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IN ARIZONA. (L . ' "1903 HENRY MALKAN.How TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 1 William Street. THE INDIANS OF THE PAINTED DESERT REGION.. By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES "i AUTHOR OF INDIAN BASKETRY. ETC. THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO RIVER ETC. New York.

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after being started. treading on the work itself the weavers were woven in. as during the recent Eastern coal strike. but personally a skilled workman himself. I wish to do my share in helping it along by making a book of helpful instructions and hints that will be worthy the dignity of the subject. The earlier lessons." and throw it up on the top of the fire and well back into the throat of the chimney. The young man was "Lige." Now that the work of Basket Making is being taken up in earnest. the worker bending down almost double over the work. other fads it will have its day and then die. learned the art and was a good workman. and after a fire of coals was well alight my father would take a coal scuttle full of this mixture which he called "backing. We used the old-fashioned English grates. from the simplest to the most complex. a season when coal was dear and scarce. bent over for a few minutes my childish back seemed to be and when I asked Lige how ihe could endure it for hours at a broken. practically usable. named Fields. After I came to the United States the work of the Paiuti Indians soon arrested my attention. as a child. not simply a trader in baskets.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. time his solemn asseveration was that "he'd had his backbone taken out. INTRODUCTION. always a man of originality. It is singularly appropriate that I. when those who practised it merely as a fad have forgotten that they ever were interested in it. as my father was a basket maker. are for children. should write a treatise on basket making." and into my youthful ears he used to pour his tales of of woe at the hardships of a basket-maker's life. My father. rose at once to meet the occasion. Well do I remember. but it will do I When . and made a mixture of coal dust and the thick ends or "nubbins" cut from the ends of new splints or "weavers" introduced into the coarse kinds of all My baskets." or he never could do it. too. But unlike many fads there is something in the making of baskets that will keep the art alive. Two of his workmen were father and son. In the making some of the larger and coarser baskets the bottoms. In half an hour or less it would be a bed of fire. It has been my purpose in arranging the following pages to introduce all the stitches. The earliest remembrances of my life are connected with that art. of course. and. oldest brother. throwing its grateful heat into the cold room and cheering all who came within its influence. HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Like Just now the making of Indian and other baskets is a fad. and I began the studies which culminated two years ago in the publication of my "Indian Basketry. the son of my father. were pinned through the center with a large steel bodkin to a heavy flat board.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

A pile of rocks means little to an unimaginative child. true and false. and Bell. and the lifeless pile is transformed into a palpable living entity. as far as I can learn. and not only may valuable dismaterial. and weave of his baskets. but tell that same child that this pile was once a who castle. and dyes. dyeing. coveries be the result. and the thousand and one things that mean our progressive civilization. Stimulate his and inventiveness in the use of materials. and these were thought the best purpose in view. and endeavor persisted in is failure. but individual thought and expression are to adults to erity thus gained will secured. . married and died. and their preparation in the shape. and Lowe. Indian felt let them select as the Indian did. Teach them the value of That failure means endeavor. Where possible. make some divisions. walked and plighted their troth.HOW no harm TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. any subject and it enlivens it. while what we read or are told may be inaccurate or positively false. Let the child experiment in the drying. . at least. and general preparation of the material. 7 do the work here outlined. Especially do I wish to thank Mr. to show what may be done and to 'Stimulate to personal investigation and experiment. Show him that all progress comes that way. who lived in stirring times achieved things who went forth to war with all pomp and ceremony. let him determine what is best adapted for this basket and for that. In this work I have tried to suggest to the teacher how to make Put human interest into the subject more interesting to her pupils. Teachers should encourage their pupils to try every possible Thus invention is stimulated. electric cars. and Gray. director of the Industrial School of Columbus. design. The skill and dextbe exceedingly useful in the later work. She had no other teacher than experience. John Sheridan Neligh. educated. Let me at the outset say that the divisions of the subject are purely It does not necessarily follow that the coil weave is harder than the mat weave because the latter comes first in the book. where all the events that go to make up life transpired. It was arbitrary. If I have failed to do so I gladly apologize and in later editions the necessary acknowledgements or corrections if will call my attention to them. ing and interesting pictures. and. It is this thought that should animate every teacher and worker in In going out to choose materials let the children feel as the basketry. where lovers. water gas. and returned flushed with victory or sad and despondent through defeat that it was a place where children were born. into an object from which imagination may conjure countless fascinatnecessary to for the . teacher of basketry in the schools of the will make some kind reader . one of the first. never failure. indeed. peopled by lords and ladies.. Ga. I have given full credit for everything borrowed. That the Indian had to learn everything in that way. Let him know that while he is doing this experimenting he is following exactly the plan of Edison. A variety of materials has been introduced purposely. telegraphs. if not the first. and that knowledge gained by experience is sure and certain. let him make his own selections. or. . and others of our great inventors who have given us telephones. For material for these pages I have ransacked everything I could find.

MASS. Firth. States. CORN HUSK POPPY BASKET. B. of Teachers' College. helpful wife. for original suggestions. Miss Mary White's "How to Make Baskets'' has also been drawn from. For all the photographs of my . Miss M. I assure her she is most heartily welcome. has been most generous in her helpfulness. Columbia University. DEERPIELD.8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and And these thanks also include his help given in a variety of ways. from whose "Cane Basket I Work" I have bodily taken much will find as valuable material. baskets to photograph. Hyde. WHITING. 3. My grateful acknowledgements are also tendered to Miss Annie United FIG. hope in return Miss Firth much in If suggestions that she can avail herself of for English readers. she can. DESIGNED AND MADE BY MARGARET C.

There stand. The two chapters respectively on The Choice and the Preparation are five of Materials may be skipped or not as the reader desires. II. III. I have deemed it best to discuss each one separately. While in some regards these five methods overlap each other. The plait. In these lessons' I have begun with the simplest materials and work. The \veb. The coil. and the practical character of chapter her work will prove a boon to all my readers. . To any person the exercises will be helpful. The net. simple methods of work. V. IV. 143. The mat. PIG. all of which it is well to underThese are distinguished by the following names: I. The purpose is to give to the solitary student every advantage for self training and to every teacher suggestions which will aid in her work with children.HOW work made by TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. SPOKES TURNED UP FOR SIDES. the students at the college and the major part of the on dyes I am indebted to her.

PIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. New York. 4. FANCY SPLINT BASKET. .

their liarmoniousness." and in the work of basket-making much will depend upon : the motive. sentient. There are no fanciful forms. love. glaring. If the poor uncivilized Indian thus basket-maker clearly should be felt when she approached her work. should not I." and such people had better read no further. their preparation. or indifference. carelessness. inadequate weaves. who said out of a room. it would be better to say. more or interwoven. and weave. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the spirit. ." There is more in life than the mere outward expressions of it we call "work. emotion-full. aspimythology. right the veriest nonsense to the person who is merely money there is in it. perhaps. The true imitator of Indian work or. THE SPIRIT IN WHICH BASKET MAKING SHOULD BE APPROACHED. the product of a sweeping believe. poetry. And in NaThe Indian's forms are natuture the true inspiration will be found. impossible deSimplicity signs. to the all uncontaminated Indian meant a work less ration. It was a perfect exemplification I of the idea suggested by the good of the sublimity of the poet Herbert. passing whim it was from that of levity. colors and weaves. in spirit as far or fancy. designs. for them. were Hence the work was approached in a of art. should not I also seek to do the same ? An affirmative answer then compels a study of Indian Basketry This will produce a growing love form?. There was an earnestness of purpose. inharmonious colors." or "because it is quite But to the the rage. Nature herself. . which hope. as removed from that of mere commercialism. and then in the shape. national pride. the weave. poetic of my readers the ideas given will clearly The attitude of mind and heart in the illuminate what follows. the must approach it in true worker desirous of emulating Indian work the true Indian spirit and this I have endeavored to describe in my Suffice it to say here that the basket larger book on Indian Basketry. religion. the design. Browning well wrote "Not on the vulgar mass called work Must judgement pass. sign. her colors are natural her weaves are ral her designs are natural natural with all the perfection added of conscientious art. viz. color . This at once eliminates the hideous and grotesque in shape. that made basket-making to the old Indians almost an act of religion. I I CHAPTER II. in which it is approached and done. is something Xow all this making baskets for "the : higher civilization. at least feel as/ much ? If she sought to present the highest she saw in Nature in the most perfect fashion. de. a conscientiousness of endeavor in the gathering of the materials. From this the natural process will be a reference of the Indian work to their original source.. desire. the tout ensemble.

the grace. the dignity. New York. the grotesque. simple things. to love the simple in nature. and upon the triad and gamut naturally are Diversity without end. design and color the built. . your children. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. effects incalculable. FIG. yet all based upon natural simplicity. 5. 1 Banish the hideous. and your work will gradually take upon itself the character. the unnaturally complex from your line of observation.12 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER this BASKETS. Learn to imitate in form. Begin then by training yourself. your pupils. the power that come from purity and simplicity. variety illimitable. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS FAN. is the keynote.

the colors will all mean something more to you than what merely shows on the outside. You can thus make the basket your poem. the design. design and This personality cannot be deciphered by reading weaver's the exponent of something within yourself. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. from elements as TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. but can be learned only from the In your work endeavor to follow this Indian idea.HOW Elsewhere. 13 I have shown the marvellous personality of the basket. and the moral uplift as desire and endeavor are crystalized into actuality. 6. Thus work and worker are both ennobled and there are given to the world more things of beauty to be "joys forever. then the shape. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. your painting. your sculpture." and whose "loveliness will increase and never pas* into nothingness. your cathedral. as well as a useful aid in training towards manual dexterity and skill. lips. its own. color all How that each one has a significance in shape." The pleasure of such achievements as this who can tell. who can estimate? Thus the basket becomes a factor in moral and spiritual development. FIG. . too. New York. has done. as the Indian own Make your basket in hieroglyphics.

to its weavers the materials' required for the exercise of their art . The Hopi found the willow. and. BASE OF BASKETS SHOWN IN FIG. The Haida found the cedar bark and spruce root the Poma slough Thus each locality yielded root. she set of the is if Here. the root of the tule. The powers of observation are lated. CHOICE OF MATERIALS. the martynia. She had no store to which she could go and purchase cane.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. forth to seek for splints. knowledge of local materials gained. the best to follow. Though trade and barter were common with the primitive Indians. Now while it is not essential that white weavers of baskets should closely confine themselves to material they personally gather. CHAPTER III. maiden hair fern stem. 6. the method one would get the real value out Indian of basket making. So with eyes a-down. some of the chief benefits that should accrue from basket-making are lost if they do not largely do so. FIG. raffia or willow ready dyed and done up in bundles to her hand. sweet gras-s. The Mono found the willow. New York. 7. the yucca and a desert grass called wu-u-shi. filling and dye. the red bud. senses alert. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. as elsewhere. where the art is stimuused . She must find the materials in her own environment. the squaw-grass. it was not to trade that the weaver looked for her basket-making materials.

This principle should be applied to this art. MASS. mined the settlement of a tribe of people. There are few really useless things under the sun. SWALE GRASS TRAY. hitherto useless material is converted into a financial benefit. . DEERP1ELD. have a tradition which clearly points in a measure in that direction. canyon or mounthere he finds the precious metal. . The cattleman among The miner near the range where his cattle roam the foundryman near the foundry which employs him the clerk near the store in which he is engaged. for instance. . 15 to help the poor commercially. 8. DESIGNED AND MADE BY GERTRUDE ASHLEY. The Chemehuevis. which is a new and direct gain to the community. We know that by commercialism. and the (history of commercial growth is largely the detailing of how the useless was converted into the useful by invention. In some instances there can be but little question that the location all of materials for the pursuit of the art of basket weaving has deter- FIG. tain lives camp because civilized races habitat is largely determined locates i>n the desert.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. imagination and skill.

should pitch our We permanent camp. So the Indian woman's voice was naturally raised in favor of a location where her basket-making material was easiest obtained. in stimuIt can also be used to excellent lating the imagination of the child. RED BIRD BASKET. WYNNE. AND advantage feel there is in field trips. a zest and purpose to a ramble to "On this trip let us imagine ourselves Indian women and Indian children going out to hunt grasses or other material for basketwill do this for several weeks. This hint can be made interesting by teachers of the art. our explorations we will decide where we. FIG 9. DEERFIELD. and then as the result of making. as Indians. MADE BY MADELINE T. MASS.i6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. It gives an object in view." .

Selection of the best next follows. dyspeptic. send melancholia and depression to the devil. come from such trips should not be This. \J Put such a thought as this into the mind gives added pleasure to outdoor rambling. of child or adult and it Then the incalculable benefit in the necessary stimulation of the will powers of observation that overlooked. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. filling or dye. CHETEMACHE MATS. it must be tested. defy the demon of dyspepsia and come back into the world of men and women con! ! . throw physics to the dogs. For. vigor. FIGS. pure air. 10 AND 11. . Many a nervous. are healthfully exercised and stimulated. scious of strength and power to do what you will. Experimentation follows observation in this field. Fill up lungs. . broken-down adult would find new life and health in doing what Out of doors Into God's Out of doors I have here suggested. New York. He is a benefactor in the highest. nerves and brain with pure life and health. And this is not merely good for a child. Breathe in it drink it in absorb it in. fullest sense who trains another to habits of observation. when one thinks that he has found a material that is suitable either for weaver. and thus both senses and brain. the highest faculty in true education. sunlight and odors. blood. There is His chemical labratory where Get out into the health. fullness of it. power are hourly being manufactured. should ever be kept in exercise.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

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of centuries of practical experience and therefore. possibly. to Pasadena. It must not be supposed that familiarity with and skill in the use of one material can be transferred at will to some other material!. One thing. and among the poor and needy. appropriate and harmonious. The Indian's judgment may be relied upon. not named here. Personal experimentation should be the keynote in the mind of every adult who seeks to gain the greatest good from basket-making. 19 CHAPTER IV. One who has learned how to use willows cannot immediately work in reed or rat- and yucca strands need very different handling from squaw grass or pine needles. and a caution given to children. viz. she -may be sure of." pages material as perfect as. Their dyes are unfading. what they if you have any Indian workers have been in the habit of using in their basketry work. In this diversity the true student will find pleasure. wealth means added cojnfort and happiness. For her selection is the result. perfectly beautiful. It is merely suggestive. Each material demands personal study and use. their In "Indian Basketry. and methods of preparation.it can be made. as most of us firmly believe. If it be true. 72 to 85. that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew before. makes no pretention to completeness. even though her methods may be bettered. quantity. THE PREPARATION OF MATERIALS." With all our scientific knowledge we cannot improve upon the methods and results of the Indians. however. except. how prepared and any further particulars that may be of interest. it is equally true that he is a benefactor who finds a use for that which has hitherto been deemed useless. California. habit or growth. The overcoming of difficulties exercises the faculty of invention. with its local and Indian name. By to see. following the suggestions given in this chapter every teacher may enThe following list large the sphere and scope of her benefactions. Care should be taken. In that chapter the student will find many suggestions that may aid her in utilizing the material df her own section. and to she can use from her own stimulate the weaver to find out what \Yhen any new material. perhaps. at the outset it will be well their colors in your locality.. that wherever an Indian has been over the ground. in the work of that Indian will be found the very best basket-making material of thai region. "I will know for myself! 1 will experiment and test and find out everything that can be found out as to the resources of my neighborhood that can be utilized in this work. be obliged if a sample be sent to me. is found I shall locality. . One may be cut sevtan.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to avoid the grasses with saw-toothed or other sharp edges. I gathered together much information as to materials used by the Indians. in the matter of speed. To teach others how a useless weed may be converted into a commercial commodity is to create wealth. its habitat.

20 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . New York. 13. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS.

and again ascending. though the BamIt busa. 3. to the a compajratively easy task to see that each pupil has her needlefull of raffia. Nos. and it is For. and then the Germans.HOW erely TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. It has a long leaf. As strength and digital dexterity increase stronger easily handled. to use it in connection with cane and reed in the manufacture began of sma'll baskets. 5 and 6 being used for the coarser work. and is known as ground-rattan. flexible and fissile. poses. tough. growing to the height of 20. allowing them to create any &hape they RAFFIA may is desire. and 15. for tying up fruit trees and other gardening purWith their native economy the French. It is a palm of the genus Calamus. a form can be created. is found only in Southern and Eastern Asia. over 50 feet in length. especially as they afford so much greater opportunity for the exercise of skill and artistic effort. is one of the most popular of basket-making materials because it is long. and is put up into bundles of round cane or flat strips. It grows in all warm countries. RATTAN climbing the tallest trees. ideal weaving material for the untrained fingers of be- It is soft and flexible and ginners or the weak fingers of children. Sometimes it attains the astounding length of 500 feet. the workers there at once perceived its adaptability and seized upon it as an excellent and ideal weaving material for beginners. and when the revival of the art of basketry reached England. and seldom exceeding an inch in thickness. falling in festoons. The material purchased from the seed The leaf stores is the epidermis of the leaf stripped on both sides. is an arborescent grass. stripped from its outside is tough and pliable. by Then it is well to sticking them together. and thus the tree is often from 60 to 70 feet high to the tips of the leaves. and when the children his work. it is short and soon used up lengths. 21 such grasses. i. Raffia is the native name given to a Madagascar palm of the tribe Lepidocaryeae. majnly found in the East Indies. COCKLE-BUR. The much-despised and hated cockle-bur may be used as a stimulant of the child's imagination in the beginning of These burs can be found anywhere. 4 are common sizes. Its long strands are from one and a half to two feet in length. The recent awakening to the importance of basketry has brought rattan into marked prominence. light. The rattan of China and Japan is of the genus Raphis. 2. the chief type. Nos. It grows erect in dense tufts. Prepared for commerce rattan is stripped of its leaves and bark. who has a large number of children to direct. is the most expensive. 'holds an important place in the list of basketThe BAMBOO materials. leave them to their own imagination. materials can be used. have gathered them they can be shown in one lesson how that. numbered from i to No. but the fibre It is tied in long hanks. 50 and even 120 making . and would be useless for this work. and was originally shipped to France and England to be used mainly as florists' twine. whereais in the use of the shorter splints of the Indian much time would be occupied and patience exhausted in rethreading or reinserting these thus teacher much preferable to the shorter splints of the Indian. and there are plenty of in handling if careless other materials without using these that may do injury. a^ type of the sub-tribe Raphieae. being the finest. itself is very brittle.

