFFIA. Fig. The ends can then be cut and thie bag is complete. are the bag is lined with silk or turkey red cotton it is a pretty and serviceable article. style of bag made by keeping all the to the bottom. except that the meshes must be much smaller. of Students. 61. A . New York. Teachers' College.HOW Another TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. then joining the FIG. 55 the meshes of equal size two sides. way by matching t)he knots and meshes together and then knitting two strands from the front and two from the back together for the finishing row. at the bottom.

ETC. 61. 60. the twine allowed to come through one of the meshes. FIG. D is a pretty little basket made of a fibre brought from Puerto . NET MESH. using the single net stitch of Fig. 60. as suggested in B. FIG. limited to the size of the ball of twine. 62. and all different. 61. SNIGLE NET MESH. With a tassel on the bottom. B is a small netted purse of raffia of fine mesh. FIG. In netting with raffia or other materials! an infinite variety of articles may be made. it can be suspended wherever needed. STITCH AND 59. C is netting the same as described in the work-bag A. C and D. Fig. KNOT OF RAFFIA. FIG. FIG. STRAND DETAIL OF FIVE PLAIT. but has a bottom and top of coiled and sewed plaited raffia. 58. NETTED BAGS OF RAFFIA.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and tied tightly on the top.

etc. knotted or fastened These fancy stitches give wonderful variety to basket work and can be introduced here and there as taste and skill dictate. then under and over." Any of these may be imitated in raffia. NET MESH. NET MESH. and then join by passing a ribbon or five-strand plait of raffia (see Fig. stitch shown in Figs. These may be imitated from any book of fancy needlework. 63.HOW Rico. FIG. The size of rings may be varied to suit the size of napkin. 69. It is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. 66. 64. NET MESH. 65. as slhown in Fig. FIG. 57 composed entirely of fancy stitches. 58) an inch wide. When all the rings are covered. yucca fiber. similar to Figs. . overlap them. for which I am indebted to the "Priscilla Needlework as required. A pretty napkin-ring can be made by taking ten curtain rings about an inch in diameter and covering them with the buttonhole Raffia or any fibre may be used. 62 to 66. NET MESH. 67 and 68. FIG. Book for 1903. through.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. <! H H a fe .

70. is basket makers in American West and Southwest. This gives the even and beautiful spiral effect. 70. or of A leather. and. raffia. 59 CHAPTER XI. the Indians of the simple and yet capable of artist. . each time inserting the needle with point toward you between every wrap. and made with comparative ease. shredded The plain mat of Fig. There are specimens delicately made that will pass through a lady's finger ring. The is coil is one of the favorite weaves.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. strong tapestry needle The coil is then begun. viz. Let the children go out and gather their own material for these 'simple trays. Colis of coiled trays made by the students of Teachers' Fig. the coiled ware may be are made within an inch of space. or whatever is to be used for sewing. As Professor Mason has well written: "Coiled basketry in point of size presents the greatest extremes. will be easily mastered. it is tightly wrapped with thread. such as grass. THE COIL WEAVE. 72 is of a group of mats and baskets made of long pine needles. except that an oval center was first made by bending a strong and thick needle to the . Dye the hemp and take an amount equivalent to three-eight inch coil wrap for a distance of three-fourths of an inch. and in o-thers. the root material is shredded so fine that nearly 100 stitches In form. or built up into the most exquisite jar shape. as the work progresses. stitching material one-half inch wide. the upright stitches lend themiselves to the greatest variety of intricate patterns. The zig-zag introduced and the mat then completed with three rounds of coil. the fancy one is of sweet grass. with colored quills). as this is. twine. D is an oval mat. of the best the world. as in a table mat. rushes. broom corn. It large variation. sweet grass. with a center of cedar-bark. the stitches being is needed for the sewing. The material of the coil may be almost anything capable of being coiled. split willows. The center may be birch bark (ornamented. sedges." The simplest form of coiled work is shown in Fig. thus giving a radiaTo finish allow the tion from the center as the work progresses. Great care should be exercised in putting in new material to reUpon this depends the evenness of the work. Fig. when performed by an exquisitely beautiful. Taking a length of the coil material. etc. 71 gathered in the immediate neighborhood of New York. allowing spaces of one inch between wraps then fasten and sew. corn husks. taken just past the proceeding one. while cat-tail. 36. . and others as large as a flour barrel some specimens have . is The first grass coil is sewed to its outer edge. They are pretty and useful. in design. raffia. straw. coil to diminish gradually and make a secure fastening. The variation of B. lege. Fig. as in the Pima granaries. combined with grasses. plenish the coil.. Of these Miss Hyde writes and thus instructs how to make They are made of hemp. : etc.. made exactly as the mat in Fig. 70 is of raffia. perfectly flat.

FIG. . SIMPLE COILED TRAYS. 72. Work of Students. FIG. 71. New York. Teachers' College. PINE NEEDLE COILED BASKETS.

When FIGS. Cushings description: simple coiled weave." This su'bject will be found more fully discussed in the chapter on . are dissimilar in shape. or a mat dinner table. 75. The top is an inch and a half in diameter. limber splint of tough wood. into which the two little twigs or splint-loops were firmly woven. two and a half inches in diameter.boiling baskets. 75. 74. which are good exand firmness. first outward. for the It TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to form the tapering upper part and neck. including brim. to which A tom and 1 the lid is. the out(Fig. usually willow. flanged and fits snug. The handles of G are each of two circular coils. to produce the bulge of the vessel. A basket must sit firmly on the table and be tightly woven. yet made in the same way. E and G. Here are two important things to be attained. three and one-eighth inches. 73. and used makes an excellent tray for the toilet table. manufacture of the Havasupai. with the aid of a bodkin. No "wobblety" bottom. Each 'has a base of two coils. the height two and a quarter inches. This wrapped portion was then wound upon itself. It is two and a quarter inches across at the botis the lid. 75 clearly show the Indian method of making the "In the I quote Lieut.) tiguous inner coil. slight protuberances which act as handles. 72. these long pine needles baskets are known they will become wonderfully popular in a short time. 74. Fig. and no slovenly work in the sides will be tolerated. 6l This was then filled up with darned work. as the basis. the diameter of bottom.HOW shape required. F is C is smaller and the two upper coils are made oval so as to afford two B is a dainty little basket. In the making of all these baskets stimulate the student to stability . the beginning small wisp of fine flexible at the center of the bottom." circular in shape. amples was made of the helix or spirally coiled type of basket. and sewed to the sides-. A grass stems or osiers softened in water was first spirally wrapped a little at one end with a flat. was rounded upward and the sides were made by coiling the wisp higher and higher. 73.) er coil thus formed (Fig. decked off with a piece of ribbon. then inward. sewed on after the basket was elsewhere finished. the width of brim three-quarters of an inch. a "cute little hat. MANUFACTURE OF SPIRALLY COILED WEAVES. Figs. 74) being firmly fastened as it progressed to the one already made by passing the splint wrapping of the wisp each time it was wound around the latter through some strands of the conThe bottom (Fig. 73.

G. Coiled work without foundation.62 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 76. . (5) three stems in tria bundle of splints or small stems (7) a bundle of grass or small shreds. As Professor Mason has shown in his bulletin. but not inclosing the foundation underneath (2) under one rod . and in book on Indian Basketry. With these explanations it is possible to make the following nine varieties of coiled basketry. angular position (6) by '=. F. Single-rod foundation. (2) a stem with . (i) a single (3) stem or rod. B. there are nine different varieties of coiled basketry which he analyzes and describes as my follows : "The foundation may be a thin welt laid on top of (4) it . two stems laid side . K. These will now be taken up systematically and illustrated (fig. two rod and splint foundation. C. rod and welt foundation.ide. E. two or more stems over one another . matting. The stitches pass around the foundation in progress (i) interlocking. . Simple interlocking coils. two rod foundation. ill A iJ) B & // \] C -> FIG. in some cases systematically splitting the sewing material underneath. Indian Stitches. . D. One rod inclosed. H. 76). I. CROSS SECTIONS OF VARIETIES IN COILED BASKETRY. with a welt. Scores of exquisite baskets made by this stitch are pictured. however many there may be (3) under a welt of the coil beneath (4) through splints or other foundation. Packing inclosed. or bagging: A. Fuegian coiled basketry. Splint foundation. Packing inclosed. of the coil beneath. Double-stem coil. Grass-coil foundation. three-rod foundation.

HOW
A.

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

COILED
of this class

WORK WITHOUT FOUNDATION.

Speci-

have been already mentioned. The sewing material is babiche or fine rawhide thong in the cold north, or string of some In the Mackenzie Basin will be found the former, sort farther south. and in the tropical and subtropical areas the latter. If a plain, spiral spring be coiled or hooked into one underneath, the simplest form of An improvement of this is effected the open coiled work will result.

mens

FJG. 77. DETAIL OF INTERLOCKING STITCHES.

FIG.

ROD COIL

78.

DETAIL OF SINGLEIN BASKETRY.

FIG.

TWO

79.

RODS, VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION OF

FIG.

SO.

COILED WORK.

ROD AND WELT

when the moving thread in passing upward after interlocking is twined one or more times about its standing part (Fig. 76 A.) B. Simple interlocking coils. Coiled work in which there may be any sort of foundation, but the stitches merely interlock without catching under the rods or splints or grass beneath. This form easily passes into those in which the stitch takes one or more elements of the foundation, but in a thorough ethnological study small differences can not be overlooked (fig. 76 B). Fig. 77 represents this style of workmanship on a coiled basket in grass stems from Alaska, collected by Lucien M. Turner. The straws for sewing merely interlock without gathering the grass roll.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

C. In rattan basketry and Pacific coast Single-rod foundation. ware, called by Dr. J. W. Hudson Tsai in the Poma language, the foundation is a single stem, uniform in diameter. The stitch passes around the stem in progress and is caught under the one of the preceding coil, In a collection of Siamese basketry in the U. S. Naas in fig. 76 C. tional Museum the specimens are all made after this fashion the foundation is the stem of the plant in its natural state, and the sewing is with splints of the same material, having the glistening surface outward. As
;

FIG.

SI.

FOUNDATION OF THREE RODS.

FIG.

82.

OF SPLINTS.

FOUNDATION

FIG. COILS,

S3.

STRAW FOUNDATION.

INTERLOCKING

FIG.

84. OPEN COIL, INCLOSING PART OF FOUNDATION.

this is

somewhlat unyielding, it is difficult to crowd the stitches together, and so the foundation is visible between. In America single-rod basketry is widely spread. Along the Pacific coast it is found in northern Alaska and as far south as the borders of Mexico. The Poma Indians use it in some of their finest work. The roots of plants and soft stems of willow, rhus, and the like are used for the sewing, and being soaked thoroughly can be crowded together so
as to entirely conceal the foundation
(fig. 78).

rod in this style lies on top of the other the stitches pass over two rods in progress and under the upper

D.

Two-rod foundation.

One

;

HOW
one
of the pair

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

65

cal series.

below, so that each stitch incloses three stems in a vertiattention to fig. 76 D will demonstrate that the alternate rod or the upper rod in each pair will be inclosed in two series of stitches, while the other or lower rod will pass along freely in the middle of one series of stitches and show on the outer side. Exbe seen among the Athaamples of this two-rod foundation are to tribes of Alaska, among the Poma Indians of the Pacific coast, pascan and among the Apache of Arizona. An interesting or specialized variseen among the Mescaleros of New Mexico, who ety of this type is us'e the two-rod foundation, but instead of passing the stitch around the interlock the stitches so that neither upper rod of the coil below, simply

A

little

FIG.

INTERLOCKING COILS, 85. SHRED FOUNDATION.

FIGS.

86,

87

AND

88.

FUEGIAN COILED BASKET AND DETAILS.

one of the two rods is closed twice. This Apache ware is sewed with yucca fiber and the brown sterns of other plants, producing a brilliant
effect,

and the

result of the special technic

is

a flat surface like that of

pottery

(fig. 79).

of precisely the

The U. S. National Museum possesses a single piece same technic from the kindred of the Apache on the

lower Yukon. E. Rod and welt foundation. In this kind of basketry the singlerod foundation is overlaid by a strip or splint of tough fiber, sometimes the same as that with which the sewing is done at others a The stitches pass over the rod and strip which strip of leaf or bast. are on top down under the welt only of the coil below, the stitches inThe strip of tough fiber between the two rods which terlocking.
;

o ^ g 02 Oc 0) i-H - 5J5 ^5 o .w 55 pq 4 r^ g O o I-H O t ( fe a .

which may be in splints of willow. In the California area the materials for basketry are of the finest quality. among the pueblos and missions. The willow stems and carex root are Sewing done with these susceptible of division into delicate filaments. in others the splitting is designed and beautiful. 67 serves for a welt has a double purpose strengthening the fabric and This style the space between the rods (fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. or stiff grass (Epicampes rigidum). or. The interior parts Such in such examples are made up into the foundation (fig. Hudson bam-tsu-wu. and when the stitches are pressed closely together the foundation does not appear. but it coil beneath (fig. be seen in the southwestern portions of the United States. 81 also in cross section in fig. Two rod and splint foundation. and in northern Africa. worked into the foundation. Three or four small uniform willow stems serve for the is as follows foundation. F. rhus. as shown in fig. J. black or white carex root. 76 E and fig. chinking of coil work is seen on old Zuni basket-jars and on California examples. and F. In this style the foundation is made thicker and stronger by laying two rods side by side and a splint The surface will be or welt on top to make the joint perfectly tight. Among the Poma and other by tribes in the western part of the United States the most delicate pieces Dr. On the surface of the barn-tsu-wu basketry the Poma weaver adds pretty bits of bird feathers and delicate pieces The basket represents the wealth of the maker. Splint-foundation. The type of foundation passes easily into forms (fig. tat basketry the pieces of spruce or cedar root not used for sewing material are also I. as in the case of the Mission baskets in southern California. The sewing may be done with split stems of hard wood. This is the type of foundation called Dr. 76 F). ware is rude when the sewing passes carelessly through the stitches In the Klikibelow. corrugated. (See In the larger granary in fig. So). passes around the three stems constituting the coil. The sewing. . 76 I). Three-rod foundation. of small midribs The foundation is a bunch of grass or from palm: leaves. D. Tribes practicing this style of coiling generally have fine material and some of the best ware is so made up. or cercis stem. 83 and the cross section given baskets of the Pima a bundle of straws furnishes the foundation. 82). Grass'-coil basketry. In the Great Interior Basin. examples this upper rod is replaced by a thin strip of material serving fora welt (see fig. under In some the upper one of the bundle below. and patterns of coiled basketry. and the like. fig. W. G. younger portion of the stem will do for sewing. Surfaces are beautifully corrugated. rush stems. 76 H). for the reason that the maker has perExcellent examples of this kind are to fect control of her material. of one of these to a friend is considered to be the highest compliment. 76) C. where the has no standing in that tribe. only the outer and : . H. willow. or shredded yucca. pliant material of the California tribes is wanting. In basketry of this type the foundation consists of a number of longer or shorter splints massed together and sewed. Hudson calls them the ''jewels of of basketry are in this style. the stitches interlocking. and the gift of shell. the stitches passing under one or more of the splints in the In the Poma language it is called chilo." The technic the most elaborate character can be wrought on them. is most compact. 76 G. of the stems of rushes (Juncus acutus). The effect in all such ware is good.

68 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 90. . FIG. COILED RAFFIA BASKTES.

B. and. though. and is then decreased until it is 3 1-2 inches at the top. 89. after the center has been begun. the same method is followed. inasmuch as this type of basketry is confined in America to the Hopi pueblos.. The suggestion is here made that this particular form of workmanship may be due to acculturation. lazy stitch. herewith in presenting a description of the baiskets illustrated and the work of this Society by Miss Margaret C. built upon a thick bundle of the woody stems of the yuccas. 86). Among the basketry belonging to the grass-coil foundation type are the Hopi plaques. two different methods of coiled basketry are shown. and their example has to the production of the good work . reached. many people looking at the photograph. and the stitches. these stitches. as in fig. Asiatic types on the Pacific is most striking (fig. then it is sewed to the preceding coil. In this ware the foundation is slight. 86). The bottom is two and a half inches in diameter. the new part of the coil is wrapped for a certain number of stitches. the sewing is done with rushes. with rush stems interlocking. is the other crafts of that little been a source of encouragement village display. it is well to experiment in the various styles with the home materials. what we might term. "The baskets produced at Deerfield. E. We have now C. Mr. 85). wihich will be read with interest and profit." The student can utilize almost all of these methods in one kind of or another. L. found in Egypt and in northern Africa as far as the Barbary states. fig. show the fundamental traits of sound workmanship and an intelligent use of material. fig. McLeod. Though made of raffia. In the Fuegian coiled basketry. Here. 69 while the sewing is done with broad strips of tough bark. which were brought very early in contact with Spaniards and African slaves.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and my friend. The diameter increases up to five inches. Most of the celebrated baskets of the Pocumtuck Society. of which a figure is given. the pure coiled work of the Indian. when time permits. what he calls. of course.. The resemblance of this to half-hitches. 90 is the next step in coiled basketry. In B. with the addition of a cross stitch over the stitch which binds the two coils toThe Indians of Kern County occassionally use the former of gether. the color of the sewing material. 84. no one but the merest tyro could be deceived if he held the basket in his hands. It is so-called by him because each stitch is not bound to* the preced- work made by a ten year old boy. which coiled lazy stitch. Fuegian coiled basketry. A. ing coil as in all their finer work. Mass. great similarity will be noticed in the size of the coil. the patterns. Mass. but instead of being in the ordinary over-and-over stitch it consists of a series of half hitches or buttonhole stitches (fig. as in A. In fig. of DeerI have pleasure field. are made in the stitch shown in Fig. consisting of one or more rushes the sewing is in buttonhole stitch or . has some beautiful specimens of the weaver's art done in this. 90 is another specimen. Whiting. 89. might easily mistake this for a genuine Indian basket. of the a work-basket of the same stitch. which furnish also the sewing material from the split leaf If this be examined in comparison with a style of basketry (fig. K.

