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. (L . ETC. THE INDIANS OF THE PAINTED DESERT REGION. ' "1903 HENRY MALKAN. By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES "i AUTHOR OF INDIAN BASKETRY. 1 William Street.How TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO RIVER ETC. IN ARIZONA. New York.

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We used the old-fashioned English grates. and. In the making some of the larger and coarser baskets the bottoms. I wish to do my share in helping it along by making a book of helpful instructions and hints that will be worthy the dignity of the subject. and made a mixture of coal dust and the thick ends or "nubbins" cut from the ends of new splints or "weavers" introduced into the coarse kinds of all My baskets. It has been my purpose in arranging the following pages to introduce all the stitches. as a child. the worker bending down almost double over the work. throwing its grateful heat into the cold room and cheering all who came within its influence. are for children. The earliest remembrances of my life are connected with that art. always a man of originality. But unlike many fads there is something in the making of baskets that will keep the art alive. It is singularly appropriate that I. after being started. treading on the work itself the weavers were woven in. other fads it will have its day and then die. Two of his workmen were father and son. The young man was "Lige. After I came to the United States the work of the Paiuti Indians soon arrested my attention. bent over for a few minutes my childish back seemed to be and when I asked Lige how ihe could endure it for hours at a broken. were pinned through the center with a large steel bodkin to a heavy flat board. as during the recent Eastern coal strike." Now that the work of Basket Making is being taken up in earnest. when those who practised it merely as a fad have forgotten that they ever were interested in it. should write a treatise on basket making. not simply a trader in baskets. INTRODUCTION. and after a fire of coals was well alight my father would take a coal scuttle full of this mixture which he called "backing. and I began the studies which culminated two years ago in the publication of my "Indian Basketry. Well do I remember." or he never could do it. of course. My father." and into my youthful ears he used to pour his tales of of woe at the hardships of a basket-maker's life. too. learned the art and was a good workman." and throw it up on the top of the fire and well back into the throat of the chimney. from the simplest to the most complex. In half an hour or less it would be a bed of fire. a season when coal was dear and scarce. practically usable. but personally a skilled workman himself. time his solemn asseveration was that "he'd had his backbone taken out. named Fields. the son of my father. Like Just now the making of Indian and other baskets is a fad.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. oldest brother. HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The earlier lessons. rose at once to meet the occasion. as my father was a basket maker. but it will do I When .

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

For material for these pages I have ransacked everything I could find. and Gray. while what we read or are told may be inaccurate or positively false. dyeing.HOW no harm TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Teach them the value of That failure means endeavor. let him determine what is best adapted for this basket and for that. to show what may be done and to 'Stimulate to personal investigation and experiment. A variety of materials has been introduced purposely. and dyes. That the Indian had to learn everything in that way. true and false. water gas. and that knowledge gained by experience is sure and certain. Where possible. if not the first. married and died. 7 do the work here outlined. Let him know that while he is doing this experimenting he is following exactly the plan of Edison. and endeavor persisted in is failure. If I have failed to do so I gladly apologize and in later editions the necessary acknowledgements or corrections if will call my attention to them. at least. Ga. and these were thought the best purpose in view. Let me at the outset say that the divisions of the subject are purely It does not necessarily follow that the coil weave is harder than the mat weave because the latter comes first in the book. ing and interesting pictures. Teachers should encourage their pupils to try every possible Thus invention is stimulated. into an object from which imagination may conjure countless fascinatnecessary to for the . teacher of basketry in the schools of the will make some kind reader . make some divisions. She had no other teacher than experience. . Stimulate his and inventiveness in the use of materials. A pile of rocks means little to an unimaginative child. It was arbitrary. It is this thought that should animate every teacher and worker in In going out to choose materials let the children feel as the basketry. or. walked and plighted their troth. never failure. In this work I have tried to suggest to the teacher how to make Put human interest into the subject more interesting to her pupils. and not only may valuable dismaterial. design. indeed. educated. where lovers. and Bell. John Sheridan Neligh. and general preparation of the material. but tell that same child that this pile was once a who castle. and. but individual thought and expression are to adults to erity thus gained will secured. any subject and it enlivens it. who lived in stirring times achieved things who went forth to war with all pomp and ceremony. The skill and dextbe exceedingly useful in the later work. telegraphs. as far as I can learn. . and weave of his baskets. where all the events that go to make up life transpired. Show him that all progress comes that way. and returned flushed with victory or sad and despondent through defeat that it was a place where children were born. peopled by lords and ladies.. I have given full credit for everything borrowed. let him make his own selections. and others of our great inventors who have given us telephones. Indian felt let them select as the Indian did. one of the first. . coveries be the result. and the lifeless pile is transformed into a palpable living entity. electric cars. Let the child experiment in the drying. and their preparation in the shape. director of the Industrial School of Columbus. and the thousand and one things that mean our progressive civilization. and Lowe. Especially do I wish to thank Mr.

helpful wife. baskets to photograph. Miss Mary White's "How to Make Baskets'' has also been drawn from. Hyde. I assure her she is most heartily welcome. hope in return Miss Firth much in If suggestions that she can avail herself of for English readers. MASS. Columbia University. B. States. Miss M. and And these thanks also include his help given in a variety of ways. CORN HUSK POPPY BASKET. Firth. WHITING. she can. 3. has been most generous in her helpfulness. DESIGNED AND MADE BY MARGARET C. DEERPIELD. For all the photographs of my .8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. My grateful acknowledgements are also tendered to Miss Annie United FIG. for original suggestions. from whose "Cane Basket I Work" I have bodily taken much will find as valuable material. of Teachers' College.

The coil. I have deemed it best to discuss each one separately. SPOKES TURNED UP FOR SIDES. The purpose is to give to the solitary student every advantage for self training and to every teacher suggestions which will aid in her work with children. simple methods of work. PIG. III. The \veb. the students at the college and the major part of the on dyes I am indebted to her. .HOW work made by TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In these lessons' I have begun with the simplest materials and work. The net. IV. all of which it is well to underThese are distinguished by the following names: I. While in some regards these five methods overlap each other. and the practical character of chapter her work will prove a boon to all my readers. The two chapters respectively on The Choice and the Preparation are five of Materials may be skipped or not as the reader desires. II. The mat. There stand. The plait. V. 143. To any person the exercises will be helpful.

FANCY SPLINT BASKET.PIG. 4. New York. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. .

color . in which it is approached and done. sentient. passing whim it was from that of levity. impossible deSimplicity signs. and then in the shape. as removed from that of mere commercialism. carelessness. their liarmoniousness. Browning well wrote "Not on the vulgar mass called work Must judgement pass." and in the work of basket-making much will depend upon : the motive. who said out of a room. to the all uncontaminated Indian meant a work less ration. and weave. the product of a sweeping believe. a conscientiousness of endeavor in the gathering of the materials. should not I. in spirit as far or fancy. the tout ensemble. it would be better to say. right the veriest nonsense to the person who is merely money there is in it. were Hence the work was approached in a of art. the spirit." or "because it is quite But to the the rage. religion. There was an earnestness of purpose. or indifference. And in NaThe Indian's forms are natuture the true inspiration will be found. desire. THE SPIRIT IN WHICH BASKET MAKING SHOULD BE APPROACHED. their preparation. emotion-full. is something Xow all this making baskets for "the : higher civilization.. the design.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the must approach it in true worker desirous of emulating Indian work the true Indian spirit and this I have endeavored to describe in my Suffice it to say here that the basket larger book on Indian Basketry. viz. love. colors and weaves. perhaps. which hope. at least feel as/ much ? If she sought to present the highest she saw in Nature in the most perfect fashion. . The true imitator of Indian work or. her colors are natural her weaves are ral her designs are natural natural with all the perfection added of conscientious art. the weave. inadequate weaves. If the poor uncivilized Indian thus basket-maker clearly should be felt when she approached her work. for them. I I CHAPTER II. aspimythology." There is more in life than the mere outward expressions of it we call "work. should not I also seek to do the same ? An affirmative answer then compels a study of Indian Basketry This will produce a growing love form?. glaring." and such people had better read no further. It was a perfect exemplification I of the idea suggested by the good of the sublimity of the poet Herbert. inharmonious colors. . poetry. From this the natural process will be a reference of the Indian work to their original source. sign. more or interwoven. poetic of my readers the ideas given will clearly The attitude of mind and heart in the illuminate what follows. This at once eliminates the hideous and grotesque in shape. national pride. that made basket-making to the old Indians almost an act of religion. designs. There are no fanciful forms. de. Nature herself. .

the dignity. simple things. 1 Banish the hideous. and your work will gradually take upon itself the character. the grotesque. your children. Learn to imitate in form. Begin then by training yourself. and upon the triad and gamut naturally are Diversity without end. design and color the built.12 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER this BASKETS. New York. your pupils. variety illimitable. the grace. to love the simple in nature. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS FAN. effects incalculable. yet all based upon natural simplicity. 5. the unnaturally complex from your line of observation. . FIG. the power that come from purity and simplicity. is the keynote. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

but can be learned only from the In your work endeavor to follow this Indian idea. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIG. color all How that each one has a significance in shape. Thus work and worker are both ennobled and there are given to the world more things of beauty to be "joys forever. its own. lips. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. 6. who can estimate? Thus the basket becomes a factor in moral and spiritual development. your sculpture." The pleasure of such achievements as this who can tell. has done. as the Indian own Make your basket in hieroglyphics. You can thus make the basket your poem.HOW Elsewhere. your cathedral. as well as a useful aid in training towards manual dexterity and skill. then the shape. from elements as TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . the design. design and This personality cannot be deciphered by reading weaver's the exponent of something within yourself. the colors will all mean something more to you than what merely shows on the outside. 13 I have shown the marvellous personality of the basket. and the moral uplift as desire and endeavor are crystalized into actuality. your painting. New York." and whose "loveliness will increase and never pas* into nothingness. too.

the martynia. FIG. the red bud. forth to seek for splints. maiden hair fern stem. some of the chief benefits that should accrue from basket-making are lost if they do not largely do so. Though trade and barter were common with the primitive Indians. 6. to its weavers the materials' required for the exercise of their art . raffia or willow ready dyed and done up in bundles to her hand. 7. The Mono found the willow. senses alert. the best to follow. BASE OF BASKETS SHOWN IN FIG. sweet gras-s. New York. it was not to trade that the weaver looked for her basket-making materials. Now while it is not essential that white weavers of baskets should closely confine themselves to material they personally gather. where the art is stimuused . CHAPTER III.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the yucca and a desert grass called wu-u-shi. the method one would get the real value out Indian of basket making. The powers of observation are lated. and. She had no store to which she could go and purchase cane. the root of the tule. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. as elsewhere. she set of the is if Here. The Hopi found the willow. filling and dye. the squaw-grass. knowledge of local materials gained. She must find the materials in her own environment. So with eyes a-down. The Haida found the cedar bark and spruce root the Poma slough Thus each locality yielded root. CHOICE OF MATERIALS.

imagination and skill. The cattleman among The miner near the range where his cattle roam the foundryman near the foundry which employs him the clerk near the store in which he is engaged. hitherto useless material is converted into a financial benefit. 15 to help the poor commercially. tain lives camp because civilized races habitat is largely determined locates i>n the desert. . have a tradition which clearly points in a measure in that direction. and the (history of commercial growth is largely the detailing of how the useless was converted into the useful by invention. The Chemehuevis. 8. for instance. This principle should be applied to this art. mined the settlement of a tribe of people. MASS. DEERP1ELD. In some instances there can be but little question that the location all of materials for the pursuit of the art of basket weaving has deter- FIG. DESIGNED AND MADE BY GERTRUDE ASHLEY. SWALE GRASS TRAY. There are few really useless things under the sun. canyon or mounthere he finds the precious metal. We know that by commercialism. . .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. which is a new and direct gain to the community.

AND advantage feel there is in field trips. WYNNE. DEERFIELD.i6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. a zest and purpose to a ramble to "On this trip let us imagine ourselves Indian women and Indian children going out to hunt grasses or other material for basketwill do this for several weeks. our explorations we will decide where we. and then as the result of making. So the Indian woman's voice was naturally raised in favor of a location where her basket-making material was easiest obtained. It gives an object in view. This hint can be made interesting by teachers of the art." . RED BIRD BASKET. MADE BY MADELINE T. in stimuIt can also be used to excellent lating the imagination of the child. as Indians. MASS. FIG 9. should pitch our We permanent camp.

should ever be kept in exercise. For. Fill up lungs. the highest faculty in true education. send melancholia and depression to the devil. FIGS. when one thinks that he has found a material that is suitable either for weaver. scious of strength and power to do what you will. 10 AND 11. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. Breathe in it drink it in absorb it in. blood. Selection of the best next follows. \J Put such a thought as this into the mind gives added pleasure to outdoor rambling. power are hourly being manufactured. New York.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. There is His chemical labratory where Get out into the health. And this is not merely good for a child. broken-down adult would find new life and health in doing what Out of doors Into God's Out of doors I have here suggested. Many a nervous. vigor. dyspeptic. CHETEMACHE MATS. Experimentation follows observation in this field. He is a benefactor in the highest. . it must be tested. of child or adult and it Then the incalculable benefit in the necessary stimulation of the will powers of observation that overlooked. are healthfully exercised and stimulated. and thus both senses and brain. filling or dye. come from such trips should not be This. pure air. nerves and brain with pure life and health. defy the demon of dyspepsia and come back into the world of men and women con! ! . fullness of it. fullest sense who trains another to habits of observation. sunlight and odors. . throw physics to the dogs.

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In this diversity the true student will find pleasure. THE PREPARATION OF MATERIALS. perhaps. as most of us firmly believe. is found I shall locality." With all our scientific knowledge we cannot improve upon the methods and results of the Indians. wealth means added cojnfort and happiness. how prepared and any further particulars that may be of interest. not named here. in the matter of speed. makes no pretention to completeness. its habitat. "I will know for myself! 1 will experiment and test and find out everything that can be found out as to the resources of my neighborhood that can be utilized in this work. To teach others how a useless weed may be converted into a commercial commodity is to create wealth. following the suggestions given in this chapter every teacher may enThe following list large the sphere and scope of her benefactions. California. appropriate and harmonious. to Pasadena. habit or growth." pages material as perfect as. The overcoming of difficulties exercises the faculty of invention. of centuries of practical experience and therefore. . If it be true. It is merely suggestive. and methods of preparation. quantity. to avoid the grasses with saw-toothed or other sharp edges. and a caution given to children. Personal experimentation should be the keynote in the mind of every adult who seeks to gain the greatest good from basket-making. possibly.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Their dyes are unfading. For her selection is the result. their In "Indian Basketry. and to she can use from her own stimulate the weaver to find out what \Yhen any new material. it is equally true that he is a benefactor who finds a use for that which has hitherto been deemed useless. however. One thing. 72 to 85. It must not be supposed that familiarity with and skill in the use of one material can be transferred at will to some other material!. be obliged if a sample be sent to me. that wherever an Indian has been over the ground. what they if you have any Indian workers have been in the habit of using in their basketry work. Care should be taken. By to see. at the outset it will be well their colors in your locality. Each material demands personal study and use. she -may be sure of. that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew before. perfectly beautiful. except. even though her methods may be bettered. 19 CHAPTER IV. I gathered together much information as to materials used by the Indians. One who has learned how to use willows cannot immediately work in reed or rat- and yucca strands need very different handling from squaw grass or pine needles.it can be made. with its local and Indian name. One may be cut sevtan. in the work of that Indian will be found the very best basket-making material of thai region. In that chapter the student will find many suggestions that may aid her in utilizing the material df her own section. viz. The Indian's judgment may be relied upon. and among the poor and needy..

FIG. New York. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. 13. .20 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

Raffia is the native name given to a Madagascar palm of the tribe Lepidocaryeae. itself is very brittle. growing to the height of 20. and when the revival of the art of basketry reached England. light. It grows in all warm countries. COCKLE-BUR. Its long strands are from one and a half to two feet in length. and would be useless for this work. tough. leave them to their own imagination. The much-despised and hated cockle-bur may be used as a stimulant of the child's imagination in the beginning of These burs can be found anywhere. to the a compajratively easy task to see that each pupil has her needlefull of raffia. 5 and 6 being used for the coarser work. 3. though the BamIt busa. stripped from its outside is tough and pliable. Nos. 2. whereais in the use of the shorter splints of the Indian much time would be occupied and patience exhausted in rethreading or reinserting these thus teacher much preferable to the shorter splints of the Indian. Prepared for commerce rattan is stripped of its leaves and bark. and there are plenty of in handling if careless other materials without using these that may do injury. and again ascending. 50 and even 120 making . especially as they afford so much greater opportunity for the exercise of skill and artistic effort. by Then it is well to sticking them together. and is known as ground-rattan. It grows erect in dense tufts. a^ type of the sub-tribe Raphieae. and seldom exceeding an inch in thickness. and when the children his work. a form can be created. materials can be used. and thus the tree is often from 60 to 70 feet high to the tips of the leaves. RATTAN climbing the tallest trees. for tying up fruit trees and other gardening purWith their native economy the French. The material purchased from the seed The leaf stores is the epidermis of the leaf stripped on both sides. i. majnly found in the East Indies. and was originally shipped to France and England to be used mainly as florists' twine. Nos. over 50 feet in length. 4 are common sizes. it is short and soon used up lengths. 'holds an important place in the list of basketThe BAMBOO materials. is one of the most popular of basket-making materials because it is long. As strength and digital dexterity increase stronger easily handled. the chief type. and 15. and it is For. but the fibre It is tied in long hanks. being the finest. falling in festoons. numbered from i to No. The recent awakening to the importance of basketry has brought rattan into marked prominence.HOW erely TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. is an arborescent grass. to use it in connection with cane and reed in the manufacture began of sma'll baskets. It is a palm of the genus Calamus. ideal weaving material for the untrained fingers of be- It is soft and flexible and ginners or the weak fingers of children. It has a long leaf. is found only in Southern and Eastern Asia. have gathered them they can be shown in one lesson how that. the workers there at once perceived its adaptability and seized upon it as an excellent and ideal weaving material for beginners. is the most expensive. allowing them to create any &hape they RAFFIA may is desire. 21 such grasses. and is put up into bundles of round cane or flat strips. flexible and fissile. Sometimes it attains the astounding length of 500 feet. poses. who has a large number of children to direct. and then the Germans. The rattan of China and Japan is of the genus Raphis.

22 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

in the larger speeies. wide strips. the (Aesculus). The (Scirpus) of different species may be largely BULLRUSH basketry. and also for splints for the mat weave work herein described. and can be used for filling for the inner coil of baskets. splints are made from worked. spongy and easily commerce are purchased in long. brown color. dries well and is excellent for many In California the Scirpus Tatora is called tule. giving the raffia now so largely used. and even for weavers. MOSS. properly Zostera. a tree growing from 20 to 35 feet high. The ingenious teacher will find many ways of using even as the Indians do. of course. as has already been shown. A chapter is devoted to sweet grass weaving. ponds. of from 4 to 8 inches. though. The special kind (S. can be expected from such perishable material. but this rs a slow and laborious task. GRASS is largely used in some parts of the United It is States and Canada for the making of simple and pretty baskets. This moss is largely used for the 'stuffing of mattresses. the knives being set by gauge and screw. round stems are seen projecting above the water in lakes. sometimes also known as holy-grass and vanilla-grass. also makes excellent filling better than the moss. the BUCK-EYE kinds of which are well adapted to this purpose. several wood being white. From Virginia to Texas there grows along the coast a pine which has spiculae or needles from ten to twelve well The>se needles dry easily and are inches in length. CORN SWEET LONG for the inner coil. the Bamboo-palm. it is cut into The wood splints of the desired width. leaves Good soft. whose tall. adapted either for material for the inner coil of coiled baskets. lacustris). To prepare these for basket work two cutting implements are used. which is used by the Cahuilla Indians as wrapping splint for their coiled ware. a type of a tribe of aquatic plants which grow immersed in shallow bogs and other waters. or as unwrapped BROOM CORN LONG and is (Sorghum Vulgare) much cleainer and coils sewed together as illustrated elsewhere. PINE NEEDLES. elsewhere pictured. pools and rivers. and stems are used in basketry work. are found throughout the whole country and children should be encouraged to do the best they can with such as they can find. The PALAI family affords much material for basketry. used in A grass that can be used is SENECA-GRASS. Raffia vinifera. of this has a cuticle of a rich. The Southern variety referred to above . are peeled and make excellent material for wrapping splints. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 23 Both with a diameter. smooth. longer or shorter. In the South there grows in va'st quantities the (Tillandsia usneoides) whose dense pendulous tufts drape the trees. Where mo cutter is to be had the strips may be made with scissors.HOW feet. The broad strip is placed inside the grooves of the "sheer. The leaves of the palmetto (Sabal palmetto). though rattan is more common in America for general purposes. one species alone. and of the dwarf palmetto (S. bluish-green. As the splint is drawn through the cutter. nothing durable HUSKS. and the root purposes. Pine needles." which has three or more tiny but sharp knives protruding from its base. adansoni).

Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. MASS. FIG. REED BASKETS MADE AT DEERFIELD. New York. . 15. 16.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. SPLINT BASKETS. FIG.

This bark is prepared and the fibre used for textile purposes. 18. In Australia and New Zealand grows the pimelea. 17. is a valuable fiber produced principally from' the Bromelia Sylvestris. It must be gathered when the pod is at its blackest. which is the same as The SILK the pita of Central America. which are used in basket-making. All lovers of the fine basketry of Northern California know the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry. picked at the right time the black is perfect. This is* the stem FERN. of the Adiantum pedatum. WEAVER FIG. Arrangements have been made for the gathering of abundant quanthese long pine needles and a sample bunch will be sent by mail free on receipt of twenty-five cents. the long-leafed pine (pinus palustris). (S. SPLINT CUTTER. The MARTY NT A is a plant capable of cultivation in any part of A small package of seeds can be purchased for twentythe country. the black is rusty and poor. a kind of wild pineapple. Apache and Havasupai baskets are worked out with it. called COIR. though the name pita is given indiscriminately to the fibre obtained from the MAIDEN HAIR SMILAX GRASS . The fibre of the cocoanut. tities of being made by The Basket Fraternity to secure these seeds for sale. too late. FOUNDATION SPLINT CUTTER.HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. could be so prepared as to make a fairly good wrapping splint for coiled work. of British Honduras. and all the designs of the Pima. Pseudo known as bull-brier. whiclh will grow enough for a small class. and generally known as the Georgia pine. the There are some pliant species of China). a slender branching shrub with tough. When FIG. An effort is five cents. stringy bark. Gathered too soon it is greenish.