22 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

The ingenious teacher will find many ways of using even as the Indians do. or as unwrapped BROOM CORN LONG and is (Sorghum Vulgare) much cleainer and coils sewed together as illustrated elsewhere. and can be used for filling for the inner coil of baskets. The special kind (S. of this has a cuticle of a rich. 23 Both with a diameter. pools and rivers. of course. whose tall. nothing durable HUSKS. and the root purposes. the Bamboo-palm. As the splint is drawn through the cutter. the (Aesculus). but this rs a slow and laborious task. Pine needles. of from 4 to 8 inches. The leaves of the palmetto (Sabal palmetto). The (Scirpus) of different species may be largely BULLRUSH basketry. CORN SWEET LONG for the inner coil. The PALAI family affords much material for basketry. properly Zostera. PINE NEEDLES. Raffia vinifera. smooth. giving the raffia now so largely used. This moss is largely used for the 'stuffing of mattresses. a type of a tribe of aquatic plants which grow immersed in shallow bogs and other waters. and also for splints for the mat weave work herein described. round stems are seen projecting above the water in lakes. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and even for weavers. splints are made from worked. as has already been shown. several wood being white. adansoni). also makes excellent filling better than the moss. are peeled and make excellent material for wrapping splints. and stems are used in basketry work. can be expected from such perishable material. Where mo cutter is to be had the strips may be made with scissors. dries well and is excellent for many In California the Scirpus Tatora is called tule. though rattan is more common in America for general purposes. the BUCK-EYE kinds of which are well adapted to this purpose. bluish-green. in the larger speeies. used in A grass that can be used is SENECA-GRASS. leaves Good soft. which is used by the Cahuilla Indians as wrapping splint for their coiled ware. longer or shorter. In the South there grows in va'st quantities the (Tillandsia usneoides) whose dense pendulous tufts drape the trees. A chapter is devoted to sweet grass weaving. a tree growing from 20 to 35 feet high." which has three or more tiny but sharp knives protruding from its base. wide strips. brown color. The broad strip is placed inside the grooves of the "sheer. GRASS is largely used in some parts of the United It is States and Canada for the making of simple and pretty baskets. adapted either for material for the inner coil of coiled baskets. are found throughout the whole country and children should be encouraged to do the best they can with such as they can find. sometimes also known as holy-grass and vanilla-grass. it is cut into The wood splints of the desired width. lacustris). elsewhere pictured. spongy and easily commerce are purchased in long. though. and of the dwarf palmetto (S. ponds. MOSS. The Southern variety referred to above . one species alone.HOW feet. From Virginia to Texas there grows along the coast a pine which has spiculae or needles from ten to twelve well The>se needles dry easily and are inches in length. the knives being set by gauge and screw. To prepare these for basket work two cutting implements are used.

SPLINT BASKETS. 16. . New York.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. REED BASKETS MADE AT DEERFIELD. 15. FIG. MASS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIG.

too late. (S. SPLINT CUTTER. could be so prepared as to make a fairly good wrapping splint for coiled work. and all the designs of the Pima. a kind of wild pineapple. When FIG. All lovers of the fine basketry of Northern California know the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry. of the Adiantum pedatum. An effort is five cents. and generally known as the Georgia pine. stringy bark. which is the same as The SILK the pita of Central America. Arrangements have been made for the gathering of abundant quanthese long pine needles and a sample bunch will be sent by mail free on receipt of twenty-five cents. is a valuable fiber produced principally from' the Bromelia Sylvestris. the long-leafed pine (pinus palustris). picked at the right time the black is perfect. It must be gathered when the pod is at its blackest. 18.HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. WEAVER FIG. the There are some pliant species of China). tities of being made by The Basket Fraternity to secure these seeds for sale. Apache and Havasupai baskets are worked out with it. which are used in basket-making. of British Honduras. though the name pita is given indiscriminately to the fibre obtained from the MAIDEN HAIR SMILAX GRASS . a slender branching shrub with tough. FOUNDATION SPLINT CUTTER. Pseudo known as bull-brier. whiclh will grow enough for a small class. 17. In Australia and New Zealand grows the pimelea. called COIR. Gathered too soon it is greenish. This is* the stem FERN. This bark is prepared and the fibre used for textile purposes. The fibre of the cocoanut. the black is rusty and poor. The MARTY NT A is a plant capable of cultivation in any part of A small package of seeds can be purchased for twentythe country.

26 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. 25. . RAFFIA BOUND PICTURE FRAMES. Work of Students. FIG. Teachers' College.

Most of the coarse basketry Vitellina) are used for this purpose. and the finer work is made by splitting the willow into splints and using them for wrapping. are made more pliable by slight soaking and then running between the thumb and dull edge of shears. (Salix Amygdalkia) and especially the Golden Willow or osier (S. perience will soon demonstrate the best method of "curing. and kept turned over every day. There are two or three species of that are largely culIn Europe the Almond-leafed willow tivated for basket-making. of England is made from this latter species. especially when made of palmetto or similar material. is 160. Somehow the words "Sisal Willow" have come into use in I am free to confess I do not know what the Sisal Willow basketry." A . and Sisal grass The Century Dictionary gives shall be glad to be enlightened.HOW various species O'f TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER This is BASKETS. 27 Agave. Other materials will be found referred to in later pages showing the infinite variety the ingenious teacher may utilize. as resists damp- ness better than the simple hemp. also known as henequen. In their preparation most of the common grasses will dry if put in little exa warm but shady place. or sisal it hemp. but can find no reference to Sisal Willow. as do the California and other Indians. WILLOW FIG. DEERFIELD STRAW BASKETS. and is largely used for making ship's cajbles. which is the fibre of the agave ixtli or I henequen. Mat splints. and Sisal hemp.

anywhere. when they are rubbed on rattan. In "Indian Basketry" I have said something about them. As a rule all materials and dyes need a mordant. tender. As a general principle. and test the result. Just as an artist experiments in color on his palette board and thus finds what he wants. and happen to 'have some other dye at hand. exquisite melodies of soft. second. To learn to dye well is a liberal education in many things. And who that has done this has not felt the charm and delight of sweet. mix in a little of it. In the first place. be understood fully that this is not presented as chapter of suggestion and hints. so may you. and. experiment in every way. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not -suit such soft and flexible work as basNever until the white man of no artistic taste perverted and ketry. restful harmonies in these masterpieces' nay mistresspieces of ancient the outset let anything more than a . . Discourage their use in others. if you have in some long forgotten closet a copy of your great-grandmother's old recipe book. get it out. Vegetable dyes are softer in tone. delicate. cheaply. So begin with determination and courage. and the chapter on colors is well worth another reading in connection with these hints. Explicit directions in so subtle and elusive a matter as dyeing is not to be expected in a book of this character. led astray the Indian with aniline dyes did he make mistakes in color. and they cannot be improved upon.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Remember that experience will widen your horizon and enlarge your capacities. and better in accord with basketry work. color it a beautiful shade which is We quite as fast as most dyes. more permanent. Experiment will soon teach the value of this. and. DYES At : HOW TO MAKE AND it USE THEM. They are the accursed things which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful. fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are " anathema " to ajll " " true basketry lovers. Do not touch them." Hence. Hence to get rhe true conception of color one has but to study the old baskets. know 'somewhat of their methods. ten to one you will find wonderfully suggestive helps there. third and every other place. work ? In this chapter I desire to stimulate each thoughtful and earnest student to the endeavor to reach what these wild weavers reached. Alum is a good ordinary mordant and can be had. Thus a valuable and interesting discovery may be made. more harmonious. reminding you of the days when your ancestors spent many hours over the dye pot or tub. chemistry teaches that where you have an acid dye it is well to have an alkali mordant. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid. Also. In "Indian Basketry" I tell of some Indian mordants. CHAPTER V. however. If you are preparing a red. This is to "fix" the dye. Miss White tells of "one basket-maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. and when an alkali dye an acid mordant.

to be purchased of any druggist. This allows the fibre of the raffia or rattan to take up the mordant. Indigo. This allows the soda to completely neutralize the sulphuric acid. . . add water and put in soda until it stops foaming. though animal. Inj the making of dye here are a few hints as to material. can also be used with good results. and thus prepares for the permanent fixing of the dye a thing much to be desired. Saffron can be bought from the druggists. Sulphuric acid will dissolve it. This gives a bright yellow. diluting with water when red. and are used. There is nothing to fear. Learners will find that indigo will not dissolve in water. the stems. the acid must be neutralized by the addition of soda. is suggested for a dark. and the root is the part to use. drop by drop. 2Q Miss \Yhite suggests the use of a solution of three ounces of alum dissolved in a quart of water. in used.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. but it GREEN. So before the materials are immersed. preferably about fo-ur ounces to two gallons of water. TAN. But this dye is never strong even though a large quantity of the leaves The powder of BROXVN Blood Root gives a deep yellow. though not as strong as logwood gives satisfactory Walnut and hickory nut shells results if an extra quantity is used. while the fruit gives a reddish or what might better be termed a light or pink tan. perience. and stirred vigorously. but the acid will rot the material to be dyed. Do not buy it in stick form. and beets a color similar but more The poke berry gives a purple red. Cochineal. Dragon's blood gives a pleasing orange. The bark of the maple and pine both give nice shades of brown. and the dye can be used with safety. LOW. Madder gives a dull red. This gives a light yellow that is very pleasing. Cranberries give a dull red. deep Combined with cream of tartar it gives a bright red. gives the color must be confessed it is difficult to handle without exMiss Hyde found Chase's Recipe Book give her help. however. Butternut bark. The sulphuric acid is poured on the indigo. and is easy to handle. This can be bought from the druggists powder form in the South it can be found growing in the fields. As> soon as the indigo is dissolved fully. Miss Hyde prefers much less. When the alum is well dissolved place the liquid in a small tub and soak the material to be dyed in it for fully two hours. leaves and flowers. The powder can be bought from any druggist. which can be found growing everywhere on the roadside. Be sure to keep your hands out of this mixture. and combined PURPLE. You will not care satisfactory. with ammonia a good purple. Onion skins give a dull yellow that is> very satisfactory. and stems give a good tan. ORANGE. and one will find great pleasure in experimenting with bark from different trees. for blue. Use a stick to stir it with. Sumac leaves. John's wort (hypiricum perforatum). and alcohol must be used for the purpose. It is well to make plenty of this mixture. RED. as water will not readily dissolve the stick. to handle the poke berries as they stain the hands. Logwood extract gives a fine brown. YELGather St. which keep stirring often. causing the liquid to foam in an alarming manner. The powder is easier to handle.

All of the above will generally give their color with a half hour's good boiling. If this is not Let it remain in the liquid from 15 to 20 minutes. For instance. DYES. In u sing beets. Cranberries. when the seeds and fruit are ripe and the sap is well down in the trunks of the trees. This gives a fairly strong dye. . \Yhiting.. The following is from the pen of Miss Margaret C. Even in this work one is liable to . always using a wooden stick for the purpose. and went and gathered more walnut shucks. have only lately begun to produce good and is a fundamental it need. In an early bulletin 'of the Basket Fraternity I hope to publish a full and detailed account of Deerfield and its work. Thus observation and interest are stimulated the first elements of all true education. In every case the dye must be boiling when the material is immersed. TO Be sure and strain the dye. MATERIAL. If these do not produce the desired color. if necessary. enough (as experience will soon demonstrate). one teacher had her scholars gather walnut shucks for dyeing purposes. so that the color evenly reaches: all the parts. or of becoming an capable It is fortunate that many individual basket offence to the eye. who work in raffia. a little more will do no harm. realize the necessity of natural dyes in order to and lasting color combinations in their designs." and the disappointed children were unable at first to comprehend the reason for the change.. Keep turning the material over and over. Three or four weeks later they again wished some green dye. put in more. Mass. is of taking on soft and harmonious colors. it for them. cochineal needs fully two hours to C* C? produce good results-.30 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. general proportion to be observed is two ounces to one gallon of water. All the materials are to be boiled. On the other hand. fustic. a society whose work in fine basketry other pages of this book will well testify to. By . This time their green dye came out "brown. makers. sumac. skill and time to do madder and copperas. poke berries. The green coloring matter had gone new matter or changed matter was in its place. stumble upon many interesting facts. Experience has demonstrated that the best time to collect these materials is in October or November. and they secured a delicious shade of green. put in about five or six large beets to a gallon of water. TO MAKE THE A Butternut bark. For a dye pot a good enamel kettle is as serviceable as anything. let it remain longer. First mordant as before described. use about one pound to a gallon of water. as if there is any sediment it is liable to etc. onion skins. and if found not strong enough can either be boiled down or more material used. and no craftsman will continue long to rest satisfied with seeing his design developed in the loud and vulgar colors that raffia dyed In itself raffia is a material that in chemical or aniline dyes produce. TIME TO COLLECT MATERIALS. of the Pocumtuck Basket Society of Deerfield. that can be held in both hands. in either doing their or employing someone own dyeing who has in indigo. all > DYE THE arrest the work of the dye and give irregular color effects. or groups of workers. It can be diluted. It does not need much suggesting to show how that to an intelligent teacher this practically prepared the hearts and minds of her pupils for a valuable lesson in natural history. "Basket workers. walnut shucks. are following the exampe of Deerfield.

another that bore trees. browns. 3! means the dld-fashioned processes of hand-dyeing are being revived. how their mere possession gives suggestion of patterns and combinations to the eye of a skillful basket-maker. which her own desire to produce turns to admirable account. tried by the garish modern colors that it is impossible to be'lieve the future will consent to accept. who can say?" . are so pleasing to the eye. of baskets made by a group of amateur but skillful basket-makers in a surburban town belonging to Greater New York. Miller's colors proved the charm possible to FIG. of Students. The much lamented decay of good design and of excellence in ornamental work has been largely helped by the manufactured dyes how great an influence toward the tasteless and tawdry has been wrought by the invention of aniline colors. Teachers' RATTAN. . The basket with a holly design. that which was decorated with a stiff row of tulips. whose "Colonial Dyes" of over a dozen shades and tones of reds. whose maker whimsically proclaimed to grow in "the vale of cedars. all show the inspiration harmonious colors give to the designer. of Brooklyn. 135. Miller. obtain from the color harmonies of vegetable dyes. greens and blues done in small vats prepared by old rules of tried permanence. from Mrs. yellows." and still another developed in orange and black with a barbaric design in white beads. for a charity. New York.HOW these TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Work SIMPLE WEB BASKETS OF College. Quite recently a modest sale. and far-reaching effects may quite reasonably be hoped for from the individual dyers who are thus being encouraged. Such an one is Mrs.

the 26 West 23rd street. New York. TOOLS AND TERMS USED. are useful. employed by the Hyde Exploring Expe: . SINGLE WEAVING. 19 tapestry needle is good to begin with) strong scissors. This should be about five or six inches long and two inches broad. flat pliers or pincers a narrow piece of heavy. are cut to the required length. kindly permitted me accompanying engravings made from her two cutters. DOUBLE WEAVING. PAIRING. in width. or weaver. when these members are tender. a yard measure and foot rude a sharp knife a pair of small. 18 and the an inch at the proper distance Fig. 17 consists of a number of knives set apart for the 'making of splints for weavers. or strand A . Miss Marie Toxuse. 21. . A . A SPLINT. a small hamimer. FIG. The student should be provided with the follotwing tools needle (about a No. pressed upon With a pair of scissors the the knives. flat iron or steel that can be used as a hammer between the spokes of a basket.splint is inserted. 19. CHAPTER VI. an awl about four inches long. 22. and can be set by means of the thumb screw brass fillers to cut the splints from an eighth of an inch to dition. . FIG. FJG. is adjustable. resulting splints is the name given to the strip or splint. In both these cutters the broad .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. indeed an old rasp file Rubber thimble and finger caps will answer the purpose very well. to have Fig. Cutters for preparing wood splints are used by the Eastern Indians. and then rapidly pulled. FIG 20.

or twined. It is also used as a border finishing weave. Three weavers are placed behind three consecutive spokes. the spokes. thus alternating. ROPE TWIST. 24. Each in its transit to the back of the fourth spoke must be laid on the top of the other three weaver?. 21. Then as the FIG. splint. TRIPLE WEAVE. or worked in various ways in and out of the warp splints. either for beauty or strength. This. It is to pack tightly together this kind of weaving that the flat piece of iron referred to in the list of tools is so useful. The fingers in Fig. upon which the basket is built up. see Fig. SINGLE WEAVING. the other behind the where two weavers are used. TRIPLE TWIST. 22. For starting. The woof splints are the weavers which are wrapped. 33 piece of material used for wrapping. ROPE TWIST. the framework. weavers are taken on to the next spoke twist them so that the lower weaver takes the place of the upper. see Fig. The weaver is placed behind one spoke or foundation rod.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the bones. then each weaver is brought in succession before two spokes and behind one. though four or more weavers may be used. WEAVING. This is a variation of the triple weave. FIG. . 19 hold a The warp the foundation splints are the ribs. they must be included in the four to make up this twist. and if one or more weavers have already been used. 23. (This is before. This is shown in Fig. 23. but one is placed same spoke. PAIRING. four weavers are placed behind four consecutive spokes. This weave is used where a break or dividing line in a basket is desired. as in Fig. 24. and before the next. 20. being laid at the same time on the top of the weavers that preceded it.is where two weavers are used DOUBLE instead of one. This is clearly shown in Fig.

Teachers' College. Miss Hyde suggests: "One may combine bristol board with FIG. even though the immediate results are not the ones you individually are seeking. 26. The greater the variety of materials used. HOW TO BEGIN. New York. the radius board Cut an inner . bristol Cut a 6-inch square from being three inches. Work of Students. and from dampen the raffia several hours before using. raffia to advantage in teaching little children illustrating the use of two materials of different degrees of flexibility.34 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. One of the first and most important results to be attained is the familiarizing the student (be he child or adult) with the materials to Hence the wisdom of following out alii the suggestions be used. this cut a circle. the more readily does one see the possibilities and limitations of each ." In all the following exercises it is well to PICTURE FRAMES. here given. CHAPTER VII. RAFFIA WRAPPED ARTICLES.

or the baby." possibilities in this use of materials are suggested made of Here are a book mark. or dyed. or made fingers are engaged in the work. It is not simply a frame for any kind tion. let the child feel that this frame is to enshrine a picture that means something to him. as preferred. simple loop may be made of the raffia with which to hang up the frame. 28. all wrapped raffia. giving a diameter of 2 1-2 inches. opening allows A In the making of these picture frames cultivate a senise of proporThe frame must not be too large for the picture it is to hold nor too small. This is the prime element in all work we designate Other interesting in Fig.HOW circle with radius i TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as well as its mind and of a picture. Then wrap the board with raffia in its native color. This for a small picture. 26. Thus the heart of the child." but it is a frame especially for a picture of papa or mamma. merely "a frame anyhow. FIG. . or some beloved friend or scene. and a toy umbrella. a napkin-ring. MAGAZINE HOLDER OF WRAPPED RAFFIA. Then. For the book-mark any kind of splint may . 35 1-4 inches. too. "artistic.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Q El k CU <! tf fo o tf o ^ o H R d tf H J O ffi H N <J O 9 p H 8 O .

The napkin-ring is made by wrapping the raffia around a splint or card-board base. make small holes and glue therein seven lengths of No. Then shown in the Work \ PIG. shown in Indian Basketry.HOW be used. circled into ring form. SIMPLE COILED BASKETS. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. of Students. Teachers' College. New York. forth holding the coil to the left. To finish let the coil gradually diminish. and later in the chapter on Indian Stitches. 30. sewed on. A SIMPLE BASKET FOR CHILDREN. 2 rattan. This mode of wrapped weaving was long ago used by the Mohave Indians in the making of their carrying baskets. i or No. Take a sufficient number of strands of raffia to make 1-4 inch coil and wrap with a strand of colored raffia Coil and sew back and leaving distances of 1-2 inch between wraps. Then begin to wrap with raffia. 37 raffia is wrapped from one spoke to another. and the stitches should not be noticed. as clearly engraving. and then edged with plaited raffia. The coiling of natural colored raffia and wrapping with a strand of dyed material is an easy method for children. 4 rattan. . For the umbrella take a Glue a piece of cork upon one end. as. giving one twist around each spoke and going on to the next one. page 160. Into this piece of No.