Teachers' College. FIG. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. 92. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. Teachers' College. Work of Students. New York. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. FIG. 93. Work of Students.

14). and with the varying shades and tones their old-fashioned dves offer they produce harmonies the public is quick to value. is all black with a row of large dull black beads pointing the edge of the lid. have wisely recognized that the Indian. A different temperament has chosen a blackberry for a motive of form and decoration. other groups of village workers in basketry in In the matter of color the Deerfield workers in their baskets probably. about its circumference (see Fig. One . 8). One craftswoman decorates her carefully shaped basket with a nice drawing of white mice on a dull olive background (Fig. 9). Or another weaver produces her effects from the use of color and exquisite stitches in a basket all done The in greens. slyly prepared for the observant. may not be imitated by those whose taste is sophisticated and minds trained to other and different standards of beauty. a fer to work out the themes and harmonies of Nature flower. . . problem large basket woven of the natural colored raffia for a ground color bears two landscape designs for its decoration on one swelling side is seen a group of trees in dull rioh greens against a blue sky. With indigo. beauty that lies in the natural corn husk when laid smooth in large . This charming surprise. for from the first have owed a good part of their reputation to the natural dyes they employ. an animal or even a landscape may serve for suggestion. er is made with a useful handle that holds fast the lid on double braided cords it is developed in blues with a row of red birds solemnly hopping for the individual craftswoman to solve for . Turn up the basket and one will find. the house in black and and the upper edge of the roof and trees just touched with the pink reflections from a big pink moon that rises in the pale sky it is almost needless to say this is named "Night and Day. after the longgone earliest inhabitants of their valley.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. a butterfly. fustic. with much thought given to the perfection of form." Only a bold designer could carry out with success so simple Another covered basket by the same workyet complicated a scheme. and . and have frankly refused to use designs or color combinaIn their designs they pretions that belong to the red man's choice. copperas and logwood these craftswomen hiave uttered their convincing protest against the crude and vicious color discords of the chemical dyes. as the raffia workers have named themselves. like all masters in art. 2) another chooses the piccotee pink for chief decoration upon the cover of her shallow bowl. Jl now being done by different localities. An individual preference is shown in one worker's use of the swale grasses grown in the meadows about Deerfield (see Fig. madder. a beautifully drawn black-berry flower in white raffia in the black bottom. raffia have. the seeds being divided on the black surface by dull green lines while the cover with its brown stem for a handle rising from the green calyx. The Pocumtuck Basket Society. for it lightens the dark interior of the basket. . worked with a much finer stitch. been of chief public service. serves a useful purpose. a house in red with windows a<nd doors in black and a lighter green foreground on the opposite occurs exactly the same landscape all dark in blues and greens. She combines their varying lines with colored raffia in large card trays and plaques. the flower is worked out in red and black upon a white background with a conventional border in the same colors upon the side of the basket (Fig. the way it is translated into the medium of raffia furnishes the herself.

Wrapped spaces of .3)In choice of shapes the Pocumtuck basket makers cling to the strictly useful and simple forms a bowl must stand firm on a bottom sufficiently large to sustain it.HOW surfaces TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and sometimes varied from large to small in the development of a single basket. 91. 6 FIG. BOOK MARK OF WEB WEAVE. each rising from two spreading gray-green leaves. 92. a handle must be strong or the jury of society will not give its approval. employed is that which has been dubbed "lazy stitch. 93 are all of coiled raffia baskets made by the students at Teachers' College. Here variety in shape and design were worked out." and consists one smooth turn about the coil and a stitch down into the space on the row beneath the coil is formed of split or whole reeds. WEAVING ON EVEN SPOKES." Figs. SPLINT AND 94. a cover must fit. 95. is shown in still another basket of a large cylindrical form shaded indigo blues for background to four poppy stalks. different sizes being chosen to fit the desired effect. and bearing big blossoms worked from the many4iued pinks of the crepe-like husks (see done in Fig. The stitch chiefly . . each weaver seeking to produce the best possible effect. are introduced but are not allowed to interfere with structural strength. FIG.

as shown in Fig. 96. Weave over 5. both starting together. Take eight . the web. one before and the other behind the same spoke. it ODD AND EVEN NUMBER OF is essential to vise an even number of spokes for the warp. FIG. and when tips of spokes are cut into points a book mark is ready The following exercises will all be useful for later work. DIVIDING INTO SINGLE SPOKES. weaver into the part woven so as to hide and firmly fasten it. To have the woof of one over and one under. Next round pass under two. A little practice will soon teach the better way to the student. The odd spoke may be used in starting. then under 8 and under 2. and so Tuck the end of the on. 97. Figs. under 4. of the raffia weaver pretty little book-mark may be made with rattan or other material for the foundation of raffia. over under between 8 and i. for use. over 7. and with a long weaver splints are required. 73 CHAPTER XII. Where. The result is a series of ridges on the surface. A MAT OR BOTTOM FOR ROUND BASKET. 22. Tuck the end i. one ahead of the first round. over two AND STARTING WEAVER. 20. however. uniformly. It must never be forgotten that proper web weaving can never be clone with an even number of spokes and a single weaver. Yet this differs from the checkerwork of the civilization. little care at first will soon render one expert in thus using two weavers. One long and three short flat Place these as shown in Fig. over 3. the effect of a single weaver can be obtained by using two weavers. We iniow woof is come to the most common of all of the basket weaving of the the pliable material. 23 and 24 show the simple stitches. SPOKES. 95. until five or six rounds have been woven. THE WEB WEAVE. there must be an odd number of spokes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Indeed the division into miat and web weaving is purely arbitrary. A wooden splints. or can be inserted later. palmetto. i. 94. under 6. etc. weaving only in the fact that the warp elements are rigid and mat BOOK MARKS. throughout. 21. HOLDING SPOKES FIG.

and it will be found that the weaver comes behind the same spoke with which we begun in the first row. it is passed under the last row of weaving Then pass it around that spoke. Then turn over and continue FIG. separate the spokes as shown in Fig. 98. in Fig. It will then dry as left. 2. Another simple border is made. for ten or fifteen minutes. just before it reaches the next spoke. so the odd spoke is >now inserted as shown in Fig. Run the spoke down as far as possible. 96. It will often be necessary. i down beside No. After placing the weaver under one side and over another. as strength is thus added. Soak ends for a few minutes. underneath. . and the appearance of the basket improved. in front of the next. as allowing from i 1-2 inches to 5 or 6. over the four at bottom. Then push spoke No. Now cut spokes to a point and of even length. ac2. and so on. If it is OPEN BORDER NO. 98. Weave one row. cording to taste. making two complete rounds. Then be absolutely accurate in even. as the beauty of every edge depends upon its making everything It is well to soak a border after it is made. the further the better. When the weaver has been placed across each side of the top set of spokes. allow its being bent into perfect shape. under the four at left. and so on until the whole edge is bound. 14 to 16 inches long. 8 or 9 inches Hold the eight long spokes as long. one spoke. INSERTING ODD SPOKE. 101 and 102. RIGHT SIDE OF CENTER WITH ODD SPOKE. Sharpen one end and thrust it into the center. In making these borders remember always to soak. 100. Then weave under flie four to the right. This separation must be done with great care and evenness. 2 rattan. 97 and begin to weave behind and before each spoke separately. as strength and beauty both depend upon the way this is done. This would spoil the looks of the basket. spokes of No. under the last row of weaving before next spoke.74 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. shown in Figs. for the loop. 99. the splints to be bent. to weave as shown quired. 99 until the mat or base is the size redesired to make a mat of this. finish the last row by binding it as overcasting is done. and a weaver of No. so as to readily evenness. PIG. shown in Fig. as a STARTING NEW WEAVER. leaving an open curve as shown in Fig. 4 rattan.

100. The warp strands of raffia are then tightly tied around these pins. Pins are firmly fastened into a board. 104.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 101. (See Fig. the shape the object is to be. Neligh informs me that he has found it to be excellent practice to have hi's pupils make the web weave with raffia. FIG. proceed. 102. SPLICING. The student is now ready to make simple . to start a new one. SPLICING WEAVERS. OPEN BORDER PIG. SIMPLE OPEN BORDER. the two may be spliced as shown in Fig. One may use a needle or not as he de- shown some specimens FIG. with about three-quarters of an inch to spare. behind a spoke. 2. When the weaving the object desired. In Fig. 2. Then FIG. and the woof strands then woven as in other work. is done the edges are sown together to make SIMPLE BASKETS. When the basket is completed and dry the unnecessary ends If it is desired to hide the point of new with old weaver. 103). 104. Mr. Cross this with an equal length of the new weaver. FIG. OPEN BORDER NO. 105 are may be cut off. 75 Leave the end of the last weaver [weaver runs out. DETAIL. sires. STARTING of the work of his pupils. 103. NEW WEAVER. OF NO.

which will be described in the . Begin the mat as described in Figs. but after about an inch of the mat is woven draw the weaver tighter. 106 as an example. WEB WEAVING WITH RAFFIA. This FIG. 97. 96. The basket below the mat is begun in exactly the same way. 105. baskets of the web weave. closed border No. slightly curves up the spokes and gives the soon as the basket is as large as required it bowl shape desired.76 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. As must be finished off with next chapter. 98. finishing off with border as desired. i. Use the mat in Fig. and 99.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS,

77

CHAPTER

XIII.

INSERTION AND BORDERS.
Before proceeding further with the chapter on Web-Weaving well to gain a full knowledge of insertion and borders. These "In descriptions are taken from Miss Firth's "Cane Basket Work." making open borders where it is necessary to run one spoke down
it is

FIG.

106.

Work

SIMPLE RATTAN BASKETS,
of Students, Teachers' College,

WEB WEAVE.
New
York.

beside another, the awl must be first inserted to open a passage for the extra spoke, and care must be taken to have a smooth end, or the weaving will be pulled out of place. It is al'so important to have each spoke double the length of the height of the basket, allowing the extra length necess'ary for the loop at the top. For convenience

7

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

spoke may be cut half an inch beyond the length required for the sides, and extra spokes, a little more than double that length, inserted when the weaving is finished. This will give the appearance of three spokes, and if well varnished will not be likely to get out of place.

The extra

half-inch

must not be

cut off the

first

spoke

till

the others

have been inserted.

"As the extra length necessary for each border is given with the directions for working it, one can be easily substituted for another according to taste."

FIG.

107.

DETAIL OF INSERTION.

PIG.

108.

INSERTION.

Pretty effects are caused by insertion, the details of which will The spokes of readily be comprehended from Figs. 107 and 108. the trellis work of the insertion are finer than the foundation. "This can be used with any border but looks well with open border, Fig. 102. The fine starting on the right hand side of a coarse spoke, crossing the open space to the next on the right, following it inside

FIG.

109.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

3.

FIG.

110.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

4.

the bend till the open space is again reached, where it crosses to the left-hand side of the same 'spoke from which it started." NO. 3. "This is only another variation of the same prinicple, the spokes being cut about 3 inches longer than double the height needed for the sides of the basket. At about 2 inches from the top weave one row of pairing and fasten off ends. An

OPEN BORDER

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

79

inch farther up start another row of pairing, add three rows of single Proceed as for Open weaving, and finish with another row of pairing. Border No. 2 as far as to the insertion, but instead of inserting the spoke in hand beside the same spoke as in the upper part, miss one, and slip it down beside the next. This border needs careful manipu-

FIG.

111.

DETAIL, OF PLAIT.

FIG.

112.

PLAIT.

lation to
size of

OPEN BORDER
ple as

keep the spokes in place. It can be varied according to basket and taste of worker." NO. 4. "This border necessitates double

spokes, on which two rows of pairing are worked at any desired distance. See Fig. no. The upper part is done on the same princiis brought up behind the next, the last being gathered under the first, as shown in Fig. in. For the next row this movement is reversed, each spoke being passed down behind the next, the last threaded under the first. When the

SINGLE PLAIT.

Open Border No.

5."

Each spoke

FIG.

113.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

FIG.

4321
114.

DETAIL, OF LAST

THREE SPOKEa

work

thoroughly dry, the protruding ends must be cut off as closeSee Fig. 112. PLAIT. Insert an extra short spoke beside each of those already in use, and proceed with the two spokes together as
is

ly as practicable.

DOUBLE

in single plait.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

"Take spoke No.

i,

and

at

about 11-2

beyond the edge of the basket bend it downwards, passing it behind No. 2, before No. 3 and behind No. 4, leaving the end at the front
inches

before No. 5. In order to keep the pattern. . of these. as spoke No. Take spoke No. it Take the first before and behind two spokes first used. One upright spoke is still left. again leaving the end at the front of the basket. 2. FIG. of the basket to form the plait. and working on the same principle bring it down behind No. BORDER 116. i. 113). Proceed in this way till all the spokes are down but three Take the first of these. as just described. and before the third.8o HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. this must now be threaded from behind under the spoke first used. 2. 2. bring it down behind the second (Fig. scribed. 4. which must be threaded behind and before and behind the three spokes first Finish with plait already deused. CLOSED BORDER NO. DETAIL OF NO. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. 117. and will complete the pattern. "This is the same border and worked FiG. Length of spokes needed for borthe der 10 inches. it Two upright spokes are still behind the second and thread left. CLOSED BORDER NO. See Figs. 1. and behind No. in and 112. bring i. 3. and spoken of FIG. 115.

BORDER DETAIL OF NO. Take the longest of the first pair. CLOSED This will make a second "pair of ends. down beside it in the usual . The canes forming these side (the longer of the two "pairs" must each in turn be kept side by till the next being to the right) and held perfectly flat under the thumb Pick up No. making the edge still more Proceed on this principle till all the upright spokes but substantial. always be two pairs of ends after the first pair is started. or to be threaded through to the inside and cut off there. 8l I and behind No. 2 FIG. 3. No. 3. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. Two pairs of ends will still be left. bring it before No. 3. Take the longer of the first pair. CLOSED BORDER NO. 4 (Fig. FIG. 2. 4 and behind is down. and slip it behind and under spoke No. "pair" No. the last upright spoke still left being brought way. 117). Take No. 121. 4 (which is still upright). 119. 2. 118). lay it in front of and beside spoke No. 2. FIG. longest of the first pair must now be brought before No. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. Take the longest end of the last pair. and if correctly worked. there will and behind No. FIG. bring it in front of and beside spoke No. making one "pair" of ends turned down. but never more than two. passing it under No. and passed under the same spoke. 122. 2. bringing it out to the front under spoke No. 5 being brought down beside it as before.'' The 5. 5. 3 and the spoke in I. and bring it beside No. it down beside No.HOW right) bringing TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and which may be marked by a piece of cotton till the worker becomes familiar with the border). one have been brought down. The shortest of each pair in turn is left to be cut off at the front when the work is finished. 120. 6 (Fig. I (the spoke first used. 5 (which is still upright) and behind No.

FOR ROUND BASE. 5 behind No. 125. I and lay it behind No. i behind No. or more. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. or four. 3 five spokes are at first turned right spoke is left. FIG. bringing No. i.82 HOW it. which are much the same. 4 behind No. "Lay spoke No. 3. . 123. 1?6. bringing it behind and under spoke No. but the same kind of border may be worked with three. 8. / (which is still upright) down beside it. lay it down behind right) down bes de it (Fig. 4. PIG. ceed thus . 2 is the simplest of this principles. 2. spokes as easily as with two or five. No. 121). FIG. always remembering that the number of single spokes turned down at the first determines the number of pairs. FIG. down. 120). 5. to the front immediately needed 8 inches. the worker will do well to work out No. and that these must never vary till not one upIn Border No. class No. 6 (which is still upPick up No. the last upright spoke being brought down beside it. above the weaving. 3 No. 3 behind . 6 (Fig. Pick up No. all the spokes are down but one. bringing No. No. SPIRT'S THREADED No. 7." CLOSED BORDER NO. . 2 No. Pro. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. SPLIT SPOKE FOR ROUND BASE. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. No. 3 as large as would be needed for any ordinary basket front of Each spoke must be brought Length of spokes . till Take the longest spoke of the first of the five pairs left. 2 behind No. "Before attempting this border. and after the pairs are started there will always be five to work from till the end is reached. 124. 2. until familiar with its No.

HOW
Five pairs are

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

Take the longest of the first pair, bringing still left. Take beside and in front of spoke No. I and under spoke No. 2. the longest of the first of the four pairs left, bringing it beside and in In threading through front of spoke No. 2 and under spoke No. 3. these ends, it must be remembered that the short spokes come out immediately above the weaving and under the roll of spokes which forms the edge. Take the longest of the first of the three pairs left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 3, and under spoke No.
it

FIG.

WEAVING OP 127. ROUND BASE WITH

FIG.