Teachers' College. RAFFIA BOUND PICTURE FRAMES. FIG.26 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 25. . New York. Work of Students.

of England is made from this latter species.HOW various species O'f TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER This is BASKETS. (Salix Amygdalkia) and especially the Golden Willow or osier (S. Somehow the words "Sisal Willow" have come into use in I am free to confess I do not know what the Sisal Willow basketry. In their preparation most of the common grasses will dry if put in little exa warm but shady place. perience will soon demonstrate the best method of "curing. are made more pliable by slight soaking and then running between the thumb and dull edge of shears. Mat splints. Most of the coarse basketry Vitellina) are used for this purpose. as do the California and other Indians. There are two or three species of that are largely culIn Europe the Almond-leafed willow tivated for basket-making. is 160. and the finer work is made by splitting the willow into splints and using them for wrapping." A . and kept turned over every day. and Sisal grass The Century Dictionary gives shall be glad to be enlightened. especially when made of palmetto or similar material. and Sisal hemp. and is largely used for making ship's cajbles. WILLOW FIG. DEERFIELD STRAW BASKETS. 27 Agave. which is the fibre of the agave ixtli or I henequen. Other materials will be found referred to in later pages showing the infinite variety the ingenious teacher may utilize. also known as henequen. as resists damp- ness better than the simple hemp. but can find no reference to Sisal Willow. or sisal it hemp.

and when an alkali dye an acid mordant. exquisite melodies of soft. If you are preparing a red. and the chapter on colors is well worth another reading in connection with these hints. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not -suit such soft and flexible work as basNever until the white man of no artistic taste perverted and ketry. and they cannot be improved upon. As a rule all materials and dyes need a mordant. So begin with determination and courage. experiment in every way. Experiment will soon teach the value of this. work ? In this chapter I desire to stimulate each thoughtful and earnest student to the endeavor to reach what these wild weavers reached. In "Indian Basketry" I have said something about them. Remember that experience will widen your horizon and enlarge your capacities. Explicit directions in so subtle and elusive a matter as dyeing is not to be expected in a book of this character. color it a beautiful shade which is We quite as fast as most dyes. mix in a little of it. restful harmonies in these masterpieces' nay mistresspieces of ancient the outset let anything more than a . Vegetable dyes are softer in tone. Just as an artist experiments in color on his palette board and thus finds what he wants. be understood fully that this is not presented as chapter of suggestion and hints. tender. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid. To learn to dye well is a liberal education in many things. Alum is a good ordinary mordant and can be had. reminding you of the days when your ancestors spent many hours over the dye pot or tub. and better in accord with basketry work. and happen to 'have some other dye at hand. Miss White tells of "one basket-maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. anywhere. In the first place. DYES At : HOW TO MAKE AND it USE THEM. CHAPTER V. As a general principle. however. In "Indian Basketry" I tell of some Indian mordants. delicate." Hence. if you have in some long forgotten closet a copy of your great-grandmother's old recipe book. ten to one you will find wonderfully suggestive helps there. Do not touch them. and. when they are rubbed on rattan. more harmonious. know 'somewhat of their methods. third and every other place. Discourage their use in others. And who that has done this has not felt the charm and delight of sweet. led astray the Indian with aniline dyes did he make mistakes in color. chemistry teaches that where you have an acid dye it is well to have an alkali mordant. Thus a valuable and interesting discovery may be made. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Hence to get rhe true conception of color one has but to study the old baskets. get it out. so may you. cheaply. second. Also. and. fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are " anathema " to ajll " " true basketry lovers. and test the result. This is to "fix" the dye. more permanent. They are the accursed things which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful.

Dragon's blood gives a pleasing orange. leaves and flowers. LOW. Cranberries give a dull red. Miss Hyde prefers much less. TAN. causing the liquid to foam in an alarming manner. Sumac leaves. but the acid will rot the material to be dyed. Inj the making of dye here are a few hints as to material. John's wort (hypiricum perforatum). however. But this dye is never strong even though a large quantity of the leaves The powder of BROXVN Blood Root gives a deep yellow. Use a stick to stir it with. diluting with water when red. and one will find great pleasure in experimenting with bark from different trees. and thus prepares for the permanent fixing of the dye a thing much to be desired. for blue. Indigo. which keep stirring often. Do not buy it in stick form. This gives a light yellow that is very pleasing. add water and put in soda until it stops foaming. with ammonia a good purple. ORANGE. but it GREEN. Cochineal. This allows the soda to completely neutralize the sulphuric acid. and alcohol must be used for the purpose. in used. The powder can be bought from any druggist. and stems give a good tan. Saffron can be bought from the druggists. while the fruit gives a reddish or what might better be termed a light or pink tan. though animal. and combined PURPLE. Be sure to keep your hands out of this mixture. 2Q Miss \Yhite suggests the use of a solution of three ounces of alum dissolved in a quart of water. The bark of the maple and pine both give nice shades of brown. which can be found growing everywhere on the roadside. and are used. RED. This gives a bright yellow. . and is easy to handle. The sulphuric acid is poured on the indigo. the stems. Butternut bark. perience. This can be bought from the druggists powder form in the South it can be found growing in the fields. YELGather St. and beets a color similar but more The poke berry gives a purple red. So before the materials are immersed. gives the color must be confessed it is difficult to handle without exMiss Hyde found Chase's Recipe Book give her help. Logwood extract gives a fine brown. drop by drop. and the root is the part to use. . to be purchased of any druggist. You will not care satisfactory. the acid must be neutralized by the addition of soda. As> soon as the indigo is dissolved fully. to handle the poke berries as they stain the hands. Onion skins give a dull yellow that is> very satisfactory. is suggested for a dark. as water will not readily dissolve the stick. The powder is easier to handle. It is well to make plenty of this mixture. and the dye can be used with safety. can also be used with good results. There is nothing to fear. deep Combined with cream of tartar it gives a bright red. and stirred vigorously. When the alum is well dissolved place the liquid in a small tub and soak the material to be dyed in it for fully two hours. This allows the fibre of the raffia or rattan to take up the mordant. preferably about fo-ur ounces to two gallons of water. Madder gives a dull red.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Learners will find that indigo will not dissolve in water. though not as strong as logwood gives satisfactory Walnut and hickory nut shells results if an extra quantity is used. Sulphuric acid will dissolve it.

All the materials are to be boiled. Keep turning the material over and over. This time their green dye came out "brown. Even in this work one is liable to .. so that the color evenly reaches: all the parts. sumac." and the disappointed children were unable at first to comprehend the reason for the change. general proportion to be observed is two ounces to one gallon of water. For a dye pot a good enamel kettle is as serviceable as anything. All of the above will generally give their color with a half hour's good boiling. DYES. a society whose work in fine basketry other pages of this book will well testify to.. "Basket workers. have only lately begun to produce good and is a fundamental it need. Cranberries. in either doing their or employing someone own dyeing who has in indigo. TIME TO COLLECT MATERIALS. By . who work in raffia. and they secured a delicious shade of green. poke berries. makers. This gives a fairly strong dye. a little more will do no harm. First mordant as before described. or groups of workers. It does not need much suggesting to show how that to an intelligent teacher this practically prepared the hearts and minds of her pupils for a valuable lesson in natural history. . skill and time to do madder and copperas. put in more. TO MAKE THE A Butternut bark. as if there is any sediment it is liable to etc. If these do not produce the desired color. Experience has demonstrated that the best time to collect these materials is in October or November. always using a wooden stick for the purpose. or of becoming an capable It is fortunate that many individual basket offence to the eye. In u sing beets. all > DYE THE arrest the work of the dye and give irregular color effects. \Yhiting. The following is from the pen of Miss Margaret C. and if found not strong enough can either be boiled down or more material used. The green coloring matter had gone new matter or changed matter was in its place. TO Be sure and strain the dye. put in about five or six large beets to a gallon of water. it for them. and no craftsman will continue long to rest satisfied with seeing his design developed in the loud and vulgar colors that raffia dyed In itself raffia is a material that in chemical or aniline dyes produce. It can be diluted. For instance. that can be held in both hands. Mass. cochineal needs fully two hours to C* C? produce good results-. if necessary. one teacher had her scholars gather walnut shucks for dyeing purposes. of the Pocumtuck Basket Society of Deerfield. when the seeds and fruit are ripe and the sap is well down in the trunks of the trees. MATERIAL. Thus observation and interest are stimulated the first elements of all true education. let it remain longer. Three or four weeks later they again wished some green dye. stumble upon many interesting facts. fustic. realize the necessity of natural dyes in order to and lasting color combinations in their designs. walnut shucks. is of taking on soft and harmonious colors. enough (as experience will soon demonstrate).30 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In an early bulletin 'of the Basket Fraternity I hope to publish a full and detailed account of Deerfield and its work. use about one pound to a gallon of water. If this is not Let it remain in the liquid from 15 to 20 minutes. In every case the dye must be boiling when the material is immersed. On the other hand. are following the exampe of Deerfield. and went and gathered more walnut shucks. onion skins.

The basket with a holly design. whose maker whimsically proclaimed to grow in "the vale of cedars. whose "Colonial Dyes" of over a dozen shades and tones of reds. Miller's colors proved the charm possible to FIG. The much lamented decay of good design and of excellence in ornamental work has been largely helped by the manufactured dyes how great an influence toward the tasteless and tawdry has been wrought by the invention of aniline colors. of baskets made by a group of amateur but skillful basket-makers in a surburban town belonging to Greater New York. are so pleasing to the eye. New York. how their mere possession gives suggestion of patterns and combinations to the eye of a skillful basket-maker. from Mrs. who can say?" . Quite recently a modest sale. of Brooklyn. obtain from the color harmonies of vegetable dyes. browns. Miller. 3! means the dld-fashioned processes of hand-dyeing are being revived. 135. which her own desire to produce turns to admirable account. tried by the garish modern colors that it is impossible to be'lieve the future will consent to accept. Work SIMPLE WEB BASKETS OF College." and still another developed in orange and black with a barbaric design in white beads. for a charity. . that which was decorated with a stiff row of tulips. Such an one is Mrs. of Students. greens and blues done in small vats prepared by old rules of tried permanence. all show the inspiration harmonious colors give to the designer. and far-reaching effects may quite reasonably be hoped for from the individual dyers who are thus being encouraged. another that bore trees. yellows.HOW these TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Teachers' RATTAN.

.splint is inserted. are cut to the required length. 21. . resulting splints is the name given to the strip or splint. employed by the Hyde Exploring Expe: . or strand A . pressed upon With a pair of scissors the the knives. The student should be provided with the follotwing tools needle (about a No. DOUBLE WEAVING. FJG. in width. indeed an old rasp file Rubber thimble and finger caps will answer the purpose very well. 19. SINGLE WEAVING. In both these cutters the broad . are useful. TOOLS AND TERMS USED. 19 tapestry needle is good to begin with) strong scissors. and then rapidly pulled. and can be set by means of the thumb screw brass fillers to cut the splints from an eighth of an inch to dition. 22. flat iron or steel that can be used as a hammer between the spokes of a basket. flat pliers or pincers a narrow piece of heavy. FIG. Cutters for preparing wood splints are used by the Eastern Indians. or weaver. Miss Marie Toxuse. A . FIG 20. is adjustable. CHAPTER VI. an awl about four inches long. a yard measure and foot rude a sharp knife a pair of small. A SPLINT. 17 consists of a number of knives set apart for the 'making of splints for weavers. a small hamimer. kindly permitted me accompanying engravings made from her two cutters. New York. FIG. 18 and the an inch at the proper distance Fig. PAIRING. to have Fig. when these members are tender. the 26 West 23rd street.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This should be about five or six inches long and two inches broad.

For starting. though four or more weavers may be used. ROPE TWIST. 21. 22. Each in its transit to the back of the fourth spoke must be laid on the top of the other three weaver?. the bones. FIG. It is to pack tightly together this kind of weaving that the flat piece of iron referred to in the list of tools is so useful. thus alternating. . 23. the other behind the where two weavers are used. being laid at the same time on the top of the weavers that preceded it. and before the next.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This weave is used where a break or dividing line in a basket is desired. The weaver is placed behind one spoke or foundation rod. It is also used as a border finishing weave. then each weaver is brought in succession before two spokes and behind one. weavers are taken on to the next spoke twist them so that the lower weaver takes the place of the upper. Then as the FIG. splint. the framework. Three weavers are placed behind three consecutive spokes. upon which the basket is built up. The fingers in Fig. they must be included in the four to make up this twist. see Fig. or worked in various ways in and out of the warp splints. The woof splints are the weavers which are wrapped. This. TRIPLE TWIST. see Fig. SINGLE WEAVING. as in Fig.is where two weavers are used DOUBLE instead of one. 24. 20. ROPE TWIST. PAIRING. This is shown in Fig. or twined. 33 piece of material used for wrapping. either for beauty or strength. but one is placed same spoke. TRIPLE WEAVE. and if one or more weavers have already been used. 19 hold a The warp the foundation splints are the ribs. This is clearly shown in Fig. 23. (This is before. This is a variation of the triple weave. four weavers are placed behind four consecutive spokes. the spokes. WEAVING. 24.

One of the first and most important results to be attained is the familiarizing the student (be he child or adult) with the materials to Hence the wisdom of following out alii the suggestions be used. the more readily does one see the possibilities and limitations of each . here given. RAFFIA WRAPPED ARTICLES. bristol Cut a 6-inch square from being three inches. this cut a circle. Work of Students. The greater the variety of materials used. Miss Hyde suggests: "One may combine bristol board with FIG.34 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." In all the following exercises it is well to PICTURE FRAMES. raffia to advantage in teaching little children illustrating the use of two materials of different degrees of flexibility. Teachers' College. 26. the radius board Cut an inner . HOW TO BEGIN. CHAPTER VII. New York. even though the immediate results are not the ones you individually are seeking. and from dampen the raffia several hours before using.

merely "a frame anyhow. all wrapped raffia. too. "artistic. as well as its mind and of a picture. simple loop may be made of the raffia with which to hang up the frame. as preferred. let the child feel that this frame is to enshrine a picture that means something to him.HOW circle with radius i TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. or made fingers are engaged in the work. FIG. This is the prime element in all work we designate Other interesting in Fig. 26. a napkin-ring. Then. Thus the heart of the child. . giving a diameter of 2 1-2 inches." but it is a frame especially for a picture of papa or mamma. Then wrap the board with raffia in its native color." possibilities in this use of materials are suggested made of Here are a book mark. This for a small picture. 28. opening allows A In the making of these picture frames cultivate a senise of proporThe frame must not be too large for the picture it is to hold nor too small. MAGAZINE HOLDER OF WRAPPED RAFFIA. 35 1-4 inches. For the book-mark any kind of splint may . It is not simply a frame for any kind tion. or some beloved friend or scene. or the baby. or dyed. and a toy umbrella.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Q El k CU <! tf fo o tf o ^ o H R d tf H J O ffi H N <J O 9 p H 8 O .

4 rattan. A SIMPLE BASKET FOR CHILDREN. as clearly engraving. 30. The napkin-ring is made by wrapping the raffia around a splint or card-board base. forth holding the coil to the left. of Students. Then shown in the Work \ PIG. sewed on. as. and later in the chapter on Indian Stitches.HOW be used. shown in Indian Basketry. 37 raffia is wrapped from one spoke to another. SIMPLE COILED BASKETS. Into this piece of No. The coiling of natural colored raffia and wrapping with a strand of dyed material is an easy method for children. 2 rattan. circled into ring form. To finish let the coil gradually diminish. Take a sufficient number of strands of raffia to make 1-4 inch coil and wrap with a strand of colored raffia Coil and sew back and leaving distances of 1-2 inch between wraps. giving one twist around each spoke and going on to the next one. This mode of wrapped weaving was long ago used by the Mohave Indians in the making of their carrying baskets. New York. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. i or No. page 160. . Teachers' College. For the umbrella take a Glue a piece of cork upon one end. Then begin to wrap with raffia. make small holes and glue therein seven lengths of No. and then edged with plaited raffia. and the stitches should not be noticed.

34. sew the edges tight with white thread. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. Then take same number and weave them.nJ f>- ' r| \a. the material is so different in character. This makes the warp. While mat weaving uses the warp and woof in exactly the same manner as they are used in what I have termed the web weaving. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. oak. that it is deemed wise to differentiate and give two separate sets The earliest stages of this form of weaving of lessons in their use. splints. 33. A buck- CHECKERBOARD. A width of paper. FIG. CLOSED. OPKX. and then unravel or split the splints as It is well to gain shown in the illustration. THE MAT WEAVE. 31 and 32 clearly show the simplest forms of this kind of work. It will be seen that the splints are fine.. let the pupil undertake the making of a table mat of any suitable material similar When it is the to Fig. all kindergarten teachers are more or less familiar with. number of splints of equal MATERIALS REQUIRED. wood (such as ash. Take a number of splints of equal length Place ten or a dozen side by side.\' ii-L FIG.'. 36 . After a little practice in this with coarse splints>. 35. over and under the warp at right angles. etc. knife. and width. Figs. ^ ft J-i . 32. etc. CHAPTER VIII. one at a time.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.) palmetto. scissors. awl or piercer. size desired. This simple checkenvork is the basis for good work later on. et or bowl of water. accuracy and speed in the manipulation of mat and good exercise will be had by imitating Figs. and needs such different handl- ing. 31.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. holding them with ends at right angles. So on alternating. then the horizontal over the perpendicular. 38. .) Take a short splint. Back and forth the folds then go retaining them at right angles. 38. (See C) in the fallowing order: down. many splints as desired. Take the two long FIG 33. Pull tight. The . MAT FOUNDATION WORK. from right to left and so on. splint to right. ones. 11. with ends reversed. place them side by side. Fig. Take two weavers of equal width. The next short splint fold around long splint to the left. taking care that each fold is absolutely even. up. can be utilized in the Fold all the splints lengthwise. These weaves making of many beautiful baskets later on. 39 and 40 are seen four beautiful specimens of . 37. from left to right. splint to left and through long as FOLDING EXERCISE. 39 with weavers of two colors.The accordeon fold. TABLE MAT. thrusting splints through the long Pull tight.) In Figs. or fold one long splint as shown in A. Fold the perpendicular splint up over the horizontal one. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. right and left. (See Fig. 10. open it and fold around long splint to the right. with result is the accordeon fold (B. Fig.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. !!<. ETC. ACCORDEON PLAIT. 39 AND 40. FIGS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. CHETEMACHE MATS. New York. 38.

PIG. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. La. A flat splint is laid lengthwise FIG. Their dyes are evidently vegetable and the exquisite color effects produced are worthy of imitation. fold backwards. oblique or diagonal. horizontally and weaver Take four long splints. The binding is simple. 4! Chetemache weave. using splints of palmetto. conjure up designs from her own imagination. The design is easily followed and the learner will find it excellent practice to endeavor to imitate. and later on. under and over as if going to make ordinary square mat weave. This tribe of Indians lives on Avery Island. The colors are a dull Indian red PATTERN PRODUCED PATTERN PRODUCED BY INTERLACING BY INTERLACING STRANDS OF STRANDS OF DIFFERENT COLORS. ISOLATED FIGURES PRODUCED BY MODIFYING ORDER OF INTERSECTION. Lay two two vertically. the designs are worked out with different colors. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. Take top splint.. DIFFERENT COLORS. bringing edge parallel with the right edge of the perpendicular splint. with the natural greenish-gray of the palmetto. . and makes beautiful baskets of a variety of shapes. holding in left hand. and black. Change \vork to right hand. FIG 36. 34.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In these mats. as seen in the illustration. and then sewed on with a fine on the upper edge of the mat. 37.

FIG. SPLINT MAT WEAVE BASKETS. SPLINT PICTURE FRAME FOUNDATION.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 42. FIG. SPLINT PICTURE FIG. . FRAME. 43. 41.

Fig. etc. Where the splints meet they can be tucked in. is A D . the upright or warp splints are turned over and deep enough is tucked in. making. Fig. 38. one of which is illustrated Another form napkin ring may PICTURE FRAME. 43 fold left splint obliquely. the lid for D. folding as directed. In Fig. Then Hold now left perpendicular folded horizontally as before. Then insert small splints and fill up the vacant spaces marked I. tucking (G. as long as required. 41.) NAPKIN RING. which can have cardboard or leather back glued or sewed upon it. this strip of diagonal weaving. A of napkin ring can be made from in the edges. Fig. thus strengthening the A little practice soon enables one to do this "tucking in" or parts. C.its upper edge lie parallel with the bottom horizontal splint. 43. Fig. in B. then wrapping one of the folds with the other in an oblique wrap. It should never be forgotten that good work of any kind can be done only with splints of perfectly even width. 43. Material required: eight long splints of one or various colors necessary number of short splints. 38. boxes. Then study. 41. 43 is shown how this square mat weave may be utilized. two sides. (F. one set to the left.) be made by leaving a little longer ends to the diagonally woven strip. there are practically five sides. tucking in the edges as per the illustration. 18. This crosses right perpendicular splint. with ring . fold upper horizontal downwards as before. When the It is made same as A. There are now two perpendicular sets of splints. These sizes determined it is easy to cut splints the required length. to allow two inches or so for turning in (tucking in) at the edges. instead of obliquely folding and creasing the splint.. (See D. bringing them together and then proceeding to unite them with the ordinary flat mat weave. fastener for the cover to the handle of the basket made by taking a long splint. 38. two ends. These even widths can best be made with the cutter shown in Fig. Open up as Fig. When the corners are turned up. in great variety of shapes and sizes. however. may be made upon these principles. and two horizontal. or easel. 3. 42. bottom. the woof splints of the sides can be continued around the corners and used as the woof splints of the ends. obliquely and press edges towards center to keep the work evenly. 2. Fig. A little practice will make the weaver perfectly conversant with this pretty variation. is "doubling" cover skilfully. taking care. 4 on Fig. 37. The bottom of A is of mat foundation (simple checkerboard).HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Here. Pass under first folded splint.. Cornucopias. Work held in left hand. The question of basket size can always be determined with a little In mat weaving the width of splint must be considered. and proceed. hanger. it is merely twisted in a curve back to the place it would have had if folded and creased. Fig-. 38. one set to the right. Prepare foundation as described for Fig. viz. covers.) A beautiful variation of the lower edge of the weaving of a diagonal band is shown in H. Trim off loose edges and the result is Fig. folding it around the fourth warp easily splint from either end. and binding it to the fourth warp splint from the other end.

Take two pieces of rattan. A little practice will soon teach how to affix to basket. taking care always to overwrap or tuck in all ends. The handle is made as follows willow. New York. the thickness desired and the length the handle is For weavers use long mat splints well soaked. Then wrap around left foundation is D made To produce : FIG. showing market baskets. alternating over and under. up between the two. The result will be an interesting collection. clothes baskets. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. forms of baskets in actual use. Teachers' College. over and around right foundation splint back between the two. Work splint. and then urge them to imitate or reproduce in minature.44 HOW The basket deeper. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. grocers baskets. foundation canes in thumb and forefinger of left hand with weavers under one and over the other. except that the narrowing together towards the top the warp splints should be made to taper a little. 44 and 45 show a variety of small models of baskets made by Excite the interest of children in the students at Teachers' College. and so on. or palmetto. of Students. cotton . cane. 44. down and around left splint. it is in the same way as its cover C. Hold required to be. Figs.

45 All these are simple and need no detailed inbaskets. Here adaptability to purpose. etc. To cane chairs is not a difficult art. different methods of work. medium. leaving an end two and one-half inchee long. Buy or make pegs to fit these holes. two persona. and down through center top hole. New York. yet Work FIG. The children will readily structions further than those already given. locality used. of fine cane up through the center bottom hole. at bottom row. which will each basket readily suggest themselves to the teacher. hampers. to use. can well be exemplified and important lessons given. 45. and fine fine. Cane is coarse. Show how environment influences everything and that the use of different baskets in different localities for the same purpose is the result of different growths. P'jii peg into both of these holes to keep cane in place. It of splints. and has a decided value in teaching the handling legitimately comes under the head of mat weaving. of Students. fine. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. . Teachers' College. To practice. Hold the frame on the Count the holes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . in which holes an inch apart are bored. square frame. overcome the problems involved. etc. and pull a piece lap top uppermost. It must be soaked in water before using. top and bottom. CAXING CHAIRS. etc. . up through next hole on the right. purchase from a kindergarten suppy house a small. keeping is practically useful. Now bring long end of cane. such as is used how carried what it is to carry whether carried by one or : How .

over a single splint. and from the lower right to the upper left. wide enough to cover the holes of the edge. gin. starting n PIG. (See Fig. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This diagonal weaving must be done in the two ways. working from center to left. from the lower left corner to the upper right. FIG. FIG. viz. CANING A CHAIR. CANING A CHAIR. For a binding stitch over the holes. CANE TIE. 48.46 it flat. At the fourth row from the center. right.. take a splint of binding cane. run a splint to the up- Now. HOW Peg it. process until right side of frame is reached. 46. The frame is now a network of squares. pull the cane tight. inserting one end down splint of fine cane is now brought through the hole at one corner. per right-hand corner and continue these diagonal lines exactly the same as the vertical ones. WEAVE OF CHAIR CANE. 49. 46). actual weaving must beThe splint must be taken under a cross. Now start to the left of the center This done. FIG. Now put in the in exactly the same way. under a cross. but towards the left side of frame. Take cane now this lacing Peg. over single. filled with lines of vertical splints. working first to the right. 47. however. continue taking care not to and lace as on the the frame will be horizontal splints right and center to to corresponding hole on top row. then to the left. from lower left-hand corner. A .