FIG. scissors. the material is so different in character. Then take same number and weave them. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. 31 and 32 clearly show the simplest forms of this kind of work. OPKX. accuracy and speed in the manipulation of mat and good exercise will be had by imitating Figs. 36 . While mat weaving uses the warp and woof in exactly the same manner as they are used in what I have termed the web weaving. 32. wood (such as ash. After a little practice in this with coarse splints>. and then unravel or split the splints as It is well to gain shown in the illustration.\' ii-L FIG. A width of paper. 31. 35. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. 33. Figs. A buck- CHECKERBOARD. oak. and needs such different handl- ing. etc.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.) palmetto.. let the pupil undertake the making of a table mat of any suitable material similar When it is the to Fig. etc. ^ ft J-i . that it is deemed wise to differentiate and give two separate sets The earliest stages of this form of weaving of lessons in their use. splints. 34. awl or piercer. and width. This makes the warp.'. THE MAT WEAVE. sew the edges tight with white thread.nJ f>- ' r| \a. over and under the warp at right angles. Take a number of splints of equal length Place ten or a dozen side by side. This simple checkenvork is the basis for good work later on. all kindergarten teachers are more or less familiar with. et or bowl of water. It will be seen that the splints are fine. knife. CLOSED. CHAPTER VIII. number of splints of equal MATERIALS REQUIRED. size desired. one at a time.

with ends reversed.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. So on alternating. 11. from left to right. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. Fold the perpendicular splint up over the horizontal one. 38. holding them with ends at right angles.) Take a short splint. The next short splint fold around long splint to the left. . thrusting splints through the long Pull tight. TABLE MAT. with result is the accordeon fold (B. Take the two long FIG 33. Fig. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. taking care that each fold is absolutely even. open it and fold around long splint to the right. Take two weavers of equal width. up. many splints as desired. place them side by side.) In Figs. Pull tight.The accordeon fold. Fig. (See Fig. 39 and 40 are seen four beautiful specimens of . or fold one long splint as shown in A. ones. splint to left and through long as FOLDING EXERCISE. 37. from right to left and so on. 10. can be utilized in the Fold all the splints lengthwise. 39 with weavers of two colors. These weaves making of many beautiful baskets later on. splint to right. (See C) in the fallowing order: down. then the horizontal over the perpendicular. Back and forth the folds then go retaining them at right angles. The . 38. right and left.

. 39 AND 40. New York.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. !!<. ACCORDEON PLAIT. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. 38. ETC. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIGS. CHETEMACHE MATS.

MAT FOUNDATION WORK. the designs are worked out with different colors. 4! Chetemache weave. using splints of palmetto. bringing edge parallel with the right edge of the perpendicular splint. In these mats. Take top splint. as seen in the illustration. The colors are a dull Indian red PATTERN PRODUCED PATTERN PRODUCED BY INTERLACING BY INTERLACING STRANDS OF STRANDS OF DIFFERENT COLORS. La. DIFFERENT COLORS. and later on. . horizontally and weaver Take four long splints. oblique or diagonal. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. Change \vork to right hand. conjure up designs from her own imagination. 34. A flat splint is laid lengthwise FIG. This tribe of Indians lives on Avery Island. and then sewed on with a fine on the upper edge of the mat. Lay two two vertically. and black. 37. The binding is simple. The design is easily followed and the learner will find it excellent practice to endeavor to imitate. Their dyes are evidently vegetable and the exquisite color effects produced are worthy of imitation. FIG 36. PIG. with the natural greenish-gray of the palmetto. and makes beautiful baskets of a variety of shapes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. holding in left hand.. ISOLATED FIGURES PRODUCED BY MODIFYING ORDER OF INTERSECTION. fold backwards. under and over as if going to make ordinary square mat weave.

42. 43. SPLINT PICTURE FRAME FOUNDATION. FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. SPLINT MAT WEAVE BASKETS. FIG. . FRAME. 41. SPLINT PICTURE FIG.

When the corners are turned up. one set to the left. two sides. one set to the right. (See D. the lid for D. 43 fold left splint obliquely. Fig. the upright or warp splints are turned over and deep enough is tucked in. and two horizontal. 3. Fig. etc. boxes.) NAPKIN RING.) A beautiful variation of the lower edge of the weaving of a diagonal band is shown in H. 2. this strip of diagonal weaving. 37. 42. two ends. it is merely twisted in a curve back to the place it would have had if folded and creased. viz. 41. tucking (G. taking care. 43. There are now two perpendicular sets of splints. Then insert small splints and fill up the vacant spaces marked I. there are practically five sides. Open up as Fig. covers. 38. These even widths can best be made with the cutter shown in Fig. Then study. 38. hanger. which can have cardboard or leather back glued or sewed upon it. in great variety of shapes and sizes. thus strengthening the A little practice soon enables one to do this "tucking in" or parts. the woof splints of the sides can be continued around the corners and used as the woof splints of the ends. 43. In Fig. Here. may be made upon these principles. Fig. however. These sizes determined it is easy to cut splints the required length. (F. Material required: eight long splints of one or various colors necessary number of short splints. 43 is shown how this square mat weave may be utilized. It should never be forgotten that good work of any kind can be done only with splints of perfectly even width. Then Hold now left perpendicular folded horizontally as before. with ring . in B. Fig-. 4 on Fig. bringing them together and then proceeding to unite them with the ordinary flat mat weave. Cornucopias. is A D . making. bottom. instead of obliquely folding and creasing the splint. one of which is illustrated Another form napkin ring may PICTURE FRAME.) be made by leaving a little longer ends to the diagonally woven strip. fold upper horizontal downwards as before. and proceed. Fig. Where the splints meet they can be tucked in. and binding it to the fourth warp splint from the other end. Fig. Work held in left hand. then wrapping one of the folds with the other in an oblique wrap. to allow two inches or so for turning in (tucking in) at the edges. Trim off loose edges and the result is Fig. as long as required. 38. The bottom of A is of mat foundation (simple checkerboard). C. fastener for the cover to the handle of the basket made by taking a long splint. 38.. When the It is made same as A. tucking in the edges as per the illustration. obliquely and press edges towards center to keep the work evenly.. This crosses right perpendicular splint. 18. Prepare foundation as described for Fig. Pass under first folded splint. or easel.its upper edge lie parallel with the bottom horizontal splint. The question of basket size can always be determined with a little In mat weaving the width of splint must be considered. folding it around the fourth warp easily splint from either end. A of napkin ring can be made from in the edges. folding as directed.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. A little practice will make the weaver perfectly conversant with this pretty variation. 41. is "doubling" cover skilfully.

and so on. Work splint. A little practice will soon teach how to affix to basket. clothes baskets. 44. New York. Take two pieces of rattan. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. cotton . down and around left splint. foundation canes in thumb and forefinger of left hand with weavers under one and over the other. showing market baskets. it is in the same way as its cover C. taking care always to overwrap or tuck in all ends. Then wrap around left foundation is D made To produce : FIG. The handle is made as follows willow. The result will be an interesting collection. except that the narrowing together towards the top the warp splints should be made to taper a little. alternating over and under. Teachers' College.44 HOW The basket deeper. of Students. grocers baskets. the thickness desired and the length the handle is For weavers use long mat splints well soaked. forms of baskets in actual use. and then urge them to imitate or reproduce in minature. Figs. up between the two. or palmetto. cane. 44 and 45 show a variety of small models of baskets made by Excite the interest of children in the students at Teachers' College. over and around right foundation splint back between the two. Hold required to be.

etc. and fine fine. of Students. New York. at bottom row. Cane is coarse. such as is used how carried what it is to carry whether carried by one or : How . yet Work FIG. top and bottom. To practice. etc. It of splints. overcome the problems involved. square frame. . 45 All these are simple and need no detailed inbaskets. Buy or make pegs to fit these holes. up through next hole on the right. keeping is practically useful. can well be exemplified and important lessons given. fine. . and pull a piece lap top uppermost. Show how environment influences everything and that the use of different baskets in different localities for the same purpose is the result of different growths. Hold the frame on the Count the holes. locality used. two persona. hampers. of fine cane up through the center bottom hole. and has a decided value in teaching the handling legitimately comes under the head of mat weaving. different methods of work. leaving an end two and one-half inchee long. Here adaptability to purpose. Teachers' College. CAXING CHAIRS. P'jii peg into both of these holes to keep cane in place. medium. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. To cane chairs is not a difficult art. It must be soaked in water before using. . in which holes an inch apart are bored. and down through center top hole. to use. Now bring long end of cane. purchase from a kindergarten suppy house a small.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. which will each basket readily suggest themselves to the teacher. The children will readily structions further than those already given. etc. 45.

run a splint to the up- Now. CANING A CHAIR. from lower left-hand corner. continue taking care not to and lace as on the the frame will be horizontal splints right and center to to corresponding hole on top row. then to the left. inserting one end down splint of fine cane is now brought through the hole at one corner. 46. wide enough to cover the holes of the edge. however. This diagonal weaving must be done in the two ways. actual weaving must beThe splint must be taken under a cross. 49. working first to the right. For a binding stitch over the holes. per right-hand corner and continue these diagonal lines exactly the same as the vertical ones. (See Fig. gin. process until right side of frame is reached. viz. from the lower left corner to the upper right. starting n PIG. A . WEAVE OF CHAIR CANE. The frame is now a network of squares. FIG. and from the lower right to the upper left. 46). FIG. At the fourth row from the center. under a cross. Now start to the left of the center This done. Now put in the in exactly the same way. 47. CANE TIE. Take cane now this lacing Peg.46 it flat. over single. but towards the left side of frame. working from center to left. right. over a single splint. CANING A CHAIR. take a splint of binding cane. 48. filled with lines of vertical splints. FIG.. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. HOW Peg it. pull the cane tight.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.) Everyone is familiar with the octagonal meshed weave of the ordinary cane-seated chair. and horizontally. creasing firmly. Sit on a small stool or hassock and tilt the chair forward upon your Find the center as before described. Put in the splints vertically lap. DOLL'S HAT AND TRAY OF PLAITED RAFFIA. 52. The one thing of importance to remember is that the first row of splints must be put on loosely. for there are six rows of splints and the later woven rows tighten up to the others. draw tight. In finishing off the ends. under lower vertical. which should always be on the under side of tlhe frame. In many chairs there are little problems in the corners that the good sense of the weaver will easily solve if he is careful to have a due regard for proof these as a pattern close at hand. is completed. at the same time pulling the upper vertical to the right. without any attempt tO' tie. When the diagonal weaving ing as before described. 48. 47 up through every other hole. These go under and over the horizontal pairs and vertical pairs as shown in Fig. thus couching it. finish off with the bind- FIG. across the binding and back again through the same hole. While doing the work endeavor to have one The explanations that follow will then be perfectly simple. HOOP AND SCHOOL BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA. and going over or under as the case may require. . FIG 53. then once again. Now follow these by putting in another set vertiThe fourth cally on top of the first ones and through the same holes. as shown in Fig. 49. 47. row is horizontally put in and must be woven as follows over one upper vertical. (See Fig. bring the loose end to the nearest loop. Pass it underneath the loop. : : portion. Now begin the diagonal weaving from lower left corner to upper right corner. This will be found to hold securely.

The saddle girth above is of braided sisal hemp expressly for that purpose. Columbia University. used for car- rying books. for the boy's own use in playing horses. In the center of Fig. and below is a school-bag.48 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. To the right and below is a band made by sewing the plaits together. used by boys and girls in one of their out-door games. A little These laces can be dyed so as to give design in the plait. Sew on one side only. 50 is the beginning of a small mat. To facilitate this place a screw hook in the wainscoting or on the under side of the work table. CHAPTER IX. 54 and 55 are composed of model hats made by the students at Teachers' College. 52 shows a hoop of plaited raffia. on which the A little practical experience will raffia can be placed while plaiting. Every schoolboy and girl is more or less familiar with the simple forms of plaiting. experimentation will soon show that the design depends entirely upon how the colored lace is placed at the beginning of the plait. and see that it is closely and evenly done. and the bottom belt shows that tttie ends are utilized for tying. THE PLAIT OR BRAID. beginning first with coarse and later using finer material. Ga. Fig. Fig. Above it are two wall pockets. They are all of braided raffia. for their own personal use. Both boys and girls can be much interested in this plaiting if the articles made are converted into playthings. one Below it to the left is one of with. In the making of these hats seek to draw out the individuality of .53 sihows a small raffia. not by tying. In this the plaits are coiled flat. sewed with the edges outermost. First of all. 50. Alternate plaiting and sewing give variety. toy harness and the like are easily made from this plaited work. The rings are ordinary brass rings. In these three the plaits are flat and sewed edge to edge with a large darning needle. Belts. to plait the entire length needed before beginning to use the plait. stimulate interest by showing how these plaits can be utilized. and a tray. with the edges outer- most and sewed as the coil grows. Fig. bag-handles. 52 and 53 were made by small children at Mr. soon demonstrate >how much raffia must be used to obtain a plait of any given size. doll's hat. using for thread a fine strand of raffia. lengthen It is not necessary it by splicing. made of corset lacings. both made of plaited All the articles of Figs. To gain digital dexterity it is well to introduce it into a Course of Basketry. covered with the lace. New York. another shape. thus avoiding knots. or something useful. To give purpose to the work. let the child practice on simple plaiting with strands of raffia. a handle. When a length of raffia is about to give out. etc. and the other without. Figs. 51 is composed entirely of plaited belts. Neligh's school in Columbus. Under the direction of the teacher this can easily be converted into a harness.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the reasons that used to exist for the different kinds of headgear used in the various regiments of the ^ame army. ETC. social and domestic customs. To add interest to the work the child know something of the wearer of these different kinds of hats. . still another a Puritan. another a A Southern girl will naturally try a colonial. whilst a girl from the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania will make a Dutch farmer's hat. the outing hat. sombrero. the poke In army hat>s< of different nations are a score of suggestbonnet. 50. ARTICLES OF PLAITED RAFFIA. the Coolie. ive shapes. Others will try the Panama. 49 each child or student. let of excellent suggestions may be found. geography. the policeman's helmet. Let one make a continental hat. etc. Here come in opportunities for fascinating little chats on history. the Chinese. etc. while in the hats of the peasantry of the world a host more FIG.

the form. neatness in sewing the plaits together. solidity of the basket as a whole. . 58. 51. native in the may be exercised and called into existence modern outing hat. Firmness of weave. of the wearer. Five-stranded plaits of raffia often come in very useful. the shape of the face and Thus she is head. the conscious exercise of choice. "If you make a modern hat. and the effects manner of making is clearly shown in Fig." This demands personality. the color of the hair. choice of a able to produce a hat that will harmonize with the individuality of the wearer. Figs. New York. individuality. 56 and 57 are various baskets of plaited raffia made by the Various colors are used and pretty students of Teachers' College. harmony of color wihere it is used. Teachers' College. Then try to make a hat that would suit some friend. FIG. etc. produced.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER taste BASKETS. too. Then. make such an one as you would personally like to wear. Remember that a good milliner in choosing a hat studies. Work of Students. PLAITED BELTS.. and good shape are all sought after.

51 FIG. 50a.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. BOTTOM OF DEERFIELD BASKET. .

Teachers' College.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. 54. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. FIG. . Work of Students.

Work PIG. Various materials can be used in this work. 53 CHAPTER X. yucca fibre. Hold the stick in any easy position so that a strand of raffia may be doubled and tied around the . as shown in A. used.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. of Students. From page 158. New York. Twisted hemp. Fig. For a netted work or handkerchief-bag. Even unbraided raffia may be rushes. THE NET." it will be seen that carrying The nets were and are made by the Mission Indians of California. braided raffia. 55. secure twelve strands raffia of two colors and a stick about a yard long and one and one-half inches wide. "Indian Basketry. Teachers' College. etc. 61. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. It should be slightly dampened for several hours before using. Pimas have a carrying basket in which the net is used.

Make even meshes all the way across. The ends are then cut evenly. of Students'. Then slip the knots from the stick. and the towards the bottom. tom rows is caused by loosely braiding the strands meshes before knotting them. narrowing the meshes Work FIG. At the bottom the whole of the strands are gathered together and tied with a single or braided strand. Teachers' College. Put on the rest of stick. and proceed to close up the bag by knotting the loose sides together. Draw the knot tight. 59. BASKETS OF PLAITED RAFFIA. the strands in like manner. Continue this all the way down for five or six rows. Separate to about an inch apart.54 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as shown in Fig-. a length of plaited raffia put through the upper mesh and tied. 56. of two bot- . bag is A pretty effect of complete. New York. then knot each strand at about the distance of an inch with the nearest strand of the next pair.

are the bag is lined with silk or turkey red cotton it is a pretty and serviceable article. style of bag made by keeping all the to the bottom. except that the meshes must be much smaller. of Students.HOW Another TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. New York. 55 the meshes of equal size two sides. at the bottom. If tassels Work on. The ends can then be cut and thie bag is complete. way by matching t)he knots and meshes together and then knitting two strands from the front and two from the back together for the finishing row. Fig. then joining the FIG. twine bag may be made in the same manner as A. A . Teachers' College. and the number of strands When BASKETS OP PLAITED RAFFIA. of raffia and sewed desired they may be made 57. 61.

FIG. it can be suspended wherever needed. NETTED BAGS OF RAFFIA. In netting with raffia or other materials! an infinite variety of articles may be made. 62. using the single net stitch of Fig. D is a pretty little basket made of a fibre brought from Puerto . 60. SNIGLE NET MESH. C and D. as suggested in B. 60. KNOT OF RAFFIA. the twine allowed to come through one of the meshes. Fig. NET MESH. limited to the size of the ball of twine. and tied tightly on the top. FIG. FIG. and all different. ETC. 58. B is a small netted purse of raffia of fine mesh. STRAND DETAIL OF FIVE PLAIT. FIG. 61. but has a bottom and top of coiled and sewed plaited raffia. With a tassel on the bottom. C is netting the same as described in the work-bag A. 61. FIG.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. STITCH AND 59.

as slhown in Fig. NET MESH. A pretty napkin-ring can be made by taking ten curtain rings about an inch in diameter and covering them with the buttonhole Raffia or any fibre may be used. then under and over. 58) an inch wide. 69.HOW Rico. FIG. NET MESH. through. 67 and 68. It is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. NET MESH. similar to Figs. etc. When all the rings are covered. 63." Any of these may be imitated in raffia. knotted or fastened These fancy stitches give wonderful variety to basket work and can be introduced here and there as taste and skill dictate. and then join by passing a ribbon or five-strand plait of raffia (see Fig. . stitch shown in Figs. NET MESH. FIG. The size of rings may be varied to suit the size of napkin. 64. Book for 1903. FIG. for which I am indebted to the "Priscilla Needlework as required. 57 composed entirely of fancy stitches. These may be imitated from any book of fancy needlework. 65. 62 to 66. FIG. overlap them. 66. yucca fiber.