128.

TWO WEAVERS.
Take

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES IN PAIRS.

the longest of the first of the two pairs left, bringing it beand in front of spoke No. 4 and under spoke No. 5. Take the long spoke still left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 5 and under spoke No. 6. If the two spokes which lie together have been kept lying flat on the edge of the weaving, the border will look even and handsome (Fig. 122). Length of spokes required 10
4.

side

inches.

84

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

CHAPTER

XIV.

MORE ABOUT

BASES.

In her books Miss Firth gives several methods of making bases. BASE. A simple oval base may be made as follows. Take 4 lengths, No. 4 rattan, 24 inches long, 6 lengths, No. 4, 6 inches long and one length, 3 inches long. Place the six short pieces for the width and the long pieces as shown in Fig. 123. The two lower spokes must be placed on the table, and the short ones placed across them in The lower of these two spokes must be pairs, at intervals of an inch. the center pair, and the pair at each end. The upper spoke must be the reverse of the lower, the short piece being placed above that in the same order as the lower spoke. When the base is finished it will be seen that this short piece forms a middle around which the four spokes are woven. The other two long spokes must be placed in a position exactly reverse to the two first, as in Fig. 124. They must then be pressed closely together, the left hand holding them firmly in their place, while the right weaves with the inside spoke of the two which first used, passing it over the two short ends of the second pair of long spokes, and under and over and under the three short The outside spoke must follow, but in reverse order. The secpairs. ond pair of long spokes must be treated in exactly the same way as the

OVAL

UNDER

OVER

first.

ROUND BASE WITH DOUBLE WEAVERS.
spokes
of

Take
of

12

No. 4

rattan, six inches long,

and a long weaver

rattan. In six of the twelve spokes, make a split in inch long as shown Fig. 125. Then thread the six unsplit

No. I the center about an
spokes
in

through the
center.

split

ones.

(Fig.
it,

126).

Keep

flat

and cross exactly

leaving one end several inches longer than the other. Slip loop of weaver over six of the split spokes, bringing under part of weaver over, and top part under the next six spokes (Fig. 127). Repeat this as described with Fig. 95 until Be sure that the under weaver is always three rounds are made. brought to the top before the top one is taken underneath, to prevent the weavers getting twisted. Now separate spokes into sets of two, (Fig. 128), pulling the spokes well apart to allow room for the weavers Then pair around the double spokes for to be well pushed down. three rounds, after which separate each 'spoke and pair as in Fig. 129. round base SINGLE BASE with a single instead of a double weaver may be made by the insertion of an extra spoke after the dividing of the spokes begins.

Take weaver, double

ROUND

WITH

WEAVER. A

BASE, take 13 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 5 inches long, and 5 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 12 inches long. Split the 13 in center as before described, and thread them on the 5 spokes spokes Put the odd spoke in center of the five. Then as shown in Fig. 130. half an inch between the spokes, place them as shown in Fig. allowing

OBLONG OVAL

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

130, but with two spokes together at each end. Double the weaver and Take the underneath part place the loop over the double side spokes. of the weaver and weave down the side, then go back and take upper part of weaver and weave beside it, counting double spokes at end as

one spoke.
base flat on the table, and always from left to take up the base in the left hand, grasping the weavers where they pass the double side spokes. Take the weaver from underneath and bring tightly across the five long spokes, place behind the double side spokes, then put the base flat on the table and weave down the side. Go back, taking up the base again, and take the top weaver behind the five spokes, lay down the base, then weave down the side. Repeat this until you have two
right.

Weave holding the To do the end

weavers crossing the five spokes top and bottom and on either side. Pair around these, Divide the five spokes into 2-1-2. (See Fig. 131). but still weave down the side. When both ends have been divided in this way, take each spoke singly, beginning with the double side spokes,

FIG.

130. COMMENCING OBLONG OVAL BASE.

FIG.

129.

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES
SEPARATED.
of the nine spokes at either end, but
still

and pair around each weave down the sides.

only

both ends are done, continue weaving straight round with one we'aver and then the other, but not pairing. While doing the base, draw the weaver firmly towards the right, and when doing the ends bring the weaver firmly clown between the spokes, which must be drawn as far apart as possible to admit of this In a well-made base the weaving is always being done efficiently. drawn down so firmly that the spokes cannot be seen in between. To get the oval bases of the size required, first take the measurement across the basket. If this is 4 1-2 inches, and the length is to be 8 inches, the spokes across would have to be placed within a distance of 6 inches, measuring from each lot of double spokes at the end. The reason of this is, that enough space must be left at either end to allow 2 inches of weaving, as in a base 41-2 inches across there would be 2 inches of weaving on either side, allowing one-half inch for the five spokes down the center.
first

When

86

HOW
If this rule is

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

in the lids of oval baskets

followed, the right size can always be counted on, and it is particularly necessary that the size should

be assured before starting.

BASE. Another method of making an oval base is to take six 5-inch spokes, four 7-inch spokes and one 4-inch spoke, all of No. 4 rattan, with three weavers of No. 2 rattan. Split the six five inch spokes as described in Fig. 125. Thread them on the four seven-inch and the one four-inch spokes, the short one in the center, leaving about half an inch between each of the six. The six spokes are held horiand the five are vertical. Start a weaver, back of the vertical spokes and lying along the uppermost horizonal spoke, with the end toward the right. Bring it around in front of the vertical spokes (above the upper horizontal one), the>n back and down diagonally to the left, coming out below the upper horizontal spoke. Here it is
zontally,

OVAL

FIG.

131.

OBLONG

OVAL BASE.

brought around in front of the vertical group, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical spokes and above the first horizontal one. It is then brought diagonally down in front of the vertical spokes, to the Next it right of them and just above the second horizontal spoke.
crosses diagonally down and back of the vertical spokes, to the left of them and below the second horizontal spoke, where it is brought over the vertical ones, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical

spokes, and just above the second horizontal one as shown in Fig. 132. The same process binds the other four horizontal spokes making an ornamental cross effect over each one, on the inside of the basket as seen in Fig. 133. After all six horizontal spokes have been bound, the spokes are separated and the weaving begins, and is continued until
;

the size desired

is

attained.

BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INSERTED CORraffia twined basket, having a pespokes at each of the four corners, is shown in Fig. 134. The rubber bands holding three groups of spokes make it more convenient for the maker to manipulate the numerous spokes, When a as each time around a spoke is inserted at its proper place. group is twined with two strands of raffia the rubber band is slipped off the next group and snapped around the set of spokes just finished and so on. Any number of spokes may be inserted according to the size of the base desired. Take 12 spokes No. i rattan 10 inches long, 4 short strands raffia

NERS. A
culiar

base of fine rattan or

way

of inserting the

at right angles to five other spokes and placing a raffia strand across the laid spokes. This gives a cross of raffia over the grouped spokes. 87 in red. under one. diagonally bring the strand under neath to the beginning of the diagonal crossing where it is securely Now cross over to another angle and let one of the halves of twisted. If the work is be made practically water tight. Looping the colored raffia over a spoke and separating each end. This group is now securely held with another rubber band and thus continue with the remaining spokes. Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER and add spokes of BASKETS. begin to twine with both colored and uncolored until a corner is reached now drop and clip the raffia not needed and twine in the corner spoke with the colored raffia. 133. Twine around as many times as this . CENTER OF OVAL BASE. Now begin to twine the two strands of raffia from the outside in tightly done it may Cross five spokes FIG. r'attan and weavers of Before beginning the work see that the rattan is well soaked in warm In fact this basket should be frequently placed under water water. DETAIL FIG. and the twinings pushed closely toward the center. natural and green. It thus makes two new Twine the raffia over each of the two new spokes and snap spokes. 135 Page 126 of "Indian Basketry" shows method of this twined effect. letting the raffia continue for a stitch or two beyond a corner before changing to a differently colored strand. DETAIL OF toward the center. work increases extra spokes must be inserted. and these are cut the length of the angle where they are to be placed. Care must be exercised so that the crossed spokes always lie flat until the base is well started. over one. OF CENTER OF OVAL BASE. 132. When the As . Weave around three or four times with uncolored raffia and then bending one of the extra spokes of rattan in half lay it snugly at the bend in the angle of the crossed spokes. raffia as desired. a rubber band over the first group of six. When the twining crosses to the next angle another spoke is bent in half and again fastened to its place. colored raffia lasts. carefully impacking each stitch as the twist is made. raffia pass underneath and the other across the top spokes to the opposite corner diagonally twisting again.

134. the base is the desired diameter stop adding spokes and gather three of the grouped spokes into one and then shape the basket as desired. but is unique For these directions I am indebted to Mrs. all the way around. in its method of enlarging. Columbus. four sided.88 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. round or flat. Finish off by folding down the ends of the spokes and add a coil of three or four rattans the length of the circumference of the open- FIG. John P. S. . BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INS ERTED CORNERS. This basket is closely allied to the Alaskan baskets. Neligh. Any shaped basket may be formed from this base. Ga. of the Industrial School. securely fastening the ends by hiding them under three or four of the twined stitches. ing and with the raffia sew over and over edge.

For the upper one take eight spokes of No. and thrust into base by the side of the spokes. then twist. Weave up in this way for about an inch and a quarter. half high cut short two of the spokes and turn in as for a closed Then continue to weave. For the base take six spokes of No. The bottom basket to the right is made in the same manner. inserting the extra ones so as to have all the spokes as near equidistant Now soak for a few minutes. drawing weavers tightly. The handle is of three long strands of rattan. 15 pieces of finer rattan. When pliable bend up as possible. 4 rattan 14 inches long. spokes. turning the weaver back around the spoke on each side of the open space. then turn up the foundation 125. drawing weavers tight so that for weavers. weave as high as desired and finish off with closed border No. The two baskets on the right of Fig. for sides. Begin as before described. and a When the side is about an inch the sides close in towards the top.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Make base. 8g CHAPTER XV. open loop for handle about an inch across. so that bottom is convex. Make base as deWhen woven up to the end of spokes take scribed in Figs. A pretty basket is shown in Fig. To fasten lid rattan. and proceed to weave as before. and weavers of No. 2 rattan for both spokes and weaver. turn up foundation spokes for sides. with simple closed border. leaving open space where these border. 96 or 125. 2. finishing the border with the rope twist. Make the lid in like fashion. doubled and twisted while pliable. Finish taking care that the angle of the sides is evenly preserved. 136. BIRD NEST. 115. Where they meet tuck in ends and basket is complete. 2 rattan. WEB WEAVING CONTINUED. Begin the base as already described. spokes were. Turn np foundation spokes for the sides. We now return to the making of baskets by the web weave. loop through lid and border of basket. Take 24 spokes of No. The covered basket with the handle is equally easy to -make. The lid is made in exactly the same way as the base. 135 is of -more simple web weave baskets made by the students at Teachers College. 96 or Fig. i as described in Fig. about two and a half inches long. Then proceed to make closed border No. The lid is made in same way as base or using both splint and plait and basket together take piece of finest making an one end of handle splint through basket and lid one way and the other way. 2 rattan for foundation. When about 6 inches across. then bridge the space by bending the two end spokes . Start the base as described in either Fig. weave the sides and finish off with one of the closed borders. 2 rattan. Fig. as soon as base is as large as required. Make the base the size desired. weave plait of straw or any other material either made or purchased until the sides are as high as desired. Then thread WE WOVEN I'. turn up. 106 are now to be described. The one to the left and the upper one are both made of No.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.-*" . . .. W" ' " . . :: jj ii))li o t t fa .

The handle is : . 138 shows an unfinished basket from which. until it is about 8 inches in diameter. Some prefer to make the handle before binding the top. 95. The foundation spokes may be of palmetto. inserting new spokes shape. working in two of the spokes instead of one. Now insert double spokes for fancy base and weave about an inch and a quarter finishing it by any form of closed border desired. Fig. and do not be surprised if the following nesting time a pair of birds takes possession. First lay the spokes star shape as shown. through the weaving. Then wrap with broader splint. woven so tightly that the . Now rapidly draw the top together.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and twelve. If an place. say five inches. gi over the space. thus making a secure binding. If an extra odd spoke is introduced a single weaver will do. and then wrapping as described for the binding. as desired. Fig. the weaving must proceed as described with Fig. Leave the ends of the spokes irregular so as to let the top of the nest appear like a bundle of twigs. formed by thrusting a piece of rattan the size desired. In making the photograph I failed to notice that it was somewhat out of The base is made as any ordinary mat. (taking care to tuck the ends in as far as possible. 139 s-hows the arrangement of the base. \Vhen 'the basket all is as high as desired turn down and tuck on a the inside of basket like overcasting. taking care to do it evenly. us ng a weaver long enough to wrap both handle and top. fourteen or sixteen in number. until it is impossible to weave higher. This adds strength and gives fewer ends to care for. however. the student may gain a few ideas. Finish with a simple border as WITH FANCY shown in to the left. Place in a tree. Now use fancy plaited straw as a weaver for the sides and weave as high as desired. even number of spokes is kept. Then sew around edges with a piece of thread to hold them in Bend spokes up for sides. Fig. the spokes.bottom is convex. A. 'BASKET BASE. 139 shows two small wood splint baskets of a type Europe. or as desired. with a wide splint above it. down to the base. much sold wood splints or rattan.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

SPLINT BASKETS. sortment of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. thrusting the end In these descriptions are all will be seen that the mat. place the lap. The required. weave the three splints together. in order as shown in Fig. These are most popular baskets. as the weaving continues. where Miss Marie Toxuse. held firmly. over which it went in the first round). 15 contains five articles made solely This is composed of one spoke. and two Then take a narrow wood splint weaver and web 3-8-inch wide. to take the weaver over two spokes as shown in Fig. taking care that Ithey are equisplints distant and regular at the edges. 140.-taken around once it will be necessary (in order to have the weaver go under the spokes in the second round. each time round. while with the right the weaver is worked in and out of the 141). the spokes firmly pressed upon the board. Exercise great care in spokes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. small spokes are cut so as to be very narrow in the center and widen out towards the edge. pulling it as tightly as possible. on the Then. They are placed across each other in a circle. tuck in the edges of the foundation splints and complete the weaving. of splints. except the Fig. As soon as the weaver has been . bend into the ring form. Now. 93 CHAPTER SPLINT XVI. and bound with three or four rows of simple web weavThen using twined weaving the spokes are covered as much as ing. hence it is deemed appropriate to give full particulars as ito the methods of weaving. and seven others about 21-2 inches long. The stitch is finished off by tying the sweet grass. take the weaver in the right hand. plait. one by one. 142. pointed or shaped. Most of the spokes. For the napkin ring take one wood splint 7-8-inch wide. and. This must be done. on which the work is to be done. In starting the base of a splint basket place a small board. When as many rounds are woven as necessary. All the ten inches long. 143. AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. hold it firmly with the left hand (see Fig. when it will appear as Fig. an Abenaki Indian. and is now ready for the weaving of the between two sides. and. twining the weaver around the edges and returning from side to side. take each spoke and bend it up to form the foundation for the sides. and thread on the . twined and web weave utilized.a variety of those The photographs were all made from the asgenerally preferred. Cut the broad splints the book mark. V length required. 26 West 23rd Street. either rounded. it of the baskets are easy to make and any ordinary student can make them from the descriptions given. or they will be keeping pulled out of place. New York. Now take a 7-8-inch wide colored splint. ends of the spokes may be cut as desired. is en- gaged as weaver and teacher.

INSERTING WEAVER IN SPLINT BASE. .FIG. 141.

weavers put in two for the bottom row and follow with one in the row above. The square basket for the sides is weave and SPLINTS. two double rows). 140. Two colors of splints are used and the handles are of plaited sweet grass. so that it alternates with the lower one over the foundation spokes. CLOTHES HAMPER OF belt of six splints of three colors. thus particularizing the colors. The first nine rows of weaving on the sides are of doubled splints. drawing under the next. Now curl it down and under the next spoke in the bot- . then binding strong splints around the rims. colored. The base is of extra strong wood splints.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." New York It is 2 feet 9 inches in height. The arrangement of the loops is such that the loops of the second row come over the spokes of the row beneath. The next belt is of one splint. colored. two purple. Curl a third splint into each double row as described immediately for Fig. strengthen the rim inside with stout splint. two red. For the hand basket take one splint 5-8-inch wide and two 1-2Then 15 splints about 26 inches inch wide. Now a . Make of these a mat foundation. two of green. and presented to Mr. simple mat weave for the bottom.) three splints are used instead of two. which is simply hideous. missing a weaver. editor "The Papoose. arranged as Fig. and web top. the splints to be 6-8 of an inch wide. and the side splints are also extra strong. but the upper splint. and twisting again over the next and so on. the top and four or five inches less at the bottom. The use of the extra third In inserting the splint is to get the "curl" shown in the design. made by Abenaki Indians of Pierreville. (I am not commending the color scheme. Barnes. putting Now the three splints lengthwise and the 15 across ait right angles. in In each of these three pairs of rows. i foot 8 inches in diameter at City. about i -8-inch wide. turn up for sides and web weave with splints any size smaller than When within three and a half inches of the top. 3-4 of an inch wide. Then another belt of narrow white spl nts. ation for the edges is made by taking a 3-8-inch wide splint. F. twisting again. under three and over two. thrusting it under one of the weavers. missing one weaver. curl it back and up under the next spoke in the row above. and outside with sweet grass and bind with a narrow splint. The under of these two splints is woven under one and over one of the side spokes as in all ordinary weaving. in taking the "over" stitch. Thus the loops alternate in the rows. Q5 outside of the ring. Canada. 4. instead of being pulled tight. with four rows of splints (or rather. making a bow by The spiral ornamentlacing back and forth and tucking in the end. When the upper weaver of the lower row comes from under the spoke. under two and over two. The handles are of splints i -8-inch wide twisted with narrower splint and tied to the edge of the basket. 4 is a large fancy basket of splints. nearly an inch and a half wide. is left looped. Following this set of nine rows of looped stitches is a belt of weave made with ordinary white splints. sewed with strong thread to the sides. then wrapping around the spiral shape. T. long and i -2-inch wide. the edges being strengthened by turning in the foundation spokes. web weave i-S-inch. and about 3 feet long. The diagonal mat weave basket in the left corner is made as is the one described elsewhere. Them finish with one row of narrow splint. Fig.