Put in the splints vertically lap. When the diagonal weaving ing as before described. The one thing of importance to remember is that the first row of splints must be put on loosely. Now follow these by putting in another set vertiThe fourth cally on top of the first ones and through the same holes. DOLL'S HAT AND TRAY OF PLAITED RAFFIA.) Everyone is familiar with the octagonal meshed weave of the ordinary cane-seated chair. bring the loose end to the nearest loop. for there are six rows of splints and the later woven rows tighten up to the others. 49. without any attempt tO' tie. FIG 53. In many chairs there are little problems in the corners that the good sense of the weaver will easily solve if he is careful to have a due regard for proof these as a pattern close at hand. HOOP AND SCHOOL BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA. Pass it underneath the loop. draw tight. as shown in Fig. This will be found to hold securely. is completed. . under lower vertical. 48. creasing firmly. Now begin the diagonal weaving from lower left corner to upper right corner. Sit on a small stool or hassock and tilt the chair forward upon your Find the center as before described. 47. (See Fig. row is horizontally put in and must be woven as follows over one upper vertical. across the binding and back again through the same hole. 47 up through every other hole. and going over or under as the case may require. 52. : : portion. at the same time pulling the upper vertical to the right. finish off with the bind- FIG. and horizontally. These go under and over the horizontal pairs and vertical pairs as shown in Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. thus couching it. In finishing off the ends. While doing the work endeavor to have one The explanations that follow will then be perfectly simple. then once again. which should always be on the under side of tlhe frame.

made of corset lacings. experimentation will soon show that the design depends entirely upon how the colored lace is placed at the beginning of the plait. The rings are ordinary brass rings. and the other without. lengthen It is not necessary it by splicing.53 sihows a small raffia. not by tying. soon demonstrate >how much raffia must be used to obtain a plait of any given size. Alternate plaiting and sewing give variety. Neligh's school in Columbus. They are all of braided raffia. using for thread a fine strand of raffia. CHAPTER IX. one Below it to the left is one of with. beginning first with coarse and later using finer material. THE PLAIT OR BRAID. let the child practice on simple plaiting with strands of raffia. When a length of raffia is about to give out. another shape. on which the A little practical experience will raffia can be placed while plaiting. Above it are two wall pockets. The saddle girth above is of braided sisal hemp expressly for that purpose.48 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. used for car- rying books. 52 shows a hoop of plaited raffia. Fig. and the bottom belt shows that tttie ends are utilized for tying. To facilitate this place a screw hook in the wainscoting or on the under side of the work table. a handle. covered with the lace. and below is a school-bag. Every schoolboy and girl is more or less familiar with the simple forms of plaiting. Both boys and girls can be much interested in this plaiting if the articles made are converted into playthings. and a tray. bag-handles. 50. and see that it is closely and evenly done. Belts. To the right and below is a band made by sewing the plaits together. 54 and 55 are composed of model hats made by the students at Teachers' College. First of all. Ga. In this the plaits are coiled flat. To gain digital dexterity it is well to introduce it into a Course of Basketry. sewed with the edges outermost. etc. 50 is the beginning of a small mat. with the edges outer- most and sewed as the coil grows. thus avoiding knots. Under the direction of the teacher this can easily be converted into a harness. A little These laces can be dyed so as to give design in the plait. Columbia University. In these three the plaits are flat and sewed edge to edge with a large darning needle. Fig. 51 is composed entirely of plaited belts. 52 and 53 were made by small children at Mr. To give purpose to the work. or something useful. Figs. for their own personal use. Fig. to plait the entire length needed before beginning to use the plait. Sew on one side only. both made of plaited All the articles of Figs. used by boys and girls in one of their out-door games. New York. toy harness and the like are easily made from this plaited work. doll's hat. In the making of these hats seek to draw out the individuality of . stimulate interest by showing how these plaits can be utilized. In the center of Fig. for the boy's own use in playing horses.

the reasons that used to exist for the different kinds of headgear used in the various regiments of the ^ame army. Let one make a continental hat. To add interest to the work the child know something of the wearer of these different kinds of hats. the poke In army hat>s< of different nations are a score of suggestbonnet. . the outing hat. let of excellent suggestions may be found. Here come in opportunities for fascinating little chats on history. another a A Southern girl will naturally try a colonial. etc. 50. Others will try the Panama. 49 each child or student.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. whilst a girl from the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania will make a Dutch farmer's hat. ETC. while in the hats of the peasantry of the world a host more FIG. the Coolie. geography. social and domestic customs. still another a Puritan. sombrero. the Chinese. ARTICLES OF PLAITED RAFFIA. etc. the policeman's helmet. ive shapes.

Teachers' College. and the effects manner of making is clearly shown in Fig. and good shape are all sought after. native in the may be exercised and called into existence modern outing hat. neatness in sewing the plaits together. PLAITED BELTS. of the wearer. Remember that a good milliner in choosing a hat studies. . solidity of the basket as a whole. Then. Then try to make a hat that would suit some friend. make such an one as you would personally like to wear. produced.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER taste BASKETS. "If you make a modern hat. 51. harmony of color wihere it is used. 56 and 57 are various baskets of plaited raffia made by the Various colors are used and pretty students of Teachers' College. Work of Students. 58. the form. Five-stranded plaits of raffia often come in very useful.. Firmness of weave. individuality. too." This demands personality. the conscious exercise of choice. choice of a able to produce a hat that will harmonize with the individuality of the wearer. the color of the hair. the shape of the face and Thus she is head. etc. New York. Figs. FIG.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. BOTTOM OF DEERFIELD BASKET. 51 FIG. . 50a.

New York. Work of Students. Teachers' College.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. FIG. 54.

THE NET. For a netted work or handkerchief-bag. Pimas have a carrying basket in which the net is used. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. 53 CHAPTER X. New York. Work PIG. Hold the stick in any easy position so that a strand of raffia may be doubled and tied around the . Twisted hemp. as shown in A. braided raffia. It should be slightly dampened for several hours before using. yucca fibre. 55. of Students." it will be seen that carrying The nets were and are made by the Mission Indians of California. Teachers' College.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. etc. used. 61. secure twelve strands raffia of two colors and a stick about a yard long and one and one-half inches wide. Even unbraided raffia may be rushes. From page 158. Various materials can be used in this work. Fig. "Indian Basketry.

then knot each strand at about the distance of an inch with the nearest strand of the next pair. and the towards the bottom. bag is A pretty effect of complete. of two bot- . the strands in like manner. narrowing the meshes Work FIG. Then slip the knots from the stick. The ends are then cut evenly. Continue this all the way down for five or six rows. BASKETS OF PLAITED RAFFIA. Separate to about an inch apart.54 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 56. of Students'. At the bottom the whole of the strands are gathered together and tied with a single or braided strand. Draw the knot tight. 59. tom rows is caused by loosely braiding the strands meshes before knotting them. a length of plaited raffia put through the upper mesh and tied. and proceed to close up the bag by knotting the loose sides together. New York. Make even meshes all the way across. Put on the rest of stick. as shown in Fig-. Teachers' College.

Teachers' College. 55 the meshes of equal size two sides. 61. then joining the FIG. are the bag is lined with silk or turkey red cotton it is a pretty and serviceable article. If tassels Work on. of Students. except that the meshes must be much smaller. New York. The ends can then be cut and thie bag is complete. way by matching t)he knots and meshes together and then knitting two strands from the front and two from the back together for the finishing row. style of bag made by keeping all the to the bottom. at the bottom. A .HOW Another TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. and the number of strands When BASKETS OP PLAITED RAFFIA. of raffia and sewed desired they may be made 57. Fig. twine bag may be made in the same manner as A.

C is netting the same as described in the work-bag A. FIG. 60. In netting with raffia or other materials! an infinite variety of articles may be made. FIG. and all different. NETTED BAGS OF RAFFIA. NET MESH. STITCH AND 59. C and D. SNIGLE NET MESH. 61. FIG. FIG. 58. 61. and tied tightly on the top. ETC. FIG. 62. With a tassel on the bottom. using the single net stitch of Fig.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 60. STRAND DETAIL OF FIVE PLAIT. Fig. as suggested in B. it can be suspended wherever needed. the twine allowed to come through one of the meshes. B is a small netted purse of raffia of fine mesh. D is a pretty little basket made of a fibre brought from Puerto . limited to the size of the ball of twine. KNOT OF RAFFIA. but has a bottom and top of coiled and sewed plaited raffia.

These may be imitated from any book of fancy needlework. through. . NET MESH. for which I am indebted to the "Priscilla Needlework as required." Any of these may be imitated in raffia. 64. then under and over. When all the rings are covered.HOW Rico. 69. FIG. FIG. NET MESH. A pretty napkin-ring can be made by taking ten curtain rings about an inch in diameter and covering them with the buttonhole Raffia or any fibre may be used. 67 and 68. yucca fiber. 65. 58) an inch wide. It is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. overlap them. 63. FIG. Book for 1903. NET MESH. similar to Figs. stitch shown in Figs. as slhown in Fig. NET MESH. 57 composed entirely of fancy stitches. etc. The size of rings may be varied to suit the size of napkin. knotted or fastened These fancy stitches give wonderful variety to basket work and can be introduced here and there as taste and skill dictate. 66. and then join by passing a ribbon or five-strand plait of raffia (see Fig. FIG. 62 to 66.

<! H H a fe .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

perfectly flat. They are pretty and useful. 36. The center may be birch bark (ornamented. coil to diminish gradually and make a secure fastening. Great care should be exercised in putting in new material to reUpon this depends the evenness of the work. The is coil is one of the favorite weaves. plenish the coil. shredded The plain mat of Fig. the upright stitches lend themiselves to the greatest variety of intricate patterns. There are specimens delicately made that will pass through a lady's finger ring. will be easily mastered. raffia. made exactly as the mat in Fig. and others as large as a flour barrel some specimens have . Dye the hemp and take an amount equivalent to three-eight inch coil wrap for a distance of three-fourths of an inch. is basket makers in American West and Southwest.. and. 59 CHAPTER XI. or of A leather. Colis of coiled trays made by the students of Teachers' Fig. thus giving a radiaTo finish allow the tion from the center as the work progresses. the root material is shredded so fine that nearly 100 stitches In form. sedges." The simplest form of coiled work is shown in Fig. 71 gathered in the immediate neighborhood of New York. except that an oval center was first made by bending a strong and thick needle to the . broom corn. such as grass. Let the children go out and gather their own material for these 'simple trays. as this is. the Indians of the simple and yet capable of artist. raffia. 72 is of a group of mats and baskets made of long pine needles. straw. each time inserting the needle with point toward you between every wrap. The variation of B. Of these Miss Hyde writes and thus instructs how to make They are made of hemp.. split willows. with a center of cedar-bark. D is an oval mat. or whatever is to be used for sewing. The material of the coil may be almost anything capable of being coiled. strong tapestry needle The coil is then begun. combined with grasses. . as the work progresses. Fig. 70. the fancy one is of sweet grass. corn husks. . It large variation. The zig-zag introduced and the mat then completed with three rounds of coil. as in a table mat. with colored quills). it is tightly wrapped with thread. lege. rushes. while cat-tail. As Professor Mason has well written: "Coiled basketry in point of size presents the greatest extremes. the coiled ware may be are made within an inch of space. This gives the even and beautiful spiral effect. : etc. taken just past the proceeding one. as in the Pima granaries. etc. Fig. twine. 70. allowing spaces of one inch between wraps then fasten and sew. when performed by an exquisitely beautiful. or built up into the most exquisite jar shape. Taking a length of the coil material. in design. is The first grass coil is sewed to its outer edge. sweet grass.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 70 is of raffia. and made with comparative ease. THE COIL WEAVE. stitching material one-half inch wide. and in o-thers. of the best the world. the stitches being is needed for the sewing. viz.

FIG. Work of Students. 71. . 72. PINE NEEDLE COILED BASKETS. New York. Teachers' College. FIG. SIMPLE COILED TRAYS.

) er coil thus formed (Fig. and sewed to the sides-. 75 clearly show the Indian method of making the "In the I quote Lieut. F is C is smaller and the two upper coils are made oval so as to afford two B is a dainty little basket. and no slovenly work in the sides will be tolerated. A basket must sit firmly on the table and be tightly woven. amples was made of the helix or spirally coiled type of basket. the beginning small wisp of fine flexible at the center of the bottom. three and one-eighth inches. Cushings description: simple coiled weave.) tiguous inner coil. the width of brim three-quarters of an inch. Here are two important things to be attained. then inward. When FIGS. to form the tapering upper part and neck. two and a half inches in diameter. This wrapped portion was then wound upon itself. 74) being firmly fastened as it progressed to the one already made by passing the splint wrapping of the wisp each time it was wound around the latter through some strands of the conThe bottom (Fig. 75. 74.boiling baskets. 75. as the basis. and used makes an excellent tray for the toilet table. A grass stems or osiers softened in water was first spirally wrapped a little at one end with a flat. The top is an inch and a half in diameter. the out(Fig. the height two and a quarter inches. yet made in the same way. The handles of G are each of two circular coils. the diameter of bottom. Each 'has a base of two coils. manufacture of the Havasupai. No "wobblety" bottom. to which A tom and 1 the lid is. including brim. into which the two little twigs or splint-loops were firmly woven. 73. was rounded upward and the sides were made by coiling the wisp higher and higher. decked off with a piece of ribbon. a "cute little hat. 73." circular in shape. Figs. flanged and fits snug. It is two and a quarter inches across at the botis the lid.HOW shape required. limber splint of tough wood. or a mat dinner table. usually willow. 72. 74. In the making of all these baskets stimulate the student to stability ." This su'bject will be found more fully discussed in the chapter on . slight protuberances which act as handles. Fig. are dissimilar in shape. sewed on after the basket was elsewhere finished. E and G. 73. to produce the bulge of the vessel. these long pine needles baskets are known they will become wonderfully popular in a short time. 6l This was then filled up with darned work. which are good exand firmness. for the It TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. MANUFACTURE OF SPIRALLY COILED WEAVES. with the aid of a bodkin. first outward.

Packing inclosed. there are nine different varieties of coiled basketry which he analyzes and describes as my follows : "The foundation may be a thin welt laid on top of (4) it . The stitches pass around the foundation in progress (i) interlocking. two or more stems over one another . G. Simple interlocking coils. . (5) three stems in tria bundle of splints or small stems (7) a bundle of grass or small shreds. and in book on Indian Basketry. angular position (6) by '=. With these explanations it is possible to make the following nine varieties of coiled basketry. two rod foundation. One rod inclosed. F. matting. Scores of exquisite baskets made by this stitch are pictured. . Double-stem coil. (i) a single (3) stem or rod. of the coil beneath. Indian Stitches. Grass-coil foundation. Fuegian coiled basketry. C. CROSS SECTIONS OF VARIETIES IN COILED BASKETRY. H. As Professor Mason has shown in his bulletin. B. or bagging: A. E. rod and welt foundation. ill A iJ) B & // \] C -> FIG. 76). two rod and splint foundation. but not inclosing the foundation underneath (2) under one rod . Packing inclosed. Single-rod foundation. however many there may be (3) under a welt of the coil beneath (4) through splints or other foundation. three-rod foundation. I. two stems laid side . Splint foundation. These will now be taken up systematically and illustrated (fig.ide. in some cases systematically splitting the sewing material underneath. K. . (2) a stem with . with a welt.62 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. D. 76. Coiled work without foundation.

HOW
A.

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

COILED
of this class

WORK WITHOUT FOUNDATION.

Speci-

have been already mentioned. The sewing material is babiche or fine rawhide thong in the cold north, or string of some In the Mackenzie Basin will be found the former, sort farther south. and in the tropical and subtropical areas the latter. If a plain, spiral spring be coiled or hooked into one underneath, the simplest form of An improvement of this is effected the open coiled work will result.

mens

FJG. 77. DETAIL OF INTERLOCKING STITCHES.

FIG.

ROD COIL

78.

DETAIL OF SINGLEIN BASKETRY.

FIG.

TWO

79.

RODS, VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION OF

FIG.

SO.

COILED WORK.

ROD AND WELT

when the moving thread in passing upward after interlocking is twined one or more times about its standing part (Fig. 76 A.) B. Simple interlocking coils. Coiled work in which there may be any sort of foundation, but the stitches merely interlock without catching under the rods or splints or grass beneath. This form easily passes into those in which the stitch takes one or more elements of the foundation, but in a thorough ethnological study small differences can not be overlooked (fig. 76 B). Fig. 77 represents this style of workmanship on a coiled basket in grass stems from Alaska, collected by Lucien M. Turner. The straws for sewing merely interlock without gathering the grass roll.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

C. In rattan basketry and Pacific coast Single-rod foundation. ware, called by Dr. J. W. Hudson Tsai in the Poma language, the foundation is a single stem, uniform in diameter. The stitch passes around the stem in progress and is caught under the one of the preceding coil, In a collection of Siamese basketry in the U. S. Naas in fig. 76 C. tional Museum the specimens are all made after this fashion the foundation is the stem of the plant in its natural state, and the sewing is with splints of the same material, having the glistening surface outward. As
;

FIG.

SI.

FOUNDATION OF THREE RODS.

FIG.

82.

OF SPLINTS.

FOUNDATION

FIG. COILS,

S3.

STRAW FOUNDATION.

INTERLOCKING

FIG.

84. OPEN COIL, INCLOSING PART OF FOUNDATION.

this is

somewhlat unyielding, it is difficult to crowd the stitches together, and so the foundation is visible between. In America single-rod basketry is widely spread. Along the Pacific coast it is found in northern Alaska and as far south as the borders of Mexico. The Poma Indians use it in some of their finest work. The roots of plants and soft stems of willow, rhus, and the like are used for the sewing, and being soaked thoroughly can be crowded together so
as to entirely conceal the foundation
(fig. 78).

rod in this style lies on top of the other the stitches pass over two rods in progress and under the upper

D.

Two-rod foundation.

One

;

HOW
one
of the pair

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

65

cal series.

below, so that each stitch incloses three stems in a vertiattention to fig. 76 D will demonstrate that the alternate rod or the upper rod in each pair will be inclosed in two series of stitches, while the other or lower rod will pass along freely in the middle of one series of stitches and show on the outer side. Exbe seen among the Athaamples of this two-rod foundation are to tribes of Alaska, among the Poma Indians of the Pacific coast, pascan and among the Apache of Arizona. An interesting or specialized variseen among the Mescaleros of New Mexico, who ety of this type is us'e the two-rod foundation, but instead of passing the stitch around the interlock the stitches so that neither upper rod of the coil below, simply

A

little

FIG.

INTERLOCKING COILS, 85. SHRED FOUNDATION.

FIGS.

86,

87

AND

88.

FUEGIAN COILED BASKET AND DETAILS.

one of the two rods is closed twice. This Apache ware is sewed with yucca fiber and the brown sterns of other plants, producing a brilliant
effect,

and the

result of the special technic

is

a flat surface like that of

pottery

(fig. 79).

of precisely the

The U. S. National Museum possesses a single piece same technic from the kindred of the Apache on the

lower Yukon. E. Rod and welt foundation. In this kind of basketry the singlerod foundation is overlaid by a strip or splint of tough fiber, sometimes the same as that with which the sewing is done at others a The stitches pass over the rod and strip which strip of leaf or bast. are on top down under the welt only of the coil below, the stitches inThe strip of tough fiber between the two rods which terlocking.
;

o ^ g 02 Oc 0) i-H - 5J5 ^5 o .w 55 pq 4 r^ g O o I-H O t ( fe a .

where the has no standing in that tribe. and F. the stitches interlocking. In basketry of this type the foundation consists of a number of longer or shorter splints massed together and sewed. of small midribs The foundation is a bunch of grass or from palm: leaves. for the reason that the maker has perExcellent examples of this kind are to fect control of her material. The willow stems and carex root are Sewing done with these susceptible of division into delicate filaments. which may be in splints of willow. J. Hudson calls them the ''jewels of of basketry are in this style. or cercis stem. and the like." The technic the most elaborate character can be wrought on them. as shown in fig. 76 E and fig. ware is rude when the sewing passes carelessly through the stitches In the Klikibelow. rhus. 76 F). or shredded yucca. under In some the upper one of the bundle below. but it coil beneath (fig. The sewing. be seen in the southwestern portions of the United States. G. of one of these to a friend is considered to be the highest compliment. Three or four small uniform willow stems serve for the is as follows foundation. only the outer and : . In this style the foundation is made thicker and stronger by laying two rods side by side and a splint The surface will be or welt on top to make the joint perfectly tight. In the Great Interior Basin. The effect in all such ware is good. passes around the three stems constituting the coil. H. Among the Poma and other by tribes in the western part of the United States the most delicate pieces Dr. W. 81 also in cross section in fig. willow.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . F. black or white carex root. chinking of coil work is seen on old Zuni basket-jars and on California examples. and when the stitches are pressed closely together the foundation does not appear. The interior parts Such in such examples are made up into the foundation (fig. On the surface of the barn-tsu-wu basketry the Poma weaver adds pretty bits of bird feathers and delicate pieces The basket represents the wealth of the maker. 76) C. 76 H). the stitches passing under one or more of the splints in the In the Poma language it is called chilo. corrugated. in others the splitting is designed and beautiful. Three-rod foundation. tat basketry the pieces of spruce or cedar root not used for sewing material are also I. of the stems of rushes (Juncus acutus). This is the type of foundation called Dr. is most compact. and in northern Africa. (See In the larger granary in fig. rush stems. Two rod and splint foundation. D. Surfaces are beautifully corrugated. fig. and patterns of coiled basketry. The sewing may be done with split stems of hard wood. and the gift of shell. younger portion of the stem will do for sewing. or stiff grass (Epicampes rigidum). 76 G. Hudson bam-tsu-wu. among the pueblos and missions. 67 serves for a welt has a double purpose strengthening the fabric and This style the space between the rods (fig. or. The type of foundation passes easily into forms (fig. as in the case of the Mission baskets in southern California. 82). 83 and the cross section given baskets of the Pima a bundle of straws furnishes the foundation. examples this upper rod is replaced by a thin strip of material serving fora welt (see fig. 76 I). worked into the foundation. Grass'-coil basketry. In the California area the materials for basketry are of the finest quality. Tribes practicing this style of coiling generally have fine material and some of the best ware is so made up. Splint-foundation. pliant material of the California tribes is wanting. So).

68 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. COILED RAFFIA BASKTES. 90. FIG. .

Mass. The bottom is two and a half inches in diameter. The resemblance of this to half-hitches. A. In this ware the foundation is slight. Mass. Asiatic types on the Pacific is most striking (fig. In B. of which a figure is given. 90 is the next step in coiled basketry. as in fig. ing coil as in all their finer work." The student can utilize almost all of these methods in one kind of or another. McLeod. 86). these stitches. wihich will be read with interest and profit. two different methods of coiled basketry are shown. fig. the patterns. consisting of one or more rushes the sewing is in buttonhole stitch or . of course. Though made of raffia. inasmuch as this type of basketry is confined in America to the Hopi pueblos. "The baskets produced at Deerfield. 69 while the sewing is done with broad strips of tough bark. the sewing is done with rushes. Mr. We have now C.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. though. and. 89. Most of the celebrated baskets of the Pocumtuck Society. are made in the stitch shown in Fig. Here.. Among the basketry belonging to the grass-coil foundation type are the Hopi plaques. reached. is the other crafts of that little been a source of encouragement village display. show the fundamental traits of sound workmanship and an intelligent use of material. of DeerI have pleasure field. after the center has been begun. and is then decreased until it is 3 1-2 inches at the top. many people looking at the photograph. the pure coiled work of the Indian. which furnish also the sewing material from the split leaf If this be examined in comparison with a style of basketry (fig. with the addition of a cross stitch over the stitch which binds the two coils toThe Indians of Kern County occassionally use the former of gether. and the stitches. when time permits. the color of the sewing material. K. L. which were brought very early in contact with Spaniards and African slaves. 90 is another specimen. It is so-called by him because each stitch is not bound to* the preced- work made by a ten year old boy. what he calls. great similarity will be noticed in the size of the coil. it is well to experiment in the various styles with the home materials. Whiting. but instead of being in the ordinary over-and-over stitch it consists of a series of half hitches or buttonhole stitches (fig. of the a work-basket of the same stitch. the same method is followed. no one but the merest tyro could be deceived if he held the basket in his hands. 85). In fig. has some beautiful specimens of the weaver's art done in this. herewith in presenting a description of the baiskets illustrated and the work of this Society by Miss Margaret C. and my friend. Fuegian coiled basketry. which coiled lazy stitch. might easily mistake this for a genuine Indian basket. E. with rush stems interlocking. lazy stitch. the new part of the coil is wrapped for a certain number of stitches. what we might term. then it is sewed to the preceding coil. fig. as in A. found in Egypt and in northern Africa as far as the Barbary states. In the Fuegian coiled basketry. B. 89. and their example has to the production of the good work . built upon a thick bundle of the woody stems of the yuccas. The diameter increases up to five inches. The suggestion is here made that this particular form of workmanship may be due to acculturation.. 84. 86).

COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. 93. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. FIG. New York. New York. Teachers' College. Teachers' College. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 92. Work of Students. FIG. Work of Students.

an animal or even a landscape may serve for suggestion. . . worked with a much finer stitch. One . Jl now being done by different localities. for it lightens the dark interior of the basket. slyly prepared for the observant. An individual preference is shown in one worker's use of the swale grasses grown in the meadows about Deerfield (see Fig. beauty that lies in the natural corn husk when laid smooth in large . the flower is worked out in red and black upon a white background with a conventional border in the same colors upon the side of the basket (Fig. The Pocumtuck Basket Society. a beautifully drawn black-berry flower in white raffia in the black bottom. Or another weaver produces her effects from the use of color and exquisite stitches in a basket all done The in greens. This charming surprise. other groups of village workers in basketry in In the matter of color the Deerfield workers in their baskets probably. may not be imitated by those whose taste is sophisticated and minds trained to other and different standards of beauty. a fer to work out the themes and harmonies of Nature flower. and have frankly refused to use designs or color combinaIn their designs they pretions that belong to the red man's choice. the way it is translated into the medium of raffia furnishes the herself. . been of chief public service. with much thought given to the perfection of form. copperas and logwood these craftswomen hiave uttered their convincing protest against the crude and vicious color discords of the chemical dyes. a house in red with windows a<nd doors in black and a lighter green foreground on the opposite occurs exactly the same landscape all dark in blues and greens. fustic. madder. 2) another chooses the piccotee pink for chief decoration upon the cover of her shallow bowl. about its circumference (see Fig. the seeds being divided on the black surface by dull green lines while the cover with its brown stem for a handle rising from the green calyx. and with the varying shades and tones their old-fashioned dves offer they produce harmonies the public is quick to value. She combines their varying lines with colored raffia in large card trays and plaques. is all black with a row of large dull black beads pointing the edge of the lid. With indigo. A different temperament has chosen a blackberry for a motive of form and decoration. 9). 8). a butterfly. 14). have wisely recognized that the Indian. after the longgone earliest inhabitants of their valley. the house in black and and the upper edge of the roof and trees just touched with the pink reflections from a big pink moon that rises in the pale sky it is almost needless to say this is named "Night and Day." Only a bold designer could carry out with success so simple Another covered basket by the same workyet complicated a scheme. er is made with a useful handle that holds fast the lid on double braided cords it is developed in blues with a row of red birds solemnly hopping for the individual craftswoman to solve for . and . Turn up the basket and one will find. for from the first have owed a good part of their reputation to the natural dyes they employ. raffia have. like all masters in art. problem large basket woven of the natural colored raffia for a ground color bears two landscape designs for its decoration on one swelling side is seen a group of trees in dull rioh greens against a blue sky. One craftswoman decorates her carefully shaped basket with a nice drawing of white mice on a dull olive background (Fig. as the raffia workers have named themselves.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. serves a useful purpose.

and bearing big blossoms worked from the many4iued pinks of the crepe-like husks (see done in Fig." and consists one smooth turn about the coil and a stitch down into the space on the row beneath the coil is formed of split or whole reeds. Wrapped spaces of . a handle must be strong or the jury of society will not give its approval. BOOK MARK OF WEB WEAVE. 93 are all of coiled raffia baskets made by the students at Teachers' College. FIG. each weaver seeking to produce the best possible effect. WEAVING ON EVEN SPOKES. 92. is shown in still another basket of a large cylindrical form shaded indigo blues for background to four poppy stalks. employed is that which has been dubbed "lazy stitch." Figs.3)In choice of shapes the Pocumtuck basket makers cling to the strictly useful and simple forms a bowl must stand firm on a bottom sufficiently large to sustain it. and sometimes varied from large to small in the development of a single basket. Here variety in shape and design were worked out.HOW surfaces TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The stitch chiefly . 6 FIG. are introduced but are not allowed to interfere with structural strength. each rising from two spreading gray-green leaves. a cover must fit. . 95. different sizes being chosen to fit the desired effect. 91. SPLINT AND 94.

uniformly. A little practice will soon teach the better way to the student. Indeed the division into miat and web weaving is purely arbitrary. 20. however. THE WEB WEAVE. 94. 21. The result is a series of ridges on the surface. The odd spoke may be used in starting. over 3. of the raffia weaver pretty little book-mark may be made with rattan or other material for the foundation of raffia. 73 CHAPTER XII. weaving only in the fact that the warp elements are rigid and mat BOOK MARKS. 95. over two AND STARTING WEAVER. 97. one ahead of the first round. the web. i. Weave over 5. both starting together. one before and the other behind the same spoke. it ODD AND EVEN NUMBER OF is essential to vise an even number of spokes for the warp. To have the woof of one over and one under. 96. We iniow woof is come to the most common of all of the basket weaving of the the pliable material. over 7. It must never be forgotten that proper web weaving can never be clone with an even number of spokes and a single weaver. there must be an odd number of spokes. under 4. as shown in Fig. and so Tuck the end of the on. 22. Yet this differs from the checkerwork of the civilization. A MAT OR BOTTOM FOR ROUND BASKET. palmetto. until five or six rounds have been woven. for use. DIVIDING INTO SINGLE SPOKES. FIG. A wooden splints. weaver into the part woven so as to hide and firmly fasten it. HOLDING SPOKES FIG. little care at first will soon render one expert in thus using two weavers. throughout. over under between 8 and i. 23 and 24 show the simple stitches. and when tips of spokes are cut into points a book mark is ready The following exercises will all be useful for later work. Figs. or can be inserted later. under 6. Take eight . One long and three short flat Place these as shown in Fig. the effect of a single weaver can be obtained by using two weavers.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Next round pass under two. then under 8 and under 2. and with a long weaver splints are required. SPOKES. Tuck the end i. Where. etc.

so the odd spoke is >now inserted as shown in Fig. 99 until the mat or base is the size redesired to make a mat of this. 100. and it will be found that the weaver comes behind the same spoke with which we begun in the first row. as strength is thus added. the further the better. as allowing from i 1-2 inches to 5 or 6. Soak ends for a few minutes. 8 or 9 inches Hold the eight long spokes as long. to weave as shown quired. in front of the next. the splints to be bent. PIG.74 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. underneath. so as to readily evenness. 98. Then turn over and continue FIG. 99. 97 and begin to weave behind and before each spoke separately. and so on until the whole edge is bound. shown in Figs. finish the last row by binding it as overcasting is done. Then weave under flie four to the right. 4 rattan. 2. Now cut spokes to a point and of even length. When the weaver has been placed across each side of the top set of spokes. Sharpen one end and thrust it into the center. In making these borders remember always to soak. spokes of No. 101 and 102. INSERTING ODD SPOKE. 14 to 16 inches long. over the four at bottom. under the four at left. just before it reaches the next spoke. as the beauty of every edge depends upon its making everything It is well to soak a border after it is made. Weave one row. If it is OPEN BORDER NO. Then push spoke No. and so on. shown in Fig. Another simple border is made. It will often be necessary. under the last row of weaving before next spoke. for the loop. 96. as a STARTING NEW WEAVER. This would spoil the looks of the basket. leaving an open curve as shown in Fig. it is passed under the last row of weaving Then pass it around that spoke. This separation must be done with great care and evenness. i down beside No. cording to taste. After placing the weaver under one side and over another. . as strength and beauty both depend upon the way this is done. ac2. in Fig. separate the spokes as shown in Fig. one spoke. Run the spoke down as far as possible. 2 rattan. making two complete rounds. and a weaver of No. Then be absolutely accurate in even. 98. allow its being bent into perfect shape. for ten or fifteen minutes. RIGHT SIDE OF CENTER WITH ODD SPOKE. It will then dry as left. and the appearance of the basket improved.

OPEN BORDER NO. NEW WEAVER. In Fig. Cross this with an equal length of the new weaver. SPLICING WEAVERS. STARTING of the work of his pupils. is done the edges are sown together to make SIMPLE BASKETS. and the woof strands then woven as in other work. The warp strands of raffia are then tightly tied around these pins. SPLICING. DETAIL. The student is now ready to make simple . One may use a needle or not as he de- shown some specimens FIG. the two may be spliced as shown in Fig. Mr. 2. 102. behind a spoke. 2. 105 are may be cut off. When the weaving the object desired. sires. 100. 101. (See Fig. Then FIG. OF NO. 104. 104. When the basket is completed and dry the unnecessary ends If it is desired to hide the point of new with old weaver. SIMPLE OPEN BORDER. 103. 75 Leave the end of the last weaver [weaver runs out. Neligh informs me that he has found it to be excellent practice to have hi's pupils make the web weave with raffia. OPEN BORDER PIG. FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Pins are firmly fastened into a board. with about three-quarters of an inch to spare. 103). FIG. proceed. to start a new one. the shape the object is to be.

slightly curves up the spokes and gives the soon as the basket is as large as required it bowl shape desired. closed border No. WEB WEAVING WITH RAFFIA. and 99. 105.76 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 98. baskets of the web weave. 96. 97. finishing off with border as desired. but after about an inch of the mat is woven draw the weaver tighter. Begin the mat as described in Figs. As must be finished off with next chapter. 106 as an example. The basket below the mat is begun in exactly the same way. This FIG. which will be described in the . Use the mat in Fig. i.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS,

77

CHAPTER

XIII.

INSERTION AND BORDERS.
Before proceeding further with the chapter on Web-Weaving well to gain a full knowledge of insertion and borders. These "In descriptions are taken from Miss Firth's "Cane Basket Work." making open borders where it is necessary to run one spoke down
it is

FIG.

106.

Work

SIMPLE RATTAN BASKETS,
of Students, Teachers' College,

WEB WEAVE.
New
York.

beside another, the awl must be first inserted to open a passage for the extra spoke, and care must be taken to have a smooth end, or the weaving will be pulled out of place. It is al'so important to have each spoke double the length of the height of the basket, allowing the extra length necess'ary for the loop at the top. For convenience

7

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

spoke may be cut half an inch beyond the length required for the sides, and extra spokes, a little more than double that length, inserted when the weaving is finished. This will give the appearance of three spokes, and if well varnished will not be likely to get out of place.

The extra

half-inch

must not be

cut off the

first

spoke

till

the others

have been inserted.

"As the extra length necessary for each border is given with the directions for working it, one can be easily substituted for another according to taste."

FIG.

107.

DETAIL OF INSERTION.

PIG.

108.

INSERTION.

Pretty effects are caused by insertion, the details of which will The spokes of readily be comprehended from Figs. 107 and 108. the trellis work of the insertion are finer than the foundation. "This can be used with any border but looks well with open border, Fig. 102. The fine starting on the right hand side of a coarse spoke, crossing the open space to the next on the right, following it inside

FIG.

109.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

3.

FIG.

110.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

4.

the bend till the open space is again reached, where it crosses to the left-hand side of the same 'spoke from which it started." NO. 3. "This is only another variation of the same prinicple, the spokes being cut about 3 inches longer than double the height needed for the sides of the basket. At about 2 inches from the top weave one row of pairing and fasten off ends. An

OPEN BORDER

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

79

inch farther up start another row of pairing, add three rows of single Proceed as for Open weaving, and finish with another row of pairing. Border No. 2 as far as to the insertion, but instead of inserting the spoke in hand beside the same spoke as in the upper part, miss one, and slip it down beside the next. This border needs careful manipu-

FIG.

111.

DETAIL, OF PLAIT.

FIG.

112.

PLAIT.

lation to
size of

OPEN BORDER
ple as

keep the spokes in place. It can be varied according to basket and taste of worker." NO. 4. "This border necessitates double

spokes, on which two rows of pairing are worked at any desired distance. See Fig. no. The upper part is done on the same princiis brought up behind the next, the last being gathered under the first, as shown in Fig. in. For the next row this movement is reversed, each spoke being passed down behind the next, the last threaded under the first. When the

SINGLE PLAIT.

Open Border No.

5."

Each spoke

FIG.

113.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

FIG.

4321
114.

DETAIL, OF LAST

THREE SPOKEa

work

thoroughly dry, the protruding ends must be cut off as closeSee Fig. 112. PLAIT. Insert an extra short spoke beside each of those already in use, and proceed with the two spokes together as
is

ly as practicable.

DOUBLE

in single plait.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

"Take spoke No.

i,

and

at

about 11-2

beyond the edge of the basket bend it downwards, passing it behind No. 2, before No. 3 and behind No. 4, leaving the end at the front
inches

"This is the same border and worked FiG. i. 113). this must now be threaded from behind under the spoke first used. it Take the first before and behind two spokes first used. 2. 4. 3. 1. again leaving the end at the front of the basket. 115. it Two upright spokes are still behind the second and thread left. 5. as just described. as spoke No. before No. and spoken of FIG. 117. . 2. See Figs. scribed. and before the third. Take spoke No. bring it down behind the second (Fig. In order to keep the pattern. CLOSED BORDER NO. Proceed in this way till all the spokes are down but three Take the first of these. and will complete the pattern.8o HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. BORDER 116. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. and behind No. Length of spokes needed for borthe der 10 inches. and working on the same principle bring it down behind No. of these. FIG. bring i. One upright spoke is still left. in and 112. of the basket to form the plait. CLOSED BORDER NO. DETAIL OF NO. 2. which must be threaded behind and before and behind the three spokes first Finish with plait already deused.

119. 4 (which is still upright). 8l I and behind No. bring it before No. and which may be marked by a piece of cotton till the worker becomes familiar with the border). I (the spoke first used. FIG. The shortest of each pair in turn is left to be cut off at the front when the work is finished. or to be threaded through to the inside and cut off there. 3. 2. 2. 4 and behind is down. 3. Two pairs of ends will still be left. it down beside No.HOW right) bringing TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 3 and the spoke in I. 2. The canes forming these side (the longer of the two "pairs" must each in turn be kept side by till the next being to the right) and held perfectly flat under the thumb Pick up No. 120. bringing it out to the front under spoke No. FIG. lay it in front of and beside spoke No. 6 (Fig. "pair" No. and if correctly worked.'' The 5. CLOSED This will make a second "pair of ends. the last upright spoke still left being brought way. Take No. 121. Take the longest end of the last pair. and slip it behind and under spoke No. Take the longer of the first pair. No. Take the longest of the first pair. 3. and bring it beside No. always be two pairs of ends after the first pair is started. 5 being brought down beside it as before. 5. there will and behind No. longest of the first pair must now be brought before No. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. 5 (which is still upright) and behind No. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. 122. down beside it in the usual . 2. passing it under No. and passed under the same spoke. 4 (Fig. making one "pair" of ends turned down. BORDER DETAIL OF NO. 2 FIG. one have been brought down. FIG. 118). bring it in front of and beside spoke No. CLOSED BORDER NO. 117). making the edge still more Proceed on this principle till all the upright spokes but substantial. but never more than two.

I and lay it behind No. i. 6 (which is still upPick up No. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the worker will do well to work out No. 3 No. Pro. 7. 8. down. FIG. No. class No. 4 behind No. spokes as easily as with two or five. SPLIT SPOKE FOR ROUND BASE. or more. lay it down behind right) down bes de it (Fig. 2 No. / (which is still upright) down beside it. 5. No. 6 (Fig. but the same kind of border may be worked with three. 2. 5 behind No. PIG. or four. 1?6. until familiar with its No. 2. bringing it behind and under spoke No. i behind No. always remembering that the number of single spokes turned down at the first determines the number of pairs. the last upright spoke being brought down beside it. 3 behind . ceed thus . till Take the longest spoke of the first of the five pairs left. Pick up No. 2 behind No. 121). 2 is the simplest of this principles. 4. 3 as large as would be needed for any ordinary basket front of Each spoke must be brought Length of spokes . bringing No. ." CLOSED BORDER NO. FOR ROUND BASE. . bringing No. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. 124. above the weaving. FIG.82 HOW it. 120). SPIRT'S THREADED No. 125. No. 3 five spokes are at first turned right spoke is left. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. which are much the same. 123. and after the pairs are started there will always be five to work from till the end is reached. all the spokes are down but one. "Before attempting this border. "Lay spoke No. to the front immediately needed 8 inches. and that these must never vary till not one upIn Border No. 3. FIG.

HOW
Five pairs are

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

Take the longest of the first pair, bringing still left. Take beside and in front of spoke No. I and under spoke No. 2. the longest of the first of the four pairs left, bringing it beside and in In threading through front of spoke No. 2 and under spoke No. 3. these ends, it must be remembered that the short spokes come out immediately above the weaving and under the roll of spokes which forms the edge. Take the longest of the first of the three pairs left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 3, and under spoke No.
it

FIG.

WEAVING OP 127. ROUND BASE WITH

FIG.

128.

TWO WEAVERS.
Take

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES IN PAIRS.

the longest of the first of the two pairs left, bringing it beand in front of spoke No. 4 and under spoke No. 5. Take the long spoke still left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 5 and under spoke No. 6. If the two spokes which lie together have been kept lying flat on the edge of the weaving, the border will look even and handsome (Fig. 122). Length of spokes required 10
4.

side

inches.

84

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

CHAPTER

XIV.

MORE ABOUT

BASES.

In her books Miss Firth gives several methods of making bases. BASE. A simple oval base may be made as follows. Take 4 lengths, No. 4 rattan, 24 inches long, 6 lengths, No. 4, 6 inches long and one length, 3 inches long. Place the six short pieces for the width and the long pieces as shown in Fig. 123. The two lower spokes must be placed on the table, and the short ones placed across them in The lower of these two spokes must be pairs, at intervals of an inch. the center pair, and the pair at each end. The upper spoke must be the reverse of the lower, the short piece being placed above that in the same order as the lower spoke. When the base is finished it will be seen that this short piece forms a middle around which the four spokes are woven. The other two long spokes must be placed in a position exactly reverse to the two first, as in Fig. 124. They must then be pressed closely together, the left hand holding them firmly in their place, while the right weaves with the inside spoke of the two which first used, passing it over the two short ends of the second pair of long spokes, and under and over and under the three short The outside spoke must follow, but in reverse order. The secpairs. ond pair of long spokes must be treated in exactly the same way as the

OVAL

UNDER

OVER

first.

ROUND BASE WITH DOUBLE WEAVERS.
spokes
of

Take
of

12

No. 4

rattan, six inches long,

and a long weaver

rattan. In six of the twelve spokes, make a split in inch long as shown Fig. 125. Then thread the six unsplit

No. I the center about an
spokes
in

through the
center.

split

ones.

(Fig.
it,

126).

Keep

flat

and cross exactly

leaving one end several inches longer than the other. Slip loop of weaver over six of the split spokes, bringing under part of weaver over, and top part under the next six spokes (Fig. 127). Repeat this as described with Fig. 95 until Be sure that the under weaver is always three rounds are made. brought to the top before the top one is taken underneath, to prevent the weavers getting twisted. Now separate spokes into sets of two, (Fig. 128), pulling the spokes well apart to allow room for the weavers Then pair around the double spokes for to be well pushed down. three rounds, after which separate each 'spoke and pair as in Fig. 129. round base SINGLE BASE with a single instead of a double weaver may be made by the insertion of an extra spoke after the dividing of the spokes begins.

Take weaver, double

ROUND

WITH

WEAVER. A

BASE, take 13 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 5 inches long, and 5 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 12 inches long. Split the 13 in center as before described, and thread them on the 5 spokes spokes Put the odd spoke in center of the five. Then as shown in Fig. 130. half an inch between the spokes, place them as shown in Fig. allowing

OBLONG OVAL

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

130, but with two spokes together at each end. Double the weaver and Take the underneath part place the loop over the double side spokes. of the weaver and weave down the side, then go back and take upper part of weaver and weave beside it, counting double spokes at end as

one spoke.
base flat on the table, and always from left to take up the base in the left hand, grasping the weavers where they pass the double side spokes. Take the weaver from underneath and bring tightly across the five long spokes, place behind the double side spokes, then put the base flat on the table and weave down the side. Go back, taking up the base again, and take the top weaver behind the five spokes, lay down the base, then weave down the side. Repeat this until you have two
right.

Weave holding the To do the end

weavers crossing the five spokes top and bottom and on either side. Pair around these, Divide the five spokes into 2-1-2. (See Fig. 131). but still weave down the side. When both ends have been divided in this way, take each spoke singly, beginning with the double side spokes,

FIG.

130. COMMENCING OBLONG OVAL BASE.

FIG.

129.

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES
SEPARATED.
of the nine spokes at either end, but
still

and pair around each weave down the sides.

only

both ends are done, continue weaving straight round with one we'aver and then the other, but not pairing. While doing the base, draw the weaver firmly towards the right, and when doing the ends bring the weaver firmly clown between the spokes, which must be drawn as far apart as possible to admit of this In a well-made base the weaving is always being done efficiently. drawn down so firmly that the spokes cannot be seen in between. To get the oval bases of the size required, first take the measurement across the basket. If this is 4 1-2 inches, and the length is to be 8 inches, the spokes across would have to be placed within a distance of 6 inches, measuring from each lot of double spokes at the end. The reason of this is, that enough space must be left at either end to allow 2 inches of weaving, as in a base 41-2 inches across there would be 2 inches of weaving on either side, allowing one-half inch for the five spokes down the center.
first

When

86

HOW
If this rule is

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

in the lids of oval baskets

followed, the right size can always be counted on, and it is particularly necessary that the size should

be assured before starting.

BASE. Another method of making an oval base is to take six 5-inch spokes, four 7-inch spokes and one 4-inch spoke, all of No. 4 rattan, with three weavers of No. 2 rattan. Split the six five inch spokes as described in Fig. 125. Thread them on the four seven-inch and the one four-inch spokes, the short one in the center, leaving about half an inch between each of the six. The six spokes are held horiand the five are vertical. Start a weaver, back of the vertical spokes and lying along the uppermost horizonal spoke, with the end toward the right. Bring it around in front of the vertical spokes (above the upper horizontal one), the>n back and down diagonally to the left, coming out below the upper horizontal spoke. Here it is
zontally,

OVAL

FIG.

131.

OBLONG

OVAL BASE.

brought around in front of the vertical group, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical spokes and above the first horizontal one. It is then brought diagonally down in front of the vertical spokes, to the Next it right of them and just above the second horizontal spoke.
crosses diagonally down and back of the vertical spokes, to the left of them and below the second horizontal spoke, where it is brought over the vertical ones, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical

spokes, and just above the second horizontal one as shown in Fig. 132. The same process binds the other four horizontal spokes making an ornamental cross effect over each one, on the inside of the basket as seen in Fig. 133. After all six horizontal spokes have been bound, the spokes are separated and the weaving begins, and is continued until
;

the size desired

is

attained.

BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INSERTED CORraffia twined basket, having a pespokes at each of the four corners, is shown in Fig. 134. The rubber bands holding three groups of spokes make it more convenient for the maker to manipulate the numerous spokes, When a as each time around a spoke is inserted at its proper place. group is twined with two strands of raffia the rubber band is slipped off the next group and snapped around the set of spokes just finished and so on. Any number of spokes may be inserted according to the size of the base desired. Take 12 spokes No. i rattan 10 inches long, 4 short strands raffia

NERS. A
culiar

base of fine rattan or

way

of inserting the

diagonally bring the strand under neath to the beginning of the diagonal crossing where it is securely Now cross over to another angle and let one of the halves of twisted. If the work is be made practically water tight. letting the raffia continue for a stitch or two beyond a corner before changing to a differently colored strand. and the twinings pushed closely toward the center. DETAIL OF toward the center. raffia as desired. Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER and add spokes of BASKETS. Weave around three or four times with uncolored raffia and then bending one of the extra spokes of rattan in half lay it snugly at the bend in the angle of the crossed spokes. Looping the colored raffia over a spoke and separating each end. This gives a cross of raffia over the grouped spokes. 132. This group is now securely held with another rubber band and thus continue with the remaining spokes. at right angles to five other spokes and placing a raffia strand across the laid spokes. under one. a rubber band over the first group of six. When the twining crosses to the next angle another spoke is bent in half and again fastened to its place. Care must be exercised so that the crossed spokes always lie flat until the base is well started. r'attan and weavers of Before beginning the work see that the rattan is well soaked in warm In fact this basket should be frequently placed under water water. CENTER OF OVAL BASE. begin to twine with both colored and uncolored until a corner is reached now drop and clip the raffia not needed and twine in the corner spoke with the colored raffia. raffia pass underneath and the other across the top spokes to the opposite corner diagonally twisting again. 135 Page 126 of "Indian Basketry" shows method of this twined effect. carefully impacking each stitch as the twist is made. It thus makes two new Twine the raffia over each of the two new spokes and snap spokes. Now begin to twine the two strands of raffia from the outside in tightly done it may Cross five spokes FIG. colored raffia lasts. and these are cut the length of the angle where they are to be placed. 133. OF CENTER OF OVAL BASE. work increases extra spokes must be inserted. natural and green. Twine around as many times as this . DETAIL FIG. over one. 87 in red. When the As .

of the Industrial School. . in its method of enlarging. securely fastening the ends by hiding them under three or four of the twined stitches. Ga. Any shaped basket may be formed from this base. S. Columbus. BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INS ERTED CORNERS. 134. but is unique For these directions I am indebted to Mrs. four sided. John P. all the way around.88 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This basket is closely allied to the Alaskan baskets. ing and with the raffia sew over and over edge. round or flat. the base is the desired diameter stop adding spokes and gather three of the grouped spokes into one and then shape the basket as desired. Neligh. Finish off by folding down the ends of the spokes and add a coil of three or four rattans the length of the circumference of the open- FIG.

and thrust into base by the side of the spokes. Begin as before described. 106 are now to be described. inserting the extra ones so as to have all the spokes as near equidistant Now soak for a few minutes. For the upper one take eight spokes of No. turn up foundation spokes for sides. For the base take six spokes of No. i as described in Fig. half high cut short two of the spokes and turn in as for a closed Then continue to weave. The two baskets on the right of Fig. The one to the left and the upper one are both made of No. with simple closed border. loop through lid and border of basket. 4 rattan 14 inches long. weave plait of straw or any other material either made or purchased until the sides are as high as desired. The covered basket with the handle is equally easy to -make. 2 rattan. 136. Take 24 spokes of No. WEB WEAVING CONTINUED. Finish taking care that the angle of the sides is evenly preserved. weave the sides and finish off with one of the closed borders. doubled and twisted while pliable. drawing weavers tightly. Make base as deWhen woven up to the end of spokes take scribed in Figs. weave as high as desired and finish off with closed border No. about two and a half inches long. for sides. 96 or Fig. To fasten lid rattan. BIRD NEST. The lid is made in exactly the same way as the base. 2. spokes were. A pretty basket is shown in Fig. then turn up the foundation 125. drawing weavers tight so that for weavers. 8g CHAPTER XV. Make base. then bridge the space by bending the two end spokes . and proceed to weave as before. 2 rattan for foundation. 2 rattan. 2 rattan for both spokes and weaver. turning the weaver back around the spoke on each side of the open space. 135 is of -more simple web weave baskets made by the students at Teachers College. 15 pieces of finer rattan. so that bottom is convex. We now return to the making of baskets by the web weave. Begin the base as already described. Fig. finishing the border with the rope twist. leaving open space where these border. The handle is of three long strands of rattan. 115. When about 6 inches across. spokes. Make the base the size desired. Turn np foundation spokes for the sides. The bottom basket to the right is made in the same manner. then twist. Where they meet tuck in ends and basket is complete. When pliable bend up as possible. The lid is made in same way as base or using both splint and plait and basket together take piece of finest making an one end of handle splint through basket and lid one way and the other way.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and a When the side is about an inch the sides close in towards the top. Make the lid in like fashion. 96 or 125. Start the base as described in either Fig. Weave up in this way for about an inch and a quarter. Then thread WE WOVEN I'. and weavers of No. open loop for handle about an inch across. Then proceed to make closed border No. as soon as base is as large as required. turn up.

W" ' " .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . . .-*" . :: jj ii))li o t t fa ..

'BASKET BASE. thus making a secure binding. Then sew around edges with a piece of thread to hold them in Bend spokes up for sides. even number of spokes is kept. Now rapidly draw the top together. and do not be surprised if the following nesting time a pair of birds takes possession. gi over the space. or as desired. until it is impossible to weave higher. Fig. 139 shows two small wood splint baskets of a type Europe. inserting new spokes shape. as desired. until it is about 8 inches in diameter. through the weaving. the student may gain a few ideas. If an place. the spokes. Finish with a simple border as WITH FANCY shown in to the left. A. taking care to do it evenly.bottom is convex. First lay the spokes star shape as shown. woven so tightly that the . 139 s-hows the arrangement of the base. 95. Leave the ends of the spokes irregular so as to let the top of the nest appear like a bundle of twigs. the weaving must proceed as described with Fig. \Vhen 'the basket all is as high as desired turn down and tuck on a the inside of basket like overcasting. and then wrapping as described for the binding. Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The handle is : . down to the base. Fig. say five inches. Now insert double spokes for fancy base and weave about an inch and a quarter finishing it by any form of closed border desired. The foundation spokes may be of palmetto. Place in a tree. fourteen or sixteen in number. with a wide splint above it. (taking care to tuck the ends in as far as possible. and twelve. Some prefer to make the handle before binding the top. 138 shows an unfinished basket from which. Now use fancy plaited straw as a weaver for the sides and weave as high as desired. In making the photograph I failed to notice that it was somewhat out of The base is made as any ordinary mat. If an extra odd spoke is introduced a single weaver will do. working in two of the spokes instead of one. This adds strength and gives fewer ends to care for. however. formed by thrusting a piece of rattan the size desired. us ng a weaver long enough to wrap both handle and top. Then wrap with broader splint. much sold wood splints or rattan.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

where Miss Marie Toxuse. to take the weaver over two spokes as shown in Fig. is en- gaged as weaver and teacher. sortment of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. and is now ready for the weaving of the between two sides. plait. and bound with three or four rows of simple web weavThen using twined weaving the spokes are covered as much as ing. When as many rounds are woven as necessary. As soon as the weaver has been . held firmly. ends of the spokes may be cut as desired. Exercise great care in spokes. pulling it as tightly as possible. when it will appear as Fig. 142. taking care that Ithey are equisplints distant and regular at the edges. in order as shown in Fig. twined and web weave utilized. hence it is deemed appropriate to give full particulars as ito the methods of weaving. The stitch is finished off by tying the sweet grass. and.a variety of those The photographs were all made from the asgenerally preferred. tuck in the edges of the foundation splints and complete the weaving. This must be done. 15 contains five articles made solely This is composed of one spoke. AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. They are placed across each other in a circle. twining the weaver around the edges and returning from side to side. take each spoke and bend it up to form the foundation for the sides. V length required. All the ten inches long. SPLINT BASKETS. or they will be keeping pulled out of place. while with the right the weaver is worked in and out of the 141). thrusting the end In these descriptions are all will be seen that the mat. place the lap. and thread on the . on the Then. Now. an Abenaki Indian. it of the baskets are easy to make and any ordinary student can make them from the descriptions given.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.-taken around once it will be necessary (in order to have the weaver go under the spokes in the second round. over which it went in the first round). New York. For the napkin ring take one wood splint 7-8-inch wide. bend into the ring form. and two Then take a narrow wood splint weaver and web 3-8-inch wide. either rounded. 93 CHAPTER SPLINT XVI. These are most popular baskets. of splints. small spokes are cut so as to be very narrow in the center and widen out towards the edge. and seven others about 21-2 inches long. take the weaver in the right hand. 26 West 23rd Street. the spokes firmly pressed upon the board. The required. Now take a 7-8-inch wide colored splint. and. one by one. each time round. Cut the broad splints the book mark. hold it firmly with the left hand (see Fig. In starting the base of a splint basket place a small board. as the weaving continues. 143. 140. on which the work is to be done. weave the three splints together. Most of the spokes. except the Fig. pointed or shaped.

FIG. 141. INSERTING WEAVER IN SPLINT BASE. .

The next belt is of one splint. thus particularizing the colors. colored. two double rows). T. Thus the loops alternate in the rows. and twisting again over the next and so on. Fig. two of green. with four rows of splints (or rather. Them finish with one row of narrow splint. the top and four or five inches less at the bottom. 140. strengthen the rim inside with stout splint. and presented to Mr. under three and over two. curl it back and up under the next spoke in the row above. then binding strong splints around the rims. When the upper weaver of the lower row comes from under the spoke. turn up for sides and web weave with splints any size smaller than When within three and a half inches of the top.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.) three splints are used instead of two. Curl a third splint into each double row as described immediately for Fig. and about 3 feet long. The arrangement of the loops is such that the loops of the second row come over the spokes of the row beneath. editor "The Papoose. under two and over two. 4 is a large fancy basket of splints. making a bow by The spiral ornamentlacing back and forth and tucking in the end. The handles are of splints i -8-inch wide twisted with narrower splint and tied to the edge of the basket. in taking the "over" stitch. two red. weavers put in two for the bottom row and follow with one in the row above. i foot 8 inches in diameter at City. The first nine rows of weaving on the sides are of doubled splints. The base is of extra strong wood splints. missing a weaver. and the side splints are also extra strong. F. drawing under the next. the edges being strengthened by turning in the foundation spokes. Now curl it down and under the next spoke in the bot- . putting Now the three splints lengthwise and the 15 across ait right angles. then wrapping around the spiral shape." New York It is 2 feet 9 inches in height. The use of the extra third In inserting the splint is to get the "curl" shown in the design. sewed with strong thread to the sides. thrusting it under one of the weavers. instead of being pulled tight. long and i -2-inch wide. Q5 outside of the ring. For the hand basket take one splint 5-8-inch wide and two 1-2Then 15 splints about 26 inches inch wide. CLOTHES HAMPER OF belt of six splints of three colors. (I am not commending the color scheme. 3-4 of an inch wide. is left looped. Then another belt of narrow white spl nts. ation for the edges is made by taking a 3-8-inch wide splint. The diagonal mat weave basket in the left corner is made as is the one described elsewhere. arranged as Fig. two purple. colored. which is simply hideous. The under of these two splints is woven under one and over one of the side spokes as in all ordinary weaving. simple mat weave for the bottom. and outside with sweet grass and bind with a narrow splint. Canada. Barnes. missing one weaver. Make of these a mat foundation. Now a . Following this set of nine rows of looped stitches is a belt of weave made with ordinary white splints. so that it alternates with the lower one over the foundation spokes. The square basket for the sides is weave and SPLINTS. web weave i-S-inch. Two colors of splints are used and the handles are of plaited sweet grass. but the upper splint. twisting again. the splints to be 6-8 of an inch wide. nearly an inch and a half wide. about i -8-inch wide. in In each of these three pairs of rows. and web top. made by Abenaki Indians of Pierreville. 4.

G. New York.96 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. P. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. BEGINNING BASE OF SPLINT BASKET. JUMPING TWO SPOKES. . 140. FIG. 142.

One single row of plain weave with a wide splint and five of loop weave. each splint thus formtaken. and so on woven in like 7 the lid is SWEET GRASS foundation fan. 5. 5. Two or three rows of narrow weavers fix the spokes in position. as shown by the design. The lid is made of five broad and two narrow splints. take two strands weave under and over for five or six rows. rows of plain simple weaving gives firmness.- Fig. On these are woven twined rows of sweet grass. as the simple splints of Fig. and use the "twined"" weave or pairing. when the handle is wrapped on the top. of rows is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER until the BASKETS. trim {weave two or three rows with plain white narrow splint.HOW torn row. The lid is> composed (as is the base') of splints that broaden as they reach the periphery. which has been well anchored by fastening it below. For a handle. followed with three narrow splint weave. Upon this place lengths of sweet Then wrap tightly as shown in Fig. 5. both of which are bound on with a narrow splint as is clearly seen in the engraving. the foundation spokes as shown in Fig. and. taking narrow splint weavers loop the border. wrapped around and bound on with small white splints. and tuck well under the sweet grass down one of the foundation spokes. fastening off the end grass. This belt of ''curled" weave is followed by weaving belts above it. These are turned up for the sides and twined weaving of sweet When the desired height is attained. tion splints are now turned upright again and a row of the "loop" weave with inch-wide splints made. and the spokes are turned under. and the edges bound as is the rim of the basket. and. the latter at the sides. five splints each way. and outside with a row of sweet grass. The former is affixed to the latter by lacing the binding of the basket to that of the lid. Two rows of loop weave and then the spokes are curved down. When within an inch of the edge position as each row is woven. 140. left the base is composed of simple mat foundation. The only difference between the basket at the bottom to the SPLINT AXD SWEET GRASS BASKETS. Each pair manner. 97 complete round is made. A . At the top. after which it is finished off with three strong splinits inside and one colored one outside. 5 is a The splints are cut so as to be very center and widen rapidly towards the edge. as described in Figs. by looking at the fan in Fig. and eleven or twelve rows of narrow splint weave Then the splints are bent out and split. take a stout wooden splint. which thus forms a kind of shelf or rim. Then the rim is strengthened inside with a colored splint. 22 and and splint narrow in the This can readily be seen sweet grass Now The sweet grass must be dampened and pressed closely into 134. FAN. four similar to those below it. 6 four basIn the bottom one to the kets of splints and sweet grass are shown. Place the splints crossed for the Then with a single strand center. In Fig. the grass composes the woof. The finishing border is of these same splints wound under and over and looped as will clearly be seen in the design. Then the spoke splints are bent at right angles and six or seven rows of weaving taken upon The foundathis portion. ing two. small wrapped loop is affixed to both basket and lid. fastening it to the last row of splint weave. complete. spokes are turned down and tucked in. Now by tightly wrapping and tucking ' in. loop.

FIG. . Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 144. New York. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS.

twined sweet grass completes the sides. and the rim strengthened with other splints and bound with a narrow splint. The carrying basket of Fig. sweet grass twined in up to the top. the edge strengthened by a suitable splint and bound as before. Then the spokes are turned in. The wide splint is woven. 145. one over. and the twining continued until the flange of the cover is as deep as required. . as in all ordinary web weaving. 140.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. The lid The round basket is FIG. They are then woven with twined sweet grass until the lid is the size of the basket. however. Three or four rows of simple web weave at the outer edge of the base tighten the spokes. one under. For this the spokes must be very narrow in the center and broaden towards the edges. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. The method of making the handkerchief basket in Fig. which are bound as before made in like manner. The spokes are now turned down. 6. of Fig. or a trifle larger. 6 will be described in a later Bulletin of the Basket Fraternity. is made quite differently. But the two small splints which together are about 1-8 of an inch wider than the broad splint on which they rest are crossed from bottom to top under every other spoke. 99 right and the one just described is that after a few rows of sweet grass are twined into the sides one wide and two narrow splints are introduced. 7 shows the bases and lids of the baskets of Fig. They are then turned up for the sides and described. Fig. 6 is composed of even splints about halfan-inch wide and laid as shown in Fig. formThen more ing a little nipple or elevation between the spokes. 144 is of mat weave and web weave. The handle is fastened to a loop which is held secure by being taken under the sweet grass of the under side of the lid in several places. lid. The spokes are then turned in. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. and a study The of them will make the foregoing instructions much more clear.

SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. 146. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIG. .100 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York.

strengthened and bound as before described. fastened to the sides with an ordinary wood splint. Cross these in simple mat weave with twelve similar Turn these up for ends and sides. Then twine weave sweet grass for an inch and a quarter. then completed with plaited sweet grass. web weave. Loop the plait and bind to the side by twisting or curling the third wood splint around the plait. . When the lid is the right size to fit the basket. 140. under a foundation splint. 144 is made essentially in the same manner. 13 the top basket is a very pretty creation in plaited sweet In both top and bottom the foundation spokes are narrow grass. and so on alternating the wrapping of the curled splint around the foundation splints exposed by the upper and lower of the two broad weavers. one row of simple 'splint weave. shown in the figure. web woven. woven with plaited sweet grass. the rim being strengthened and bound with wood splints. and the rim strengthened and bound with simple wood splints. and complete the weave with the plaited sweet grass until the flange is the size desired. Then three i-4-inch splints are \voven. in the center widening towards the edge. IOI using plaited sweet grass. and then bind with narrow splint. The base. Weave five rows of finely plaited sweet grass two of narrow splint. over the plait. plain splints. The edges of the base are made tight with four or five rows of simple The spokes are then turned up for the sides. the weaving for about an inch is composed of plaited sweet grass. They are first \voven in web weave with narrow wood splint for about ten rows. Now we take three weavers an inch wide and a long plait of extra thick Make two rows plaited grass. 18 inches long. is formed as shown in Fig. Now continue the weaving of the sides with six rows of plain web weave and six rows of double plaited sweet grass as before. Then strengthen and bind the edge as before described. Turn down and tuck in the foundation spokes. using thickly plaited sweet grass for weaver. The handle is composed of a heavy triple plait of sweet grass. strengthen the edges or rim with a stout splint inside and sweet grass outside. The work basket of Fig. under the upper part of the next foundation splint. and the curl weave to give ornamentation. turn the spokes down. with the third for the curling and wrapping around the plait of sweet grass as described in the carrying basket. When the spokes are in place. Take four splints about 23 inches long. the ends being looped as to the edges. fasten by six or eight rows of ordinary web weaving with sweet grass. This is followed with a splint 5-8-inch wide. The lid requires the splints narrow in the center and widening out . Then two i i -4-inch wide splints. First hold splints. after the turning up of the sides. splint web weave. of ordinary web weave with two of these wide splints. the edge of the lid being turned down. In the basket itself. In Fig. Then take together with two plaits of thickly plaited sweet grass and proceed to web weave. and 3-8 of an inch wide. after which introduce the broad splints. however.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the thick plaited sweet grass and the curl as on the Then complete the top of the lid with six or eight rows of sides. web weave.

The diagonal handkerchief basket is composed of diagonal mat weave. 148. In Fig. the corners being turned over and doubled and then twined with plaited sweet grass. For the lid the splints must be narrow in the center and widening towards the edge. Strengthen the rim with stout splint inside and and sweet grass outside and bind with narrow splint. then strengthen edge and finish off. MADEIRA BORDER NO. The lid is made as the one in Fig. 6. then strengthen and bind rim as elsewhere described. After laying out the spokes the first inch or grass. When within an inch of top web weave with 3-4-inch wide wood splint. so the til may be grass. The base is formed as shown in Fig. 6 and laced on as there described. The round basket has a base as described in Fig. The handle is of heavy plaited sweet grass. Fig. splint and plaited sweet grass basket. . The lid is of simple twined plaited sweet made as the lid described in Fig. Strengthen the edge and bind as elsewhere described.IO2 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 6. PAIRING FOR PLAIT. 2. and the weaving done with twined weave. together. using 1-2inch wide splints. until the lid is right size. 140. The foundation spokes are then turned up for the sides. finish the weave unis the flange of the desired size. The lid is made as the round lid of Fig. FIG. MADEIRA BORDER NO. 146 the square basket is made of mat foundation. 2. Turn up for the sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. 147. simple web woven with narrow splints or plain sweet Then twine weave with plaited sweet grass. the edges being woven with nine or ten rows of splint web weave. FIG. 140 six or seven rows of simple web weaving with narrow wood splint holding it firmly Turn up sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. using plaited sweet grass for weaver. 145 shows the top and bottom or a basket and lid of a. turn down the foundation spokes.

turn the basket upside down to do the plait around the edge." MADEIRA BORDER NO. and leave the ends on the outside of the basket. "Take one spoke behind one. behind one. after being taken behind one. to have the spokes double throughout the basket. in front of the next. 148). 147). threading the last spokes through the spokes already turned down. which must be left a little loose. For the sake will of brevity. when the weaving is finished. "Repeat this round. as the border should be about one inch in depth. very simple. as the last spokes are threaded through to complete the border. Take one spoke in a close curve behind the next and bring the end down against the border (Fig. and leave the end on the outside of the basket (Fig. as it has a much prettier effect when they are so. although many spokes may be used. No. 4 rattan or triple ones of as. i. MADEIRA BORDER It is NO. on the same principle as for the preceeding border only in this there will be more to thread through. inserting beside each spoke an extra one of six inches. in front of one only. and now take one lot of double spokes behind the next lot. the ends are all cut off neatly. so as each spoke is brought round the next it should be held firmly in its place by the left hand. ''Treat all the double spokes as one. allowing the four inches for the border. . and the hold should be shifted round as each . in front of one. It is not necessary. To finish. and suitable for violet baskets and small candy-bas- kets of various kinds. room of for inserting the last spokes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. "When this first part is done. the extra length being pushed into the basket. Do not draw the spokes down too closely. is threaded over the next spoke which is turned down. i Allow four inches for this border. and then. however. in front one. rest. Allow spokes of eight inches for and use double spokes of No. the spokes should all be double. Be careful not to draw the first spokes down close to begin with they must be left open. they one in the descriptions. "To make it. the first swoke. 2. 103 CHAPTER XVII. "When the last two lots of double spokes are reached. which may be worked in the ordinary way with single spokes. drawing all the spokes closely down except the first. and the last is inserted first -behind and then in front of the next two spokes already turned down. FANCY BORDERS. proceed in the same way behind one. "It is necessary to keep this plait very close to the basket. "Repeat this round. the further side of the spoke against which they this border. so that when you come to the finish you have be treated .

"Now go round again. measuring occasionally to keep the border as described for the preceeding borders of of the correct depth. the first of these will be taken in front of two. "Take one spoke in front of two spokes. Allow spokes 16 inches and use No. the basket. Repeat this round until only seven upright spokes remain. in and behind one. This is a very light and graceful border. the plait in the "Madeira Border No. 3. Care should be taken in doing this that the ends of the spokes are left long enough to go over the next spoke. Finish by threading the spoke through the loop of the first. Thus." of MADEIRA BORDER NO." the last spokes being threaded through the turned-down spokes in their order. leaving the end outside. front of two Take one spoke behind three spokes. If the edge of the border. leaving the end outside for the plait. This border is worked on the inside. If uneven the effect of the basket is quite spoilt. Finish off on the same principle as for the preceeding borders. Repeat this round. It must not be spread out. Allow spokes of six inches." BORDER. and Use three spokes together. "Take one spoke behind three spokes. 2 rattan together. 4 rattan. and then to bend them to interlace with other spokes. three inches. turned down. Materials required "Allow 8 inches for this border. Depth of border withas for same way NO. spoke used. therefore it is necessary to keep the spokes straight to the top. 2. to pass . behind three and in front of three if kept close together it has the effect of a double ridge or twist. the plait is finished. When the last spoke has been threaded through the loop of the first." Allow spokes of 14 inches. i 1-2 inches. in front of two. in front of two. in front of one. after going behind and in front of the next six will be the first to be taken behind the first spoke the others following in their course. as it is flat outside and the ends are all cut off neatly inside. Depth of border without plait. in front of two. "Do MADEIRA BORDER use No. curving one spoke beneath the next in the same way. and the ends must be cut off neatly. leaving the end outside the basket. and plait the ends. behind one. i rattan. . Great care is needed to keep a nice straight edge round the top of the border. behind two. behind one. in front of two. 4. This border but it is is called the "Cycle. Take one spoke behind two. CYCLE . Finish off with the plait This border is worked on the outside 5. behind one. and push the end well down inside. these. in front of one. and use three spokes of No. principally those which have lids. only now the spokes curve round to make the other side of plait. when only five upright spokes are left. in front of three.IO4 HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER last BASKETS." NO. "The first of MADEIRA BORDER in the usual way." as it is ivsed on the cycle baskets very useful on many other kinds. behind two. behind three. out plait. and then. This is finished on the same principle as the "Madeira Borders. two spokes together.