<! H H a fe .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

or built up into the most exquisite jar shape. made exactly as the mat in Fig. allowing spaces of one inch between wraps then fasten and sew.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. sedges. ." The simplest form of coiled work is shown in Fig. 70 is of raffia. the fancy one is of sweet grass. Taking a length of the coil material. They are pretty and useful. THE COIL WEAVE. rushes. twine. straw. in design.. the root material is shredded so fine that nearly 100 stitches In form. split willows. 70. coil to diminish gradually and make a secure fastening. sweet grass. strong tapestry needle The coil is then begun. plenish the coil. of the best the world. as in a table mat. This gives the even and beautiful spiral effect. and made with comparative ease. Fig. is The first grass coil is sewed to its outer edge. 72 is of a group of mats and baskets made of long pine needles. or whatever is to be used for sewing. Fig. Of these Miss Hyde writes and thus instructs how to make They are made of hemp. Dye the hemp and take an amount equivalent to three-eight inch coil wrap for a distance of three-fourths of an inch. as in the Pima granaries. Great care should be exercised in putting in new material to reUpon this depends the evenness of the work. raffia. will be easily mastered. The zig-zag introduced and the mat then completed with three rounds of coil. 70. and in o-thers. taken just past the proceeding one. the coiled ware may be are made within an inch of space. and others as large as a flour barrel some specimens have . The is coil is one of the favorite weaves. Colis of coiled trays made by the students of Teachers' Fig. and. each time inserting the needle with point toward you between every wrap. viz. : etc. except that an oval center was first made by bending a strong and thick needle to the . 36. as the work progresses. the upright stitches lend themiselves to the greatest variety of intricate patterns.. lege. As Professor Mason has well written: "Coiled basketry in point of size presents the greatest extremes. raffia. The variation of B. . such as grass. The material of the coil may be almost anything capable of being coiled. It large variation. 59 CHAPTER XI. There are specimens delicately made that will pass through a lady's finger ring. 71 gathered in the immediate neighborhood of New York. when performed by an exquisitely beautiful. perfectly flat. Let the children go out and gather their own material for these 'simple trays. broom corn. while cat-tail. thus giving a radiaTo finish allow the tion from the center as the work progresses. The center may be birch bark (ornamented. combined with grasses. etc. shredded The plain mat of Fig. the stitches being is needed for the sewing. the Indians of the simple and yet capable of artist. corn husks. D is an oval mat. or of A leather. with colored quills). stitching material one-half inch wide. it is tightly wrapped with thread. is basket makers in American West and Southwest. with a center of cedar-bark. as this is.

72. SIMPLE COILED TRAYS. New York. . 71. Teachers' College.FIG. FIG. Work of Students. PINE NEEDLE COILED BASKETS.

73. the height two and a quarter inches. and no slovenly work in the sides will be tolerated. The top is an inch and a half in diameter. decked off with a piece of ribbon.HOW shape required. was rounded upward and the sides were made by coiling the wisp higher and higher. 72. the out(Fig. 74. F is C is smaller and the two upper coils are made oval so as to afford two B is a dainty little basket. limber splint of tough wood. Cushings description: simple coiled weave. for the It TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. amples was made of the helix or spirally coiled type of basket. two and a half inches in diameter. E and G. It is two and a quarter inches across at the botis the lid. MANUFACTURE OF SPIRALLY COILED WEAVES. with the aid of a bodkin. slight protuberances which act as handles. to produce the bulge of the vessel. then inward. 73. A basket must sit firmly on the table and be tightly woven. a "cute little hat. manufacture of the Havasupai. as the basis. and used makes an excellent tray for the toilet table.boiling baskets. the width of brim three-quarters of an inch.) tiguous inner coil. Figs. 75. A grass stems or osiers softened in water was first spirally wrapped a little at one end with a flat. sewed on after the basket was elsewhere finished. 6l This was then filled up with darned work. are dissimilar in shape. yet made in the same way. usually willow. to form the tapering upper part and neck. these long pine needles baskets are known they will become wonderfully popular in a short time." circular in shape. the diameter of bottom. which are good exand firmness.) er coil thus formed (Fig. including brim. In the making of all these baskets stimulate the student to stability . the beginning small wisp of fine flexible at the center of the bottom. Here are two important things to be attained. first outward. or a mat dinner table. No "wobblety" bottom. into which the two little twigs or splint-loops were firmly woven. flanged and fits snug. and sewed to the sides-." This su'bject will be found more fully discussed in the chapter on . 75. 74. 73. This wrapped portion was then wound upon itself. 75 clearly show the Indian method of making the "In the I quote Lieut. to which A tom and 1 the lid is. Each 'has a base of two coils. three and one-eighth inches. 74) being firmly fastened as it progressed to the one already made by passing the splint wrapping of the wisp each time it was wound around the latter through some strands of the conThe bottom (Fig. When FIGS. Fig. The handles of G are each of two circular coils.

two rod foundation. H. K. ill A iJ) B & // \] C -> FIG. Indian Stitches. Fuegian coiled basketry. E. or bagging: A. Coiled work without foundation. G. two or more stems over one another . two rod and splint foundation. CROSS SECTIONS OF VARIETIES IN COILED BASKETRY. angular position (6) by '=.ide. and in book on Indian Basketry.62 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . three-rod foundation. F. Packing inclosed. 76. C. there are nine different varieties of coiled basketry which he analyzes and describes as my follows : "The foundation may be a thin welt laid on top of (4) it . (i) a single (3) stem or rod. Scores of exquisite baskets made by this stitch are pictured. (2) a stem with . Double-stem coil. Splint foundation. of the coil beneath. . rod and welt foundation. two stems laid side . matting. (5) three stems in tria bundle of splints or small stems (7) a bundle of grass or small shreds. but not inclosing the foundation underneath (2) under one rod . with a welt. 76). These will now be taken up systematically and illustrated (fig. The stitches pass around the foundation in progress (i) interlocking. in some cases systematically splitting the sewing material underneath. D. B. . however many there may be (3) under a welt of the coil beneath (4) through splints or other foundation. With these explanations it is possible to make the following nine varieties of coiled basketry. I. One rod inclosed. Simple interlocking coils. Grass-coil foundation. Single-rod foundation. Packing inclosed. As Professor Mason has shown in his bulletin.

HOW
A.

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

COILED
of this class

WORK WITHOUT FOUNDATION.

Speci-

have been already mentioned. The sewing material is babiche or fine rawhide thong in the cold north, or string of some In the Mackenzie Basin will be found the former, sort farther south. and in the tropical and subtropical areas the latter. If a plain, spiral spring be coiled or hooked into one underneath, the simplest form of An improvement of this is effected the open coiled work will result.

mens

FJG. 77. DETAIL OF INTERLOCKING STITCHES.

FIG.

ROD COIL

78.

DETAIL OF SINGLEIN BASKETRY.

FIG.

TWO

79.

RODS, VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION OF

FIG.

SO.

COILED WORK.

ROD AND WELT

when the moving thread in passing upward after interlocking is twined one or more times about its standing part (Fig. 76 A.) B. Simple interlocking coils. Coiled work in which there may be any sort of foundation, but the stitches merely interlock without catching under the rods or splints or grass beneath. This form easily passes into those in which the stitch takes one or more elements of the foundation, but in a thorough ethnological study small differences can not be overlooked (fig. 76 B). Fig. 77 represents this style of workmanship on a coiled basket in grass stems from Alaska, collected by Lucien M. Turner. The straws for sewing merely interlock without gathering the grass roll.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

C. In rattan basketry and Pacific coast Single-rod foundation. ware, called by Dr. J. W. Hudson Tsai in the Poma language, the foundation is a single stem, uniform in diameter. The stitch passes around the stem in progress and is caught under the one of the preceding coil, In a collection of Siamese basketry in the U. S. Naas in fig. 76 C. tional Museum the specimens are all made after this fashion the foundation is the stem of the plant in its natural state, and the sewing is with splints of the same material, having the glistening surface outward. As
;

FIG.

SI.

FOUNDATION OF THREE RODS.

FIG.

82.

OF SPLINTS.

FOUNDATION

FIG. COILS,

S3.

STRAW FOUNDATION.

INTERLOCKING

FIG.

84. OPEN COIL, INCLOSING PART OF FOUNDATION.

this is

somewhlat unyielding, it is difficult to crowd the stitches together, and so the foundation is visible between. In America single-rod basketry is widely spread. Along the Pacific coast it is found in northern Alaska and as far south as the borders of Mexico. The Poma Indians use it in some of their finest work. The roots of plants and soft stems of willow, rhus, and the like are used for the sewing, and being soaked thoroughly can be crowded together so
as to entirely conceal the foundation
(fig. 78).

rod in this style lies on top of the other the stitches pass over two rods in progress and under the upper

D.

Two-rod foundation.

One

;

HOW
one
of the pair

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

65

cal series.

below, so that each stitch incloses three stems in a vertiattention to fig. 76 D will demonstrate that the alternate rod or the upper rod in each pair will be inclosed in two series of stitches, while the other or lower rod will pass along freely in the middle of one series of stitches and show on the outer side. Exbe seen among the Athaamples of this two-rod foundation are to tribes of Alaska, among the Poma Indians of the Pacific coast, pascan and among the Apache of Arizona. An interesting or specialized variseen among the Mescaleros of New Mexico, who ety of this type is us'e the two-rod foundation, but instead of passing the stitch around the interlock the stitches so that neither upper rod of the coil below, simply

A

little

FIG.

INTERLOCKING COILS, 85. SHRED FOUNDATION.

FIGS.

86,

87

AND

88.

FUEGIAN COILED BASKET AND DETAILS.

one of the two rods is closed twice. This Apache ware is sewed with yucca fiber and the brown sterns of other plants, producing a brilliant
effect,

and the

result of the special technic

is

a flat surface like that of

pottery

(fig. 79).

of precisely the

The U. S. National Museum possesses a single piece same technic from the kindred of the Apache on the

lower Yukon. E. Rod and welt foundation. In this kind of basketry the singlerod foundation is overlaid by a strip or splint of tough fiber, sometimes the same as that with which the sewing is done at others a The stitches pass over the rod and strip which strip of leaf or bast. are on top down under the welt only of the coil below, the stitches inThe strip of tough fiber between the two rods which terlocking.
;

o ^ g 02 Oc 0) i-H - 5J5 ^5 o .w 55 pq 4 r^ g O o I-H O t ( fe a .

for the reason that the maker has perExcellent examples of this kind are to fect control of her material. and when the stitches are pressed closely together the foundation does not appear. This is the type of foundation called Dr. Two rod and splint foundation. is most compact. Three or four small uniform willow stems serve for the is as follows foundation. The type of foundation passes easily into forms (fig. Hudson bam-tsu-wu. passes around the three stems constituting the coil. 76 I). be seen in the southwestern portions of the United States. of small midribs The foundation is a bunch of grass or from palm: leaves. or cercis stem. and patterns of coiled basketry. G. as shown in fig. where the has no standing in that tribe. 83 and the cross section given baskets of the Pima a bundle of straws furnishes the foundation.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The sewing. black or white carex root. Tribes practicing this style of coiling generally have fine material and some of the best ware is so made up. In basketry of this type the foundation consists of a number of longer or shorter splints massed together and sewed. J. 76) C. or stiff grass (Epicampes rigidum). under In some the upper one of the bundle below. . or shredded yucca. but it coil beneath (fig. as in the case of the Mission baskets in southern California. ware is rude when the sewing passes carelessly through the stitches In the Klikibelow. In the Great Interior Basin. and the like. and F. (See In the larger granary in fig. pliant material of the California tribes is wanting. worked into the foundation. tat basketry the pieces of spruce or cedar root not used for sewing material are also I. W. willow. The willow stems and carex root are Sewing done with these susceptible of division into delicate filaments. Splint-foundation. rush stems. which may be in splints of willow. of one of these to a friend is considered to be the highest compliment. in others the splitting is designed and beautiful." The technic the most elaborate character can be wrought on them. corrugated. 67 serves for a welt has a double purpose strengthening the fabric and This style the space between the rods (fig. Surfaces are beautifully corrugated. of the stems of rushes (Juncus acutus). chinking of coil work is seen on old Zuni basket-jars and on California examples. 76 E and fig. The interior parts Such in such examples are made up into the foundation (fig. 76 F). 81 also in cross section in fig. and in northern Africa. only the outer and : . fig. 76 H). On the surface of the barn-tsu-wu basketry the Poma weaver adds pretty bits of bird feathers and delicate pieces The basket represents the wealth of the maker. Hudson calls them the ''jewels of of basketry are in this style. In this style the foundation is made thicker and stronger by laying two rods side by side and a splint The surface will be or welt on top to make the joint perfectly tight. H. F. examples this upper rod is replaced by a thin strip of material serving fora welt (see fig. among the pueblos and missions. or. and the gift of shell. the stitches passing under one or more of the splints in the In the Poma language it is called chilo. Three-rod foundation. D. The effect in all such ware is good. In the California area the materials for basketry are of the finest quality. 76 G. rhus. The sewing may be done with split stems of hard wood. So). 82). Grass'-coil basketry. younger portion of the stem will do for sewing. the stitches interlocking. Among the Poma and other by tribes in the western part of the United States the most delicate pieces Dr.

68 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. 90. COILED RAFFIA BASKTES. .

as in A. is the other crafts of that little been a source of encouragement village display. which were brought very early in contact with Spaniards and African slaves. what we might term. ing coil as in all their finer work. has some beautiful specimens of the weaver's art done in this. the color of the sewing material. of the a work-basket of the same stitch. consisting of one or more rushes the sewing is in buttonhole stitch or . as in fig. and is then decreased until it is 3 1-2 inches at the top. Whiting. might easily mistake this for a genuine Indian basket. Fuegian coiled basketry. built upon a thick bundle of the woody stems of the yuccas. fig. Mass. 86). the sewing is done with rushes. K. then it is sewed to the preceding coil. In the Fuegian coiled basketry. of DeerI have pleasure field. though. but instead of being in the ordinary over-and-over stitch it consists of a series of half hitches or buttonhole stitches (fig. and their example has to the production of the good work . The bottom is two and a half inches in diameter.. In this ware the foundation is slight. which furnish also the sewing material from the split leaf If this be examined in comparison with a style of basketry (fig. and my friend. the patterns. with rush stems interlocking. In B. herewith in presenting a description of the baiskets illustrated and the work of this Society by Miss Margaret C. and the stitches. two different methods of coiled basketry are shown. when time permits. are made in the stitch shown in Fig. found in Egypt and in northern Africa as far as the Barbary states. E. the new part of the coil is wrapped for a certain number of stitches. Among the basketry belonging to the grass-coil foundation type are the Hopi plaques. It is so-called by him because each stitch is not bound to* the preced- work made by a ten year old boy. Though made of raffia. In fig. the pure coiled work of the Indian.. B. The diameter increases up to five inches. Mass. Mr. inasmuch as this type of basketry is confined in America to the Hopi pueblos. these stitches.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. many people looking at the photograph. reached. no one but the merest tyro could be deceived if he held the basket in his hands. Asiatic types on the Pacific is most striking (fig. and. 85). McLeod. wihich will be read with interest and profit. 90 is the next step in coiled basketry. 89. which coiled lazy stitch. The suggestion is here made that this particular form of workmanship may be due to acculturation. lazy stitch. The resemblance of this to half-hitches. Most of the celebrated baskets of the Pocumtuck Society. We have now C. show the fundamental traits of sound workmanship and an intelligent use of material. 69 while the sewing is done with broad strips of tough bark. great similarity will be noticed in the size of the coil. 86). it is well to experiment in the various styles with the home materials." The student can utilize almost all of these methods in one kind of or another. A. Here. fig. 90 is another specimen. of course. "The baskets produced at Deerfield. 89. the same method is followed. 84. L. what he calls. of which a figure is given. with the addition of a cross stitch over the stitch which binds the two coils toThe Indians of Kern County occassionally use the former of gether. after the center has been begun.

. Work of Students. Teachers' College. Teachers' College. 93.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 92. FIG. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. Work of Students. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. FIG. New York. New York.

er is made with a useful handle that holds fast the lid on double braided cords it is developed in blues with a row of red birds solemnly hopping for the individual craftswoman to solve for . worked with a much finer stitch. Turn up the basket and one will find. An individual preference is shown in one worker's use of the swale grasses grown in the meadows about Deerfield (see Fig. slyly prepared for the observant. raffia have. 2) another chooses the piccotee pink for chief decoration upon the cover of her shallow bowl. One craftswoman decorates her carefully shaped basket with a nice drawing of white mice on a dull olive background (Fig. for from the first have owed a good part of their reputation to the natural dyes they employ. a fer to work out the themes and harmonies of Nature flower. Or another weaver produces her effects from the use of color and exquisite stitches in a basket all done The in greens. like all masters in art. the house in black and and the upper edge of the roof and trees just touched with the pink reflections from a big pink moon that rises in the pale sky it is almost needless to say this is named "Night and Day. serves a useful purpose. madder. and . after the longgone earliest inhabitants of their valley. 14). a butterfly. the flower is worked out in red and black upon a white background with a conventional border in the same colors upon the side of the basket (Fig. as the raffia workers have named themselves. problem large basket woven of the natural colored raffia for a ground color bears two landscape designs for its decoration on one swelling side is seen a group of trees in dull rioh greens against a blue sky. beauty that lies in the natural corn husk when laid smooth in large . With indigo. One . with much thought given to the perfection of form. the way it is translated into the medium of raffia furnishes the herself. copperas and logwood these craftswomen hiave uttered their convincing protest against the crude and vicious color discords of the chemical dyes. . 9). This charming surprise. The Pocumtuck Basket Society. about its circumference (see Fig. been of chief public service. . and have frankly refused to use designs or color combinaIn their designs they pretions that belong to the red man's choice. 8). and with the varying shades and tones their old-fashioned dves offer they produce harmonies the public is quick to value. . Jl now being done by different localities. an animal or even a landscape may serve for suggestion. have wisely recognized that the Indian.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. is all black with a row of large dull black beads pointing the edge of the lid. other groups of village workers in basketry in In the matter of color the Deerfield workers in their baskets probably. fustic." Only a bold designer could carry out with success so simple Another covered basket by the same workyet complicated a scheme. She combines their varying lines with colored raffia in large card trays and plaques. for it lightens the dark interior of the basket. A different temperament has chosen a blackberry for a motive of form and decoration. may not be imitated by those whose taste is sophisticated and minds trained to other and different standards of beauty. the seeds being divided on the black surface by dull green lines while the cover with its brown stem for a handle rising from the green calyx. a house in red with windows a<nd doors in black and a lighter green foreground on the opposite occurs exactly the same landscape all dark in blues and greens. a beautifully drawn black-berry flower in white raffia in the black bottom.

92. 95. .HOW surfaces TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. each weaver seeking to produce the best possible effect.3)In choice of shapes the Pocumtuck basket makers cling to the strictly useful and simple forms a bowl must stand firm on a bottom sufficiently large to sustain it. a handle must be strong or the jury of society will not give its approval. 6 FIG. is shown in still another basket of a large cylindrical form shaded indigo blues for background to four poppy stalks. SPLINT AND 94. 91. WEAVING ON EVEN SPOKES. BOOK MARK OF WEB WEAVE." and consists one smooth turn about the coil and a stitch down into the space on the row beneath the coil is formed of split or whole reeds. The stitch chiefly . different sizes being chosen to fit the desired effect. Here variety in shape and design were worked out. each rising from two spreading gray-green leaves. a cover must fit." Figs. and sometimes varied from large to small in the development of a single basket. 93 are all of coiled raffia baskets made by the students at Teachers' College. are introduced but are not allowed to interfere with structural strength. employed is that which has been dubbed "lazy stitch. and bearing big blossoms worked from the many4iued pinks of the crepe-like husks (see done in Fig. Wrapped spaces of .