G.96 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . New York. FIG. P. 140. 142. JUMPING TWO SPOKES. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. BEGINNING BASE OF SPLINT BASKET.

22 and and splint narrow in the This can readily be seen sweet grass Now The sweet grass must be dampened and pressed closely into 134. The only difference between the basket at the bottom to the SPLINT AXD SWEET GRASS BASKETS. taking narrow splint weavers loop the border. take two strands weave under and over for five or six rows. The lid is> composed (as is the base') of splints that broaden as they reach the periphery. and. and tuck well under the sweet grass down one of the foundation spokes. take a stout wooden splint. 140. and. A . as the simple splints of Fig. which thus forms a kind of shelf or rim.- Fig. This belt of ''curled" weave is followed by weaving belts above it. These are turned up for the sides and twined weaving of sweet When the desired height is attained. FAN. both of which are bound on with a narrow splint as is clearly seen in the engraving. the foundation spokes as shown in Fig. by looking at the fan in Fig. When within an inch of the edge position as each row is woven. 5. At the top. rows of plain simple weaving gives firmness. Place the splints crossed for the Then with a single strand center. ing two. as described in Figs. left the base is composed of simple mat foundation. Each pair manner. small wrapped loop is affixed to both basket and lid. One single row of plain weave with a wide splint and five of loop weave. and the spokes are turned under. Now by tightly wrapping and tucking ' in. fastening off the end grass. of rows is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER until the BASKETS.HOW torn row. each splint thus formtaken. trim {weave two or three rows with plain white narrow splint. spokes are turned down and tucked in. four similar to those below it. For a handle. when the handle is wrapped on the top. Two rows of loop weave and then the spokes are curved down. On these are woven twined rows of sweet grass. complete. Two or three rows of narrow weavers fix the spokes in position. The lid is made of five broad and two narrow splints. wrapped around and bound on with small white splints. 5. and outside with a row of sweet grass. followed with three narrow splint weave. Then the rim is strengthened inside with a colored splint. and use the "twined"" weave or pairing. The former is affixed to the latter by lacing the binding of the basket to that of the lid. after which it is finished off with three strong splinits inside and one colored one outside. and eleven or twelve rows of narrow splint weave Then the splints are bent out and split. fastening it to the last row of splint weave. and the edges bound as is the rim of the basket. 6 four basIn the bottom one to the kets of splints and sweet grass are shown. the latter at the sides. Upon this place lengths of sweet Then wrap tightly as shown in Fig. 5 is a The splints are cut so as to be very center and widen rapidly towards the edge. Then the spoke splints are bent at right angles and six or seven rows of weaving taken upon The foundathis portion. In Fig. which has been well anchored by fastening it below. tion splints are now turned upright again and a row of the "loop" weave with inch-wide splints made. and so on woven in like 7 the lid is SWEET GRASS foundation fan. five splints each way. the grass composes the woof. loop. 5. as shown by the design. 97 complete round is made. The finishing border is of these same splints wound under and over and looped as will clearly be seen in the design.

New York. . BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS.FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 144.

and a study The of them will make the foregoing instructions much more clear. of Fig. lid. They are then woven with twined sweet grass until the lid is the size of the basket. as in all ordinary web weaving. formThen more ing a little nipple or elevation between the spokes. and the twining continued until the flange of the cover is as deep as required. The spokes are now turned down.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. twined sweet grass completes the sides. But the two small splints which together are about 1-8 of an inch wider than the broad splint on which they rest are crossed from bottom to top under every other spoke. Fig. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. The method of making the handkerchief basket in Fig. 99 right and the one just described is that after a few rows of sweet grass are twined into the sides one wide and two narrow splints are introduced. and the rim strengthened with other splints and bound with a narrow splint. 6. however. Three or four rows of simple web weave at the outer edge of the base tighten the spokes. . 144 is of mat weave and web weave. They are then turned up for the sides and described. The carrying basket of Fig. Then the spokes are turned in. 7 shows the bases and lids of the baskets of Fig. or a trifle larger. one under. 145. For this the spokes must be very narrow in the center and broaden towards the edges. New York. sweet grass twined in up to the top. 140. The lid The round basket is FIG. the edge strengthened by a suitable splint and bound as before. The wide splint is woven. 6 is composed of even splints about halfan-inch wide and laid as shown in Fig. 6 will be described in a later Bulletin of the Basket Fraternity. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. is made quite differently. one over. The spokes are then turned in. The handle is fastened to a loop which is held secure by being taken under the sweet grass of the under side of the lid in several places. which are bound as before made in like manner.

100 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 146. . New York. FIG. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

and so on alternating the wrapping of the curled splint around the foundation splints exposed by the upper and lower of the two broad weavers. strengthen the edges or rim with a stout splint inside and sweet grass outside. shown in the figure. turn the spokes down. Then twine weave sweet grass for an inch and a quarter. They are first \voven in web weave with narrow wood splint for about ten rows. Then three i-4-inch splints are \voven. under a foundation splint. after the turning up of the sides. Then strengthen and bind the edge as before described. the edge of the lid being turned down. Then two i i -4-inch wide splints. 140. plain splints. 144 is made essentially in the same manner. Weave five rows of finely plaited sweet grass two of narrow splint. The base. 13 the top basket is a very pretty creation in plaited sweet In both top and bottom the foundation spokes are narrow grass. web weave. The lid requires the splints narrow in the center and widening out . the weaving for about an inch is composed of plaited sweet grass. Turn down and tuck in the foundation spokes. When the spokes are in place. In the basket itself. Loop the plait and bind to the side by twisting or curling the third wood splint around the plait. 18 inches long. after which introduce the broad splints. the thick plaited sweet grass and the curl as on the Then complete the top of the lid with six or eight rows of sides. however. with the third for the curling and wrapping around the plait of sweet grass as described in the carrying basket. The work basket of Fig. web weave. is formed as shown in Fig. Take four splints about 23 inches long. using thickly plaited sweet grass for weaver. The edges of the base are made tight with four or five rows of simple The spokes are then turned up for the sides. over the plait. and 3-8 of an inch wide. The handle is composed of a heavy triple plait of sweet grass. Cross these in simple mat weave with twelve similar Turn these up for ends and sides. fasten by six or eight rows of ordinary web weaving with sweet grass. and then bind with narrow splint. and the curl weave to give ornamentation. In Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. fastened to the sides with an ordinary wood splint. Then take together with two plaits of thickly plaited sweet grass and proceed to web weave. then completed with plaited sweet grass. of ordinary web weave with two of these wide splints. one row of simple 'splint weave. First hold splints. IOI using plaited sweet grass. woven with plaited sweet grass. . splint web weave. in the center widening towards the edge. Now continue the weaving of the sides with six rows of plain web weave and six rows of double plaited sweet grass as before. under the upper part of the next foundation splint. This is followed with a splint 5-8-inch wide. Now we take three weavers an inch wide and a long plait of extra thick Make two rows plaited grass. the rim being strengthened and bound with wood splints. and complete the weave with the plaited sweet grass until the flange is the size desired. strengthened and bound as before described. web woven. When the lid is the right size to fit the basket. and the rim strengthened and bound with simple wood splints. the ends being looped as to the edges.

6. Strengthen the edge and bind as elsewhere described.IO2 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and the weaving done with twined weave. Fig. using 1-2inch wide splints. so the til may be grass. . using plaited sweet grass for weaver. 2. The handle is of heavy plaited sweet grass. then strengthen and bind rim as elsewhere described. until the lid is right size. Turn up for the sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. 140 six or seven rows of simple web weaving with narrow wood splint holding it firmly Turn up sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. 2. finish the weave unis the flange of the desired size. splint and plaited sweet grass basket. together. Strengthen the rim with stout splint inside and and sweet grass outside and bind with narrow splint. The base is formed as shown in Fig. 145 shows the top and bottom or a basket and lid of a. For the lid the splints must be narrow in the center and widening towards the edge. MADEIRA BORDER NO. 147. 148. The lid is made as the one in Fig. PAIRING FOR PLAIT. FIG. 6. 6 and laced on as there described. The lid is made as the round lid of Fig. The round basket has a base as described in Fig. the corners being turned over and doubled and then twined with plaited sweet grass. MADEIRA BORDER NO. FIG. simple web woven with narrow splints or plain sweet Then twine weave with plaited sweet grass. The diagonal handkerchief basket is composed of diagonal mat weave. When within an inch of top web weave with 3-4-inch wide wood splint. In Fig. the edges being woven with nine or ten rows of splint web weave. 140. turn down the foundation spokes. The lid is of simple twined plaited sweet made as the lid described in Fig. The foundation spokes are then turned up for the sides. then strengthen edge and finish off. 146 the square basket is made of mat foundation. After laying out the spokes the first inch or grass.

the spokes should all be double. to have the spokes double throughout the basket." MADEIRA BORDER NO. 103 CHAPTER XVII. although many spokes may be used. the ends are all cut off neatly. which may be worked in the ordinary way with single spokes. however. i. is threaded over the next spoke which is turned down. inserting beside each spoke an extra one of six inches. Do not draw the spokes down too closely. and leave the end on the outside of the basket (Fig. and then. "When this first part is done. "Repeat this round. so that when you come to the finish you have be treated . and now take one lot of double spokes behind the next lot. the extra length being pushed into the basket. Take one spoke in a close curve behind the next and bring the end down against the border (Fig. when the weaving is finished. on the same principle as for the preceeding border only in this there will be more to thread through. 147). the first swoke. 2. which must be left a little loose. in front one. . It is not necessary. ''Treat all the double spokes as one. rest. To finish. as the last spokes are threaded through to complete the border. they one in the descriptions.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. turn the basket upside down to do the plait around the edge. the further side of the spoke against which they this border. "Repeat this round. Be careful not to draw the first spokes down close to begin with they must be left open. "To make it. behind one. and the hold should be shifted round as each . i Allow four inches for this border. after being taken behind one. very simple. FANCY BORDERS. and the last is inserted first -behind and then in front of the next two spokes already turned down. 4 rattan or triple ones of as. so as each spoke is brought round the next it should be held firmly in its place by the left hand. allowing the four inches for the border. For the sake will of brevity. in front of one. "When the last two lots of double spokes are reached. "It is necessary to keep this plait very close to the basket. and leave the ends on the outside of the basket. and suitable for violet baskets and small candy-bas- kets of various kinds. Allow spokes of eight inches for and use double spokes of No. room of for inserting the last spokes. as the border should be about one inch in depth. No. 148). threading the last spokes through the spokes already turned down. drawing all the spokes closely down except the first. in front of the next. MADEIRA BORDER It is NO. in front of one only. as it has a much prettier effect when they are so. "Take one spoke behind one. proceed in the same way behind one.

Finish by threading the spoke through the loop of the first." of MADEIRA BORDER NO. 2 rattan together. in and behind one. therefore it is necessary to keep the spokes straight to the top." BORDER. If the edge of the border. and then to bend them to interlace with other spokes. If uneven the effect of the basket is quite spoilt. Allow spokes of six inches. front of two Take one spoke behind three spokes. This is a very light and graceful border." NO. out plait. the basket. 3." Allow spokes of 14 inches. and then. 4. to pass . after going behind and in front of the next six will be the first to be taken behind the first spoke the others following in their course. behind three and in front of three if kept close together it has the effect of a double ridge or twist. curving one spoke beneath the next in the same way. It must not be spread out. measuring occasionally to keep the border as described for the preceeding borders of of the correct depth." as it is ivsed on the cycle baskets very useful on many other kinds. as it is flat outside and the ends are all cut off neatly inside. and push the end well down inside. and use three spokes of No. CYCLE . and the ends must be cut off neatly. Care should be taken in doing this that the ends of the spokes are left long enough to go over the next spoke. 4 rattan. and plait the ends. i rattan. and Use three spokes together. Allow spokes 16 inches and use No. "The first of MADEIRA BORDER in the usual way. This border but it is is called the "Cycle. Finish off on the same principle as for the preceeding borders. Great care is needed to keep a nice straight edge round the top of the border. principally those which have lids. Finish off with the plait This border is worked on the outside 5. turned down. . leaving the end outside the basket." the last spokes being threaded through the turned-down spokes in their order. in front of two. the first of these will be taken in front of two. leaving the end outside for the plait. behind one. i 1-2 inches. behind three. behind two. Depth of border withas for same way NO. Thus. in front of two. three inches. Depth of border without plait. these. Take one spoke behind two.IO4 HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER last BASKETS. "Do MADEIRA BORDER use No. in front of three. Materials required "Allow 8 inches for this border. two spokes together. only now the spokes curve round to make the other side of plait. leaving the end outside. Repeat this round. in front of two. "Take one spoke in front of two spokes. This border is worked on the inside. Repeat this round until only seven upright spokes remain. 2. "Take one spoke behind three spokes. "Now go round again. behind one. spoke used. in front of one. the plait is finished. the plait in the "Madeira Border No. behind one. When the last spoke has been threaded through the loop of the first. behind two. This is finished on the same principle as the "Madeira Borders. when only five upright spokes are left. in front of one. in front of two.

but room should be left for the end spokes to After the first two spokes have been used. will BORDER SECOND 150. 149. : . and bring it down beside the third spoke outside Be careful in doing this not to draw the spoke too tightly (Fig." is efficient in this border six inches for spokes FLAT PLAIT BORDER. FLAT PLAIT BORDER. COMMENCING FIG. Allow spokes 13 inches long. FINISHED BORDER. Take the first from inside. FJG. it will be takem in front of the last upright spoke one turned down. Now proceed to plait as follows Take the first spoke from outside. and through the loop of this it must be threaded to the inside all the other spokes will then be threaded through in their places. . 105 and the again. 150). BORDER FINISHED. as the closer come together the handsomer the border will look when When a pupil be sufficient. FLAT PLAIT IN PROGRESS. two first . 6 or 7 rattan.HOW in front of TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Use for this No. '''Turn down 149). place between the next two upright spokes. from the outside. I spoke in a curve over the other two. and place ic between the first two upright spokes bring down the first upright spoke beside it. be threaded through. Repeat this with the second and third spokes then there will be three spokes inside and two spokes outside. 152. then draw the first upright spoke down beside it. FLAT PLAIT hand bring No. and with the right WITH PORTION OF FIG. 151. second and third in the left hand. Hold the three spokes sharply to the outside of the basket (Fig. POSITION OF SPOKES. bring the first spoke from inside between the same upright spokes to outside. When the double spokes arc reached they must be used together . the fir sit spoke must not be drawn close down to the weaving. FLAT PLAIT draw the border down as firmly as possible. the spokes finished. but they must not be more than 1-2 inch apart. FIG. In starting this border.

and these must all be treated in the same way as the first double spoke. FIG. 151). This brings five lots of double spokes to the inside of the basket Take first two lots and thread through as shown (see Fig." Take three twos out of the three threes. Teachers' College. When the last upleaving the short spoke to be cut off afterwards. Work of Students. 3 and then to the follow the course of the where it . 153. in Fig.io6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. finish the The other four double spokes must be used in the same way border (which is shown complete in Fig. so that it may lie flat beside that then follow its course under single spoke No. Take the first double spokes from the inside and thread through the place shown in Fig. first single spoke under the black spoke to passes through to the outside of the basket. 152). There are four other double spoke s>. one spoke both inside and outside the basket and when the triple spokes are reached the two longer ones must be used together as one. outside. first threading it just through the first single spoke. 151. right spoke has been turned down there will be two lots of double as . Then take the longer one of these. thus making it double like the others. Now take the longer of these and thread one up through the single spoke. spokes inside and three lots of triple spokes outside. that it may lie flat beside that. and pass them under the three that were first turned down. to . 151. In finishing this border the principle is to make all the single spokes used in starting double to agree with the rest of the border. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. To do this the longer one of each of the double spokes inside the basket is used to follow out their course. New York. and.