Allow spokes 13 inches long. BORDER FINISHED. place between the next two upright spokes. but room should be left for the end spokes to After the first two spokes have been used. Use for this No. second and third in the left hand. from the outside. the fir sit spoke must not be drawn close down to the weaving. as the closer come together the handsomer the border will look when When a pupil be sufficient. 151. will BORDER SECOND 150. and place ic between the first two upright spokes bring down the first upright spoke beside it. Now proceed to plait as follows Take the first spoke from outside. COMMENCING FIG. In starting this border. FLAT PLAIT BORDER. 150). : . 152. When the double spokes arc reached they must be used together . two first . I spoke in a curve over the other two. Repeat this with the second and third spokes then there will be three spokes inside and two spokes outside. and bring it down beside the third spoke outside Be careful in doing this not to draw the spoke too tightly (Fig. FJG. 105 and the again. Hold the three spokes sharply to the outside of the basket (Fig. POSITION OF SPOKES. be threaded through. and through the loop of this it must be threaded to the inside all the other spokes will then be threaded through in their places. and with the right WITH PORTION OF FIG. FIG. but they must not be more than 1-2 inch apart. it will be takem in front of the last upright spoke one turned down. FLAT PLAIT hand bring No. FINISHED BORDER. FLAT PLAIT draw the border down as firmly as possible. the spokes finished. 6 or 7 rattan.HOW in front of TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. bring the first spoke from inside between the same upright spokes to outside. . '''Turn down 149). 149. FLAT PLAIT IN PROGRESS." is efficient in this border six inches for spokes FLAT PLAIT BORDER. then draw the first upright spoke down beside it. Take the first from inside.

To do this the longer one of each of the double spokes inside the basket is used to follow out their course." Take three twos out of the three threes. In finishing this border the principle is to make all the single spokes used in starting double to agree with the rest of the border. When the last upleaving the short spoke to be cut off afterwards. spokes inside and three lots of triple spokes outside. 3 and then to the follow the course of the where it . Take the first double spokes from the inside and thread through the place shown in Fig. and. 153. Work of Students. thus making it double like the others. so that it may lie flat beside that then follow its course under single spoke No. 151. outside. 151). one spoke both inside and outside the basket and when the triple spokes are reached the two longer ones must be used together as one. FIG. Teachers' College. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. right spoke has been turned down there will be two lots of double as . 151. and pass them under the three that were first turned down. Then take the longer one of these. that it may lie flat beside that. and these must all be treated in the same way as the first double spoke. first single spoke under the black spoke to passes through to the outside of the basket. first threading it just through the first single spoke.io6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Now take the longer of these and thread one up through the single spoke. in Fig. 152). This brings five lots of double spokes to the inside of the basket Take first two lots and thread through as shown (see Fig. New York. finish the The other four double spokes must be used in the same way border (which is shown complete in Fig. to . There are four other double spoke s>.

About an inch from the outside circle. 155. 1546. Bind the top with natural or colored raffia as shown. To make this knotted stitch basForm a loop. neatly In Fig. 140. though the long leaved pine may be used. This is made of rush or tule. See that this twining is equidistant from the base. twine around the groups of three all the way round to the last place of beginning. a raffia collar box and a splint basket. Start the base as described in Fig. An COLLAR . A FEW BASKETS. introducing bands of color according to taste. spirally coiling the flat ratof raffia. This gives a fancy effect and affords a place for decorating with ribbon as seen in the plate. raffia is good. Bend up spokes and proceed with the twined weaving. lar BASKET. twine around three rays until you come around to the pdace of beginning. Take a twining weaver and about an inch from the center proceed to twine over six or seven until a fiat circle is formed by bringing the twining around to the place of beginning. 154 and 155 are shown a rush. Indian Basketry. Then line with fancy silk or other material. Continue to twine a second time round to make the base firm and flat. Fig.. 154. Kensington colbasket. and that the wall slants THE KENSINGTON In Figs. Then begin the knot stitch. inch above this. 136. outward from edge of base. A. and in Figs.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 133. BOX. Tie together with weaver desired diameter or oval of the basket. and to the left. in which additional spokes are added for base and sides when needed. 156 and 157 herewith. at one end. then insert new spokes and continue the twined weaving until base is size desired. succession until the edge is finished. under. 153 are two made baskets. Fig. Fig. Procure six yards of double twining material. 137. Tie these securely at the middle and then tie together flat radiating from a center. Pair or twine weave with raffia six or eight rounds. make a larger circle an inch from the first twined circle. Above this about the same spaced width a final twining is made. Now taking care to twine around three only. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. 7 flat rattan. silk-lined. the ket take a length of No. CHAPTER XVIII. Now having secured a firm base it is desired to shape the side of basket. Examples of this twined weave are shown in Figs. first letting a group cross over another group. See A. An extra twining or three strand twisting over a coil gives additional strength to the edge. and six bunches of tule or rush 14 or 15 inches in length and 21 single lengths to the bunch. The short ends of the rays are finished bending a first group of And so on in three over a group to the left under the next group.

i ' / />O' ' <* . O hH fa fa O M H 02 d i i fa fa fa <) tf 72 P a o 02 fa M 01 <JJ M O u fa .

size as the first and place it above letting the rays of the lower mat come between the rays of the upper mat.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. i5 4 C. Overcast the two woof strands together to hold them taut. Spread the spokes of the basket on a flat surface. of ash the same width as spoke and weave in over one under one for the beginning of final wall. When once round see that the next stitch goes between the stitches already on the first part of the work. 140. (The splints should always be moist when bending is done). THE ASH SPLINT BASKET. basket. Bring the edges of the rattan as close together as possible. weave over owe. of The edgeing rim around around the edge the bottom is an over and over weaving the bate two times round. bottom up. . under one. securing the ends. The two-toned effect shown in the plate was made by running green spokes on the upper base before twining. then the button-hole loop again. Bend all the spokes upward from the salver-like rim. filling a wall one inch high. The final weaver to be a broad length of splint. Use three broad bands in this way and then finish off with six rows of two colored twining. Make base as shoAvn in Fig. 18 3-8-inch wide splints. lining of silk may add to its value. Ornament with narrower bands of colored splint by overlaying the broad bands. The cover to the box is a button-holed band of flat rattan with a wove>n< top made by stringing web strands of raffia one way and weaving closely across the web with raffia. over two again. 20 inches long and two yards 3-8-inch white splint. In an earlier chapter this branch of weaving was fully presented. and a white). Take the raffia over two bands of the rattan. 154. weavers. four yards I -4-inch green splint. knotting carefully and tightly. and weave in more of the narrow splint for about one and a half inches. Fold over the outer s pokes and tuck under twinings on the inside Cut off the alternate rays even with top of to keep them in place. A very common and useful DIAGONAL" MAT BASKETRY. fastening spokes in place with raffia or fine splint. After cutting away the holding bands of raffia or cord and modelBut if used for sewing a ing the basket may be considered finished. Continue sewing until all of cane is used and finish with double button-hole stitch. Twine the two together with a stout strip of ash Then make another base same first. Now carefully secure the ends of the Take up the basket and place it before you right side up. 109 taiv as the weaving progresses. green and white. The ornamental banding is made by slipping the colored ray back of and over weave and slipping the end again in place along its un- derlying spoke. Then make a "button-hole" stitch and. The bottom is made by stringing web strands from end to end and holding them in place by woof strands placed an inch apart. Take eight yards Fig. Take a wide length splint very narrow. narrow splint. the Now take two of the I -8-inch weavers (a green and. with a fourth inch strap of darker splint. See Fig.

the outer edge being bound. This dainty and pretty little toy. 158. a toy chair is pic- TOY FIG. Rear legs and back are made from one piece. about 13 inches long." Fig. Make two rings. These are home woven as bought are pic- WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. The main portion is of simple mat con- Then about twenty rows of web struction over two and under two. It should not be forgotten that in making the rings the joints should be spliced perfectly. as shown in Fig. These may be made of tule. same size. Center frame. shows a Hopi weaver at work on this On weave. FIG. one piece. 6$/ inches long. soaked and bent into desired shape. TWINED WEAVING. 5. I rattan. is 157. 2^4 inches long. / THE MAGAZINE : . 104. Main frame 22 inches long. fold. Proceed as in ordinary diagonal weave. the other 2 inches. can patience. is shown a Pueblo In- dian mat. completes the mat. 6^4 inches long. 27). two pieces. two lengths of No. 4. 3. 107. On to page 120 "Indian Basketry.y inches long. The bottom is made of a ring. Insertion for back is piece of No. Tack legs and back to the rings.no HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 28 and 29. Detail of Magazine Holder 2. Using make one this as a pattern a little care will enable the student similar to it. and nail the two rings together. 60 is a Hopi Yucca Basket made on this diagonal mat weave. CHAIR. page 108. SURFACE EFFECTS OF TWINED OPEN WORK. Cut four pieces of rattan. cross-wrapped with raffia so as to fit perfectly. The top border is made with a double page 65 "Indian Basketry. On an earlier page (Fig. as is also the large basket to the left on page 83." Fig. 27). two pieces. Wooden base. to a toilet table as a ring holder. made from s also a useful adjunct made with a little 4 rattan for front legs. one 2. Bottom brace for side frame. 124. 20 inches long. CROSSED WARP tured. is made as follows i. which easily be Materials are. 2 2. Figs. 2 pieces. Fig. HOLDER. of palmetto or any flat and reasonably firm material. Now wrap the two rings with raffia (Fig. 156. Bottom brace for main and center frames. and then tacked or sewed in. weaving. l 2 inches in diameter. pair of objects which may as well be tured in Fig.

6 inches long. 16 inches. wrapped frame for main frame. however. With the fourteen pieces No. 6-Hs inches long. In the middle of each end saw out a hole large enough to allow center frame to rest snugly within. for at holes to 5. 8 rattan. 2 green rattan. 112 of FLUTED FLOWER No. . with ends below wood an inch and a quarter. is not wise. tying them in the center. two pieces. Brace for ends. binding 3 at both ends to i. Bend into shape required. 9. 2 green rattan. 19 inches. also 4 to i. 3*4 inches long.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 9 and 10. Handle. BASKET Get 14 pieces of No. Tack 9 to 5. 2 green rattan. made as follows Take two pieces of rattan long and two pieces i% inches long. Ornamented 7. 4. 5 rattan. 10. one piece. with twisted raffia. four pieces 8. Tack 10 to points where they cross 2. Tack 8 to I. . I. as the tack soon pulls out from the raffia. 21 inches long. 16. 2 green rattan. one piece. Then wrap with wide raffia. 48 inches. 2 pieces No. . 7 inches long. Bottom brace for center frame. I. both sides. This latter method. 56 of No. or tacked through the raffia to the rattan or wood of the frame. 6. It is better sewed. Nos. 3 inches broad. To put together. Tack the long pieces to make two of the ends of the short pieces and thus make a frame these. 56 of No. as 158. 15 inches. The wire scrolls may now be sewed in with raffia. Tack 3 to I and 2. No. Wire scroll. 2. split thick cane or rattan. 32 of No. Ill old box lid. then \vrap with raffia. Then wrap them with strands of raffia. Tack shown. Tack 4 to 5. Tack 6 to 5 tack the ends of 10 to 6 put 2 into end holes of 5. . 8 rattan make an ordinary round base with an even number of spokes measuring 5 inches across. : 6% FIG. 2. Thoroughly soak Nos. 14 inches long. WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS.

four lots of four spokes. and pushing them right down to the base of the basket (Fig. 165). placing two beside the next lots of two spokes on either side of the four undivided double spokes added to it. excepting 164). 21 inches. 164. spoke in base. 2 white cane. ing them down most sharply in the center of each When this has been done do nine rows of plain weaving. but the twelve FIG. TURNING DOWN SPOKES. 159. Between each of these lots of double spokes. must be bent down to the outside of the basket to form the curve. The four spokes must be four spokes there will be twelve left upright. placing one spoke on either side of the one do three rows of Turn the spokes upright. presstwelve (Fig. weaving. FIG. Pair round once. Take the center spoke of each group of seven in the base. These four spokes are at equal distances round the basket. spokes. dividing all the spokes into twos. Now Now insert the fifty-six spokes of 19 inches. 2 green rattan. placing two beside each two. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. Cut off the ends of the spokes and insert the fifty-six spokes of No. j> orci er Insert the thirty-two spokes of 16 inches. which remain undivided. Then twenty-nine rows of plain triple twist with No.112 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and you will get the right spokes at the side. so that each curve has four lots of . BASKETS FROM THE PHILIPPINES.

STARTING SQUARE (All the pairs of spokes are border. the depth of which is 3}^ inches. Pair round once to divide into twos. Insert the 112 spokes PIG. Do eight rows of weaving. dividing all the spokes into two. placing two beside each two round the basket. TURNING WEAVER ROUND CORNER SPOKES. in readiness for the FIG. used together as one. and for the sake of brevity will be spoken of as . 165. WORK BASKET. FLUTED FLOWER BASKET.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Pair of green rattan. CURVE PARTLY WORKED. 167. FIG. 166. still keeping the central side spokes undivided. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. round once.

the spokes being curved from left to right. and weave a short way round the basket (Fig. in front of one. 13 rattan. nineteen spokes of No. FIG. SQUARE WORK WOOD FIG. STARTING LID OF SQUARE BASKET. In doing this. 4 inches. for the lid. Insert the forty-four spokes through the holes in the wooden base. Repeat this round. 13 rattan.) of two. "169. DETAIL OF 171. 170. 7^/2 inches across. spokes of No. 168. TWISTED HANDLE. Forty-four FIG AROUND LAST SPOKE." using four spokes together to plait with. and push basket. . four spokes of No. Handle Sharpen the ends of the two pieces of No. leaving 2^2 inches below. in front one. Do the border in front of one. 6 rattan. start the border when about six spokes have been inserted. and leave behind. and keeping the row of pairing even with the edge of the weaving. cross these. push two ends down beside one lot of four spokes on the inside of the Twist the two pieces of rattan round each other. two pieces of No. Now turn the basket upside down and pair round once. draw the four ends to equal lengths and twist round the handle to the opposite side thread through to the outside two pieces on either side of the handle cane. All this must be worked underneath the wooden base. 16 inches. thread both ends from inside round the handle cane just below the border. the ends into the basket at the opposite side. This border is worked on top of the basket. BASE. 7 inches. . rials SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE MateRequired A square wooden base. 16 inches.114 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. in front of one. 2 rattan. twenty-nine spokes. and then continue the work round. TURNING WEAVER FIG. behind one. 13 inches. behind two. one piece of No. BASKET. putting in a few spokes at a time. When this is done plait round as described for "Madeira Borders. Take two pieces of No. 166). 13 rattan. 16 rattan and _ Take one piece in front of three spokes. 12 inches. taking two lots of double spokes together each time. 6 rattan. behind one. leaving end inside.

one row of flat colored. the last spokes being double (Fig. the lid. 7^ Allowing y? inch on either side for the border round it. until a piece is clone measuring 6 / 2 the / inches (fifteen spokes). and weave a few inches on either spokes side." same way as explained for "Made- To make this basket of a good shape it is necessary to keep an equal distance between each spoke the corner spokes should be pulled outwards. Lid Twenty-nine spokes. 13 rattan at each corner must be cut evenly with the weaving before the border is done. will be inches. When the round weave goes behind the double corner spokes it must be taken round them again but when the weave comes on the outside. thread the ends through to the inside. weaving. and. thread round the handle cane just below the triple twist. while those on either side are pushed in. Do four rows of single weaving. turn it over and . resting on the plaited border there (it is shown in Fig. so that when flat on the table the weaving will continue from the left hand side. one row of triple twist. keeping it in a straight line. (This cannot be twisted round Do two rows of plain weaving. 13 rattan (12 inches) can now be inserted . Take the two weaves round the double spokes at the end. corners. 2 cane. 24). Border "Cycle" Border. 2 cane round it. behind one. 168).HOW Turn TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and place the long spokes into position. The piece of No. Do one row of flat colored rattan. 13 The two rattan (4 inches). Turn this over from right to left. 25). this brings measurement of the center square of lid to 6 l 2 inches. and then do another row of pairing. and then place a piece of No. as it fits inside the basket. 167 and 168). for handles. Take a piece of No. In front of two spokes. one going under and the other over. three rows of triple twist. and weave across the spokes. leaving end inside. cross them. in front of one. this is not necessary (Figs. and four rows of single Do - . 16 inches. with 2 spaces of about y inch between each twist. keeping them l in their places with the left hand. leaving one weave out (leave an end of about i inch). beside the corner spoke. When the other end is reached turn it over as before. bring the other back. the base up. To finish. and then twist the ends of the No. and the shorter end of the spokes will still point towards the work. 2 cane and put the loop over the spokes 4^/2 inches from the nearest ends (Fig. The two pieces of No. place a piece of flat colored cane over the top of the handle.) six rows of flat colored rattan one row of triple twist two rows of plain weaving. Take two spokes of 16 inches and place flat on the table together. in each corner. Place another spoke flat on the table about y> inch further on and pair round. If correctly worked this basket should measure 8 inches across. fold a strand of No. therefore. must be used together as one. Sharpen the ends and push them into the basket beside the fourth (counting from either end) and at the second row of triple twist. With the ends do the plait in the ira Borders. . . Continue to place the spokes and pair them.

2 rattan. leaving an end of 4^4 inches. Bind the loop with flat cane. and with a piece of wire secure one end of the rattan against the third and fourth spokes. leaving about /2 inch over at either end. one spoke four weaving. catching in the ends of the flat cane with the spokes to which they are nearest. six weavers of No. and weave each end a short way round the basket. one spoke. the first side spoke must be woven in. For handle. one four plain weaving. 4 rattan which has been soaked until These cut into four pieces and then separated into pairs. form a loop by threading a weaver around a few rows of the weaving take the ends inside the basket. four weaving. one flat. one spoke. l . Border In front of two. and dividing the double spokes at each corner. piece flat green. the spokes are drawn in while using the remaining two weavers. Now weave in a spoke at either side next to the pairing. . one spoke. will fasten it BASKET WITH TWISTED HANDLE HAVING INTERLACED ENDS Miss White thus describes the method of making basket. one length No. . one flat two weaving. Bend the rattan in a half-circle. the spokes are flared more decidedly. cross them. or the lid will have a very untidy appearance. two weaving. one securely. 4 rattan. weave down in place of the weaver then take the weaver over or under the spoke and weave down the side. rattan. . This pairing must be kept as close as possible to the weaving. 4 n-inch of No. and a short piece of No. Do two rows of single weaving with one piece of flat cane. and twist the strand of No. are bent into loops at about ten inches from one end of each and Handle is A . When two weavers have been used. front just in the center and directly under the border of the basket. two rows weaving. The edge is then bound off and finished with the simple border described this in the directions for a basket with a twisted handle in the first part of the chapter. Place a piece of colored rattan over the top of it. A bottom is woven 2^4 inches in diameter. one spoke. Get the center of the lid. through the under loop. repeat. one flat two weav. make another loop to catch over the first bind this also with fine flat cane. Every second row of weaving must be taken twice round the double spokes at the ends. one spoke. Materials for Basket Eight 2O-inch spokes of No. 7 inches. behind one. Handle (on top) One piece of No. Take a spoke of 16 inches and. one spoke. and in . and secure the other end in the same manner on the opposite side. 4 rattan. to slip . When two outside rows of plain weaving have been done (counting in the ordinary way the number of times one weaver crosses the same spoke). four rows of weaving. one spoke four weaving. 13 rattan tied to the side of the basket. weave back again. ing. which are then thoroughly wet and bent upward with a slight flare. one spoke two weaving. and when two more have been woven in this way.Il6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. then do two rows of pairing round the lid. one spoke. . four weaving. in front of one. 13 rattan. two weaving. pliable length of No. Insert one spoke by weaving it in in the ordinary way. counting from the side. 2 rattan round it in the same way as the side handles sew the lid on with flat cane at the back. . two pairing. on eight and a half 20-inch spokes.

OBLONG CARRYING BASKET an ordinary base. short ends are finished off by weaving one to the right over and under several spokes and the other to the left. BINDING HANDLE 175. I. Use No. nineteen spokes across five. who passes one loop through the other. DETAIL. The long ends are also brought together making a knot like Fig. The loops are held firmly where the short end of each comes against the long end (making sure that the short ends are on the same sides of the loops). This knot is placed about half way between the top and bottom of the basket. weave with Nos. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET. it is so simple that one can easily follow its coils. PIG. see Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. knotted in this way. The long ends are twisted together for about twelve inches. FIG. measuring 16 6 inches. 171. bringing the ends of the loop through which it passed over it. FIG. 7 spokes inches. HANDLE OF KEY BASKET. 8 rattan. FIG. fifty spokes of No. Insert the fifty side spokes. for. putting by one on either side of the five long spokes at each end. 172. 171). COMMENCING 174. which makes the loop uppermost on one end of the knot and on the other the ends. with the long ends turning up. 8 rattan. Make . 18^ inches. TWISTED HANDLE. 8 rattan. nineteen spokes of No. This knot is placed on the opposite side of the basket from the first one and attached in the same way. The short ends are now crossed one under a long end and one over (as shown in Fig. and brought together. 18 inches. OF 172. and are then made into another knot copied from the first one. 173. 3 and 40 flat. 2 rattan. OF KEY BASKET COMMENCING. although the process cannot be the same. The Materials required five of No. one in each hand of the worker.

up against the handle cane. SHALLOW OVAL BASKET. in front of one leave the end inside to be cut off afterwards. the basket will become uneven. rattan. Thirty-six spokes of No. Two Oblong wooden Spokes of No. 175). Get a long strand of No." the result being shown in Fig. . and the shape will be spoilt. . FIG. KEY BASKET colored and white. or allowed to get wider in others. take it over the handles to the opposite side. and begin by threading one end from the inside to the outside beside the handle cane and just bePull the end out until it is long enough to be neath the border. and the spokes are drawn together in some parts. and winding tightly. 176. alter- In making this basket great care*is necessary to get it a nice shape with a sharp angle at each corner. In order to d6 this keep the corner spoke pulled outward and press the one on either side well in. 40 flat rattan. Turn up and do three rows of twist No. Border "Loop. and tie the longer ends together. 3 rattan thirteen rows of plain weaving. Also be careful to keep an even distance between each spoke. 3 rattan. eight rows of flat rattan (colored) and round rattan alternately twelve rows of plain weaving one row of pairing. colored. rattan. Put the . 102. Now with the long end of rattan bind neatly round the handle and flat rattan together." 2 inches high. using one white and one colored weaver nately. 3 Weave pieces of No. carried on top of the handle to the opposite side and 4 inches over. . Handle Insert the two pieces of No. leaving 3 inches below for the foot. keeping one round of rattan just meeting the next. OP KEY BASKET FINISHING. turn the basket up and do two rows of triple twist and twentywith No. carry over the basket. behind one. 13 rattan. Put on in the same way as described for the "Key Basket. required base. 174). thirty-six spokes through the holes in the wooden base. Round the foot do four rows of plain weaving and border. Materials u I inches. Now FIG. and forty flat. and insert in the same way on the opposite side. 16 inches.u8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. See Fig. sticking . If this is not done. Handle Length of handle according to taste. and repeat the cross on the outside leave the end . 13 rattan. 177. BINDING HANDLE two rows of weaving. one piece on either side of the center spoke in the side (as shown in Fig. Cross it on the outside (as in Fig.