One long and three short flat Place these as shown in Fig. there must be an odd number of spokes. Take eight . DIVIDING INTO SINGLE SPOKES. both starting together. the effect of a single weaver can be obtained by using two weavers.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Figs. it ODD AND EVEN NUMBER OF is essential to vise an even number of spokes for the warp. and so Tuck the end of the on. uniformly. HOLDING SPOKES FIG. The odd spoke may be used in starting. and when tips of spokes are cut into points a book mark is ready The following exercises will all be useful for later work. over 3. then under 8 and under 2. 73 CHAPTER XII. 97. over under between 8 and i. A little practice will soon teach the better way to the student. under 4. 94. SPOKES. the web. throughout. under 6. FIG. or can be inserted later. one before and the other behind the same spoke. i. 96. and with a long weaver splints are required. Yet this differs from the checkerwork of the civilization. etc. for use. Next round pass under two. little care at first will soon render one expert in thus using two weavers. A MAT OR BOTTOM FOR ROUND BASKET. of the raffia weaver pretty little book-mark may be made with rattan or other material for the foundation of raffia. until five or six rounds have been woven. 95. palmetto. Indeed the division into miat and web weaving is purely arbitrary. We iniow woof is come to the most common of all of the basket weaving of the the pliable material. To have the woof of one over and one under. Weave over 5. 22. It must never be forgotten that proper web weaving can never be clone with an even number of spokes and a single weaver. over two AND STARTING WEAVER. weaver into the part woven so as to hide and firmly fasten it. 20. Tuck the end i. A wooden splints. 21. however. Where. as shown in Fig. over 7. weaving only in the fact that the warp elements are rigid and mat BOOK MARKS. 23 and 24 show the simple stitches. THE WEB WEAVE. The result is a series of ridges on the surface. one ahead of the first round.

. as the beauty of every edge depends upon its making everything It is well to soak a border after it is made. as strength and beauty both depend upon the way this is done. and the appearance of the basket improved. 99. leaving an open curve as shown in Fig. Weave one row. as allowing from i 1-2 inches to 5 or 6. 98. 2 rattan. in front of the next. Sharpen one end and thrust it into the center. allow its being bent into perfect shape. This would spoil the looks of the basket. one spoke. and a weaver of No. In making these borders remember always to soak. under the four at left. as a STARTING NEW WEAVER. to weave as shown quired. 99 until the mat or base is the size redesired to make a mat of this. Then be absolutely accurate in even. separate the spokes as shown in Fig. i down beside No. If it is OPEN BORDER NO. so the odd spoke is >now inserted as shown in Fig. and it will be found that the weaver comes behind the same spoke with which we begun in the first row. ac2. 101 and 102. underneath. Then weave under flie four to the right. and so on. 98. for ten or fifteen minutes. cording to taste. for the loop. the further the better. This separation must be done with great care and evenness. 2. It will then dry as left. as strength is thus added. the splints to be bent. 96. Then push spoke No. 100. PIG. Then turn over and continue FIG. 4 rattan. RIGHT SIDE OF CENTER WITH ODD SPOKE. 14 to 16 inches long. shown in Fig. making two complete rounds. it is passed under the last row of weaving Then pass it around that spoke. INSERTING ODD SPOKE.74 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. over the four at bottom. 8 or 9 inches Hold the eight long spokes as long. 97 and begin to weave behind and before each spoke separately. and so on until the whole edge is bound. It will often be necessary. Run the spoke down as far as possible. finish the last row by binding it as overcasting is done. under the last row of weaving before next spoke. When the weaver has been placed across each side of the top set of spokes. so as to readily evenness. After placing the weaver under one side and over another. just before it reaches the next spoke. shown in Figs. Soak ends for a few minutes. in Fig. Now cut spokes to a point and of even length. spokes of No. Another simple border is made.

102. In Fig. Mr.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (See Fig. OF NO. FIG. When the basket is completed and dry the unnecessary ends If it is desired to hide the point of new with old weaver. 104. OPEN BORDER NO. 100. with about three-quarters of an inch to spare. 75 Leave the end of the last weaver [weaver runs out. behind a spoke. Pins are firmly fastened into a board. The student is now ready to make simple . Neligh informs me that he has found it to be excellent practice to have hi's pupils make the web weave with raffia. 103). the shape the object is to be. Cross this with an equal length of the new weaver. 103. to start a new one. STARTING of the work of his pupils. SPLICING WEAVERS. 2. NEW WEAVER. Then FIG. The warp strands of raffia are then tightly tied around these pins. the two may be spliced as shown in Fig. One may use a needle or not as he de- shown some specimens FIG. 104. OPEN BORDER PIG. When the weaving the object desired. is done the edges are sown together to make SIMPLE BASKETS. FIG. proceed. and the woof strands then woven as in other work. 105 are may be cut off. SPLICING. SIMPLE OPEN BORDER. DETAIL. 2. 101. sires.

76 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Begin the mat as described in Figs. WEB WEAVING WITH RAFFIA. 106 as an example. but after about an inch of the mat is woven draw the weaver tighter. finishing off with border as desired. This FIG. which will be described in the . and 99. 97. As must be finished off with next chapter. slightly curves up the spokes and gives the soon as the basket is as large as required it bowl shape desired. 98. closed border No. The basket below the mat is begun in exactly the same way. i. 96. 105. baskets of the web weave. Use the mat in Fig.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS,

77

CHAPTER

XIII.

INSERTION AND BORDERS.
Before proceeding further with the chapter on Web-Weaving well to gain a full knowledge of insertion and borders. These "In descriptions are taken from Miss Firth's "Cane Basket Work." making open borders where it is necessary to run one spoke down
it is

FIG.

106.

Work

SIMPLE RATTAN BASKETS,
of Students, Teachers' College,

WEB WEAVE.
New
York.

beside another, the awl must be first inserted to open a passage for the extra spoke, and care must be taken to have a smooth end, or the weaving will be pulled out of place. It is al'so important to have each spoke double the length of the height of the basket, allowing the extra length necess'ary for the loop at the top. For convenience

7

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

spoke may be cut half an inch beyond the length required for the sides, and extra spokes, a little more than double that length, inserted when the weaving is finished. This will give the appearance of three spokes, and if well varnished will not be likely to get out of place.

The extra

half-inch

must not be

cut off the

first

spoke

till

the others

have been inserted.

"As the extra length necessary for each border is given with the directions for working it, one can be easily substituted for another according to taste."

FIG.

107.

DETAIL OF INSERTION.

PIG.

108.

INSERTION.

Pretty effects are caused by insertion, the details of which will The spokes of readily be comprehended from Figs. 107 and 108. the trellis work of the insertion are finer than the foundation. "This can be used with any border but looks well with open border, Fig. 102. The fine starting on the right hand side of a coarse spoke, crossing the open space to the next on the right, following it inside

FIG.

109.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

3.

FIG.

110.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

4.

the bend till the open space is again reached, where it crosses to the left-hand side of the same 'spoke from which it started." NO. 3. "This is only another variation of the same prinicple, the spokes being cut about 3 inches longer than double the height needed for the sides of the basket. At about 2 inches from the top weave one row of pairing and fasten off ends. An

OPEN BORDER

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

79

inch farther up start another row of pairing, add three rows of single Proceed as for Open weaving, and finish with another row of pairing. Border No. 2 as far as to the insertion, but instead of inserting the spoke in hand beside the same spoke as in the upper part, miss one, and slip it down beside the next. This border needs careful manipu-

FIG.

111.

DETAIL, OF PLAIT.

FIG.

112.

PLAIT.

lation to
size of

OPEN BORDER
ple as

keep the spokes in place. It can be varied according to basket and taste of worker." NO. 4. "This border necessitates double

spokes, on which two rows of pairing are worked at any desired distance. See Fig. no. The upper part is done on the same princiis brought up behind the next, the last being gathered under the first, as shown in Fig. in. For the next row this movement is reversed, each spoke being passed down behind the next, the last threaded under the first. When the

SINGLE PLAIT.

Open Border No.

5."

Each spoke

FIG.

113.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

FIG.

4321
114.

DETAIL, OF LAST

THREE SPOKEa

work

thoroughly dry, the protruding ends must be cut off as closeSee Fig. 112. PLAIT. Insert an extra short spoke beside each of those already in use, and proceed with the two spokes together as
is

ly as practicable.

DOUBLE

in single plait.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

"Take spoke No.

i,

and

at

about 11-2

beyond the edge of the basket bend it downwards, passing it behind No. 2, before No. 3 and behind No. 4, leaving the end at the front
inches

again leaving the end at the front of the basket. 2. and before the third. CLOSED BORDER NO. DETAIL OF NO. 1. CLOSED BORDER NO. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. of these. 5. One upright spoke is still left. bring i. 117. scribed. FIG. it Two upright spokes are still behind the second and thread left. 2. 113). bring it down behind the second (Fig. i. as just described. and will complete the pattern. Length of spokes needed for borthe der 10 inches. and spoken of FIG. this must now be threaded from behind under the spoke first used. "This is the same border and worked FiG. . of the basket to form the plait. In order to keep the pattern. 2. Take spoke No. 3. before No. in and 112. See Figs. 115. Proceed in this way till all the spokes are down but three Take the first of these. BORDER 116. it Take the first before and behind two spokes first used. as spoke No. 4. and behind No. which must be threaded behind and before and behind the three spokes first Finish with plait already deused. and working on the same principle bring it down behind No.8o HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

it down beside No. Take the longer of the first pair. one have been brought down. making one "pair" of ends turned down. 2. BORDER DETAIL OF NO. but never more than two. and if correctly worked. there will and behind No. "pair" No. 4 (which is still upright). 4 (Fig. 5. 5 (which is still upright) and behind No. 8l I and behind No. bring it in front of and beside spoke No. 122. 2 FIG. Take No. and slip it behind and under spoke No. No. 3. 119. and bring it beside No. 5 being brought down beside it as before. always be two pairs of ends after the first pair is started. and which may be marked by a piece of cotton till the worker becomes familiar with the border). bring it before No. I (the spoke first used. 117). 120. 2. 2. and passed under the same spoke. making the edge still more Proceed on this principle till all the upright spokes but substantial. The shortest of each pair in turn is left to be cut off at the front when the work is finished. CLOSED BORDER NO.HOW right) bringing TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. or to be threaded through to the inside and cut off there. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. 118). longest of the first pair must now be brought before No. Take the longest of the first pair. FIG. CLOSED This will make a second "pair of ends. down beside it in the usual . 6 (Fig. 4 and behind is down. 3.'' The 5. 2. 3. Two pairs of ends will still be left. 3 and the spoke in I. bringing it out to the front under spoke No. 121. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. FIG. The canes forming these side (the longer of the two "pairs" must each in turn be kept side by till the next being to the right) and held perfectly flat under the thumb Pick up No. FIG. the last upright spoke still left being brought way. passing it under No. Take the longest end of the last pair. lay it in front of and beside spoke No.

FOR ROUND BASE." CLOSED BORDER NO. but the same kind of border may be worked with three. Pro. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. down. FIG. 120). No. 123. the worker will do well to work out No. 3 No. lay it down behind right) down bes de it (Fig. 4. FIG. 7. . till Take the longest spoke of the first of the five pairs left. No. 3.82 HOW it. or more. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. i behind No. spokes as easily as with two or five. 124. class No. ceed thus . 2 No. which are much the same. to the front immediately needed 8 inches. bringing it behind and under spoke No. 3 five spokes are at first turned right spoke is left. and after the pairs are started there will always be five to work from till the end is reached. always remembering that the number of single spokes turned down at the first determines the number of pairs. 121). 6 (Fig. 1?6. FIG. 2. until familiar with its No. bringing No. the last upright spoke being brought down beside it. all the spokes are down but one. 4 behind No. / (which is still upright) down beside it. above the weaving. 3 behind . and that these must never vary till not one upIn Border No. 2 is the simplest of this principles. 5. Pick up No. PIG. i. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 8. 2. 5 behind No. I and lay it behind No. 3 as large as would be needed for any ordinary basket front of Each spoke must be brought Length of spokes . No. "Lay spoke No. bringing No. 125. SPIRT'S THREADED No. "Before attempting this border. SPLIT SPOKE FOR ROUND BASE. . 2 behind No. 6 (which is still upPick up No. or four.

HOW
Five pairs are

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

Take the longest of the first pair, bringing still left. Take beside and in front of spoke No. I and under spoke No. 2. the longest of the first of the four pairs left, bringing it beside and in In threading through front of spoke No. 2 and under spoke No. 3. these ends, it must be remembered that the short spokes come out immediately above the weaving and under the roll of spokes which forms the edge. Take the longest of the first of the three pairs left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 3, and under spoke No.
it

FIG.

WEAVING OP 127. ROUND BASE WITH

FIG.

128.

TWO WEAVERS.
Take

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES IN PAIRS.

the longest of the first of the two pairs left, bringing it beand in front of spoke No. 4 and under spoke No. 5. Take the long spoke still left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 5 and under spoke No. 6. If the two spokes which lie together have been kept lying flat on the edge of the weaving, the border will look even and handsome (Fig. 122). Length of spokes required 10
4.

side

inches.

84

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

CHAPTER

XIV.

MORE ABOUT

BASES.

In her books Miss Firth gives several methods of making bases. BASE. A simple oval base may be made as follows. Take 4 lengths, No. 4 rattan, 24 inches long, 6 lengths, No. 4, 6 inches long and one length, 3 inches long. Place the six short pieces for the width and the long pieces as shown in Fig. 123. The two lower spokes must be placed on the table, and the short ones placed across them in The lower of these two spokes must be pairs, at intervals of an inch. the center pair, and the pair at each end. The upper spoke must be the reverse of the lower, the short piece being placed above that in the same order as the lower spoke. When the base is finished it will be seen that this short piece forms a middle around which the four spokes are woven. The other two long spokes must be placed in a position exactly reverse to the two first, as in Fig. 124. They must then be pressed closely together, the left hand holding them firmly in their place, while the right weaves with the inside spoke of the two which first used, passing it over the two short ends of the second pair of long spokes, and under and over and under the three short The outside spoke must follow, but in reverse order. The secpairs. ond pair of long spokes must be treated in exactly the same way as the

OVAL

UNDER

OVER

first.

ROUND BASE WITH DOUBLE WEAVERS.
spokes
of

Take
of

12

No. 4

rattan, six inches long,

and a long weaver

rattan. In six of the twelve spokes, make a split in inch long as shown Fig. 125. Then thread the six unsplit

No. I the center about an
spokes
in

through the
center.

split

ones.

(Fig.
it,

126).

Keep

flat

and cross exactly

leaving one end several inches longer than the other. Slip loop of weaver over six of the split spokes, bringing under part of weaver over, and top part under the next six spokes (Fig. 127). Repeat this as described with Fig. 95 until Be sure that the under weaver is always three rounds are made. brought to the top before the top one is taken underneath, to prevent the weavers getting twisted. Now separate spokes into sets of two, (Fig. 128), pulling the spokes well apart to allow room for the weavers Then pair around the double spokes for to be well pushed down. three rounds, after which separate each 'spoke and pair as in Fig. 129. round base SINGLE BASE with a single instead of a double weaver may be made by the insertion of an extra spoke after the dividing of the spokes begins.

Take weaver, double

ROUND

WITH

WEAVER. A

BASE, take 13 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 5 inches long, and 5 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 12 inches long. Split the 13 in center as before described, and thread them on the 5 spokes spokes Put the odd spoke in center of the five. Then as shown in Fig. 130. half an inch between the spokes, place them as shown in Fig. allowing

OBLONG OVAL

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

130, but with two spokes together at each end. Double the weaver and Take the underneath part place the loop over the double side spokes. of the weaver and weave down the side, then go back and take upper part of weaver and weave beside it, counting double spokes at end as

one spoke.
base flat on the table, and always from left to take up the base in the left hand, grasping the weavers where they pass the double side spokes. Take the weaver from underneath and bring tightly across the five long spokes, place behind the double side spokes, then put the base flat on the table and weave down the side. Go back, taking up the base again, and take the top weaver behind the five spokes, lay down the base, then weave down the side. Repeat this until you have two
right.

Weave holding the To do the end

weavers crossing the five spokes top and bottom and on either side. Pair around these, Divide the five spokes into 2-1-2. (See Fig. 131). but still weave down the side. When both ends have been divided in this way, take each spoke singly, beginning with the double side spokes,

FIG.

130. COMMENCING OBLONG OVAL BASE.

FIG.

129.

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES
SEPARATED.
of the nine spokes at either end, but
still

and pair around each weave down the sides.

only

both ends are done, continue weaving straight round with one we'aver and then the other, but not pairing. While doing the base, draw the weaver firmly towards the right, and when doing the ends bring the weaver firmly clown between the spokes, which must be drawn as far apart as possible to admit of this In a well-made base the weaving is always being done efficiently. drawn down so firmly that the spokes cannot be seen in between. To get the oval bases of the size required, first take the measurement across the basket. If this is 4 1-2 inches, and the length is to be 8 inches, the spokes across would have to be placed within a distance of 6 inches, measuring from each lot of double spokes at the end. The reason of this is, that enough space must be left at either end to allow 2 inches of weaving, as in a base 41-2 inches across there would be 2 inches of weaving on either side, allowing one-half inch for the five spokes down the center.
first

When

86

HOW
If this rule is

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

in the lids of oval baskets

followed, the right size can always be counted on, and it is particularly necessary that the size should

be assured before starting.

BASE. Another method of making an oval base is to take six 5-inch spokes, four 7-inch spokes and one 4-inch spoke, all of No. 4 rattan, with three weavers of No. 2 rattan. Split the six five inch spokes as described in Fig. 125. Thread them on the four seven-inch and the one four-inch spokes, the short one in the center, leaving about half an inch between each of the six. The six spokes are held horiand the five are vertical. Start a weaver, back of the vertical spokes and lying along the uppermost horizonal spoke, with the end toward the right. Bring it around in front of the vertical spokes (above the upper horizontal one), the>n back and down diagonally to the left, coming out below the upper horizontal spoke. Here it is
zontally,

OVAL

FIG.

131.

OBLONG

OVAL BASE.

brought around in front of the vertical group, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical spokes and above the first horizontal one. It is then brought diagonally down in front of the vertical spokes, to the Next it right of them and just above the second horizontal spoke.
crosses diagonally down and back of the vertical spokes, to the left of them and below the second horizontal spoke, where it is brought over the vertical ones, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical

spokes, and just above the second horizontal one as shown in Fig. 132. The same process binds the other four horizontal spokes making an ornamental cross effect over each one, on the inside of the basket as seen in Fig. 133. After all six horizontal spokes have been bound, the spokes are separated and the weaving begins, and is continued until
;

the size desired

is

attained.

BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INSERTED CORraffia twined basket, having a pespokes at each of the four corners, is shown in Fig. 134. The rubber bands holding three groups of spokes make it more convenient for the maker to manipulate the numerous spokes, When a as each time around a spoke is inserted at its proper place. group is twined with two strands of raffia the rubber band is slipped off the next group and snapped around the set of spokes just finished and so on. Any number of spokes may be inserted according to the size of the base desired. Take 12 spokes No. i rattan 10 inches long, 4 short strands raffia

NERS. A
culiar

base of fine rattan or

way

of inserting the

This gives a cross of raffia over the grouped spokes. colored raffia lasts. work increases extra spokes must be inserted. Weave around three or four times with uncolored raffia and then bending one of the extra spokes of rattan in half lay it snugly at the bend in the angle of the crossed spokes. at right angles to five other spokes and placing a raffia strand across the laid spokes. raffia as desired. DETAIL FIG. letting the raffia continue for a stitch or two beyond a corner before changing to a differently colored strand. OF CENTER OF OVAL BASE. r'attan and weavers of Before beginning the work see that the rattan is well soaked in warm In fact this basket should be frequently placed under water water. over one. under one. 135 Page 126 of "Indian Basketry" shows method of this twined effect. When the twining crosses to the next angle another spoke is bent in half and again fastened to its place. Now begin to twine the two strands of raffia from the outside in tightly done it may Cross five spokes FIG. Care must be exercised so that the crossed spokes always lie flat until the base is well started. a rubber band over the first group of six. raffia pass underneath and the other across the top spokes to the opposite corner diagonally twisting again. and the twinings pushed closely toward the center.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER and add spokes of BASKETS. Looping the colored raffia over a spoke and separating each end. 87 in red. diagonally bring the strand under neath to the beginning of the diagonal crossing where it is securely Now cross over to another angle and let one of the halves of twisted. CENTER OF OVAL BASE. This group is now securely held with another rubber band and thus continue with the remaining spokes. When the As . Twine around as many times as this . 132. It thus makes two new Twine the raffia over each of the two new spokes and snap spokes. and these are cut the length of the angle where they are to be placed. If the work is be made practically water tight. 133. natural and green. begin to twine with both colored and uncolored until a corner is reached now drop and clip the raffia not needed and twine in the corner spoke with the colored raffia. DETAIL OF toward the center. Fig. carefully impacking each stitch as the twist is made.

This basket is closely allied to the Alaskan baskets. round or flat. the base is the desired diameter stop adding spokes and gather three of the grouped spokes into one and then shape the basket as desired. Any shaped basket may be formed from this base. .88 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. all the way around. Neligh. BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INS ERTED CORNERS. in its method of enlarging. Ga. ing and with the raffia sew over and over edge. John P. securely fastening the ends by hiding them under three or four of the twined stitches. 134. four sided. but is unique For these directions I am indebted to Mrs. S. of the Industrial School. Columbus. Finish off by folding down the ends of the spokes and add a coil of three or four rattans the length of the circumference of the open- FIG.

so that bottom is convex. For the base take six spokes of No. BIRD NEST. When pliable bend up as possible. doubled and twisted while pliable. Make base. leaving open space where these border. about two and a half inches long. The covered basket with the handle is equally easy to -make. Make the lid in like fashion. 2 rattan for foundation. We now return to the making of baskets by the web weave. When about 6 inches across. Make base as deWhen woven up to the end of spokes take scribed in Figs. To fasten lid rattan. Start the base as described in either Fig. loop through lid and border of basket.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Then thread WE WOVEN I'. spokes were. 2 rattan for both spokes and weaver. Fig. and proceed to weave as before. WEB WEAVING CONTINUED. then bridge the space by bending the two end spokes . Make the base the size desired. Begin as before described. for sides. Where they meet tuck in ends and basket is complete. inserting the extra ones so as to have all the spokes as near equidistant Now soak for a few minutes. The one to the left and the upper one are both made of No. 2 rattan. For the upper one take eight spokes of No. and thrust into base by the side of the spokes. and weavers of No. as soon as base is as large as required. 106 are now to be described. weave as high as desired and finish off with closed border No. turn up. Turn np foundation spokes for the sides. 115. Take 24 spokes of No. weave the sides and finish off with one of the closed borders. The bottom basket to the right is made in the same manner. 2. then turn up the foundation 125. 15 pieces of finer rattan. i as described in Fig. Weave up in this way for about an inch and a quarter. 2 rattan. 96 or 125. Begin the base as already described. with simple closed border. open loop for handle about an inch across. 8g CHAPTER XV. spokes. half high cut short two of the spokes and turn in as for a closed Then continue to weave. 96 or Fig. A pretty basket is shown in Fig. 4 rattan 14 inches long. drawing weavers tight so that for weavers. weave plait of straw or any other material either made or purchased until the sides are as high as desired. drawing weavers tightly. and a When the side is about an inch the sides close in towards the top. turning the weaver back around the spoke on each side of the open space. 135 is of -more simple web weave baskets made by the students at Teachers College. turn up foundation spokes for sides. The lid is made in same way as base or using both splint and plait and basket together take piece of finest making an one end of handle splint through basket and lid one way and the other way. Then proceed to make closed border No. 136. Finish taking care that the angle of the sides is evenly preserved. finishing the border with the rope twist. The two baskets on the right of Fig. The handle is of three long strands of rattan. The lid is made in exactly the same way as the base. then twist.

W" ' " . . .-*" . :: jj ii))li o t t fa ..HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

even number of spokes is kept. say five inches. The handle is : . A. fourteen or sixteen in number. First lay the spokes star shape as shown. and then wrapping as described for the binding. taking care to do it evenly. the student may gain a few ideas. If an place.bottom is convex. the weaving must proceed as described with Fig. as desired. and twelve. Finish with a simple border as WITH FANCY shown in to the left. formed by thrusting a piece of rattan the size desired. Fig. Fig. Then wrap with broader splint. much sold wood splints or rattan. 139 s-hows the arrangement of the base. us ng a weaver long enough to wrap both handle and top. 138 shows an unfinished basket from which. until it is impossible to weave higher. 139 shows two small wood splint baskets of a type Europe. Some prefer to make the handle before binding the top. Now insert double spokes for fancy base and weave about an inch and a quarter finishing it by any form of closed border desired. the spokes. Leave the ends of the spokes irregular so as to let the top of the nest appear like a bundle of twigs. inserting new spokes shape. Fig. until it is about 8 inches in diameter. This adds strength and gives fewer ends to care for. \Vhen 'the basket all is as high as desired turn down and tuck on a the inside of basket like overcasting. Now use fancy plaited straw as a weaver for the sides and weave as high as desired. down to the base. however. 95. Then sew around edges with a piece of thread to hold them in Bend spokes up for sides. The foundation spokes may be of palmetto. Place in a tree. (taking care to tuck the ends in as far as possible. working in two of the spokes instead of one. gi over the space. In making the photograph I failed to notice that it was somewhat out of The base is made as any ordinary mat. 'BASKET BASE.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. woven so tightly that the . through the weaving. and do not be surprised if the following nesting time a pair of birds takes possession. thus making a secure binding. If an extra odd spoke is introduced a single weaver will do. Now rapidly draw the top together. with a wide splint above it. or as desired.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

hold it firmly with the left hand (see Fig. and two Then take a narrow wood splint weaver and web 3-8-inch wide. and is now ready for the weaving of the between two sides. When as many rounds are woven as necessary. Cut the broad splints the book mark. it of the baskets are easy to make and any ordinary student can make them from the descriptions given. ends of the spokes may be cut as desired. and. and seven others about 21-2 inches long. This must be done. For the napkin ring take one wood splint 7-8-inch wide. and. taking care that Ithey are equisplints distant and regular at the edges. 140. either rounded. 93 CHAPTER SPLINT XVI. The required. on which the work is to be done.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. each time round. take the weaver in the right hand. Exercise great care in spokes. except the Fig. plait. The stitch is finished off by tying the sweet grass. to take the weaver over two spokes as shown in Fig. where Miss Marie Toxuse. All the ten inches long. V length required. Now take a 7-8-inch wide colored splint. These are most popular baskets. thrusting the end In these descriptions are all will be seen that the mat. held firmly. twined and web weave utilized. weave the three splints together. pointed or shaped. an Abenaki Indian. over which it went in the first round). when it will appear as Fig. or they will be keeping pulled out of place. SPLINT BASKETS. of splints.a variety of those The photographs were all made from the asgenerally preferred. on the Then. In starting the base of a splint basket place a small board. one by one. is en- gaged as weaver and teacher. New York. Now. They are placed across each other in a circle. pulling it as tightly as possible. twining the weaver around the edges and returning from side to side. 15 contains five articles made solely This is composed of one spoke. 142. tuck in the edges of the foundation splints and complete the weaving. and thread on the . As soon as the weaver has been . Most of the spokes. and bound with three or four rows of simple web weavThen using twined weaving the spokes are covered as much as ing. 143. bend into the ring form. place the lap. take each spoke and bend it up to form the foundation for the sides. small spokes are cut so as to be very narrow in the center and widen out towards the edge.-taken around once it will be necessary (in order to have the weaver go under the spokes in the second round. as the weaving continues. AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. hence it is deemed appropriate to give full particulars as ito the methods of weaving. sortment of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. 26 West 23rd Street. the spokes firmly pressed upon the board. in order as shown in Fig. while with the right the weaver is worked in and out of the 141).

INSERTING WEAVER IN SPLINT BASE.FIG. 141. .

The arrangement of the loops is such that the loops of the second row come over the spokes of the row beneath. The diagonal mat weave basket in the left corner is made as is the one described elsewhere. putting Now the three splints lengthwise and the 15 across ait right angles. 140. and twisting again over the next and so on. Them finish with one row of narrow splint. missing one weaver. with four rows of splints (or rather. long and i -2-inch wide. The use of the extra third In inserting the splint is to get the "curl" shown in the design. F. Barnes. the edges being strengthened by turning in the foundation spokes. so that it alternates with the lower one over the foundation spokes. For the hand basket take one splint 5-8-inch wide and two 1-2Then 15 splints about 26 inches inch wide. two of green. ation for the edges is made by taking a 3-8-inch wide splint. arranged as Fig. and the side splints are also extra strong. then binding strong splints around the rims. the top and four or five inches less at the bottom. colored. Q5 outside of the ring. but the upper splint. The first nine rows of weaving on the sides are of doubled splints. When the upper weaver of the lower row comes from under the spoke. thus particularizing the colors. Two colors of splints are used and the handles are of plaited sweet grass. web weave i-S-inch. under three and over two. CLOTHES HAMPER OF belt of six splints of three colors. is left looped. and presented to Mr. two red. editor "The Papoose. twisting again. i foot 8 inches in diameter at City. about i -8-inch wide. in taking the "over" stitch. Thus the loops alternate in the rows. and outside with sweet grass and bind with a narrow splint." New York It is 2 feet 9 inches in height. Canada. and web top. making a bow by The spiral ornamentlacing back and forth and tucking in the end. Following this set of nine rows of looped stitches is a belt of weave made with ordinary white splints. sewed with strong thread to the sides. which is simply hideous. curl it back and up under the next spoke in the row above. 4. The square basket for the sides is weave and SPLINTS. then wrapping around the spiral shape. weavers put in two for the bottom row and follow with one in the row above. T. and about 3 feet long. 3-4 of an inch wide. The base is of extra strong wood splints. turn up for sides and web weave with splints any size smaller than When within three and a half inches of the top. Make of these a mat foundation.) three splints are used instead of two. Fig. two purple. instead of being pulled tight. The next belt is of one splint. colored. in In each of these three pairs of rows. simple mat weave for the bottom. (I am not commending the color scheme. under two and over two. The under of these two splints is woven under one and over one of the side spokes as in all ordinary weaving.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. drawing under the next. The handles are of splints i -8-inch wide twisted with narrower splint and tied to the edge of the basket. the splints to be 6-8 of an inch wide. Now curl it down and under the next spoke in the bot- . Curl a third splint into each double row as described immediately for Fig. nearly an inch and a half wide. 4 is a large fancy basket of splints. strengthen the rim inside with stout splint. two double rows). thrusting it under one of the weavers. Now a . made by Abenaki Indians of Pierreville. missing a weaver. Then another belt of narrow white spl nts.

JUMPING TWO SPOKES.96 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. New York. P. 142. 140. BEGINNING BASE OF SPLINT BASKET.G.

which thus forms a kind of shelf or rim. Then the rim is strengthened inside with a colored splint. complete. In Fig. after which it is finished off with three strong splinits inside and one colored one outside. The lid is> composed (as is the base') of splints that broaden as they reach the periphery. These are turned up for the sides and twined weaving of sweet When the desired height is attained. tion splints are now turned upright again and a row of the "loop" weave with inch-wide splints made. and tuck well under the sweet grass down one of the foundation spokes. and outside with a row of sweet grass. Each pair manner.HOW torn row. trim {weave two or three rows with plain white narrow splint. fastening it to the last row of splint weave. four similar to those below it. and. 5. and so on woven in like 7 the lid is SWEET GRASS foundation fan. small wrapped loop is affixed to both basket and lid. and the spokes are turned under. the grass composes the woof. the foundation spokes as shown in Fig. five splints each way. take two strands weave under and over for five or six rows. each splint thus formtaken. Then the spoke splints are bent at right angles and six or seven rows of weaving taken upon The foundathis portion. At the top.- Fig. fastening off the end grass. A . rows of plain simple weaving gives firmness. 97 complete round is made. as the simple splints of Fig. FAN. Now by tightly wrapping and tucking ' in. Two rows of loop weave and then the spokes are curved down. 140. The lid is made of five broad and two narrow splints. 5. when the handle is wrapped on the top. Upon this place lengths of sweet Then wrap tightly as shown in Fig. 5. 22 and and splint narrow in the This can readily be seen sweet grass Now The sweet grass must be dampened and pressed closely into 134. and. and eleven or twelve rows of narrow splint weave Then the splints are bent out and split. The finishing border is of these same splints wound under and over and looped as will clearly be seen in the design. and the edges bound as is the rim of the basket. Two or three rows of narrow weavers fix the spokes in position. This belt of ''curled" weave is followed by weaving belts above it. spokes are turned down and tucked in. as shown by the design. On these are woven twined rows of sweet grass. 6 four basIn the bottom one to the kets of splints and sweet grass are shown. Place the splints crossed for the Then with a single strand center. and use the "twined"" weave or pairing. which has been well anchored by fastening it below. left the base is composed of simple mat foundation. wrapped around and bound on with small white splints. 5 is a The splints are cut so as to be very center and widen rapidly towards the edge. taking narrow splint weavers loop the border. take a stout wooden splint. the latter at the sides. For a handle. When within an inch of the edge position as each row is woven. by looking at the fan in Fig. One single row of plain weave with a wide splint and five of loop weave. followed with three narrow splint weave. of rows is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER until the BASKETS. both of which are bound on with a narrow splint as is clearly seen in the engraving. as described in Figs. The former is affixed to the latter by lacing the binding of the basket to that of the lid. loop. The only difference between the basket at the bottom to the SPLINT AXD SWEET GRASS BASKETS. ing two.

BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS.FIG. New York. . 144. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

and the twining continued until the flange of the cover is as deep as required. Then the spokes are turned in. The lid The round basket is FIG. and a study The of them will make the foregoing instructions much more clear. of Fig. Three or four rows of simple web weave at the outer edge of the base tighten the spokes. lid. is made quite differently. They are then woven with twined sweet grass until the lid is the size of the basket. one over. 145. as in all ordinary web weaving. The wide splint is woven. The handle is fastened to a loop which is held secure by being taken under the sweet grass of the under side of the lid in several places. But the two small splints which together are about 1-8 of an inch wider than the broad splint on which they rest are crossed from bottom to top under every other spoke. formThen more ing a little nipple or elevation between the spokes. 7 shows the bases and lids of the baskets of Fig. 6. one under. or a trifle larger. sweet grass twined in up to the top. 144 is of mat weave and web weave. The spokes are now turned down. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. which are bound as before made in like manner.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 6 will be described in a later Bulletin of the Basket Fraternity. 6 is composed of even splints about halfan-inch wide and laid as shown in Fig. The carrying basket of Fig. New York. the edge strengthened by a suitable splint and bound as before. twined sweet grass completes the sides. 99 right and the one just described is that after a few rows of sweet grass are twined into the sides one wide and two narrow splints are introduced. however. They are then turned up for the sides and described. The method of making the handkerchief basket in Fig. 140. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. For this the spokes must be very narrow in the center and broaden towards the edges. and the rim strengthened with other splints and bound with a narrow splint. Fig. The spokes are then turned in. .

New York.100 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 146. FIG. . SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS.

the weaving for about an inch is composed of plaited sweet grass. Then strengthen and bind the edge as before described. strengthen the edges or rim with a stout splint inside and sweet grass outside. after the turning up of the sides. plain splints. in the center widening towards the edge. and so on alternating the wrapping of the curled splint around the foundation splints exposed by the upper and lower of the two broad weavers. under the upper part of the next foundation splint. the thick plaited sweet grass and the curl as on the Then complete the top of the lid with six or eight rows of sides. Now continue the weaving of the sides with six rows of plain web weave and six rows of double plaited sweet grass as before. and complete the weave with the plaited sweet grass until the flange is the size desired. Then three i-4-inch splints are \voven. turn the spokes down. This is followed with a splint 5-8-inch wide. . over the plait. They are first \voven in web weave with narrow wood splint for about ten rows. web weave. fastened to the sides with an ordinary wood splint. The edges of the base are made tight with four or five rows of simple The spokes are then turned up for the sides. Then two i i -4-inch wide splints. web weave. First hold splints. Then take together with two plaits of thickly plaited sweet grass and proceed to web weave. 140. under a foundation splint. and 3-8 of an inch wide. the edge of the lid being turned down. splint web weave. and the rim strengthened and bound with simple wood splints. IOI using plaited sweet grass. and the curl weave to give ornamentation. shown in the figure. In the basket itself. Cross these in simple mat weave with twelve similar Turn these up for ends and sides. The base. however. strengthened and bound as before described. The work basket of Fig. and then bind with narrow splint. the rim being strengthened and bound with wood splints. one row of simple 'splint weave. Weave five rows of finely plaited sweet grass two of narrow splint. The lid requires the splints narrow in the center and widening out . 144 is made essentially in the same manner. of ordinary web weave with two of these wide splints. Loop the plait and bind to the side by twisting or curling the third wood splint around the plait. Turn down and tuck in the foundation spokes. When the spokes are in place. 13 the top basket is a very pretty creation in plaited sweet In both top and bottom the foundation spokes are narrow grass. the ends being looped as to the edges. woven with plaited sweet grass. using thickly plaited sweet grass for weaver. In Fig. Then twine weave sweet grass for an inch and a quarter. fasten by six or eight rows of ordinary web weaving with sweet grass. is formed as shown in Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Take four splints about 23 inches long. web woven. after which introduce the broad splints. then completed with plaited sweet grass. The handle is composed of a heavy triple plait of sweet grass. 18 inches long. Now we take three weavers an inch wide and a long plait of extra thick Make two rows plaited grass. with the third for the curling and wrapping around the plait of sweet grass as described in the carrying basket. When the lid is the right size to fit the basket.