. then insert new spokes and continue the twined weaving until base is size desired. 154. A. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. under. spirally coiling the flat ratof raffia. inch above this.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the ket take a length of No. a raffia collar box and a splint basket. Pair or twine weave with raffia six or eight rounds. silk-lined. succession until the edge is finished. Now taking care to twine around three only. at one end. make a larger circle an inch from the first twined circle. The short ends of the rays are finished bending a first group of And so on in three over a group to the left under the next group. lar BASKET. Then begin the knot stitch. Fig. Examples of this twined weave are shown in Figs. This gives a fancy effect and affords a place for decorating with ribbon as seen in the plate. 1546. An COLLAR . 140. in which additional spokes are added for base and sides when needed. and to the left. This is made of rush or tule. Above this about the same spaced width a final twining is made. raffia is good. Fig. See A. outward from edge of base. though the long leaved pine may be used. Then line with fancy silk or other material. Take a twining weaver and about an inch from the center proceed to twine over six or seven until a fiat circle is formed by bringing the twining around to the place of beginning. Indian Basketry. A FEW BASKETS. Tie these securely at the middle and then tie together flat radiating from a center. 156 and 157 herewith. Bind the top with natural or colored raffia as shown. 137. twine around three rays until you come around to the pdace of beginning. 133. 136. Fig. See that this twining is equidistant from the base. and in Figs. 7 flat rattan. 155. and six bunches of tule or rush 14 or 15 inches in length and 21 single lengths to the bunch. Bend up spokes and proceed with the twined weaving. To make this knotted stitch basForm a loop. neatly In Fig. introducing bands of color according to taste. BOX. Procure six yards of double twining material. An extra twining or three strand twisting over a coil gives additional strength to the edge. and that the wall slants THE KENSINGTON In Figs. Start the base as described in Fig. Tie together with weaver desired diameter or oval of the basket. 154 and 155 are shown a rush. 153 are two made baskets. twine around the groups of three all the way round to the last place of beginning. CHAPTER XVIII. Now having secured a firm base it is desired to shape the side of basket. About an inch from the outside circle. Kensington colbasket. Continue to twine a second time round to make the base firm and flat. first letting a group cross over another group.

O hH fa fa O M H 02 d i i fa fa fa <) tf 72 P a o 02 fa M 01 <JJ M O u fa .i ' / />O' ' <* .

weavers. (The splints should always be moist when bending is done).HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The two-toned effect shown in the plate was made by running green spokes on the upper base before twining. Take the raffia over two bands of the rattan. . i5 4 C. 109 taiv as the weaving progresses. When once round see that the next stitch goes between the stitches already on the first part of the work. The bottom is made by stringing web strands from end to end and holding them in place by woof strands placed an inch apart. The ornamental banding is made by slipping the colored ray back of and over weave and slipping the end again in place along its un- derlying spoke. Overcast the two woof strands together to hold them taut. Make base as shoAvn in Fig. size as the first and place it above letting the rays of the lower mat come between the rays of the upper mat. narrow splint. filling a wall one inch high. The final weaver to be a broad length of splint. Then make a "button-hole" stitch and. lining of silk may add to its value. securing the ends. Take a wide length splint very narrow. Take eight yards Fig. under one. four yards I -4-inch green splint. In an earlier chapter this branch of weaving was fully presented. Ornament with narrower bands of colored splint by overlaying the broad bands. of The edgeing rim around around the edge the bottom is an over and over weaving the bate two times round. 18 3-8-inch wide splints. fastening spokes in place with raffia or fine splint. See Fig. Continue sewing until all of cane is used and finish with double button-hole stitch. Now carefully secure the ends of the Take up the basket and place it before you right side up. 154. A very common and useful DIAGONAL" MAT BASKETRY. basket. 140. Use three broad bands in this way and then finish off with six rows of two colored twining. Bring the edges of the rattan as close together as possible. Spread the spokes of the basket on a flat surface. and weave in more of the narrow splint for about one and a half inches. Fold over the outer s pokes and tuck under twinings on the inside Cut off the alternate rays even with top of to keep them in place. weave over owe. then the button-hole loop again. Twine the two together with a stout strip of ash Then make another base same first. After cutting away the holding bands of raffia or cord and modelBut if used for sewing a ing the basket may be considered finished. Bend all the spokes upward from the salver-like rim. with a fourth inch strap of darker splint. and a white). over two again. knotting carefully and tightly. The cover to the box is a button-holed band of flat rattan with a wove>n< top made by stringing web strands of raffia one way and weaving closely across the web with raffia. green and white. the Now take two of the I -8-inch weavers (a green and. THE ASH SPLINT BASKET. of ash the same width as spoke and weave in over one under one for the beginning of final wall. 20 inches long and two yards 3-8-inch white splint. bottom up.

" Fig. Main frame 22 inches long. two pieces. Center frame. Bottom brace for side frame. 2^4 inches long. These are home woven as bought are pic- WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. CHAIR. cross-wrapped with raffia so as to fit perfectly. is 157. On to page 120 "Indian Basketry. The top border is made with a double page 65 "Indian Basketry. 156. 2 2. I rattan. The bottom is made of a ring.y inches long. is shown a Pueblo In- dian mat. Tack legs and back to the rings. a toy chair is pic- TOY FIG. made from s also a useful adjunct made with a little 4 rattan for front legs. 27). This dainty and pretty little toy. the other 2 inches. as is also the large basket to the left on page 83. same size. to a toilet table as a ring holder. 6^4 inches long. 28 and 29. the outer edge being bound. 158. l 2 inches in diameter. fold. 60 is a Hopi Yucca Basket made on this diagonal mat weave. 3. Cut four pieces of rattan. It should not be forgotten that in making the rings the joints should be spliced perfectly. 6$/ inches long. Bottom brace for main and center frames. Figs. TWINED WEAVING. 124. FIG. On an earlier page (Fig. about 13 inches long. CROSSED WARP tured. Using make one this as a pattern a little care will enable the student similar to it. of palmetto or any flat and reasonably firm material. which easily be Materials are. Detail of Magazine Holder 2. two lengths of No. SURFACE EFFECTS OF TWINED OPEN WORK. and then tacked or sewed in. Rear legs and back are made from one piece. 104. page 108. 4. as shown in Fig. These may be made of tule.no HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 107. Make two rings. and nail the two rings together. Wooden base. Fig. one 2. 5. 2 pieces. can patience. 20 inches long. Insertion for back is piece of No. one piece. shows a Hopi weaver at work on this On weave. Now wrap the two rings with raffia (Fig. soaked and bent into desired shape. HOLDER. 27). pair of objects which may as well be tured in Fig. completes the mat. is made as follows i. / THE MAGAZINE : . two pieces." Fig. The main portion is of simple mat con- Then about twenty rows of web struction over two and under two. weaving. Proceed as in ordinary diagonal weave.

for at holes to 5. is not wise. With the fourteen pieces No. 2 green rattan. Thoroughly soak Nos. both sides. 7 inches long. 56 of No. as the tack soon pulls out from the raffia. 10. 15 inches. Tack 10 to points where they cross 2. Tack shown. 2 pieces No. 9. 21 inches long. Ornamented 7. Then wrap with wide raffia. . This latter method. 6 inches long. Bend into shape required.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 6. Tack 3 to I and 2. also 4 to i. Ill old box lid. It is better sewed. 19 inches. : 6% FIG. Handle. one piece. two pieces. Bottom brace for center frame. I. binding 3 at both ends to i. The wire scrolls may now be sewed in with raffia. tying them in the center. Brace for ends. 9 and 10. with twisted raffia. 2. 14 inches long. Tack 8 to I. 8 rattan. . Tack 6 to 5 tack the ends of 10 to 6 put 2 into end holes of 5. Nos. BASKET Get 14 pieces of No. made as follows Take two pieces of rattan long and two pieces i% inches long. 5 rattan. Tack the long pieces to make two of the ends of the short pieces and thus make a frame these. In the middle of each end saw out a hole large enough to allow center frame to rest snugly within. with ends below wood an inch and a quarter. Tack 4 to 5. 56 of No. . No. 4. 32 of No. 3*4 inches long. 2 green rattan. 2 green rattan. 16 inches. however. To put together. 16. split thick cane or rattan. 112 of FLUTED FLOWER No. one piece. 48 inches. 6-Hs inches long. or tacked through the raffia to the rattan or wood of the frame. Then wrap them with strands of raffia. WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. 2. as 158. I. Wire scroll. . Tack 9 to 5. 3 inches broad. four pieces 8. wrapped frame for main frame. 2 green rattan. then \vrap with raffia. 8 rattan make an ordinary round base with an even number of spokes measuring 5 inches across.

112 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. dividing all the spokes into twos. placing two beside each two. and pushing them right down to the base of the basket (Fig. 165). 2 white cane. TURNING DOWN SPOKES. but the twelve FIG. four lots of four spokes. FIG. Cut off the ends of the spokes and insert the fifty-six spokes of No. 159. 164. placing one spoke on either side of the one do three rows of Turn the spokes upright. placing two beside the next lots of two spokes on either side of the four undivided double spokes added to it. must be bent down to the outside of the basket to form the curve. j> orci er Insert the thirty-two spokes of 16 inches. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. 21 inches. ing them down most sharply in the center of each When this has been done do nine rows of plain weaving. Now Now insert the fifty-six spokes of 19 inches. 2 green rattan. so that each curve has four lots of . Pair round once. presstwelve (Fig. spokes. which remain undivided. spoke in base. excepting 164). weaving. Then twenty-nine rows of plain triple twist with No. Between each of these lots of double spokes. BASKETS FROM THE PHILIPPINES. The four spokes must be four spokes there will be twelve left upright. These four spokes are at equal distances round the basket. Take the center spoke of each group of seven in the base. and you will get the right spokes at the side.

165. round once. dividing all the spokes into two. used together as one. Pair round once to divide into twos. TURNING WEAVER ROUND CORNER SPOKES. STARTING SQUARE (All the pairs of spokes are border. WORK BASKET. CURVE PARTLY WORKED. Do eight rows of weaving. 166. FIG. and for the sake of brevity will be spoken of as . Insert the 112 spokes PIG. in readiness for the FIG. FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. the depth of which is 3}^ inches. Pair of green rattan. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. 167. still keeping the central side spokes undivided. placing two beside each two round the basket.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

thread both ends from inside round the handle cane just below the border. for the lid. Take two pieces of No. 166). Now turn the basket upside down and pair round once. 6 rattan. and push basket. . start the border when about six spokes have been inserted." using four spokes together to plait with. 4 inches. behind two. four spokes of No. 12 inches. TWISTED HANDLE. "169. 13 rattan. the ends into the basket at the opposite side. 170. spokes of No. behind one. in front of one. taking two lots of double spokes together each time. leaving end inside. the spokes being curved from left to right. two pieces of No. 13 rattan. 16 inches. BASKET. All this must be worked underneath the wooden base. 16 inches.114 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Repeat this round. BASE. putting in a few spokes at a time. DETAIL OF 171. and leave behind. SQUARE WORK WOOD FIG. and then continue the work round. leaving 2^2 inches below. When this is done plait round as described for "Madeira Borders. 13 inches. one piece of No. . 13 rattan. and keeping the row of pairing even with the edge of the weaving. 2 rattan. TURNING WEAVER FIG. Insert the forty-four spokes through the holes in the wooden base. push two ends down beside one lot of four spokes on the inside of the Twist the two pieces of rattan round each other.) of two. and weave a short way round the basket (Fig. 7^/2 inches across. In doing this. This border is worked on top of the basket. FIG. 16 rattan and _ Take one piece in front of three spokes. cross these. 6 rattan. rials SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE MateRequired A square wooden base. Do the border in front of one. Handle Sharpen the ends of the two pieces of No. draw the four ends to equal lengths and twist round the handle to the opposite side thread through to the outside two pieces on either side of the handle cane. twenty-nine spokes. in front one. STARTING LID OF SQUARE BASKET. 7 inches. Forty-four FIG AROUND LAST SPOKE. behind one. in front of one. 168. nineteen spokes of No.

Take two spokes of 16 inches and place flat on the table together. Place another spoke flat on the table about y> inch further on and pair round. 167 and 168). and then place a piece of No. and four rows of single Do - . In front of two spokes. three rows of triple twist. and. until a piece is clone measuring 6 / 2 the / inches (fifteen spokes). while those on either side are pushed in. 2 cane round it. in each corner. as it fits inside the basket. cross them. 2 cane and put the loop over the spokes 4^/2 inches from the nearest ends (Fig. If correctly worked this basket should measure 8 inches across. Do one row of flat colored rattan. . therefore. the base up. behind one. the lid. Take a piece of No. and weave a few inches on either spokes side." same way as explained for "Made- To make this basket of a good shape it is necessary to keep an equal distance between each spoke the corner spokes should be pulled outwards. To finish. will be inches. leaving end inside. 7^ Allowing y? inch on either side for the border round it. 13 rattan (12 inches) can now be inserted . leaving one weave out (leave an end of about i inch). one row of triple twist. this is not necessary (Figs. thread round the handle cane just below the triple twist. 13 The two rattan (4 inches). corners. 25). Lid Twenty-nine spokes. so that when flat on the table the weaving will continue from the left hand side.) six rows of flat colored rattan one row of triple twist two rows of plain weaving. Turn this over from right to left. keeping it in a straight line. keeping them l in their places with the left hand. 16 inches. Do four rows of single weaving. with 2 spaces of about y inch between each twist. bring the other back. 168). place a piece of flat colored cane over the top of the handle. fold a strand of No. thread the ends through to the inside. turn it over and . 2 cane. and then twist the ends of the No. must be used together as one. When the other end is reached turn it over as before. Sharpen the ends and push them into the basket beside the fourth (counting from either end) and at the second row of triple twist. With the ends do the plait in the ira Borders. 24). in front of one. and weave across the spokes. the last spokes being double (Fig. one row of flat colored. 13 rattan at each corner must be cut evenly with the weaving before the border is done. The piece of No. for handles. resting on the plaited border there (it is shown in Fig.HOW Turn TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. one going under and the other over. When the round weave goes behind the double corner spokes it must be taken round them again but when the weave comes on the outside. this brings measurement of the center square of lid to 6 l 2 inches. and the shorter end of the spokes will still point towards the work. Continue to place the spokes and pair them. The two pieces of No. and then do another row of pairing. Take the two weaves round the double spokes at the end. and place the long spokes into position. . Border "Cycle" Border. (This cannot be twisted round Do two rows of plain weaving. beside the corner spoke. weaving.

the spokes are flared more decidedly. which are then thoroughly wet and bent upward with a slight flare. Every second row of weaving must be taken twice round the double spokes at the ends. Border In front of two. When two weavers have been used. Bend the rattan in a half-circle. two weaving. The edge is then bound off and finished with the simple border described this in the directions for a basket with a twisted handle in the first part of the chapter. 7 inches. rattan. the first side spoke must be woven in. or the lid will have a very untidy appearance. weave back again. and twist the strand of No. and in . one spoke. form a loop by threading a weaver around a few rows of the weaving take the ends inside the basket. 4 rattan. then do two rows of pairing round the lid. Bind the loop with flat cane. the spokes are drawn in while using the remaining two weavers. and when two more have been woven in this way. and a short piece of No. one spoke. Insert one spoke by weaving it in in the ordinary way. one spoke. one flat. . Take a spoke of 16 inches and. This pairing must be kept as close as possible to the weaving. and dividing the double spokes at each corner. pliable length of No. six weavers of No.Il6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . Handle (on top) One piece of No. four weaving. 2 rattan. Materials for Basket Eight 2O-inch spokes of No. A bottom is woven 2^4 inches in diameter. two pairing. one spoke. . 13 rattan. four rows of weaving. front just in the center and directly under the border of the basket. one spoke two weaving. and weave each end a short way round the basket. ing. one spoke. one spoke. leaving about /2 inch over at either end. one four plain weaving. . Do two rows of single weaving with one piece of flat cane. and secure the other end in the same manner on the opposite side. . and with a piece of wire secure one end of the rattan against the third and fourth spokes. 2 rattan round it in the same way as the side handles sew the lid on with flat cane at the back. 13 rattan tied to the side of the basket. one spoke four weaving. one flat two weav. repeat. two weaving. one length No. make another loop to catch over the first bind this also with fine flat cane. l . For handle. catching in the ends of the flat cane with the spokes to which they are nearest. cross them. counting from the side. in front of one. behind one. When two outside rows of plain weaving have been done (counting in the ordinary way the number of times one weaver crosses the same spoke). leaving an end of 4^4 inches. one securely. Get the center of the lid. one flat two weaving. through the under loop. Place a piece of colored rattan over the top of it. 4 rattan. 4 rattan which has been soaked until These cut into four pieces and then separated into pairs. piece flat green. weave down in place of the weaver then take the weaver over or under the spoke and weave down the side. Now weave in a spoke at either side next to the pairing. one spoke. four weaving. to slip . 4 n-inch of No. one spoke four weaving. will fasten it BASKET WITH TWISTED HANDLE HAVING INTERLACED ENDS Miss White thus describes the method of making basket. are bent into loops at about ten inches from one end of each and Handle is A . on eight and a half 20-inch spokes. two rows weaving.

8 rattan. knotted in this way. for. 171). and brought together. putting by one on either side of the five long spokes at each end. one in each hand of the worker.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. see Fig. The Materials required five of No. it is so simple that one can easily follow its coils. 3 and 40 flat. I. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET an ordinary base. 7 spokes inches. 8 rattan. COMMENCING 174. The loops are held firmly where the short end of each comes against the long end (making sure that the short ends are on the same sides of the loops). and are then made into another knot copied from the first one. Make . who passes one loop through the other. measuring 16 6 inches. The long ends are twisted together for about twelve inches. although the process cannot be the same. 18^ inches. FIG. OF 172. 18 inches. BINDING HANDLE 175. HANDLE OF KEY BASKET. weave with Nos. fifty spokes of No. OF KEY BASKET COMMENCING. which makes the loop uppermost on one end of the knot and on the other the ends. This knot is placed about half way between the top and bottom of the basket. 173. 172. This knot is placed on the opposite side of the basket from the first one and attached in the same way. PIG. 2 rattan. FIG. 8 rattan. Insert the fifty side spokes. TWISTED HANDLE. with the long ends turning up. bringing the ends of the loop through which it passed over it. The short ends are now crossed one under a long end and one over (as shown in Fig. Use No. short ends are finished off by weaving one to the right over and under several spokes and the other to the left. DETAIL. The long ends are also brought together making a knot like Fig. 171. nineteen spokes across five. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET. FIG. nineteen spokes of No.