OF OVAL BASKET. taking at each side. Handle Place one piece of No. Do seven rows of single weaving three rows each spoke singly. seven at either end. Materials spokes the thickness of a slate pencil. 6. in the opposite Without unwinding any of the rattan. 3 rattan have been done. leaving an end of 3 inches. 181.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 16 and 40 flat rattan. one on either side of each spoke. FIG. . Of FIG. Then ninety. Add the fourteen spokes. 7. Split the thirteen willows in the center and thread onto the five of 19 inches. placing one beside each of the five long spokes and the first of the double side spokes. Weave like an ordinary oval base until twenty rows of weaving with No. Leave one end several inches long. Cut off the ends of the spokes. 4. 180. 7 rattan. . cut the flat rattan. When loose enough for about six rings up. Thread a piece of No. 178. 176). until quite tight . (straight round) of flat rattan. 30 inches. and with the other weave to rattan. and insert the ninety-four spokes of No. OUTSIDE VIEW.it round way to that in which it was wound. Border "Flat Plait. these take five of 19 inches. except the center one Turn up sharply and do two rows of triple twist. 179. 119 it When the handle has been bound round as close to the border as can be. STARTING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. loosen it by twisting. Weave with 3. FIG.four of No. three of No. INSIDE VIEW. Rattan may required Willow be substituted. 40 flat round the center handle rattan from the inside just below the border. FINISHING HANDLE do two rows of triple twist to divide the spokes with No. thirteen of 13 inches and fourteen of inches long. FIG. and six rows of weaving. 149 to 152. 4 and continue weaving until the base measures 18 by 12 inches." See Figs. and pull the end of rings (Fig. BINDING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. Now . push the end up and pull out between the Twist the rattan back again. 19 inches.rattan. 16 rattan. it SHALLOW OVAL BASKET then cut off neatly. 16 rattan down beside the center side spoke and one piece beside the first spoke on either side repeat on the opposite side.

120 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. SQUARE BASKET. Fig. FIG. LEAVING SIDES. the end of the flat rattan must be FIG. taking OFF THE FLAT RATTAN IN BINDING A HANDLE. When the border is reached. PAPER BASKET Materials required Twelve spokes WASTE . 181. 178 and 179). is continued as in Fig. 185. all 183. SECTION SQUARE BASKET WITH threaded round the center handle rattan just beneath it. WASTE PAPER BASKET when the weaving three canes together until within 6 inches of the border. FINISHING FIG. and the end pushed up against one of the canes and then cut off (Fig. 182. 180). 184. STRAIGHT CORNER. Now continue to bind over the top of the handle (Fig. In doing this the short end must be caught in beside one of the handle canes. FIG. 176 shows how the handle ought to look when finished. 182). and fro between the three spokes until eighteen rows cross the center one (Figs.

6. Start the weavers on a side of the base which has not a handle through it. turn the basket right side up. For this 4 lengths of No. FIG. 18fi. see Fig 184. i rattan. 2 spokes of No. The handles can be put on terials at discretion. 187. 10 inches. : .HOW TO MARK INDIAN AND OTHER . Insert the handle in holes made for it in the wooden base. Now do your check pattern again ten rounds of triple twist. 183). handle must be still counted as a spoke. Weave with Nos. Now . 125 to 129). turn them up after so doing weave ten rows of triple twist and six rounds of two colors to make the check pattern (Fig. 6 inches. weave singly. six times in all. inches from each end make a sharp bend. Bend spokes outward and continue weaving for eight more double rows. taking each weaver three times around. The two longest are carried on for a row of pairing. until it Then insert the forty-eight spokes as usual. 2 spokes No. (Fig. Insert a short spoke close beside handle to be used in its stead for down and Finish with Closed Border No. weaving the border. 12 inches forty-eight spokes No. i and 2 rattan. . the number of spokes being The even. 27 inches. For handle. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING SIDES. 2. IJI of No. and is 9 inches across. sloping the foot to taste. and at FIG. 6 rattan. will be needed. then another half inch or inch in natural color. singly (see Fig. Above the wooden base weave one row of rope twist. two of 36 inches (to be cut off when the twist is finished) and two longer. Work until you have three checks one row of triple twist twenty-two rows of plain weaving one round of triple twist. after which turn the base upside 1 1/2 in Weave finish the foot before proceeding with the sides. 22 inches No. o. 6 inches square 38 spokes of No. BASKETS. Insert spokes for sides wooden base. insert new weaver of dyed raffia or rattan and weave one Put a ten-inch inch. Ma- Required One board for base. for half an inch. 20) with two weavers. PLAITED HANDLE. 16 inches. 7. leaving 6 inches below the wood. 13 rattan. 16 rattan. counting the handles as spokes. 183). Finish with plaited border . 6. Weave the base in the ordinary way (see Figs. SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE .

KLIKITAT BASKET IN FROHMAX COLLECTION. to be used in its stead in weaving border. the spokes twined ready for the sides. When the sides of the basket are woven insert two other spokes. 187 clearly shows the base finished.122 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. one on each side of this long These may all be doubled. If for a workbasket. On finishing the plait the ends must all be pointed and thrust as far down to the base on the other side of the basket as possible. Now progresses. 186. 2 or Open Border No. making a three-plait with two spokes instead of one. and finish with Closed Border No. 187a. Where this handle is desired one of the spokes must be left long enough to form the handle. A handle that is very easy to make is shown in Fig. 2 according to taste. plenty of rattan being left for this purpose. The awl thus acts as a pivot on which the basket may be moved while the side weaving SIDES. spoke. PLAITED HANDLE. thrust a small awl through the base into the board. spoke close to each side of the handle. FIG. if preferred. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING all up and Fig. line with silk to taste. place the basket on smooth board. and plait as shown. .

suggested make the bottom 1 in Those who desire to varnish or polish " Miss White's "How to Make Baskets their baskets may find recipes . of the saire size. If so. I think. Things depends the difference between a poor and a good basket. In rattan. and these can be either In singeing be careful singed off or rubbed off with fine sandpaper. follow the methods it may be as well to dye the completed work. should always be done before the basket while the materials are still unformed. In all raffia work care should be taken to cut off loose ends as the weaver progresses with her work. YAKTTAT GOOD LUCK RATTLE BASKETS. See if the shape is as it should be especially examine the loops of the border . 188. is madeDyeing. f. one should correct all irregularities. 123 CHAPTER XIX. before it is allowed to dry. in the chapter on dyes. splint.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. hence. be worked out. yet upon them often lid to fit. FIG. willow and other ware small fibers will split off from the work. however. not to scorch the basket. FINISHING OFF A BASKET. Only in this way can designs the weaver desires baskets of one color. flat and the and see that they are all of this nature seem small. TN FROHMAN COLLECTION. While the work is damp it can easily be twisted into shape.

189. IN .FIG. JR. JR. E. WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE BASKETS THE COLLECTION OF H. 190. E. SARGENT. SARGENT. OLD COILED BASKETRY IN THE COLLECTION OF H. FIG.

thus producing a twilled effect as seen in Figs. which. In my phase of the subject. and he who WORK OR MAT WEAVE. 192 and 193- American Basketry. 192. HOW TO MAKE It is INDIAN BASKETS. 191). COARSE CHECKER- PIG. Professor Otis T.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. will suffice to start the earnest student upon the true pathway. Splints of every imaginable kind of material are used for this work. TWILLED WEAVING. Mason. Curator of the Division of Ethnology of the United States National Museum. hence in this chapter nothing but practical hints can be given. At the very outset we are confronted by the magnitude of the subject. The fundamental technic of this work is in passing each strand of the woof over two or more warp strands. however. Of the poetry and religion woven I into Indian baskets I larger book have fully discussed this can here say nothing. has written in his "Directions for Collectors of CHECKERWORK BASKETRY. and the warp is the same as the weft. how the Indian has well for all students of basketry to learn produced the wonderful results that make her basket work so famous. 125 CHAPTER XX. Many North Pacific Coast as well as Atlantic Coast and Canadian Indians use this weave. TWILLED BASKETRY. mark and inwardly digest" what is there written. Even in the mechanical work the Indian showed a fertility of invention and a skill in execution little short of marvellous. intelligently cannot do better than "read. would work FIG. Indeed it is practically impossible to tell the one from the other (see Fig. In what follows I have done little more than quote what that distinguished savant and sweet-spirited gentleman." . A variation of the mat weave is that which Professor Mason calls by this name. 191. This is practically the mat weave of the preceding pages.

According to the relation of these weft elements to one another and to the warp. over single warps. FIG.NK1J IN TWO COLORS. and specimens of which are found in "Indian Basketry. Scores of designs may be made by the curious. "The North Americans of antiquity were very skillful in administering the twilled technic. but it is doubtful if one can be invented that these Indians have not long known. and is still used by the Mohaves. : 195 and 196. Plain twined weaving. vellous ingenuity in the working out of designs in this weave by varying the laying of the splints and the use of different colors. : . firmly fastened to the hoop at the top and the rigid members at the bottom. affixed at the bottom. different structures result as follows I. ISC. continuing in a coil until the top is reached. . The ordinary Indian work. WEFT. n. This type of weaving was employed by the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley. or the opposite. is fastened to one of the rigid uprights and then wrapped once around each wrap element." Figs. TWILLED WEAVING. In passing from warp to warp these elements are twisted in half-turns on each other so as to form a two-ply or three-ply twine or braid. 193.126 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. H. TU1. 165 and 167. in its southern portions. On the specimen shown (Fig. all This is the most intricate and elegant of Professor Mason thus writes of the varieties of twined weaving as follows "Twined work has a set of warp rods or rigid elements. 10. all rigidly The warp extends from the top to the bottom. TWINED WEAVING." The Fijians make remarkable baskets by comIn this country the Chetamaches show marbinations of this weave. the weft would not pass over the same number of warp elements that it passed under. The process is clearly shown WRAPPED A in Figs. each time and each way. The weft. From examples reproduced by W. of twine or yucca fiber. as in wickerwork but the weft elements are commonly administered in pairs. Holmes it will be seen that in the ancient weaving of the Mississippi Valley. 194) the weft goes over one and under three. WEAVING made only at Oraibi. rigid hoop is sustained by four uprights. 39 and 40). (See Figs. the WICKER WORK finest web basketry of civilization is specimens being the plaques of the Hopis. woven work. FIG. though in three-ply twining and in braid twining three weft elements are employed.

twined work vertical warps crossed by horizontal weft element. OF THE MOHAVES. Fig." (See Fig. the Pomas 200 "shows how. on the outside. which is clearly shown in Fig. and many style. or water bottles. in which one weft element remains rigid and the other is wrapped about the cross3. 4. ings. WRAPPED WEAVING FIG. are not vertical as in plain twined weaving. or bird-cage twine. The only difference 2. TWILLED WEAVING PRESSED ON ANC IENT POTTERY OF ALABAMA. cluded in the half turns. surface. 199). 127 Diagonal twined weaving or twill. . Two splints or weavers compose the woof and they are twisted with a The Aleut and Haida baskets in half turn around each warp stem. of the Havasupais are made in this of the fine baskets of (see Fig. WRAPPED WEAVING FROM A MOUND IN OHIO. 196. 194.HOW 2. The ridges. Other examples will be found illustrated in "Indian Basketry. 197. "The is in the manner the woof weavers technic consists in passing over two or FIG. i. DIAGONAL TWINED this style between cross the and the plain warp strands. Latticed twined weaving. ing requires a set of warp elements arranged parallel to each other. Three-ply twined weaving and braiding in several styles." This primitive mode of weavPLAIN "TWINED WEAVING FIG. 222 Indian Basketry). are also made in a similar manner." WEAVING. but pass diagonally over the . more warp elements there must be an odd number at each half turn for in the rest round the same pairs of warps are not inof warps. 195. Wrapped twined weaving. tee or Hudson stitch. 198 are made in this weave. over two or more warps. Fig. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. by varying the color of the weft splints and The esuwas. around 5. therefore.

which is the . 199. 19S. 201. APACHE. When the rows of these stitches are wrapping forced closely upon one another the effect is as in Fig. 200. as seen in Fig. while the other is wrapped around it and the upright warp. ALEUT AND HAIDA BASKETS IN THE FROHMAN COLLECTION. WORK VARIETY OF TWINED OUTSIDE. The variation of one row of stitches TWINED WEAVING. the on the surface. DIAGONAL FIG. FIG. artist is trol absolutely the figure 3. inclining to the right and the other to the left is caused by the weaver's from above or below. 202. In this weave one ele- FIG. changing from diagonal to plain weaving." enabled to con- WRAPPED '"TWINED WEAVING. KLIKITAT. ment of the twine is passed horizontally along the upright warp stem.128 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. generally on the inside.

" (See Fig. In the middle of the figure. the skillful has combined four styles of two-ply twined weaving. TWINED. . at the right side. It is believed that this LATTICE 4. it will be seen inside. 129 exact method followed by the Fig. TWINED WEAVING. this drawing was made. 201. THE TI WEAVK FIG. : . outside of the basket these various methods stand for delicate patterns in color. 200). 20-2. Neah Bay weavers.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. NEAH BAY WEAVING. 203 "shows a square inch of the inside of a basket. under the name of the Ti Weave. form of weave is confined to the Pomas. how the wrapped or Neah Bay twined work appears on the lower right-hand corner In the exquisite piece is and in the woman the inside view of diagonal twined weaving. INSIDE. On the from which FIG." page 99. 205. FIG. 203. WRAPPED FIG. (For example. WRAPPED. TWINED WEAVING. with plain twined weaving in the two rows at the top plain twined weaving in which each turn passes over two warp rods in four rows just below. TWINED WEAVING. OF THE POMAS. 255 Indian Basketry). see Fig. It is described in "Indian 'The ti (proBasketry.

In twisting these three. Baskets made in holding the warps firmly together. Skokomish. broidery. and also water-tight jars are thus constructed. and there are four ways of administering the weft. d. this fashion are very rigid and strong. Frapped. Three-ply twine. the basket weaver holds in her hand three weft elements of any of the kinds mentioned. as FIG. DITTO. I'm. 209. is carried behind the warp a whole revolution the three w eft elements have in turn passed behind three warp elements. "Three-ply twined FIG. In this technic (a)' THREE-PLY TWINE (Figs. After that the process is repeated. c. d) a regular plain twined weaving of two elements.. 207. Three-ply braid. (See Fig. and (c. Tlinkit. stem adjoining. INSIDE. Three-ply." 5. TIIKKK-PLY BRAID AXI> (H'TSIDE. (a) the upright warp of rods. On the outside there is the appearance of a two-ply string laid looks like plain along the warp stems. FIG. 206 and 207). 205). (b) a horizontal warp crossing these at right angles. weaving is the use of three weft splints and other kinds of weft elements instead of two. DITTO. nounced tee) twined weaving consists of four elements THREE-PLY TWINED WEAVING. 206 and 207 the outside and the inside of this technic will be made plain. a. it Tn REE-PLY BRAID. The reason for this is apparent. and frequently the hoppers of mills for grinding acorns. viz. since in every third T . TWINED WORK. false emb.130 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. while on the inside the texture twined weaving. 208. each one of the strands. so that in passes inward. OUTSIDE. By referring to the lower halves of Figs. INSIDE. FiG.

of a revolution one element passes behind the front. PLAIN TWINED WORK. 211. Fig. TWINED WORK. The ornamentation in which mythological symbols are concealed consists of a species of false embroidery in which the figures appear on the outside of the basket but not on the inside. FRAPPED 212." '( part is in plain twined weaving the upper part is in three- "In Tlinkit basketry spruce root. FIG. FIG. This process is better understood by examining inside a warp stem. no matter how the rest is built up. the starting of all Poma twined baskets. but instead of being twined simply they are plaited or braided. it is impossible to discriminate between The three-ply braid is found at three-ply twine and three-ply braid. THREE-PLY AND 210.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 210 shows a square inch from the surface of a Hopi twined jar. OVERLAID TWINED WEAVING. warp and two remain in BRAID. which is exceedingly tough. 206 and 207 and 208 and 209. it is carried THREE-PLY FIG. .is the body worked in . In the needlework of the civilized c) THREE-PLY. In three-ply braid the weft elements (b) are held in the hand in the same fashion. The lower ply twine. the upper parts of Figs. FALSE EMBROIDERY. and as each element passes under one and over the other of the remaining two elements. On the surface. when the work is driven home.

but the Indian woman twines it into the textile while the process of basket making is going on that is. YOKUT BASKET wrapped around it once. FIG. when each of the weft elements passes between two warp rods outward. Two of them are spun from native hemp or milkweed. example the twine or weft element is three-ply. and it is fully explained and illustrated by James Teit in his Memoir on the Thompson River Indians. YOKl'T BASKET FIG. IN 218. Around this twine the third element is wrapped or served. and then the whole is pressed down close to the former rows of weaving. and form the regular twined two-ply weaving. WASHOE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. On . woman FIG. 211).132 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. passing about the other two and between the warp elements. the colored or overlaid element . IX is 215. 217. In this Thompson River FRAPPED FIG. An interesting (d) modification of this Tlinkit form of overlaying or false embroidery occurs occasionally among the Poma Indians under the name of bog or bag. Straws of different colors are employed (Fig. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. the laying of this third element would be called embroidery. 216. Skokomish type. BASKETRY. POMO BAM TT'SH WEAVE FROHMAN COLLECTION. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION.

The author says that it "seems to have been acquired recently through intercourse with the Shahaptins. IN 219. but on the inside the turns are perpendicular." . 212). FIG.< . leaving the surface extremely rough. I am indebted to Dr. but the wrapping of corn husk outside the twine are not done in Nez Perces fashion. the outside of this bag the wrapping is diagonal. FROHMAN COLLECTION. KLIKITAT IMBRICATED WORK. FIG. YOKUT DANCE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. DECORATED YOKUT BOTTLE-NECK IN use of Mr. The fastening off is coarsely done. but after the style of the Makah Indians of Cape Flattery. who are Wakashan (Fig. Teit's figure.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Franz Boas for the s ." little attention to the stitches will A FIG. kS* . is 220. show that the bags and the motives on them are clearly Xez Perces or Shahaptian. This combination extremely interesting. 221.

322 Indian Basketry). "Indian Basketry. 216 and 217 are Yokut baskets of good shape. and the design is similar to that of Maidu (Fig. 218 is a good specimen of the Bam Tush Poma weave. Coiled Basketry I have already quoted Professor Mason's clear The following pictures show a variety of specimens of coiled work. and with quail plumes as an additional decoration on the rim. 219 and 220 are both fine Yokut baskets.1^4 S HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Figs. WORK OF THOMPSON Mr. Fig. sign. KLIKITAT BASKETRY. IMBRICATED BASKETRY RIVER INDIANS. CALLED Iv^lKITAT. The weave is of the coiled variety. with a circle of dancers on the flange. 190 is of new White Mountain Apache Basketry. 222. E. Sargent's collection. in Arizona and New Mexico. 189 shows some beautiful specimens ered by Mr. FIG. Fig. of old coiled work gathFig. Sargent. Portland." Of analysis. WORK. The latter has a circle of dancers and of the rattlesnake dia- monds. AFTER JAMES TE1T. are seen two Klikitat basket weavers at work. As a frontispiece in "Indian Basketry" Their materials are. fully explained on page 96." the latter being a Figs. Jr. the weave of which is described in "Indian baskets in Fig. A.. . They are all Apache baskets. pine cone design. Ore. bottle neck. with striking designs. 215 is a Washoe basket in the Frohman collection. The whole five are most beautiful specimens. weave and de- F1G IMBRICATED COINED 223. largely from the Frohman collection.

and he names the Puyallups. cedar or spruce root.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. are added as ornament. Imbrication is one of the most restricted of technical processes. 224. dyed with Oregon grape. of the Klikitat. doubled on itself so as to be underneath the next stitch. who are Salishan. and Squaxon. Chehalis. The Thompson River the art. collected . 222). In Fig. Snohomish. Makah. is understood that here tian family. Teit describes and illustrates this type of weaving among the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia. and so with each one it is bent backward and forward so that the sewing is entirely concealed. It It is the native art it is a modern acquirement. sixty years ago. all of whom are of the ShahapClallam. James the strips not being over an eighth of an inch wide. Nisqualli. and the ornamentation in strips of Elymus triticoides and Primus demissa (Fig. Skagit. the entire surface is covered with work of this kind. The body of the basket is in the root of Thuja gigantea. and Spokanes. cedar bast and grass stems. forming a sort of "knife plaiting. '35 for the foundation. 221 the detail of this imbricated method of weave is shown. POMA SHU-SET WEAVE BOWL AND BURDEN BASKET IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. have long known RC . "The strip of colored bark or grass is laid down and caught under a passing stitch before another stitch is taken this one is bent forward to cover the last stitch. Twanas. who are Salishan. Cowlitz." Indians. FIG. while the sewing is done with the outer and tough portion of the root. Mr." In some of the finer old baskets in the National Museum. Yakima. Strips of cherry bark. Eells says that some women in every tribe on Puget Sound could produce the stitch.

. London. XXI. Cane Basket Work. Milton Bradley Co. ftu- FIG. The Indians of the Painted Desert Region. CHAPTER Firth. 39.. Mass. Henry Malkan. Second Series. Upcott Gill. Bulletin of the U. Directions for Collectors of American Basketry. Boston. Museum. Los Angeles. Raphia and Reed Weaving.. Nat. Martha Watrous. Review and Herald Pub. Brown & Co. James. Sanborn. L. S. Page & Co. BIBLIOGRAPHY. SHI-BC. No. Calif.. Little. Co. How to Make Baskets. 1902. Stearns. Mary. Mich. Eliz. First Series. Knapp. THE SUN BASKETS OF THE POMAS IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. Doubleday. 170 Strand. Indian Basketry. A School Without Books. T. 225. Part P.. O. Cane Basket Work. White. New York. Battle Creek. DECOKATED Mason. Purdy.i 36 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. George Wharton. New York. Mass. Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers.. Carl. . Annie. Springfield.

"-T :r.. a loan collection of fine Indian Baskets in your village ? Then join The Basket Fraternity and get nineteen others to do and the collection will be sent to you without charge. . and send your Fraternity fee of one dollar..". and source of information THE among basket lovers that BASKET FRATERNITY has been its start.- L.':"-. membership are that you are interested Indian or other baskets. organized by George \Vharton James.r^-' a demand exists for a means of communication between. Do you want a lecture on Indian Basketry will see ? Read page 4 and you how it may be had.v~-i'f> . Its only conditions for Do you want town or so.:~~ . rc-.THE BASKET FRATERNITY. '^-. It has a large charter membership from roll will The charter in remain open until the end of 1903.:'.

free to all members of the fraternity.T 1. superintendents and teachers in its service. To prepare a set of stereopticon slides. To photograph aboriginal weavers and make a collection of said its the Indians the modern commercial methods. but especially and primarily of baskets made by the aboriginal tribes of North America. ITS OBJECTS ARE a : To form To means of communication between basket lovers throughout the world. To To To distribute among its members photographs or engravings of makes. 11. study and exhibition. hastily prepared materials and crude workmanship. native shapes and designs. 5. To arrange rials for 12. disseminate information among its members relating to the art and the objects of the fraternity. HE BASKET FRATERNITY is a society of basket lovers. 14. for the gathering and distribution of Indian matebasket weaving which shall be sold to members of the fraternity at as near cost as possible. 6. and especially for the pleasure and study of members of this fraternity. 8. 3. way to among the Indians. To make and style 9. and is ready for its travels on call from those entitled to it. To encourage the opposite of the spirit referred to above to seek to retain the love for good and artistic work to banish aniline dyes. 13. and issue quarterly an . collect reliable and accurate knowledge of Indian weavers' methods and work. when issued. This collection to be placed in some suitable location where it will be accessible at all times to basket lovers. to prepare. To discourage among photographs. 4. 2. which encourage the making of baskets merely for sale. and restore the use of native dyes. To seek in every revive the art and prevent dying out prepared materials and artistic work. To organize a "traveling library" of veritable typical Indian baskets and send these as required to members of the fraternity for Such a collection of basketry is already made. a national collection of typical baskets of every weave to be found throughout the world. To seek to influence the Indian department of the United States Government to earnestly endeavor to work to this end among all the agents. with accompanying lecture. foster the use of aniline dyes. and of representative Indian fine and typical baskets of all weavers. organized for the purpose of bringing together those who have felt the charm and fascination of Indian basketry. illustrated bulletin of general or specific interest to basketry lovers and collectors and to send this bulletin. 7. To prepare such slides also for sale. carefully : . which will be loaned on payment of a small fee to any member of the fraternity. alien designs. 10. and to require all young Indian girls to learn the art as part of their school training. secure the ends aimed at in Sections 12 and 13.

first ." and will contain fully twenty illustrations of baskets of superior design. The fourth bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Designs. 1 6. Forms STATION A. : Fraternity." by George Wharton James. issued quarterly. It will be issued July i. in order to further the work of the fraternity. is in The second preparation and will be entitled ' ' Weavers. insane asylums and other eleemosinary establishments in order that easy and simple employment may be found for the unfortunate which will help relieve the harmful monotony of their lives. author of "Indian Basketry. California. 2. EnIn return for this trance may be made at any time during the year. one will be sent. Forms of application for such a loan will be sent on request. prisons. Address all communications and make all P. O. The fraternity fee is $1. payable on application. Orders payable to The headquarters " where the nucleus of of The Basket ' ' ^ THE BASKET: FRATERNITY. To promote the organization of classes for the teaching of basketry in orphan asylums. either to members of the fraternity or to outsiders desirous to organize classes for the teaching of of knowing of its work basketry. It will April The and third bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Basket Shapes. The membership will be sent on request. in order that their makers may derive as much financial benefit as possible from their labors. L. members of the fraternity are assured that they will receive The four bulletins. it will be sent to them on guarantee of its safety and the payment of freight charges both ways. 3. basketry work." i. unite in asking for the loan of an Indian basketry collection. living in one town or section. referred to in Section 14. 17.To arrange for lectures on Indian basketry when and where possible. as well as the baskets made by the Indians. with descriptive accounts of their work. Whenever twenty members of the fraternity.00 per year. Whenever fifty members of the fraternity petition for a lecturer.iving Indian comprise fully twenty portraits of typical Indian It will be issued weavers. PASADENA." and originator of The Basket fee the 1. It will be issued October i." will contain not less than twenty plates of exquisitely shaped Indian baskets. of application for bulletin will be forwarded as early as possible after receipt of the fraternity fee of one dollar. To set in motion all possible machinery for the creating of markets for baskets so made. poor houses. and Fraternity is Pasadena. and to enlarge the circle of those who know and love good . will guarantee a small fee and necessary expenses.15. CALIFORNIA. The first of these is a beautifully illustrated hand-book entitled "How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. the national collection and the traveling libraries of Indian baskets are located.