145 shows the top and bottom or a basket and lid of a. 140 six or seven rows of simple web weaving with narrow wood splint holding it firmly Turn up sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. turn down the foundation spokes. the edges being woven with nine or ten rows of splint web weave. In Fig. The diagonal handkerchief basket is composed of diagonal mat weave. FIG. PAIRING FOR PLAIT. Strengthen the edge and bind as elsewhere described. After laying out the spokes the first inch or grass. and the weaving done with twined weave. The lid is made as the round lid of Fig. 146 the square basket is made of mat foundation. The handle is of heavy plaited sweet grass. For the lid the splints must be narrow in the center and widening towards the edge. simple web woven with narrow splints or plain sweet Then twine weave with plaited sweet grass.IO2 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Strengthen the rim with stout splint inside and and sweet grass outside and bind with narrow splint. using 1-2inch wide splints. Turn up for the sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. using plaited sweet grass for weaver. then strengthen and bind rim as elsewhere described. The lid is of simple twined plaited sweet made as the lid described in Fig. MADEIRA BORDER NO. The lid is made as the one in Fig. Fig. MADEIRA BORDER NO. the corners being turned over and doubled and then twined with plaited sweet grass. The base is formed as shown in Fig. 148. so the til may be grass. 140. until the lid is right size. When within an inch of top web weave with 3-4-inch wide wood splint. . together. FIG. 2. finish the weave unis the flange of the desired size. 6. The round basket has a base as described in Fig. splint and plaited sweet grass basket. 147. 6 and laced on as there described. 2. 6. The foundation spokes are then turned up for the sides. then strengthen edge and finish off.

which must be left a little loose. threading the last spokes through the spokes already turned down. so that when you come to the finish you have be treated . the further side of the spoke against which they this border. behind one. "It is necessary to keep this plait very close to the basket. Be careful not to draw the first spokes down close to begin with they must be left open. i Allow four inches for this border. however. as it has a much prettier effect when they are so. FANCY BORDERS. "When this first part is done. and leave the ends on the outside of the basket. and then. and now take one lot of double spokes behind the next lot. on the same principle as for the preceeding border only in this there will be more to thread through. room of for inserting the last spokes. For the sake will of brevity. when the weaving is finished. To finish. the first swoke. after being taken behind one. 147). the spokes should all be double. "Repeat this round. and the hold should be shifted round as each . 148). MADEIRA BORDER It is NO. in front of the next. "Take one spoke behind one. Take one spoke in a close curve behind the next and bring the end down against the border (Fig. ''Treat all the double spokes as one. rest. although many spokes may be used. very simple. to have the spokes double throughout the basket.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and suitable for violet baskets and small candy-bas- kets of various kinds. . which may be worked in the ordinary way with single spokes. drawing all the spokes closely down except the first." MADEIRA BORDER NO. in front one. the ends are all cut off neatly. No. i. turn the basket upside down to do the plait around the edge. Do not draw the spokes down too closely. It is not necessary. so as each spoke is brought round the next it should be held firmly in its place by the left hand. 103 CHAPTER XVII. the extra length being pushed into the basket. "To make it. Allow spokes of eight inches for and use double spokes of No. 4 rattan or triple ones of as. as the border should be about one inch in depth. inserting beside each spoke an extra one of six inches. and leave the end on the outside of the basket (Fig. is threaded over the next spoke which is turned down. allowing the four inches for the border. and the last is inserted first -behind and then in front of the next two spokes already turned down. in front of one only. 2. in front of one. "When the last two lots of double spokes are reached. "Repeat this round. as the last spokes are threaded through to complete the border. they one in the descriptions. proceed in the same way behind one.

i 1-2 inches. and then. Allow spokes of six inches. leaving the end outside. and the ends must be cut off neatly. behind one. in front of two. these. When the last spoke has been threaded through the loop of the first." BORDER. in front of two. therefore it is necessary to keep the spokes straight to the top. and push the end well down inside. Repeat this round until only seven upright spokes remain. in front of two. in front of three. two spokes together. when only five upright spokes are left. as it is flat outside and the ends are all cut off neatly inside. leaving the end outside the basket. 2. If the edge of the border. the first of these will be taken in front of two. in front of one. and Use three spokes together. This is a very light and graceful border. Finish off with the plait This border is worked on the outside 5. Repeat this round.IO4 HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER last BASKETS. This border is worked on the inside. principally those which have lids. 4. Finish by threading the spoke through the loop of the first. behind one. Thus. Depth of border without plait. . Take one spoke behind two. curving one spoke beneath the next in the same way. behind two. Materials required "Allow 8 inches for this border. the plait is finished. in and behind one. Finish off on the same principle as for the preceeding borders. three inches. after going behind and in front of the next six will be the first to be taken behind the first spoke the others following in their course. 4 rattan. If uneven the effect of the basket is quite spoilt. "Take one spoke behind three spokes. turned down. to pass . This border but it is is called the "Cycle. measuring occasionally to keep the border as described for the preceeding borders of of the correct depth. i rattan. 3. Depth of border withas for same way NO. behind two. only now the spokes curve round to make the other side of plait. spoke used. Great care is needed to keep a nice straight edge round the top of the border." of MADEIRA BORDER NO. behind three. the basket. "Now go round again. "The first of MADEIRA BORDER in the usual way. behind three and in front of three if kept close together it has the effect of a double ridge or twist." NO." the last spokes being threaded through the turned-down spokes in their order. in front of two. Allow spokes 16 inches and use No. in front of one. behind one. leaving the end outside for the plait. "Take one spoke in front of two spokes. Care should be taken in doing this that the ends of the spokes are left long enough to go over the next spoke. front of two Take one spoke behind three spokes. and plait the ends. It must not be spread out." as it is ivsed on the cycle baskets very useful on many other kinds. out plait. the plait in the "Madeira Border No. 2 rattan together. CYCLE . "Do MADEIRA BORDER use No." Allow spokes of 14 inches. and use three spokes of No. This is finished on the same principle as the "Madeira Borders. and then to bend them to interlace with other spokes.

150). and through the loop of this it must be threaded to the inside all the other spokes will then be threaded through in their places. two first . FLAT PLAIT IN PROGRESS. When the double spokes arc reached they must be used together . Repeat this with the second and third spokes then there will be three spokes inside and two spokes outside. : . but they must not be more than 1-2 inch apart. will BORDER SECOND 150. FINISHED BORDER. FLAT PLAIT draw the border down as firmly as possible. Take the first from inside. I spoke in a curve over the other two. FIG.HOW in front of TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 105 and the again." is efficient in this border six inches for spokes FLAT PLAIT BORDER. 152. '''Turn down 149). and place ic between the first two upright spokes bring down the first upright spoke beside it. 151. place between the next two upright spokes. In starting this border. be threaded through. COMMENCING FIG. it will be takem in front of the last upright spoke one turned down. FJG. the spokes finished. BORDER FINISHED. and bring it down beside the third spoke outside Be careful in doing this not to draw the spoke too tightly (Fig. 149. FLAT PLAIT hand bring No. 6 or 7 rattan. as the closer come together the handsomer the border will look when When a pupil be sufficient. POSITION OF SPOKES. FLAT PLAIT BORDER. the fir sit spoke must not be drawn close down to the weaving. Allow spokes 13 inches long. Hold the three spokes sharply to the outside of the basket (Fig. from the outside. Use for this No. then draw the first upright spoke down beside it. Now proceed to plait as follows Take the first spoke from outside. bring the first spoke from inside between the same upright spokes to outside. . but room should be left for the end spokes to After the first two spokes have been used. and with the right WITH PORTION OF FIG. second and third in the left hand.

io6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 151. 151). spokes inside and three lots of triple spokes outside. Teachers' College. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. New York. first threading it just through the first single spoke. Take the first double spokes from the inside and thread through the place shown in Fig. finish the The other four double spokes must be used in the same way border (which is shown complete in Fig. in Fig. There are four other double spoke s>. right spoke has been turned down there will be two lots of double as . 3 and then to the follow the course of the where it . to . When the last upleaving the short spoke to be cut off afterwards. outside. and pass them under the three that were first turned down. To do this the longer one of each of the double spokes inside the basket is used to follow out their course. and these must all be treated in the same way as the first double spoke. Then take the longer one of these. that it may lie flat beside that. thus making it double like the others. and. so that it may lie flat beside that then follow its course under single spoke No. 153." Take three twos out of the three threes. 152). Now take the longer of these and thread one up through the single spoke. In finishing this border the principle is to make all the single spokes used in starting double to agree with the rest of the border. Work of Students. first single spoke under the black spoke to passes through to the outside of the basket. 151. This brings five lots of double spokes to the inside of the basket Take first two lots and thread through as shown (see Fig. FIG. one spoke both inside and outside the basket and when the triple spokes are reached the two longer ones must be used together as one.

See that this twining is equidistant from the base. BOX. 137. Continue to twine a second time round to make the base firm and flat. Then begin the knot stitch.. Tie these securely at the middle and then tie together flat radiating from a center. raffia is good. and that the wall slants THE KENSINGTON In Figs. a raffia collar box and a splint basket. succession until the edge is finished. Take a twining weaver and about an inch from the center proceed to twine over six or seven until a fiat circle is formed by bringing the twining around to the place of beginning. 140. 133. Fig. Examples of this twined weave are shown in Figs. twine around three rays until you come around to the pdace of beginning. though the long leaved pine may be used. This is made of rush or tule. and in Figs. and six bunches of tule or rush 14 or 15 inches in length and 21 single lengths to the bunch. in which additional spokes are added for base and sides when needed. silk-lined. make a larger circle an inch from the first twined circle. at one end. under. first letting a group cross over another group. Then line with fancy silk or other material. Kensington colbasket. 7 flat rattan. Fig. Above this about the same spaced width a final twining is made. 156 and 157 herewith. Now taking care to twine around three only. Now having secured a firm base it is desired to shape the side of basket. Bind the top with natural or colored raffia as shown. 155. A FEW BASKETS. introducing bands of color according to taste. inch above this. Tie together with weaver desired diameter or oval of the basket. lar BASKET. 1546. About an inch from the outside circle. the ket take a length of No. Fig. 154. Bend up spokes and proceed with the twined weaving. 154 and 155 are shown a rush. Indian Basketry. The short ends of the rays are finished bending a first group of And so on in three over a group to the left under the next group. An extra twining or three strand twisting over a coil gives additional strength to the edge. Procure six yards of double twining material. and to the left. Pair or twine weave with raffia six or eight rounds. outward from edge of base. See A. then insert new spokes and continue the twined weaving until base is size desired. An COLLAR . To make this knotted stitch basForm a loop. 136. CHAPTER XVIII. neatly In Fig. twine around the groups of three all the way round to the last place of beginning. spirally coiling the flat ratof raffia.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Start the base as described in Fig. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. This gives a fancy effect and affords a place for decorating with ribbon as seen in the plate. 153 are two made baskets. A.

i ' / />O' ' <* . O hH fa fa O M H 02 d i i fa fa fa <) tf 72 P a o 02 fa M 01 <JJ M O u fa .

The ornamental banding is made by slipping the colored ray back of and over weave and slipping the end again in place along its un- derlying spoke. Bend all the spokes upward from the salver-like rim. 109 taiv as the weaving progresses. of ash the same width as spoke and weave in over one under one for the beginning of final wall. 18 3-8-inch wide splints. The bottom is made by stringing web strands from end to end and holding them in place by woof strands placed an inch apart. After cutting away the holding bands of raffia or cord and modelBut if used for sewing a ing the basket may be considered finished. Fold over the outer s pokes and tuck under twinings on the inside Cut off the alternate rays even with top of to keep them in place. Spread the spokes of the basket on a flat surface.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. lining of silk may add to its value. size as the first and place it above letting the rays of the lower mat come between the rays of the upper mat. over two again. Overcast the two woof strands together to hold them taut. 154. Ornament with narrower bands of colored splint by overlaying the broad bands. under one. Twine the two together with a stout strip of ash Then make another base same first. Continue sewing until all of cane is used and finish with double button-hole stitch. . filling a wall one inch high. 20 inches long and two yards 3-8-inch white splint. Then make a "button-hole" stitch and. four yards I -4-inch green splint. with a fourth inch strap of darker splint. The two-toned effect shown in the plate was made by running green spokes on the upper base before twining. Take the raffia over two bands of the rattan. Bring the edges of the rattan as close together as possible. knotting carefully and tightly. then the button-hole loop again. Now carefully secure the ends of the Take up the basket and place it before you right side up. of The edgeing rim around around the edge the bottom is an over and over weaving the bate two times round. securing the ends. When once round see that the next stitch goes between the stitches already on the first part of the work. the Now take two of the I -8-inch weavers (a green and. Make base as shoAvn in Fig. weavers. (The splints should always be moist when bending is done). bottom up. THE ASH SPLINT BASKET. and weave in more of the narrow splint for about one and a half inches. Take a wide length splint very narrow. weave over owe. Use three broad bands in this way and then finish off with six rows of two colored twining. Take eight yards Fig. fastening spokes in place with raffia or fine splint. green and white. i5 4 C. basket. The final weaver to be a broad length of splint. 140. In an earlier chapter this branch of weaving was fully presented. A very common and useful DIAGONAL" MAT BASKETRY. The cover to the box is a button-holed band of flat rattan with a wove>n< top made by stringing web strands of raffia one way and weaving closely across the web with raffia. narrow splint. and a white). See Fig.

28 and 29. 5. 4. of palmetto or any flat and reasonably firm material. pair of objects which may as well be tured in Fig. 6$/ inches long. TWINED WEAVING.y inches long. completes the mat. On an earlier page (Fig. / THE MAGAZINE : . 124. two pieces. as shown in Fig. The top border is made with a double page 65 "Indian Basketry. Tack legs and back to the rings. FIG. weaving. the other 2 inches. The main portion is of simple mat con- Then about twenty rows of web struction over two and under two. HOLDER. 104. 60 is a Hopi Yucca Basket made on this diagonal mat weave. 107. Using make one this as a pattern a little care will enable the student similar to it. shows a Hopi weaver at work on this On weave. the outer edge being bound. fold." Fig. 2^4 inches long. Bottom brace for main and center frames. to a toilet table as a ring holder. These are home woven as bought are pic- WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. 6^4 inches long. made from s also a useful adjunct made with a little 4 rattan for front legs. It should not be forgotten that in making the rings the joints should be spliced perfectly. Make two rings. Insertion for back is piece of No. two lengths of No. l 2 inches in diameter. one 2. Figs. Cut four pieces of rattan. These may be made of tule. which easily be Materials are. I rattan. is 157. Now wrap the two rings with raffia (Fig. 156. Wooden base. Rear legs and back are made from one piece. Detail of Magazine Holder 2. Bottom brace for side frame. On to page 120 "Indian Basketry. same size. and nail the two rings together. 2 pieces. two pieces. can patience. 2 2. is made as follows i. Fig. is shown a Pueblo In- dian mat. soaked and bent into desired shape. CHAIR. Main frame 22 inches long. This dainty and pretty little toy. as is also the large basket to the left on page 83. and then tacked or sewed in. cross-wrapped with raffia so as to fit perfectly. 3. 27). 158. 20 inches long. The bottom is made of a ring. CROSSED WARP tured.no HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Proceed as in ordinary diagonal weave. about 13 inches long. Center frame. one piece." Fig. a toy chair is pic- TOY FIG. 27). page 108. SURFACE EFFECTS OF TWINED OPEN WORK.

two pieces. Wire scroll. In the middle of each end saw out a hole large enough to allow center frame to rest snugly within. 15 inches. . 6. 2 green rattan. or tacked through the raffia to the rattan or wood of the frame. I. 2 green rattan. 3 inches broad. 14 inches long. made as follows Take two pieces of rattan long and two pieces i% inches long. WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. is not wise. 10. Then wrap with wide raffia. Tack 4 to 5. 8 rattan. This latter method. Thoroughly soak Nos. for at holes to 5. 16. It is better sewed. 112 of FLUTED FLOWER No. The wire scrolls may now be sewed in with raffia. Tack 9 to 5. Ornamented 7. however.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Tack 10 to points where they cross 2. one piece. 9 and 10. Tack 3 to I and 2. Tack 8 to I. 3*4 inches long. also 4 to i. 5 rattan. split thick cane or rattan. Bottom brace for center frame. : 6% FIG. Bend into shape required. 6 inches long. one piece. as the tack soon pulls out from the raffia. 2 green rattan. 56 of No. then \vrap with raffia. binding 3 at both ends to i. Brace for ends. Then wrap them with strands of raffia. 2 green rattan. 16 inches. Tack shown. . 2. No. Tack 6 to 5 tack the ends of 10 to 6 put 2 into end holes of 5. Nos. To put together. Ill old box lid. . With the fourteen pieces No. 4. I. as 158. both sides. wrapped frame for main frame. BASKET Get 14 pieces of No. 6-Hs inches long. 19 inches. Handle. with twisted raffia. 8 rattan make an ordinary round base with an even number of spokes measuring 5 inches across. . 2. 32 of No. 2 pieces No. with ends below wood an inch and a quarter. 48 inches. 21 inches long. tying them in the center. Tack the long pieces to make two of the ends of the short pieces and thus make a frame these. 56 of No. 7 inches long. 9. four pieces 8.

j> orci er Insert the thirty-two spokes of 16 inches. excepting 164). 159. FIG. four lots of four spokes.112 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. Now Now insert the fifty-six spokes of 19 inches. 164. placing two beside the next lots of two spokes on either side of the four undivided double spokes added to it. which remain undivided. TURNING DOWN SPOKES. spokes. weaving. The four spokes must be four spokes there will be twelve left upright. 2 green rattan. and pushing them right down to the base of the basket (Fig. placing one spoke on either side of the one do three rows of Turn the spokes upright. placing two beside each two. Pair round once. These four spokes are at equal distances round the basket. ing them down most sharply in the center of each When this has been done do nine rows of plain weaving. Take the center spoke of each group of seven in the base. spoke in base. 2 white cane. BASKETS FROM THE PHILIPPINES. Then twenty-nine rows of plain triple twist with No. must be bent down to the outside of the basket to form the curve. 21 inches. Cut off the ends of the spokes and insert the fifty-six spokes of No. and you will get the right spokes at the side. dividing all the spokes into twos. presstwelve (Fig. Between each of these lots of double spokes. so that each curve has four lots of . 165). but the twelve FIG.

still keeping the central side spokes undivided. FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. 167. CURVE PARTLY WORKED. 166. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. used together as one. Insert the 112 spokes PIG. Pair round once to divide into twos. round once.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 165. and for the sake of brevity will be spoken of as . TURNING WEAVER ROUND CORNER SPOKES. the depth of which is 3}^ inches. dividing all the spokes into two. placing two beside each two round the basket. Do eight rows of weaving. Pair of green rattan. STARTING SQUARE (All the pairs of spokes are border. FIG. in readiness for the FIG. WORK BASKET.