16 inches. Handle Length of handle according to taste. Get a long strand of No. and the shape will be spoilt. carried on top of the handle to the opposite side and 4 inches over. thirty-six spokes through the holes in the wooden base. carry over the basket. 13 rattan. Border "Loop. turn the basket up and do two rows of triple twist and twentywith No. Also be careful to keep an even distance between each spoke. alter- In making this basket great care*is necessary to get it a nice shape with a sharp angle at each corner. sticking . 175). 13 rattan. 3 Weave pieces of No. take it over the handles to the opposite side. and winding tightly. keeping one round of rattan just meeting the next. in front of one leave the end inside to be cut off afterwards. Turn up and do three rows of twist No. and begin by threading one end from the inside to the outside beside the handle cane and just bePull the end out until it is long enough to be neath the border. and insert in the same way on the opposite side. 102. OP KEY BASKET FINISHING. up against the handle cane. If this is not done. 3 rattan thirteen rows of plain weaving. Materials u I inches.u8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 176. In order to d6 this keep the corner spoke pulled outward and press the one on either side well in. eight rows of flat rattan (colored) and round rattan alternately twelve rows of plain weaving one row of pairing. rattan. . or allowed to get wider in others. Now with the long end of rattan bind neatly round the handle and flat rattan together. BINDING HANDLE two rows of weaving." the result being shown in Fig. Two Oblong wooden Spokes of No. and the spokes are drawn together in some parts. Put on in the same way as described for the "Key Basket. Thirty-six spokes of No. Put the . 174). Now FIG. FIG. required base. colored. and repeat the cross on the outside leave the end . behind one. 40 flat rattan." 2 inches high. . using one white and one colored weaver nately. rattan. the basket will become uneven. Round the foot do four rows of plain weaving and border. . KEY BASKET colored and white. one piece on either side of the center spoke in the side (as shown in Fig. and tie the longer ends together. Handle Insert the two pieces of No. SHALLOW OVAL BASKET. and forty flat. leaving 3 inches below for the foot. Cross it on the outside (as in Fig. See Fig. 177. 3 rattan.

149 to 152. and with the other weave to rattan. Of FIG. Weave with 3.rattan. Then ninety. 179. Do seven rows of single weaving three rows each spoke singly. 16 rattan down beside the center side spoke and one piece beside the first spoke on either side repeat on the opposite side. 19 inches.it round way to that in which it was wound. Add the fourteen spokes. 7 rattan. 178. BINDING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. Now . FINISHING HANDLE do two rows of triple twist to divide the spokes with No. INSIDE VIEW. Rattan may required Willow be substituted. until quite tight . (straight round) of flat rattan. 40 flat round the center handle rattan from the inside just below the border. 6. taking at each side. Weave like an ordinary oval base until twenty rows of weaving with No. three of No. 180. placing one beside each of the five long spokes and the first of the double side spokes. When loose enough for about six rings up. and pull the end of rings (Fig. Split the thirteen willows in the center and thread onto the five of 19 inches. thirteen of 13 inches and fourteen of inches long. and insert the ninety-four spokes of No. Cut off the ends of the spokes. FIG. 119 it When the handle has been bound round as close to the border as can be. Materials spokes the thickness of a slate pencil. it SHALLOW OVAL BASKET then cut off neatly." See Figs.four of No. cut the flat rattan. Leave one end several inches long. . these take five of 19 inches. STARTING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Border "Flat Plait. FIG. Handle Place one piece of No. Thread a piece of No. 4 and continue weaving until the base measures 18 by 12 inches. and six rows of weaving. OUTSIDE VIEW. 30 inches. leaving an end of 3 inches. 181. loosen it by twisting. 3 rattan have been done. one on either side of each spoke. seven at either end. except the center one Turn up sharply and do two rows of triple twist. OF OVAL BASKET. 4. 176). FIG. push the end up and pull out between the Twist the rattan back again. in the opposite Without unwinding any of the rattan. 7. 16 rattan. 16 and 40 flat rattan. .

STRAIGHT CORNER. all 183. and the end pushed up against one of the canes and then cut off (Fig. 181. the end of the flat rattan must be FIG. SQUARE BASKET. 178 and 179). PAPER BASKET Materials required Twelve spokes WASTE . When the border is reached. SECTION SQUARE BASKET WITH threaded round the center handle rattan just beneath it. 185. FIG. 184. WASTE PAPER BASKET when the weaving three canes together until within 6 inches of the border. 182). FINISHING FIG. 180). and fro between the three spokes until eighteen rows cross the center one (Figs. taking OFF THE FLAT RATTAN IN BINDING A HANDLE. Now continue to bind over the top of the handle (Fig. 182. In doing this the short end must be caught in beside one of the handle canes. Fig. 176 shows how the handle ought to look when finished.120 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. LEAVING SIDES. is continued as in Fig.

i rattan. 22 inches No. singly (see Fig. Insert the handle in holes made for it in the wooden base. PLAITED HANDLE. see Fig 184. turn the basket right side up. Now . for half an inch. six times in all. 183).HOW TO MARK INDIAN AND OTHER . Finish with plaited border . and at FIG. 10 inches. after which turn the base upside 1 1/2 in Weave finish the foot before proceeding with the sides. 16 inches. Start the weavers on a side of the base which has not a handle through it. handle must be still counted as a spoke. IJI of No. Insert spokes for sides wooden base. 6 inches square 38 spokes of No. 13 rattan. : . Insert a short spoke close beside handle to be used in its stead for down and Finish with Closed Border No. Weave the base in the ordinary way (see Figs. Now do your check pattern again ten rounds of triple twist. i and 2 rattan. 125 to 129). turn them up after so doing weave ten rows of triple twist and six rounds of two colors to make the check pattern (Fig. until it Then insert the forty-eight spokes as usual. insert new weaver of dyed raffia or rattan and weave one Put a ten-inch inch. two of 36 inches (to be cut off when the twist is finished) and two longer. Bend spokes outward and continue weaving for eight more double rows. Work until you have three checks one row of triple twist twenty-two rows of plain weaving one round of triple twist. SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE . For handle. 187. 20) with two weavers. weaving the border. For this 4 lengths of No. 6. (Fig. the number of spokes being The even. 18fi. Ma- Required One board for base. The handles can be put on terials at discretion. inches from each end make a sharp bend. 2 spokes of No. FIG. weave singly. then another half inch or inch in natural color. Weave with Nos. and is 9 inches across. 6 inches. 6 rattan. 16 rattan. will be needed. 6. 12 inches forty-eight spokes No. The two longest are carried on for a row of pairing. BASKETS. Above the wooden base weave one row of rope twist. 183). . counting the handles as spokes. 27 inches. sloping the foot to taste. 2. 7. o. leaving 6 inches below the wood. 2 spokes No. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING SIDES. taking each weaver three times around.

Now progresses. KLIKITAT BASKET IN FROHMAX COLLECTION. spoke. 2 or Open Border No. 187a. and finish with Closed Border No. the spokes twined ready for the sides. spoke close to each side of the handle. and plait as shown. making a three-plait with two spokes instead of one. On finishing the plait the ends must all be pointed and thrust as far down to the base on the other side of the basket as possible. 186. 2 according to taste. place the basket on smooth board. line with silk to taste. to be used in its stead in weaving border.122 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. If for a workbasket. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING all up and Fig. plenty of rattan being left for this purpose. The awl thus acts as a pivot on which the basket may be moved while the side weaving SIDES. Where this handle is desired one of the spokes must be left long enough to form the handle. one on each side of this long These may all be doubled. thrust a small awl through the base into the board. 187 clearly shows the base finished. When the sides of the basket are woven insert two other spokes. FIG. PLAITED HANDLE. if preferred. . A handle that is very easy to make is shown in Fig.

follow the methods it may be as well to dye the completed work. 123 CHAPTER XIX. f. be worked out. FINISHING OFF A BASKET. If so. one should correct all irregularities. FIG. and these can be either In singeing be careful singed off or rubbed off with fine sandpaper. of the saire size. In rattan. however. In all raffia work care should be taken to cut off loose ends as the weaver progresses with her work. I think. should always be done before the basket while the materials are still unformed. flat and the and see that they are all of this nature seem small. Only in this way can designs the weaver desires baskets of one color. TN FROHMAN COLLECTION. not to scorch the basket. suggested make the bottom 1 in Those who desire to varnish or polish " Miss White's "How to Make Baskets their baskets may find recipes . yet upon them often lid to fit. is madeDyeing. in the chapter on dyes. YAKTTAT GOOD LUCK RATTLE BASKETS. splint. before it is allowed to dry. willow and other ware small fibers will split off from the work.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. hence. Things depends the difference between a poor and a good basket. See if the shape is as it should be especially examine the loops of the border . 188. While the work is damp it can easily be twisted into shape.

E. JR. FIG. 189. E. 190. OLD COILED BASKETRY IN THE COLLECTION OF H. SARGENT. JR. WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE BASKETS THE COLLECTION OF H.FIG. SARGENT. IN .

intelligently cannot do better than "read. A variation of the mat weave is that which Professor Mason calls by this name. which. and he who WORK OR MAT WEAVE. At the very outset we are confronted by the magnitude of the subject. 192 and 193- American Basketry. 125 CHAPTER XX. Curator of the Division of Ethnology of the United States National Museum." .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 192. how the Indian has well for all students of basketry to learn produced the wonderful results that make her basket work so famous. In what follows I have done little more than quote what that distinguished savant and sweet-spirited gentleman. COARSE CHECKER- PIG. Splints of every imaginable kind of material are used for this work. would work FIG. TWILLED BASKETRY. In my phase of the subject. and the warp is the same as the weft. This is practically the mat weave of the preceding pages. The fundamental technic of this work is in passing each strand of the woof over two or more warp strands. Professor Otis T. Mason. HOW TO MAKE It is INDIAN BASKETS. Even in the mechanical work the Indian showed a fertility of invention and a skill in execution little short of marvellous. 191. 191). however. thus producing a twilled effect as seen in Figs. Many North Pacific Coast as well as Atlantic Coast and Canadian Indians use this weave. Of the poetry and religion woven I into Indian baskets I larger book have fully discussed this can here say nothing. hence in this chapter nothing but practical hints can be given. mark and inwardly digest" what is there written. TWILLED WEAVING. Indeed it is practically impossible to tell the one from the other (see Fig. has written in his "Directions for Collectors of CHECKERWORK BASKETRY. will suffice to start the earnest student upon the true pathway.

" The Fijians make remarkable baskets by comIn this country the Chetamaches show marbinations of this weave. : 195 and 196.126 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. n. different structures result as follows I. in its southern portions. 165 and 167. The process is clearly shown WRAPPED A in Figs. Scores of designs may be made by the curious. On the specimen shown (Fig. each time and each way. "The North Americans of antiquity were very skillful in administering the twilled technic. though in three-ply twining and in braid twining three weft elements are employed. and specimens of which are found in "Indian Basketry. 193.NK1J IN TWO COLORS. and is still used by the Mohaves. of twine or yucca fiber. all rigidly The warp extends from the top to the bottom. From examples reproduced by W. TU1. but it is doubtful if one can be invented that these Indians have not long known. over single warps. : . 10. WEAVING made only at Oraibi. WEFT. . vellous ingenuity in the working out of designs in this weave by varying the laying of the splints and the use of different colors. In passing from warp to warp these elements are twisted in half-turns on each other so as to form a two-ply or three-ply twine or braid. ISC. FIG. Plain twined weaving. H. 194) the weft goes over one and under three. (See Figs. TWILLED WEAVING. The ordinary Indian work. firmly fastened to the hoop at the top and the rigid members at the bottom. This type of weaving was employed by the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley. continuing in a coil until the top is reached. The weft." Figs. the weft would not pass over the same number of warp elements that it passed under. all This is the most intricate and elegant of Professor Mason thus writes of the varieties of twined weaving as follows "Twined work has a set of warp rods or rigid elements. FIG. affixed at the bottom. or the opposite. as in wickerwork but the weft elements are commonly administered in pairs. the WICKER WORK finest web basketry of civilization is specimens being the plaques of the Hopis. woven work. TWINED WEAVING. rigid hoop is sustained by four uprights. 39 and 40). Holmes it will be seen that in the ancient weaving of the Mississippi Valley. is fastened to one of the rigid uprights and then wrapped once around each wrap element. According to the relation of these weft elements to one another and to the warp.

cluded in the half turns. TWILLED WEAVING PRESSED ON ANC IENT POTTERY OF ALABAMA. . 195. tee or Hudson stitch. are also made in a similar manner. The only difference 2. are not vertical as in plain twined weaving. The ridges." (See Fig. ing requires a set of warp elements arranged parallel to each other. WRAPPED WEAVING FIG. i. Fig. or water bottles. but pass diagonally over the . DIAGONAL TWINED this style between cross the and the plain warp strands. 222 Indian Basketry). over two or more warps. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.HOW 2. 199). on the outside. "The is in the manner the woof weavers technic consists in passing over two or FIG. or bird-cage twine. Wrapped twined weaving. OF THE MOHAVES. of the Havasupais are made in this of the fine baskets of (see Fig. 197. Three-ply twined weaving and braiding in several styles. Fig. the Pomas 200 "shows how." WEAVING. therefore. 4. Two splints or weavers compose the woof and they are twisted with a The Aleut and Haida baskets in half turn around each warp stem. around 5. surface. WRAPPED WEAVING FROM A MOUND IN OHIO. twined work vertical warps crossed by horizontal weft element. ings. Other examples will be found illustrated in "Indian Basketry. by varying the color of the weft splints and The esuwas. which is clearly shown in Fig. in which one weft element remains rigid and the other is wrapped about the cross3. 198 are made in this weave. 127 Diagonal twined weaving or twill." This primitive mode of weavPLAIN "TWINED WEAVING FIG. more warp elements there must be an odd number at each half turn for in the rest round the same pairs of warps are not inof warps. Latticed twined weaving. and many style. 194. 196.

128 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as seen in Fig. DIAGONAL FIG. the on the surface. artist is trol absolutely the figure 3. changing from diagonal to plain weaving." enabled to con- WRAPPED '"TWINED WEAVING. FIG. 202. while the other is wrapped around it and the upright warp. generally on the inside. which is the . In this weave one ele- FIG. When the rows of these stitches are wrapping forced closely upon one another the effect is as in Fig. WORK VARIETY OF TWINED OUTSIDE. ment of the twine is passed horizontally along the upright warp stem. APACHE. KLIKITAT. ALEUT AND HAIDA BASKETS IN THE FROHMAN COLLECTION. 199. 200. 19S. The variation of one row of stitches TWINED WEAVING. 201. inclining to the right and the other to the left is caused by the weaver's from above or below.

255 Indian Basketry). On the from which FIG. how the wrapped or Neah Bay twined work appears on the lower right-hand corner In the exquisite piece is and in the woman the inside view of diagonal twined weaving. WRAPPED. it will be seen inside. 205. TWINED WEAVING. . the skillful has combined four styles of two-ply twined weaving." page 99. form of weave is confined to the Pomas. with plain twined weaving in the two rows at the top plain twined weaving in which each turn passes over two warp rods in four rows just below. 200). Neah Bay weavers. It is described in "Indian 'The ti (proBasketry. TWINED. 203. (For example. FIG. NEAH BAY WEAVING. 129 exact method followed by the Fig. see Fig. INSIDE. It is believed that this LATTICE 4. this drawing was made.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. under the name of the Ti Weave. OF THE POMAS. 20-2. TWINED WEAVING. THE TI WEAVK FIG. 201. outside of the basket these various methods stand for delicate patterns in color. 203 "shows a square inch of the inside of a basket. : . WRAPPED FIG. TWINED WEAVING. at the right side. In the middle of the figure." (See Fig.

205). nounced tee) twined weaving consists of four elements THREE-PLY TWINED WEAVING." 5. Baskets made in holding the warps firmly together. since in every third T . TWINED WORK.. d. OUTSIDE. is carried behind the warp a whole revolution the three w eft elements have in turn passed behind three warp elements. and (c. 206 and 207). Skokomish. On the outside there is the appearance of a two-ply string laid looks like plain along the warp stems. In twisting these three. Tlinkit. c. and frequently the hoppers of mills for grinding acorns. each one of the strands. (b) a horizontal warp crossing these at right angles. while on the inside the texture twined weaving. 207. "Three-ply twined FIG. DITTO. so that in passes inward. The reason for this is apparent. this fashion are very rigid and strong. the basket weaver holds in her hand three weft elements of any of the kinds mentioned. In this technic (a)' THREE-PLY TWINE (Figs. DITTO. and there are four ways of administering the weft. Three-ply braid. 206 and 207 the outside and the inside of this technic will be made plain. 209. Three-ply twine. TIIKKK-PLY BRAID AXI> (H'TSIDE. stem adjoining.130 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. viz. (See Fig. as FIG. Three-ply. FiG. broidery. (a) the upright warp of rods. weaving is the use of three weft splints and other kinds of weft elements instead of two. INSIDE. a. it Tn REE-PLY BRAID. 208. INSIDE. false emb. and also water-tight jars are thus constructed. d) a regular plain twined weaving of two elements. After that the process is repeated. By referring to the lower halves of Figs. Frapped. FIG. I'm.