Insertion and 48 52 58 73 XIII. CARSON CITY.INDEX. VII. The Preparation Dyes ." . The Coil Weave XII. upon appplication. VI. VIII. XVII. Borders 77 XIV. XVI. I. XVIII. NEVADA. Web Weaving Fancy Borders Continued Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets A Few Baskets XIX. loan 3-011 will for inspection. How to to Make and Use Them 28 32 34 37 Tools and Terms How Begin The Mat Weave The Plait or Braid X. . Finishing the Basket How to Make Indian Baskets Bibliography 136 If you desire Amerind Art in WASHOE. PAIUTI OR SHOSHONE BASKETRY we can We interest you. XX. The Web Weave IX. 10 14 III. The Net Weave XI. Choice of Material IV. THE HOME OF THE WASHOE INDIAN. Address THE EMPORIUM. More about Bases 84 89 93 103 107 123 125 XV. Introduction 5 II. 18 V. our photo booklet of fine and beautiful baskets. Chap. The Spirit in which Basket-Making should be Approached. of Materials . XXI.

Deerfleld Straw Baskets Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets Picotie Pink Basket. Round Base with Spokes Separated Commencing Oblong Oval Base Spoke for Round Base Spokes' Threaded for Round Base. 65. 84.wale Apple Green Basket. fc. 91. 75. 43. Plaited Belts 50 Hoop and School Bag Raffia Doll's Hat and Tray Raffia Plaited Raffla Hats Detail of Last Three Spokes of Plaited of Plaited 55. Detail Plait of Plait 3 4 Open Border No. Baskets of Plaited Raffla .. Weave. Deerfleld Weaver Splint Cutter Foundation Splint Cutter A Splint Single Weaving . 101. Straw Foundation 63 64 64 64 64 Weave 33 33 26 Open Coil. 126. 117. Inclosing Part of Foundation Interlocking Coils. 58. 15. 113. 125. 11.. 115. 69. 97. Simple Coiled Baskets Simple Mat Weave Open " Closed Table Mat Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Isolated Figures Produced by Modifying Order of Intersection 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 39 41 41 41 41 Fugeian Coiled Basket Details Coiled Raffia Baskets and 65 66 68 66 70 70 93. Articles of Plaited Raffla. 44. 82. 79. 32. 23. 24. 17. 90. 4 6 S 67. 3 Detail of Oval Base " 124. 112. 2 Starting Splicing Inserting Odd Spoke Right Side of Center Odd 75 75 75 75 42. 72. Mat Foundation Work 39. 85 85 . 25. IT 118. Weavers Round Base with Spokes in Pairs. 18. 3. Weaving of Round Bnsc with Two Split 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 s:. Chetemache Mat " Grass Tray. 53 120. 52 119.. 13. 57. 99. 19. 89. Web New Weaver Weavers Market and Other Baskets " Caning a Chair Cane Tie Caning a Chair "Weaving with Raffia Rattan Simple Baskets. Five Strand Plait of Raffia. 45. Deerfiekl. 66. 2.. 8. Weaving on Even Spokes Holding and Spokes' Starting Weaver Dividing into Single Spokes 72 72 73 73 74 74 36. 74. Oi. 12. Red Bird Basket. 80 80 so Detail of Closed Border No. 41. Magazine Holder 30. 76. Stick and Knot of Raffia Single Net Mesh Netted Bags of Raffia. 11 I. 96. 5. 53. Foundation of Two Rods Rod and Welt Coiled Work Foundation of Three Rods Foundation of Splints Interlocking Coils. 21. 83. 46. 20. 2 Open Border No. Mesh . 62. Button Hole Stitch on Ring " " " ation Page. Page. with Spoke Simple Open Border No.. 64. 63. 5. 129. Closed Border No. 49. 9S. 6. 77. 40. 75 76 Weave Web 77 78 78 78 78 79 7J of Chair Cane 50. 47. 103. Shred Foundation Rope Twist Raffla Bound Picture Frames Raffla "Wrapped Articles' Toy Chair of Wrapped Raffia 65 86-87-XN. Xi-t etc. etc Chetemache Mat Diagonal Mat 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 45 46 46 46 46 49 51 100. 109. Deerfleld Splint Baskets Reed Baskets. 33. IIU. 22.ILLUSTRATIONS. etc 50a Bottom of Deerfleld Basket 51. 56. Mouse Basket Corn Husk Poppy Basket Fancy Splint Basket Splint and Sweet Grass Fan Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass Base of Baskets shown in Fig. 1 Detail of Closed Border No. 79 79 SO 2. 71. 7. 54 121. 94. 31. 17 18 20 22 2 63 63 63 78. 27. 26. Open Border No. Detail of Ins< rtiun Insertion Open Border No. 92. 1 Detail of Open Border No. 54. 52. 2829. Book Mjark of Weave Splint and Web 95. 111. 3. 108. 48. 4. 130. Splint Picture Frame Foundation. 68. Weave 107. 102. Fig. 59. 47 Closed Border No. Deerfleld Deerfleld 14 15 16 1? 16. 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 122 123'. Accordeon Plait. 34. 128.. Fig 1. 110.. 85. 81. 104. 6. 58 58 10 12 i: Covered Napkin Rings Simple Coiled Baskets with VariSimple Coiled Trays Pine Needle Coiled Baskets Wrapping Before Coiling Beginning the Coil Detail of Coil Cross Sections of Varieties' Coiled Basketry Detail of Interlocking Stitches Detail of Single-Rod Coil in 58 58 60 60 01 61 61 62 10. Splint Picture Frame Splint Mat Weave Baskets 105. 14. 9. 61.. 70. 73. 127. 106. Double Pairing Triple Weaving 24 25 25 32 3 32 32 80.

-in'.114 216. 197. 219. 171. Finishing Base of Twined Weaving with serted Corners In84 31 90 90 92 92 96 94 Shallow Oval Basket 118 Starting Handle of Oval BasketInside 136: 137. 2 102 Madeira Pairing for Plait 189. 124 on Mat Checkerwork Weave 125 150 151. 180.119 119 182. Inside 129 The Ti Weave of the Pomas 129 Three Ply Braid and Twined Work. 179. 138. 112 Turning Down Spokes 113 Ditto. 141. Baskets of Rattan. . 199. 140. 173. 205. 183. 154 Surface Effects of Twined Open Twilled Weaving 125 Ditto 126 Ditto. . 178. Page. 159. 174. 143. Detail of Center of Oval Base " " 86 87 87 Commencing Ditto. L'lis. 218. 144. Rattan Basket with Plaited Straw Simple as' Web Web Woven Bird Nest Basket with Fancy Base Splint Web Weave Inserting Weaver in Splint Base... Square 113 Spokes' Work Basket. 164. 198. 98 and Plaited Sweet Grass Splint 99 Baskets Splint and Plaited Sweet Grass 100 Baskets 102 Madeira Border No. 177. 181. . 206. Jumping Two Spokes Weaver Ditto Outside Binding Handle of Oval Basket. 170. 196. Raffia 108 and Splint 108 Bases' of Fig. 190. 167. 145.. 149. 117 223. Twined Weaving. 152. . 158..i \ \Yrappc-d T\\ ined Weav129 Crossed Warp. . Commencing Flat Plait Border. 146. 135. 120 Finishing off the Flat Rattan in 90186. 114 221. 192. Finished 106 Splint and Twined Baskets Collar Baskets of Rush. 176. 153... Detail of Twisted Handle Ditto Turning Spokes Weaver Around Last Oblong Carrying Basket Commencing Handle of Key Basket 114 220. 117 118 132. 194. Binding Handle of Oblong Oval Base " Key Basket. from a Mound in Ohio Twined Weaving in Two Colors 126 128 Apache. 172. 157. Twined Weaving. Wood Base. 193. 147. Baskets 128 Diagonal Twined Weaving Variety of Twined Work. Outside. Pi . 195. 133. Turning Weaver Round Corner .110 Ill Wristlets or Cuff Protectors 112 Baskets from the Philippines 27 Baskets Deerfleld Straw Section of Fluted Flower Basket.131 Frapped Twined Work Washoe Basket Yokut Basket Ditto 168.-I ii I 129 !. 148. 142. 185. 105 of Finished Border 105 Flat Plait Border. Finishing ditto 119 119 . 207. 187. INN. 166. 184. 191. 156. Outside Ditto.. Curve Partly Worked 113 Fluted Flower Basket Starting Square Work Basket. Ditto. 155. Called 117 134 CENTRA OHIL "C. 128 Wrapped Twined Weaving NV. 9 Spokes Turned Up for Sides Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass. 215. 169. 127 Ditto Wrapped Weaving of the Mohaves' 127 127 Ditto. ing Inside Inside Three Ply Braid. Outside Overlaid Twined Weaving 209. 210. 200. Plaited Handle Method of Holding Basket Weaving Sides Yakutat Rattle Baskets Old Coiled Basketry When 121 121 123 124 Coarse White Mountain Apache Baskets. 160. 201. 165. 217. Base of Splint Basket 120 Binding a Handle Waste Paper Basket 120 120 Square Basket Weaving Sides Section ditto with Straignt Corner. 130 130 130 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 Three Ply and Plain Twined Work. 131. 114 Starting Lid of Square Basket. Klikitat. etc. 134. 117 222. Pressed on Ancient Pottery.. 211. 139.Fig. Imbricated Imbricated Klikitat Poma Bam Tush Weave Yokut Dance Basket Yokut Bottle-Neck Basket Klikitat Imbricated Weaving Basketry Coiled Work of 134 Thompson River Indians Work. 154. Work 110 203. 175.105 Flat Plait Border Second Position 105 of Spokes with Portion in progress.

ji' ^ . DETAIL - SEND TEN CENTS FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE..'.'i..if si . CALIFORNIA AND NORTHERN INDIAN BASKETS T- i9O2 AND CURIOS..(. " ' ri''^^^Nit..-'. .. QBE. WHOLESALE: AND PORTLAND. FROHMAN TRADING Co ALASKA. (. .

P. COACHING. B. NUTTING. F. M.. HOUSTON. lowest Rates. H. Passenger Steamers Between Fast Time. TEXAS. FISHING. McCORMICK. TENNIS. s.. For Free Illustrated Pamphlets. and all information. BATHING. A. POLO. Maps. and Time Tables. RIDING.CALIFORNIA A REGION OF WONDERS. P. T. New York and Superb Service. New Mexico. M. TOURISTS WILL FIND THE MOST PICTURESQUE LANDS ALONG THE ROUTES OF THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC Through Texas. MORSE. BOATING. Battery Place. SUNSET LIMITED PACIFIC (""TEL m WHEELS. Excellent Cuisine. address L. Steamer. CAN BE ENJOYED EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR. . CAL. Old Mexico. to Peerless California. O. WHERE GOLF. J 349 Broadway or E. T. General Eastern Passenger Agent. SAN FRANCISCO. HUNTING. Arizona. New York. and Pullman Tickets. New Orleans. COAST EXPRESS. Two NEW DAILY TRAINS NEW ORLEANS TO CALIFORNIA. DRIVING. Railroad. Baggage Checked.

III.MORE BASKETS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM BY MARY WHITE nPHE success first of White's Miss volume has led to this companion work. Hanging Baskets. Flower Baskets. Centres and Weaves. XI. How to Raffia and Rush Seat Chairs. net. with new appliances. VII. DOUBLEDAY. $1. CONTENTS I. A Few PRICE. Raffia Basketry. Baskets for Practical Use. which more advanced basket-making. NEW YORK . unusual materials. IV.00. IX. Unusual Materials. VI. Hints on Dyeing. the making of hats and and numberless other matters about many of which the readers of the initial volume have chair seats written for information. X. Shapes and weaves of treats of greater beauty and intricacy are described. II. PAGE & CO. VIII. 34 UNION SQUARE. V. EAST. Palm Leaf Hats. Palm Leaf Basketry. Square Baskets.

. $1. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. . . Tools. the simpler forms.BASKETS BY MARY WHITE FIFTH EDI T I HOW TO MAKE O X THE new drawn great interest in Indian baskets has attention to the art of basketwith the result that basketry has making. but as a most attractive pastime and means of occupation among grown people as well. of its Uses . PRICE. Mats and . Weaving.00 DOUBLEDAY. Raffia and their Some . - net. . and finally the complicated and beautiful work for which the Indians first is were once famous. . NEWYORK . few necessary impledescribes in detail the ments and materials. . not only in schools and training classes. and then tells how to weave. the Simplest Baskets Borders Covers Handles Work Baskets Candy Birds' Nests Baskets Scrap Baskets the Finishing Touch Oval Baskets How to Cain Chairs Some Indian What the Basket Means to Stitches . CONTENTS Material. Preparation. EAST. . next the more difficult patterns. This little manual is Miss White the only guide to the work. found immediate favor. . . the Indian. but which now rapidly becoming a lost art.

Portieres . Woolen . PRICE net. 80. Rug Weaving Woven Rag . of beauty in house interiors. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. PRICE. HPHIS *- admirably clear little volume gives specific instructions for the weaving of rugs. the Pattern . Rugs. Ingrain Carpet Rugs. The healthy modern movement toward the hand-made things of daily use in the home is one in which Mrs. Wheeler has had a leading part. NEW YORK . EAST. Si. and this bi^ok will be found exceedingly valuable and suggestive to all who are interested in such work. Linsey Woolsey BY THE SAME AUTHOR. Cotton Rugs. based upon principles of art. CONTENTS. of PRINCIPLES HOME DECORATION net.HOW CANDACE WHEELER TO MAKE RUGS BY ILLUSTRATED. drawn from the author's own experience in spreading this valuable home industry. Dyeing. but its chief Held will lie among the thousands of home-seekers whose range of experiment has not been wide enough to warrant successful practice. A STUDY will DOUBLEDAY. 20. It undoubtedly be a helpful book to decorators. Neighborhood Industries. Si.

EAST. contains 730 pages and is strongly bound in aluminum cloth.FIVE THOUSAND SOLD ON PUBLICATION AND SERVING BY JANET McKENZIE HILL "Cookery. of the Boston Cooking School. preparation and serving of food. net. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE." accumulated gastronomic knowledge of centuries and the best modern domestic science have alike been drawn upon by Mrs." The first 5000 were sold on publication." said PRACTICAL COOKING Yuan hundred years ago. NEW YORK .oo DOUBLEDAY. and tells everything a housekeeper needs to know about the selection. "is gether should match. which ma\ be washed. ^HE many ' PRICE." life like Alei. Hill. There are 200 helpful photographic illusThe book trations. in color and black and white. Practical Cooking and Serving. S2. the Brillat-Savarin of China two matrimony t\vo things served to- And again: "Into no department of should indifference be allowed to creep into none less than cookery. because it is practical. in her new book.

. -r- ' ' -~ ' -- A PEAK OF EROSION IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST With 1 6 full-page pictures and 50 half-page illustrations from photographs Crown 8vo Decorated cloth $2. ." "Indian Basketry.vr - . ^^^^p^^l .THE INDIANS OF By THE PAINTED DESERT REGION GEORGE WHARTON JAMES of Author "In and Around the Grand Canyon of the in Colorado River Arizona." etc.00 net . - ^ff ' ^JE-'A-r^L -'^^.

one Indian divorcing wife because she declined to shampoo his head. When the author first visited the " Navahoes. The Indian worst insult that is it is possible to offer to a Wallapais this throw her long hair away from her face. but the author had to do when he photographed these Indians. . besides visited his of water.The Indians of the like its Painted Desert Region author's valuable book work on the 1 the Grand Canyon is the result of experience. James also writes of the ill-treatment which our upon the Navahoes. giving a picture various Indian tribes and has own will agreeable and entertaining to every one. Each act has a religious some beautiful religious ceremonies. it Much " of their as the author describes is surely unique. which be quite new The first Indian tribe visited was the Hopis. stranger's the chief ordered his daughter to head. A chapter is given to the religion significance : of the Hopis. a large portion is of the book domestic life devoted to this interesting tribe. the homes and invite their husbands to marry them. and with no soil fit upon countrv has inflicted for cultivation. chapter upon the legends of the Havasupais is is fascinat- ing and the book full of romantic and picturesque Indian is An entire is chapter devoted to the Hopi snake dance. to The love. honor of the birth of every child. and the women build their own them . of personal adventures and hardships desert. James written about them in style. who were placed reservation without water or fuel. fraught Western with many journey ov-er dangers on account scarcity in a of sudden storms and absence of shelter. and there much interesting information about Indian basketry and blanket weaving. The women instead of talking about "Women's Rights have for ages possessed and knit their men weave the women's clothing own stockings. j they have Mr. and one especially beautiful is sung in accompanied by songs. Mr. his "shampoo the This is considered a great luxury.

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religious rites. and personal appearance of the Indians. XI. and half-page plates. & 254 Washington Street CO. the Indians generally objecting to the photographing of some of the ceremony.. THE PAIN-TED DESERT REGION. PUBLISHERS Boston. FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE HOPI. BROWN. and fifty industries. CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I. VIII. of photographs taken by the author or by his special consist of sixteen full-page Accurately portraying the country. A FEW HOPI CUSTOMS. THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE NAVAHO AND HIS HISTORY.The Indians The series artist of the Painted Desert Region illustrations are faithful reproductions of the beautiful who accompanied him. V. AND THEIR HISTORY. HAVASUPAIS' RELIGIOUS DANCES AND BELIEFS. WALLAPAIS. THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE HOPI. SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE HAVASUPAI. espe- of those showing the famous "Snake Dance. XV. VII. Massachusetts . XIII. PEOPLE OF THE BLUE WATER AND THEIR HOME. NAVAHO AS A BLANKET WEAVER. NAVAHO AT HOME. IX. THE HOPI VILLAGES. X. II. BIBLIOGRAPHY LITTLE. Some of the subjects. Navaho. III. Hopi. DESERT RECOLLECTIONS. XIV. HAVASUPAIS AND THEIR LEGENDS. VI. cially several and Havasupai they are a most valuable addition to the text. XVI. IV." are unique. ADVENT OF THE WALLAPAIS. T'HK HOPI SNAKE DANCE. XII.

Philadelphia Public Ledger. and Mr. $3. beauties of the crowded with pictures of the marvels and Canyon. Dramatic narratives of hairbreadth stories escapes and thrilling adventures. their legends and customs.00 CROSSING THE COLORADO TO THE SHINUMO. James's in these own perilous experiences. volume. . is of absorbing interest. of Indians.AN IMPORTANT NEW BOOK DESCRIBING THE MOST STUPENDOUS SCENE ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT In and Around the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES Illustrated pictures in with thirty full-page plates and seventy the text 8vo Cloth Price. give a wonderful personal interest wonder on pages of graphic description of the most stupendous natural the American Continent.

.TEMPLES AND BUTTES TO THE EAST FROM THE GRAND SCENIC DIVIDE.

. Argonaut. An ders. There York. illustrated work of which too much can is scarcely be said in praise. San Francisco Chronicle. The Grand Canyon this one of the world's wonsatisfying and volume its is the most thorough and attractions thus presentation of many rugged man of in far offered. . . There qualified . so that its many . . but from historical records. . miners. a ring of actuality about this book. San Francisco. freely - guides. . scenic. is probably no the writing the country in who is better for . Too much cannot be said praise of Will be the standard with reference historic. respects the book possesses a charm peculiarly own. Arizona. work. such a book than Professor his James. to the main features - and scientific of the Great Canyon of the tradition are Colorado. The most - thorough its the Colorado and Chicago of the Grand Canyon of surroundings to be found anywhere. description Tribune.IN A & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON veritable storehouse of wonders. . from the notes of Indian white hunters. in Literary World. --Arizona Daily Journal-Miner. dramatic . Prescott. is - Boston Advertiser.Outing. and find explorers and discoverers. New an The Grand Canyon exposition either with has never before received - such pen or camera. He own has not been content to describe the wonders in his words. One of the typical books of the great West. He feels has told his story so fascinating a manner that one almost within sight and sound of the great canyon. Legend and and local drawn upon in for the effect color. San Francisco Bulletin. he has quoted wherever he could matter of interest and value. . and from the accounts of natives. Brooklyn Standard Union.

XXXIII. LEE AND THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. Two DAYS' HUNT FOR A BOAT IN A SIDE GORGE NEAR THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. XXXI. THE OLD HOPI TRAIL. XIV. XXXII. Publishers WASHINGTON STREET. AND A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE TOURIST. W. EXPLORATIONS FROM THE TIME OF THE SPANIARDS (1540) TO MAJOR J. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GRAND CANYON REGION. XXI. FROM THE SANTA FE RAILWAY TO THE CANYON BY STAGE. XXIV. JOHN D. LATER EXPLORATIONS. LEE'S FERRY AND THE JOURNEY THITHER. VI.. XVII. THE RED CANYON AND OLD TRAILS. THREE DAYS OF EXPLORING IN TRAIL CANYON WITH THE X. XVIII. XXII. THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS. XXIII. GRAND CANYON FOREST RESERVE. XXVI. PEACE SPRINGS TRAIL. EXPLORATIONS BY MAJOR J. THE GRAND VIEW TRAIL. V. II. W. BASS AND HIS CANYON EXPERIENCES. THE TOPOCOBYA TRAIL AND HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON. VIII. THE HAVASUPAI INDIANS AND THEIR CANYON HOME. LITTLE.IN & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON CHAPTER I. MR. XX. XIX. XXV. IX. THE SHINUMO AND ITS ANCIENT INHABITANTS. XXIX. XII. To THE CANYON BY RAILWAY. UP AND DOWN GLEN AND MARBLE CANYONS. 254 BROWN. RELIGIOUS AND OTHER IMPRESSIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON. FLAGSTAFF. XV. THE CLIFF AND CAVE DWELLINGS. THE GEOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON. POWELL (1869). & CO. BOTANY OF THE GRAND CANYON. W. XXVIII. FIRST IMPRESSIONS. BOSTON . XVI. IV. CONTENTS THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS CANYONS. HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON AND ITS WATERFALLS AND LIMESTONE CAVES. W. AND THE DEAD VOLCANOES. III. WRONG COMPANION. THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. AN ADVENTURE IN BEAVER CANYON. VII. POWELL (1869-72). THE TANNER-FRENCH TRAIL. XXVII. XI. PHOTOGRAPHING THE GRAND CANYON. THE MYSTIC SPRING TRAIL. XIII. WHAT DOES ONE SEE? ON THE RIM. XXX.

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