" '( part is in plain twined weaving the upper part is in three- "In Tlinkit basketry spruce root. The lower ply twine. OVERLAID TWINED WEAVING. it is impossible to discriminate between The three-ply braid is found at three-ply twine and three-ply braid. The ornamentation in which mythological symbols are concealed consists of a species of false embroidery in which the figures appear on the outside of the basket but not on the inside. . In three-ply braid the weft elements (b) are held in the hand in the same fashion. PLAIN TWINED WORK. This process is better understood by examining inside a warp stem. FALSE EMBROIDERY. On the surface. the upper parts of Figs. TWINED WORK. 206 and 207 and 208 and 209. of a revolution one element passes behind the front. and as each element passes under one and over the other of the remaining two elements. Fig. FIG. 211. no matter how the rest is built up. warp and two remain in BRAID. which is exceedingly tough. FRAPPED 212. In the needlework of the civilized c) THREE-PLY. it is carried THREE-PLY FIG. THREE-PLY AND 210.is the body worked in . when the work is driven home. FIG. the starting of all Poma twined baskets. but instead of being twined simply they are plaited or braided. 210 shows a square inch from the surface of a Hopi twined jar.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

but the Indian woman twines it into the textile while the process of basket making is going on that is. BASKETRY. On . the laying of this third element would be called embroidery. IX is 215. Straws of different colors are employed (Fig. An interesting (d) modification of this Tlinkit form of overlaying or false embroidery occurs occasionally among the Poma Indians under the name of bog or bag. passing about the other two and between the warp elements. 211). POMO BAM TT'SH WEAVE FROHMAN COLLECTION. Skokomish type. Two of them are spun from native hemp or milkweed. IN 218. Around this twine the third element is wrapped or served. the colored or overlaid element . WASHOE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. YOKl'T BASKET FIG. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. example the twine or weft element is three-ply. and then the whole is pressed down close to the former rows of weaving. YOKUT BASKET wrapped around it once. 216. and it is fully explained and illustrated by James Teit in his Memoir on the Thompson River Indians. In this Thompson River FRAPPED FIG.132 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. when each of the weft elements passes between two warp rods outward. FIG. 217. woman FIG. and form the regular twined two-ply weaving.

212). Franz Boas for the s . but after the style of the Makah Indians of Cape Flattery. YOKUT DANCE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. The fastening off is coarsely done.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. IN 219. is 220. 221. who are Wakashan (Fig. but on the inside the turns are perpendicular. show that the bags and the motives on them are clearly Xez Perces or Shahaptian. KLIKITAT IMBRICATED WORK. Teit's figure. I am indebted to Dr. FIG. leaving the surface extremely rough.< ." . DECORATED YOKUT BOTTLE-NECK IN use of Mr. but the wrapping of corn husk outside the twine are not done in Nez Perces fashion." little attention to the stitches will A FIG. kS* . The author says that it "seems to have been acquired recently through intercourse with the Shahaptins. This combination extremely interesting. FROHMAN COLLECTION. the outside of this bag the wrapping is diagonal. FIG.

E. Fig. Portland. They are all Apache baskets. AFTER JAMES TE1T. 218 is a good specimen of the Bam Tush Poma weave. with striking designs. Figs. Fig. FIG. A. Jr. Sargent. The latter has a circle of dancers and of the rattlesnake dia- monds. IMBRICATED BASKETRY RIVER INDIANS." the latter being a Figs. "Indian Basketry. 189 shows some beautiful specimens ered by Mr. with a circle of dancers on the flange. . the weave of which is described in "Indian baskets in Fig. 222. WORK. fully explained on page 96." Of analysis. KLIKITAT BASKETRY. Ore. WORK OF THOMPSON Mr. Sargent's collection. 219 and 220 are both fine Yokut baskets. in Arizona and New Mexico. bottle neck. and with quail plumes as an additional decoration on the rim. 190 is of new White Mountain Apache Basketry. The whole five are most beautiful specimens. of old coiled work gathFig. 215 is a Washoe basket in the Frohman collection. sign. The weave is of the coiled variety. CALLED Iv^lKITAT.. Coiled Basketry I have already quoted Professor Mason's clear The following pictures show a variety of specimens of coiled work. 322 Indian Basketry). pine cone design. 216 and 217 are Yokut baskets of good shape. and the design is similar to that of Maidu (Fig. largely from the Frohman collection. As a frontispiece in "Indian Basketry" Their materials are.1^4 S HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. weave and de- F1G IMBRICATED COINED 223. are seen two Klikitat basket weavers at work.

James the strips not being over an eighth of an inch wide. '35 for the foundation. of the Klikitat. In Fig. dyed with Oregon grape. forming a sort of "knife plaiting. who are Salishan." Indians. 224. who are Salishan. collected . 221 the detail of this imbricated method of weave is shown. Chehalis. are added as ornament. The body of the basket is in the root of Thuja gigantea.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Nisqualli. Yakima. "The strip of colored bark or grass is laid down and caught under a passing stitch before another stitch is taken this one is bent forward to cover the last stitch. FIG. while the sewing is done with the outer and tough portion of the root. The Thompson River the art. sixty years ago." In some of the finer old baskets in the National Museum. It It is the native art it is a modern acquirement. Makah. and he names the Puyallups. have long known RC . Twanas. and Spokanes. and the ornamentation in strips of Elymus triticoides and Primus demissa (Fig. Eells says that some women in every tribe on Puget Sound could produce the stitch. is understood that here tian family. cedar bast and grass stems. Teit describes and illustrates this type of weaving among the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia. Skagit. POMA SHU-SET WEAVE BOWL AND BURDEN BASKET IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. and Squaxon. the entire surface is covered with work of this kind. Strips of cherry bark. Imbrication is one of the most restricted of technical processes. and so with each one it is bent backward and forward so that the sewing is entirely concealed. cedar or spruce root. Snohomish. Cowlitz. doubled on itself so as to be underneath the next stitch. all of whom are of the ShahapClallam. 222). Mr.

Upcott Gill. Sanborn. Co. O. 1902. Boston. Purdy. Second Series. Raphia and Reed Weaving. Review and Herald Pub. Milton Bradley Co. SHI-BC. L. Doubleday. Martha Watrous. XXI. Mass. Directions for Collectors of American Basketry. Calif. Henry Malkan. London. Springfield. A School Without Books. Indian Basketry. ftu- FIG. Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers. Knapp. How to Make Baskets. Stearns. Annie. Eliz.. T.. Cane Basket Work. Cane Basket Work. DECOKATED Mason. . CHAPTER Firth. Mass. New York.. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Brown & Co. No.. Battle Creek. Los Angeles. 39. Part P.. White. Mich. Nat. 225. 170 Strand. Bulletin of the U.. Page & Co. James. THE SUN BASKETS OF THE POMAS IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. First Series. George Wharton.i 36 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. S. Museum. Little. Carl. Mary. New York. The Indians of the Painted Desert Region.

and source of information THE among basket lovers that BASKET FRATERNITY has been its start..':"-.:~~ . '^-."-T :r.. organized by George \Vharton James.". It has a large charter membership from roll will The charter in remain open until the end of 1903.- L.r^-' a demand exists for a means of communication between. a loan collection of fine Indian Baskets in your village ? Then join The Basket Fraternity and get nineteen others to do and the collection will be sent to you without charge. and send your Fraternity fee of one dollar. rc-. Its only conditions for Do you want town or so. .THE BASKET FRATERNITY. Do you want a lecture on Indian Basketry will see ? Read page 4 and you how it may be had. membership are that you are interested Indian or other baskets.:'.v~-i'f> .

To arrange rials for 12. and restore the use of native dyes. To prepare a set of stereopticon slides. To To To distribute among its members photographs or engravings of makes. study and exhibition. with accompanying lecture. to prepare. 4. ITS OBJECTS ARE a : To form To means of communication between basket lovers throughout the world. and to require all young Indian girls to learn the art as part of their school training. foster the use of aniline dyes. native shapes and designs. 13. 14. HE BASKET FRATERNITY is a society of basket lovers. hastily prepared materials and crude workmanship. way to among the Indians. To make and style 9. 6. 8. and especially for the pleasure and study of members of this fraternity. and is ready for its travels on call from those entitled to it. free to all members of the fraternity. To photograph aboriginal weavers and make a collection of said its the Indians the modern commercial methods. illustrated bulletin of general or specific interest to basketry lovers and collectors and to send this bulletin. and issue quarterly an . To encourage the opposite of the spirit referred to above to seek to retain the love for good and artistic work to banish aniline dyes. carefully : . for the gathering and distribution of Indian matebasket weaving which shall be sold to members of the fraternity at as near cost as possible. organized for the purpose of bringing together those who have felt the charm and fascination of Indian basketry. To seek to influence the Indian department of the United States Government to earnestly endeavor to work to this end among all the agents. collect reliable and accurate knowledge of Indian weavers' methods and work. To discourage among photographs. 3. and of representative Indian fine and typical baskets of all weavers. but especially and primarily of baskets made by the aboriginal tribes of North America. which will be loaned on payment of a small fee to any member of the fraternity. 7. 5. This collection to be placed in some suitable location where it will be accessible at all times to basket lovers. superintendents and teachers in its service. 11. 2. disseminate information among its members relating to the art and the objects of the fraternity. secure the ends aimed at in Sections 12 and 13.T 1. To seek in every revive the art and prevent dying out prepared materials and artistic work. To prepare such slides also for sale. a national collection of typical baskets of every weave to be found throughout the world. which encourage the making of baskets merely for sale. 10. when issued. alien designs. To organize a "traveling library" of veritable typical Indian baskets and send these as required to members of the fraternity for Such a collection of basketry is already made.

The membership will be sent on request. 1 6. To promote the organization of classes for the teaching of basketry in orphan asylums. referred to in Section 14. It will be issued October i.00 per year. first . PASADENA. 2. Address all communications and make all P. payable on application." and originator of The Basket fee the 1. members of the fraternity are assured that they will receive The four bulletins. It will April The and third bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Basket Shapes. unite in asking for the loan of an Indian basketry collection. Orders payable to The headquarters " where the nucleus of of The Basket ' ' ^ THE BASKET: FRATERNITY." by George Wharton James. and to enlarge the circle of those who know and love good .15. living in one town or section. poor houses.iving Indian comprise fully twenty portraits of typical Indian It will be issued weavers. prisons." i. basketry work. will guarantee a small fee and necessary expenses. It will be issued July i. issued quarterly. is in The second preparation and will be entitled ' ' Weavers. in order that their makers may derive as much financial benefit as possible from their labors. California. of application for bulletin will be forwarded as early as possible after receipt of the fraternity fee of one dollar. EnIn return for this trance may be made at any time during the year.To arrange for lectures on Indian basketry when and where possible. 17. The fourth bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Designs. insane asylums and other eleemosinary establishments in order that easy and simple employment may be found for the unfortunate which will help relieve the harmful monotony of their lives. 3. O. and Fraternity is Pasadena. Whenever fifty members of the fraternity petition for a lecturer. The first of these is a beautifully illustrated hand-book entitled "How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. CALIFORNIA. in order to further the work of the fraternity. author of "Indian Basketry. To set in motion all possible machinery for the creating of markets for baskets so made. Forms of application for such a loan will be sent on request. one will be sent. it will be sent to them on guarantee of its safety and the payment of freight charges both ways. either to members of the fraternity or to outsiders desirous to organize classes for the teaching of of knowing of its work basketry. Forms STATION A. Whenever twenty members of the fraternity. as well as the baskets made by the Indians. L. the national collection and the traveling libraries of Indian baskets are located. with descriptive accounts of their work. : Fraternity. The fraternity fee is $1." will contain not less than twenty plates of exquisitely shaped Indian baskets." and will contain fully twenty illustrations of baskets of superior design.

NEVADA. Choice of Material IV. Web Weaving Fancy Borders Continued Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets A Few Baskets XIX. Insertion and 48 52 58 73 XIII. The Spirit in which Basket-Making should be Approached. Introduction 5 II. VII. The Preparation Dyes . Address THE EMPORIUM. More about Bases 84 89 93 103 107 123 125 XV. loan 3-011 will for inspection.INDEX. VIII." . . 18 V. upon appplication. of Materials . CARSON CITY. The Coil Weave XII. The Web Weave IX. How to to Make and Use Them 28 32 34 37 Tools and Terms How Begin The Mat Weave The Plait or Braid X. XVI. Borders 77 XIV. Finishing the Basket How to Make Indian Baskets Bibliography 136 If you desire Amerind Art in WASHOE. PAIUTI OR SHOSHONE BASKETRY we can We interest you. The Net Weave XI. XVII. XVIII. our photo booklet of fine and beautiful baskets. VI. THE HOME OF THE WASHOE INDIAN. I. XXI. Chap. 10 14 III. XX.

12. Baskets of Plaited Raffla . 6. 3. Splint Picture Frame Foundation. 23.. 25. Straw Foundation 63 64 64 64 64 Weave 33 33 26 Open Coil. 125. etc 50a Bottom of Deerfleld Basket 51. 68. 47 Closed Border No. 9. 79. Weaving on Even Spokes Holding and Spokes' Starting Weaver Dividing into Single Spokes 72 72 73 73 74 74 36. Chetemache Mat " Grass Tray. Splint Picture Frame Splint Mat Weave Baskets 105. 130. Foundation of Two Rods Rod and Welt Coiled Work Foundation of Three Rods Foundation of Splints Interlocking Coils. 77. Web New Weaver Weavers Market and Other Baskets " Caning a Chair Cane Tie Caning a Chair "Weaving with Raffia Rattan Simple Baskets. Red Bird Basket. 106. 52. Detail Plait of Plait 3 4 Open Border No. 89. Mesh . 8. 3 Detail of Oval Base " 124. 109. 47. Fig 1.. 129. 126. 41. 2 Open Border No. Oi. Round Base with Spokes Separated Commencing Oblong Oval Base Spoke for Round Base Spokes' Threaded for Round Base. 61. 18. 27. Closed Border No. 72. 21. Fig. 5. Articles of Plaited Raffla. Mat Foundation Work 39. Shred Foundation Rope Twist Raffla Bound Picture Frames Raffla "Wrapped Articles' Toy Chair of Wrapped Raffia 65 86-87-XN. 74. 58. Book Mjark of Weave Splint and Web 95. Deerfleld Splint Baskets Reed Baskets. 59. Magazine Holder 30.ILLUSTRATIONS. 43. 94.wale Apple Green Basket. Button Hole Stitch on Ring " " " ation Page. 9S. Stick and Knot of Raffia Single Net Mesh Netted Bags of Raffia.. Weave 107. Open Border No. 2. 1 Detail of Open Border No. 5. 81. 52 119. Inclosing Part of Foundation Interlocking Coils. 11. fc. 54 121. 79 79 SO 2. with Spoke Simple Open Border No. 48. 11 I. 99. 44. 83. 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 122 123'. 54. 128. 101. Deerfleld Weaver Splint Cutter Foundation Splint Cutter A Splint Single Weaving . 53. 80 80 so Detail of Closed Border No. 57. 91.. 3. Weaving of Round Bnsc with Two Split 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 s:. 112. Accordeon Plait. 117. etc Chetemache Mat Diagonal Mat 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 45 46 46 46 46 49 51 100. 90. 108. Simple Coiled Baskets Simple Mat Weave Open " Closed Table Mat Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Isolated Figures Produced by Modifying Order of Intersection 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 39 41 41 41 41 Fugeian Coiled Basket Details Coiled Raffia Baskets and 65 66 68 66 70 70 93. Plaited Belts 50 Hoop and School Bag Raffia Doll's Hat and Tray Raffia Plaited Raffla Hats Detail of Last Three Spokes of Plaited of Plaited 55. Double Pairing Triple Weaving 24 25 25 32 3 32 32 80. 26. 49. 63. IIU. 2 Starting Splicing Inserting Odd Spoke Right Side of Center Odd 75 75 75 75 42. 65. 104. 76.. 4. 53 120. 69. Xi-t etc. 103.. 15. 66. Deerfiekl. 64. 33. 34. 102. 6. 75 76 Weave Web 77 78 78 78 78 79 7J of Chair Cane 50. 111. 85 85 . 82. 56.. 2829. 45. 127. 115. 17 18 20 22 2 63 63 63 78. 62. 84. 22. Five Strand Plait of Raffia. 46.. Mouse Basket Corn Husk Poppy Basket Fancy Splint Basket Splint and Sweet Grass Fan Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass Base of Baskets shown in Fig. 17. 92. 58 58 10 12 i: Covered Napkin Rings Simple Coiled Baskets with VariSimple Coiled Trays Pine Needle Coiled Baskets Wrapping Before Coiling Beginning the Coil Detail of Coil Cross Sections of Varieties' Coiled Basketry Detail of Interlocking Stitches Detail of Single-Rod Coil in 58 58 60 60 01 61 61 62 10. Deerfleld Deerfleld 14 15 16 1? 16. 1 Detail of Closed Border No. 24. Detail of Ins< rtiun Insertion Open Border No. 14. 4 6 S 67. 70. Weavers Round Base with Spokes in Pairs. 96. 20. 97. 71. 19. 13. 40. IT 118. 31. 110. Weave. 7. Deerfleld Straw Baskets Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets Picotie Pink Basket. 85. 32. 73. 113. Page. 75.

Baskets of Rattan. Wood Base. 139. 197. Klikitat. 144. 174. 155. 157.. 181.. 171. 173. 142. Binding Handle of Oblong Oval Base " Key Basket. 134.. 215. 124 on Mat Checkerwork Weave 125 150 151. 152. 117 223.Fig.. 179. 135. 184. 128 Wrapped Twined Weaving NV. 172. 185. 176. ing Inside Inside Three Ply Braid. Detail of Center of Oval Base " " 86 87 87 Commencing Ditto. Rattan Basket with Plaited Straw Simple as' Web Web Woven Bird Nest Basket with Fancy Base Splint Web Weave Inserting Weaver in Splint Base. from a Mound in Ohio Twined Weaving in Two Colors 126 128 Apache. 211. etc. 191. 198. 105 of Finished Border 105 Flat Plait Border. Twined Weaving. Imbricated Imbricated Klikitat Poma Bam Tush Weave Yokut Dance Basket Yokut Bottle-Neck Basket Klikitat Imbricated Weaving Basketry Coiled Work of 134 Thompson River Indians Work. 177. Plaited Handle Method of Holding Basket Weaving Sides Yakutat Rattle Baskets Old Coiled Basketry When 121 121 123 124 Coarse White Mountain Apache Baskets. Finishing ditto 119 119 . 193. 180. 149. 141. 192. 167. 205. 114 221. 194. -in'. Ditto. Inside 129 The Ti Weave of the Pomas 129 Three Ply Braid and Twined Work. 145. 153. 170. 98 and Plaited Sweet Grass Splint 99 Baskets Splint and Plaited Sweet Grass 100 Baskets 102 Madeira Border No. Finishing Base of Twined Weaving with serted Corners In84 31 90 90 92 92 96 94 Shallow Oval Basket 118 Starting Handle of Oval BasketInside 136: 137. 114 Starting Lid of Square Basket. 169. 120 Finishing off the Flat Rattan in 90186. 219. 148. Base of Splint Basket 120 Binding a Handle Waste Paper Basket 120 120 Square Basket Weaving Sides Section ditto with Straignt Corner..i \ \Yrappc-d T\\ ined Weav129 Crossed Warp. 117 222. . Detail of Twisted Handle Ditto Turning Spokes Weaver Around Last Oblong Carrying Basket Commencing Handle of Key Basket 114 220. Pressed on Ancient Pottery. 175.. 130 130 130 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 Three Ply and Plain Twined Work. 187. 196. 156. 206. Page. 190. 2 102 Madeira Pairing for Plait 189. 159. 112 Turning Down Spokes 113 Ditto. 165. 143. Finished 106 Splint and Twined Baskets Collar Baskets of Rush.. 218. . 117 118 132.114 216. 9 Spokes Turned Up for Sides Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass. 154.110 Ill Wristlets or Cuff Protectors 112 Baskets from the Philippines 27 Baskets Deerfleld Straw Section of Fluted Flower Basket. 147. 160. Square 113 Spokes' Work Basket. Raffia 108 and Splint 108 Bases' of Fig. 140. 158. Outside. 199. 210.105 Flat Plait Border Second Position 105 of Spokes with Portion in progress. 178. .131 Frapped Twined Work Washoe Basket Yokut Basket Ditto 168. Commencing Flat Plait Border. Outside Ditto. 131. 154 Surface Effects of Twined Open Twilled Weaving 125 Ditto 126 Ditto. 200. Curve Partly Worked 113 Fluted Flower Basket Starting Square Work Basket. 207. Jumping Two Spokes Weaver Ditto Outside Binding Handle of Oval Basket..-I ii I 129 !. 201. 146.119 119 182. Called 117 134 CENTRA OHIL "C. . 217. Pi . INN. 166. 164. Work 110 203. 133. 127 Ditto Wrapped Weaving of the Mohaves' 127 127 Ditto. 138. . L'lis. Baskets 128 Diagonal Twined Weaving Variety of Twined Work. 195. Twined Weaving. Turning Weaver Round Corner . 183. Outside Overlaid Twined Weaving 209.

'i.(. .if si .'. " ' ri''^^^Nit. . WHOLESALE: AND PORTLAND. ji' ^ . DETAIL - SEND TEN CENTS FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. QBE..-'. (.... FROHMAN TRADING Co ALASKA. CALIFORNIA AND NORTHERN INDIAN BASKETS T- i9O2 AND CURIOS..

TOURISTS WILL FIND THE MOST PICTURESQUE LANDS ALONG THE ROUTES OF THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC Through Texas. Passenger Steamers Between Fast Time. BOATING.CALIFORNIA A REGION OF WONDERS. F. General Eastern Passenger Agent. M. FISHING. CAN BE ENJOYED EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR. s. DRIVING. RIDING. POLO. and Pullman Tickets. A. B. Railroad. J 349 Broadway or E. Steamer. and Time Tables. Old Mexico.. WHERE GOLF. address L. New York and Superb Service. P. McCORMICK. Excellent Cuisine. Maps. New Orleans. and all information. H. New Mexico. COACHING. New York. NUTTING. . P. CAL. T. M. lowest Rates. to Peerless California. MORSE.. HUNTING. BATHING. Arizona. T. Battery Place. TEXAS. TENNIS. HOUSTON. SAN FRANCISCO. Two NEW DAILY TRAINS NEW ORLEANS TO CALIFORNIA. O. Baggage Checked. For Free Illustrated Pamphlets. SUNSET LIMITED PACIFIC (""TEL m WHEELS. COAST EXPRESS.

Square Baskets. CONTENTS I. VII. Unusual Materials. Hints on Dyeing.00. the making of hats and and numberless other matters about many of which the readers of the initial volume have chair seats written for information. Hanging Baskets. VI. net. II. DOUBLEDAY. III. which more advanced basket-making. Raffia Basketry. $1. Palm Leaf Basketry.MORE BASKETS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM BY MARY WHITE nPHE success first of White's Miss volume has led to this companion work. NEW YORK . How to Raffia and Rush Seat Chairs. Centres and Weaves. with new appliances. Palm Leaf Hats. V. 34 UNION SQUARE. A Few PRICE. EAST. unusual materials. Shapes and weaves of treats of greater beauty and intricacy are described. IX. VIII. IV. XI. X. Flower Baskets. PAGE & CO. Baskets for Practical Use.

not only in schools and training classes. Tools. PRICE. the Simplest Baskets Borders Covers Handles Work Baskets Candy Birds' Nests Baskets Scrap Baskets the Finishing Touch Oval Baskets How to Cain Chairs Some Indian What the Basket Means to Stitches .BASKETS BY MARY WHITE FIFTH EDI T I HOW TO MAKE O X THE new drawn great interest in Indian baskets has attention to the art of basketwith the result that basketry has making. This little manual is Miss White the only guide to the work. . EAST. and then tells how to weave. but which now rapidly becoming a lost art. $1. . Raffia and their Some . of its Uses . Mats and . but as a most attractive pastime and means of occupation among grown people as well. few necessary impledescribes in detail the ments and materials. the Indian. . . . and finally the complicated and beautiful work for which the Indians first is were once famous. next the more difficult patterns. . NEWYORK .00 DOUBLEDAY. Preparation. . - net. . the simpler forms. CONTENTS Material. found immediate favor. . Weaving. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE.

Linsey Woolsey BY THE SAME AUTHOR. It undoubtedly be a helpful book to decorators. Ingrain Carpet Rugs. Rugs. Wheeler has had a leading part. but its chief Held will lie among the thousands of home-seekers whose range of experiment has not been wide enough to warrant successful practice. A STUDY will DOUBLEDAY. CONTENTS. NEW YORK .HOW CANDACE WHEELER TO MAKE RUGS BY ILLUSTRATED. Rug Weaving Woven Rag . of beauty in house interiors. PRICE. HPHIS *- admirably clear little volume gives specific instructions for the weaving of rugs. PRICE net. Woolen . Si. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. Neighborhood Industries. Dyeing. Portieres . drawn from the author's own experience in spreading this valuable home industry. of PRINCIPLES HOME DECORATION net. the Pattern . EAST. The healthy modern movement toward the hand-made things of daily use in the home is one in which Mrs. and this bi^ok will be found exceedingly valuable and suggestive to all who are interested in such work. Cotton Rugs. Si. based upon principles of art. 80. 20.

Hill. because it is practical. and tells everything a housekeeper needs to know about the selection. in color and black and white.FIVE THOUSAND SOLD ON PUBLICATION AND SERVING BY JANET McKENZIE HILL "Cookery. the Brillat-Savarin of China two matrimony t\vo things served to- And again: "Into no department of should indifference be allowed to creep into none less than cookery. in her new book. net. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE." The first 5000 were sold on publication. There are 200 helpful photographic illusThe book trations. ^HE many ' PRICE. S2." accumulated gastronomic knowledge of centuries and the best modern domestic science have alike been drawn upon by Mrs. EAST. preparation and serving of food. of the Boston Cooking School.oo DOUBLEDAY." said PRACTICAL COOKING Yuan hundred years ago. Practical Cooking and Serving. which ma\ be washed. NEW YORK ." life like Alei. contains 730 pages and is strongly bound in aluminum cloth. "is gether should match.

^^^^p^^l . - ^ff ' ^JE-'A-r^L -'^^. .00 net ." etc. -r- ' ' -~ ' -- A PEAK OF EROSION IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST With 1 6 full-page pictures and 50 half-page illustrations from photographs Crown 8vo Decorated cloth $2. .THE INDIANS OF By THE PAINTED DESERT REGION GEORGE WHARTON JAMES of Author "In and Around the Grand Canyon of the in Colorado River Arizona." "Indian Basketry.vr - .

and with no soil fit upon countrv has inflicted for cultivation. a large portion is of the book domestic life devoted to this interesting tribe. his "shampoo the This is considered a great luxury. but the author had to do when he photographed these Indians. stranger's the chief ordered his daughter to head. . A chapter is given to the religion significance : of the Hopis. the homes and invite their husbands to marry them. j they have Mr. James also writes of the ill-treatment which our upon the Navahoes. James written about them in style. and one especially beautiful is sung in accompanied by songs. it Much " of their as the author describes is surely unique. Mr. fraught Western with many journey ov-er dangers on account scarcity in a of sudden storms and absence of shelter. When the author first visited the " Navahoes. who were placed reservation without water or fuel. of personal adventures and hardships desert. The Indian worst insult that is it is possible to offer to a Wallapais this throw her long hair away from her face. besides visited his of water. and the women build their own them . and there much interesting information about Indian basketry and blanket weaving. Each act has a religious some beautiful religious ceremonies. The women instead of talking about "Women's Rights have for ages possessed and knit their men weave the women's clothing own stockings.The Indians of the like its Painted Desert Region author's valuable book work on the 1 the Grand Canyon is the result of experience. chapter upon the legends of the Havasupais is is fascinat- ing and the book full of romantic and picturesque Indian is An entire is chapter devoted to the Hopi snake dance. to The love. one Indian divorcing wife because she declined to shampoo his head. giving a picture various Indian tribes and has own will agreeable and entertaining to every one. which be quite new The first Indian tribe visited was the Hopis. honor of the birth of every child.

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SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE HAVASUPAI. XII.. BROWN. Massachusetts . II. Navaho. PUBLISHERS Boston. NAVAHO AT HOME. of photographs taken by the author or by his special consist of sixteen full-page Accurately portraying the country. THE HOPI VILLAGES. V. espe- of those showing the famous "Snake Dance. XIV. IX. FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE HOPI. X. NAVAHO AS A BLANKET WEAVER. WALLAPAIS. A FEW HOPI CUSTOMS. VIII. BIBLIOGRAPHY LITTLE. Hopi. CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I. and personal appearance of the Indians. HAVASUPAIS' RELIGIOUS DANCES AND BELIEFS. VI. THE PAIN-TED DESERT REGION. THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE NAVAHO AND HIS HISTORY." are unique. T'HK HOPI SNAKE DANCE. XI. the Indians generally objecting to the photographing of some of the ceremony. & 254 Washington Street CO. and half-page plates. ADVENT OF THE WALLAPAIS. XVI. AND THEIR HISTORY. III. religious rites. XV. VII.The Indians The series artist of the Painted Desert Region illustrations are faithful reproductions of the beautiful who accompanied him. DESERT RECOLLECTIONS. XIII. HAVASUPAIS AND THEIR LEGENDS. THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE HOPI. IV. cially several and Havasupai they are a most valuable addition to the text. Some of the subjects. and fifty industries. PEOPLE OF THE BLUE WATER AND THEIR HOME.

give a wonderful personal interest wonder on pages of graphic description of the most stupendous natural the American Continent.AN IMPORTANT NEW BOOK DESCRIBING THE MOST STUPENDOUS SCENE ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT In and Around the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES Illustrated pictures in with thirty full-page plates and seventy the text 8vo Cloth Price. beauties of the crowded with pictures of the marvels and Canyon. is of absorbing interest. $3. James's in these own perilous experiences. Philadelphia Public Ledger.00 CROSSING THE COLORADO TO THE SHINUMO. their legends and customs. of Indians. volume. and Mr. . Dramatic narratives of hairbreadth stories escapes and thrilling adventures.

TEMPLES AND BUTTES TO THE EAST FROM THE GRAND SCENIC DIVIDE. .

is - Boston Advertiser. to the main features - and scientific of the Great Canyon of the tradition are Colorado. a ring of actuality about this book. Brooklyn Standard Union. . . scenic. . but from historical records. New an The Grand Canyon exposition either with has never before received - such pen or camera. He feels has told his story so fascinating a manner that one almost within sight and sound of the great canyon. and find explorers and discoverers. so that its many . An ders. . Prescott. such a book than Professor his James. is probably no the writing the country in who is better for . and from the accounts of natives. . . illustrated work of which too much can is scarcely be said in praise. work. --Arizona Daily Journal-Miner. freely - guides. respects the book possesses a charm peculiarly own. . Legend and and local drawn upon in for the effect color. San Francisco Bulletin. description Tribune. miners. San Francisco. dramatic . Arizona. There qualified . from the notes of Indian white hunters.IN A & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON veritable storehouse of wonders. He own has not been content to describe the wonders in his words.. he has quoted wherever he could matter of interest and value. Too much cannot be said praise of Will be the standard with reference historic. The most - thorough its the Colorado and Chicago of the Grand Canyon of surroundings to be found anywhere.Outing. in Literary World. Argonaut. One of the typical books of the great West. The Grand Canyon this one of the world's wonsatisfying and volume its is the most thorough and attractions thus presentation of many rugged man of in far offered. There York. San Francisco Chronicle.

XIV. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GRAND CANYON REGION. IV. THE TOPOCOBYA TRAIL AND HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON. POWELL (1869). WHAT DOES ONE SEE? ON THE RIM. THE HAVASUPAI INDIANS AND THEIR CANYON HOME. UP AND DOWN GLEN AND MARBLE CANYONS. LEE AND THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. BOTANY OF THE GRAND CANYON. Publishers WASHINGTON STREET. XXIII. XXVII. GRAND CANYON FOREST RESERVE. EXPLORATIONS BY MAJOR J. XXVIII. POWELL (1869-72). XXX. BASS AND HIS CANYON EXPERIENCES.IN & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON CHAPTER I. W. XI. THE RED CANYON AND OLD TRAILS. THE TANNER-FRENCH TRAIL. XXV. FIRST IMPRESSIONS. To THE CANYON BY RAILWAY. THE SHINUMO AND ITS ANCIENT INHABITANTS. IX. CONTENTS THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS CANYONS. THE MYSTIC SPRING TRAIL. XXVI. XXI. THE GEOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON. THREE DAYS OF EXPLORING IN TRAIL CANYON WITH THE X.. THE OLD HOPI TRAIL. AN ADVENTURE IN BEAVER CANYON. BOSTON . V. VII. LATER EXPLORATIONS. Two DAYS' HUNT FOR A BOAT IN A SIDE GORGE NEAR THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. XVII. PEACE SPRINGS TRAIL. THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. JOHN D. THE CLIFF AND CAVE DWELLINGS. W. XXIV. WRONG COMPANION. XII. AND A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE TOURIST. 254 BROWN. VI. EXPLORATIONS FROM THE TIME OF THE SPANIARDS (1540) TO MAJOR J. FLAGSTAFF. & CO. XX. XIII. XV. PHOTOGRAPHING THE GRAND CANYON. XVIII. AND THE DEAD VOLCANOES. THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS. HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON AND ITS WATERFALLS AND LIMESTONE CAVES. XXIX. XXXII. XVI. W. RELIGIOUS AND OTHER IMPRESSIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON. XIX. II. THE GRAND VIEW TRAIL. XXXI. FROM THE SANTA FE RAILWAY TO THE CANYON BY STAGE. MR. III. LITTLE. LEE'S FERRY AND THE JOURNEY THITHER. XXXIII. VIII. W. XXII.

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