In doing this. behind one. nineteen spokes of No. BASKET. putting in a few spokes at a time. and leave behind. for the lid. leaving end inside. 13 inches. 12 inches. 16 rattan and _ Take one piece in front of three spokes. FIG. twenty-nine spokes. DETAIL OF 171. 13 rattan. 16 inches. SQUARE WORK WOOD FIG. and then continue the work round. cross these. 7 inches. Handle Sharpen the ends of the two pieces of No. 166). draw the four ends to equal lengths and twist round the handle to the opposite side thread through to the outside two pieces on either side of the handle cane. leaving 2^2 inches below. This border is worked on top of the basket. "169.) of two. behind two. two pieces of No. STARTING LID OF SQUARE BASKET. 4 inches. start the border when about six spokes have been inserted. rials SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE MateRequired A square wooden base. TWISTED HANDLE. thread both ends from inside round the handle cane just below the border. All this must be worked underneath the wooden base. . in front one." using four spokes together to plait with. spokes of No. 16 inches. 13 rattan. and push basket. the spokes being curved from left to right. 13 rattan. BASE. 6 rattan. behind one. 168. one piece of No. Take two pieces of No. in front of one.114 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Now turn the basket upside down and pair round once. and weave a short way round the basket (Fig. Do the border in front of one. and keeping the row of pairing even with the edge of the weaving. Forty-four FIG AROUND LAST SPOKE. Insert the forty-four spokes through the holes in the wooden base. TURNING WEAVER FIG. 7^/2 inches across. 6 rattan. in front of one. the ends into the basket at the opposite side. push two ends down beside one lot of four spokes on the inside of the Twist the two pieces of rattan round each other. four spokes of No. 170. Repeat this round. When this is done plait round as described for "Madeira Borders. 2 rattan. . taking two lots of double spokes together each time.

and then twist the ends of the No. while those on either side are pushed in. and weave a few inches on either spokes side.) six rows of flat colored rattan one row of triple twist two rows of plain weaving. bring the other back. If correctly worked this basket should measure 8 inches across. 13 rattan at each corner must be cut evenly with the weaving before the border is done.HOW Turn TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. so that when flat on the table the weaving will continue from the left hand side. The piece of No. and the shorter end of the spokes will still point towards the work. the last spokes being double (Fig. Place another spoke flat on the table about y> inch further on and pair round. The two pieces of No. one row of triple twist. Border "Cycle" Border. To finish. thread the ends through to the inside. fold a strand of No. with 2 spaces of about y inch between each twist. 7^ Allowing y? inch on either side for the border round it. 25). 2 cane. In front of two spokes. (This cannot be twisted round Do two rows of plain weaving. and. and place the long spokes into position. weaving. behind one. cross them. for handles. and four rows of single Do - . . 2 cane round it. three rows of triple twist. must be used together as one. the lid. corners. will be inches. Take the two weaves round the double spokes at the end. in front of one. Do one row of flat colored rattan. Continue to place the spokes and pair them. keeping it in a straight line. 16 inches. the base up. beside the corner spoke." same way as explained for "Made- To make this basket of a good shape it is necessary to keep an equal distance between each spoke the corner spokes should be pulled outwards. place a piece of flat colored cane over the top of the handle. 13 rattan (12 inches) can now be inserted . and then do another row of pairing. keeping them l in their places with the left hand. Turn this over from right to left. this is not necessary (Figs. turn it over and . and then place a piece of No. in each corner. 13 The two rattan (4 inches). therefore. until a piece is clone measuring 6 / 2 the / inches (fifteen spokes). and weave across the spokes. 167 and 168). Take two spokes of 16 inches and place flat on the table together. Lid Twenty-nine spokes. When the other end is reached turn it over as before. resting on the plaited border there (it is shown in Fig. With the ends do the plait in the ira Borders. 168). . leaving one weave out (leave an end of about i inch). Take a piece of No. When the round weave goes behind the double corner spokes it must be taken round them again but when the weave comes on the outside. as it fits inside the basket. thread round the handle cane just below the triple twist. 24). Do four rows of single weaving. 2 cane and put the loop over the spokes 4^/2 inches from the nearest ends (Fig. this brings measurement of the center square of lid to 6 l 2 inches. one going under and the other over. leaving end inside. one row of flat colored. Sharpen the ends and push them into the basket beside the fourth (counting from either end) and at the second row of triple twist.

and dividing the double spokes at each corner. four weaving. The edge is then bound off and finished with the simple border described this in the directions for a basket with a twisted handle in the first part of the chapter. Take a spoke of 16 inches and. on eight and a half 20-inch spokes. Bind the loop with flat cane. then do two rows of pairing round the lid.Il6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Materials for Basket Eight 2O-inch spokes of No. one length No. piece flat green. weave down in place of the weaver then take the weaver over or under the spoke and weave down the side. the first side spoke must be woven in. and with a piece of wire secure one end of the rattan against the third and fourth spokes. and when two more have been woven in this way. four weaving. and a short piece of No. the spokes are flared more decidedly. one spoke. in front of one. . catching in the ends of the flat cane with the spokes to which they are nearest. Now weave in a spoke at either side next to the pairing. 13 rattan tied to the side of the basket. one spoke. six weavers of No. . This pairing must be kept as close as possible to the weaving. rattan. and in . one securely. one spoke. are bent into loops at about ten inches from one end of each and Handle is A . four rows of weaving. one spoke. repeat. and twist the strand of No. pliable length of No. or the lid will have a very untidy appearance. 2 rattan. one spoke. counting from the side. make another loop to catch over the first bind this also with fine flat cane. Get the center of the lid. two rows weaving. form a loop by threading a weaver around a few rows of the weaving take the ends inside the basket. two weaving. leaving an end of 4^4 inches. and weave each end a short way round the basket. . to slip . Border In front of two. weave back again. one four plain weaving. and secure the other end in the same manner on the opposite side. 4 rattan. Handle (on top) One piece of No. l . 2 rattan round it in the same way as the side handles sew the lid on with flat cane at the back. one spoke two weaving. For handle. 4 rattan which has been soaked until These cut into four pieces and then separated into pairs. . which are then thoroughly wet and bent upward with a slight flare. When two weavers have been used. leaving about /2 inch over at either end. 13 rattan. Bend the rattan in a half-circle. cross them. Place a piece of colored rattan over the top of it. two pairing. one spoke four weaving. through the under loop. 7 inches. one spoke four weaving. the spokes are drawn in while using the remaining two weavers. one flat two weaving. one spoke. ing. Insert one spoke by weaving it in in the ordinary way. A bottom is woven 2^4 inches in diameter. will fasten it BASKET WITH TWISTED HANDLE HAVING INTERLACED ENDS Miss White thus describes the method of making basket. behind one. two weaving. Every second row of weaving must be taken twice round the double spokes at the ends. one flat two weav. Do two rows of single weaving with one piece of flat cane. front just in the center and directly under the border of the basket. . one spoke. one flat. 4 rattan. When two outside rows of plain weaving have been done (counting in the ordinary way the number of times one weaver crosses the same spoke). 4 n-inch of No.

The Materials required five of No. nineteen spokes across five. 18 inches. short ends are finished off by weaving one to the right over and under several spokes and the other to the left. 171). 8 rattan. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET. who passes one loop through the other. although the process cannot be the same. FIG. and brought together. measuring 16 6 inches. 2 rattan. putting by one on either side of the five long spokes at each end. bringing the ends of the loop through which it passed over it. The short ends are now crossed one under a long end and one over (as shown in Fig. The long ends are twisted together for about twelve inches. OF 172. I. 7 spokes inches. FIG. it is so simple that one can easily follow its coils. and are then made into another knot copied from the first one. Use No. HANDLE OF KEY BASKET. 18^ inches. one in each hand of the worker. PIG. TWISTED HANDLE. The long ends are also brought together making a knot like Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. see Fig. with the long ends turning up. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET an ordinary base. weave with Nos. OF KEY BASKET COMMENCING. which makes the loop uppermost on one end of the knot and on the other the ends. Make . 173. for. This knot is placed about half way between the top and bottom of the basket. knotted in this way. fifty spokes of No. 171. nineteen spokes of No. This knot is placed on the opposite side of the basket from the first one and attached in the same way. 8 rattan. 172. DETAIL. BINDING HANDLE 175. COMMENCING 174. The loops are held firmly where the short end of each comes against the long end (making sure that the short ends are on the same sides of the loops). Insert the fifty side spokes. 8 rattan. FIG. 3 and 40 flat.

and the spokes are drawn together in some parts. alter- In making this basket great care*is necessary to get it a nice shape with a sharp angle at each corner. required base. eight rows of flat rattan (colored) and round rattan alternately twelve rows of plain weaving one row of pairing. Put the . and tie the longer ends together. sticking . the basket will become uneven. and begin by threading one end from the inside to the outside beside the handle cane and just bePull the end out until it is long enough to be neath the border. carry over the basket. Cross it on the outside (as in Fig. Thirty-six spokes of No. If this is not done. Also be careful to keep an even distance between each spoke. leaving 3 inches below for the foot." the result being shown in Fig. Round the foot do four rows of plain weaving and border. FIG. behind one. Now FIG." 2 inches high. 175). . Get a long strand of No. KEY BASKET colored and white. take it over the handles to the opposite side. 13 rattan. and forty flat. 16 inches. keeping one round of rattan just meeting the next. in front of one leave the end inside to be cut off afterwards. SHALLOW OVAL BASKET. or allowed to get wider in others. carried on top of the handle to the opposite side and 4 inches over. 13 rattan. Now with the long end of rattan bind neatly round the handle and flat rattan together. using one white and one colored weaver nately. 174). 177. Handle Length of handle according to taste. colored. and winding tightly. thirty-six spokes through the holes in the wooden base.u8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 3 rattan thirteen rows of plain weaving. and the shape will be spoilt. rattan. rattan. In order to d6 this keep the corner spoke pulled outward and press the one on either side well in. 102. Put on in the same way as described for the "Key Basket. 40 flat rattan. See Fig. BINDING HANDLE two rows of weaving. 176. 3 Weave pieces of No. . Handle Insert the two pieces of No. and insert in the same way on the opposite side. Border "Loop. OP KEY BASKET FINISHING. up against the handle cane. turn the basket up and do two rows of triple twist and twentywith No. . Materials u I inches. Turn up and do three rows of twist No. and repeat the cross on the outside leave the end . one piece on either side of the center spoke in the side (as shown in Fig. 3 rattan. Two Oblong wooden Spokes of No.

7. Weave like an ordinary oval base until twenty rows of weaving with No. and with the other weave to rattan. 16 rattan down beside the center side spoke and one piece beside the first spoke on either side repeat on the opposite side. 179. 4 and continue weaving until the base measures 18 by 12 inches. STARTING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. FIG. leaving an end of 3 inches. placing one beside each of the five long spokes and the first of the double side spokes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and insert the ninety-four spokes of No. Split the thirteen willows in the center and thread onto the five of 19 inches. Thread a piece of No. 7 rattan. 180.it round way to that in which it was wound. three of No. 178. 149 to 152. except the center one Turn up sharply and do two rows of triple twist. FIG. 4. Leave one end several inches long. Then ninety." See Figs. Do seven rows of single weaving three rows each spoke singly. When loose enough for about six rings up. FIG. Weave with 3. INSIDE VIEW. in the opposite Without unwinding any of the rattan. OF OVAL BASKET. 6. (straight round) of flat rattan.four of No. 16 and 40 flat rattan. . Add the fourteen spokes. Of FIG. 3 rattan have been done. Now . until quite tight . Cut off the ends of the spokes. OUTSIDE VIEW. one on either side of each spoke. taking at each side.rattan. it SHALLOW OVAL BASKET then cut off neatly. 176). these take five of 19 inches. 16 rattan. BINDING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. Handle Place one piece of No. thirteen of 13 inches and fourteen of inches long. . 30 inches. and pull the end of rings (Fig. cut the flat rattan. Border "Flat Plait. push the end up and pull out between the Twist the rattan back again. seven at either end. 119 it When the handle has been bound round as close to the border as can be. Rattan may required Willow be substituted. and six rows of weaving. 19 inches. FINISHING HANDLE do two rows of triple twist to divide the spokes with No. Materials spokes the thickness of a slate pencil. 40 flat round the center handle rattan from the inside just below the border. 181. loosen it by twisting.

and the end pushed up against one of the canes and then cut off (Fig. FINISHING FIG. 184. FIG. and fro between the three spokes until eighteen rows cross the center one (Figs. PAPER BASKET Materials required Twelve spokes WASTE . SECTION SQUARE BASKET WITH threaded round the center handle rattan just beneath it. SQUARE BASKET. Now continue to bind over the top of the handle (Fig. LEAVING SIDES. In doing this the short end must be caught in beside one of the handle canes. is continued as in Fig. 180). the end of the flat rattan must be FIG. Fig. WASTE PAPER BASKET when the weaving three canes together until within 6 inches of the border. When the border is reached. all 183. 178 and 179). 176 shows how the handle ought to look when finished. 182). FIG. taking OFF THE FLAT RATTAN IN BINDING A HANDLE. 182. STRAIGHT CORNER. 185.120 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 181.

12 inches forty-eight spokes No. 6 rattan. i rattan. handle must be still counted as a spoke. 22 inches No. Ma- Required One board for base. until it Then insert the forty-eight spokes as usual. 6. For handle. two of 36 inches (to be cut off when the twist is finished) and two longer. and is 9 inches across. Start the weavers on a side of the base which has not a handle through it. The two longest are carried on for a row of pairing. 6. (Fig. 6 inches. taking each weaver three times around. counting the handles as spokes. 10 inches. 2 spokes No. see Fig 184. 18fi. sloping the foot to taste. will be needed. IJI of No. insert new weaver of dyed raffia or rattan and weave one Put a ten-inch inch. 7. 183). o. Finish with plaited border . singly (see Fig. 16 rattan. PLAITED HANDLE. weaving the border. 16 inches. the number of spokes being The even. Bend spokes outward and continue weaving for eight more double rows. Above the wooden base weave one row of rope twist. Work until you have three checks one row of triple twist twenty-two rows of plain weaving one round of triple twist. weave singly. after which turn the base upside 1 1/2 in Weave finish the foot before proceeding with the sides. Insert a short spoke close beside handle to be used in its stead for down and Finish with Closed Border No. six times in all. i and 2 rattan. turn them up after so doing weave ten rows of triple twist and six rounds of two colors to make the check pattern (Fig. 6 inches square 38 spokes of No. 183). METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING SIDES. .HOW TO MARK INDIAN AND OTHER . 27 inches. and at FIG. Insert spokes for sides wooden base. leaving 6 inches below the wood. 13 rattan. SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE . Weave with Nos. 2 spokes of No. 187. : . turn the basket right side up. inches from each end make a sharp bend. For this 4 lengths of No. The handles can be put on terials at discretion. Now . BASKETS. then another half inch or inch in natural color. Insert the handle in holes made for it in the wooden base. Now do your check pattern again ten rounds of triple twist. 2. 20) with two weavers. 125 to 129). FIG. Weave the base in the ordinary way (see Figs. for half an inch.

2 or Open Border No. and finish with Closed Border No. When the sides of the basket are woven insert two other spokes. the spokes twined ready for the sides. place the basket on smooth board. if preferred. FIG. thrust a small awl through the base into the board. line with silk to taste. A handle that is very easy to make is shown in Fig. KLIKITAT BASKET IN FROHMAX COLLECTION. On finishing the plait the ends must all be pointed and thrust as far down to the base on the other side of the basket as possible. to be used in its stead in weaving border. The awl thus acts as a pivot on which the basket may be moved while the side weaving SIDES. spoke. 186. If for a workbasket. making a three-plait with two spokes instead of one. and plait as shown. . PLAITED HANDLE. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING all up and Fig. Now progresses. 187 clearly shows the base finished. Where this handle is desired one of the spokes must be left long enough to form the handle. one on each side of this long These may all be doubled. plenty of rattan being left for this purpose. 2 according to taste.122 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 187a. spoke close to each side of the handle.

While the work is damp it can easily be twisted into shape. be worked out. Things depends the difference between a poor and a good basket. should always be done before the basket while the materials are still unformed. one should correct all irregularities. f. splint. In rattan. suggested make the bottom 1 in Those who desire to varnish or polish " Miss White's "How to Make Baskets their baskets may find recipes . follow the methods it may be as well to dye the completed work. is madeDyeing. FINISHING OFF A BASKET. 188. TN FROHMAN COLLECTION. In all raffia work care should be taken to cut off loose ends as the weaver progresses with her work. willow and other ware small fibers will split off from the work. I think. however. hence. of the saire size.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. flat and the and see that they are all of this nature seem small. Only in this way can designs the weaver desires baskets of one color. and these can be either In singeing be careful singed off or rubbed off with fine sandpaper. See if the shape is as it should be especially examine the loops of the border . before it is allowed to dry. in the chapter on dyes. 123 CHAPTER XIX. If so. YAKTTAT GOOD LUCK RATTLE BASKETS. not to scorch the basket. yet upon them often lid to fit.

SARGENT. FIG. IN . JR. OLD COILED BASKETRY IN THE COLLECTION OF H. 190.FIG. JR. E. SARGENT. 189. E. WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE BASKETS THE COLLECTION OF H.

and he who WORK OR MAT WEAVE. Curator of the Division of Ethnology of the United States National Museum. would work FIG. In what follows I have done little more than quote what that distinguished savant and sweet-spirited gentleman. HOW TO MAKE It is INDIAN BASKETS. intelligently cannot do better than "read. TWILLED WEAVING. which. Professor Otis T. 125 CHAPTER XX. how the Indian has well for all students of basketry to learn produced the wonderful results that make her basket work so famous." . Many North Pacific Coast as well as Atlantic Coast and Canadian Indians use this weave. 191. A variation of the mat weave is that which Professor Mason calls by this name. Mason. TWILLED BASKETRY. Even in the mechanical work the Indian showed a fertility of invention and a skill in execution little short of marvellous. and the warp is the same as the weft. will suffice to start the earnest student upon the true pathway. Indeed it is practically impossible to tell the one from the other (see Fig. In my phase of the subject. Of the poetry and religion woven I into Indian baskets I larger book have fully discussed this can here say nothing. however. Splints of every imaginable kind of material are used for this work. thus producing a twilled effect as seen in Figs. 192 and 193- American Basketry. 192. The fundamental technic of this work is in passing each strand of the woof over two or more warp strands. COARSE CHECKER- PIG. 191). hence in this chapter nothing but practical hints can be given. mark and inwardly digest" what is there written.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This is practically the mat weave of the preceding pages. has written in his "Directions for Collectors of CHECKERWORK BASKETRY. At the very outset we are confronted by the magnitude of the subject.

FIG." The Fijians make remarkable baskets by comIn this country the Chetamaches show marbinations of this weave. ISC. or the opposite. woven work. 194) the weft goes over one and under three. the weft would not pass over the same number of warp elements that it passed under. TWINED WEAVING. 165 and 167. of twine or yucca fiber. 39 and 40). and specimens of which are found in "Indian Basketry. "The North Americans of antiquity were very skillful in administering the twilled technic. From examples reproduced by W. : 195 and 196. The weft. vellous ingenuity in the working out of designs in this weave by varying the laying of the splints and the use of different colors. rigid hoop is sustained by four uprights. In passing from warp to warp these elements are twisted in half-turns on each other so as to form a two-ply or three-ply twine or braid. TU1. in its southern portions. continuing in a coil until the top is reached. : . Holmes it will be seen that in the ancient weaving of the Mississippi Valley." Figs. According to the relation of these weft elements to one another and to the warp. Scores of designs may be made by the curious. (See Figs. all rigidly The warp extends from the top to the bottom. 10.NK1J IN TWO COLORS. all This is the most intricate and elegant of Professor Mason thus writes of the varieties of twined weaving as follows "Twined work has a set of warp rods or rigid elements. FIG. The ordinary Indian work. TWILLED WEAVING. and is still used by the Mohaves. 193. as in wickerwork but the weft elements are commonly administered in pairs. over single warps. WEFT. the WICKER WORK finest web basketry of civilization is specimens being the plaques of the Hopis. different structures result as follows I.126 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. WEAVING made only at Oraibi. firmly fastened to the hoop at the top and the rigid members at the bottom. H. The process is clearly shown WRAPPED A in Figs. n. On the specimen shown (Fig. though in three-ply twining and in braid twining three weft elements are employed. affixed at the bottom. . but it is doubtful if one can be invented that these Indians have not long known. is fastened to one of the rigid uprights and then wrapped once around each wrap element. Plain twined weaving. each time and each way. This type of weaving was employed by the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley.

199).HOW 2. 194. around 5. Three-ply twined weaving and braiding in several styles. but pass diagonally over the . TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Latticed twined weaving. 198 are made in this weave." (See Fig. DIAGONAL TWINED this style between cross the and the plain warp strands." This primitive mode of weavPLAIN "TWINED WEAVING FIG. 197. Wrapped twined weaving. over two or more warps. of the Havasupais are made in this of the fine baskets of (see Fig. in which one weft element remains rigid and the other is wrapped about the cross3. 4. are not vertical as in plain twined weaving. 222 Indian Basketry). Fig. by varying the color of the weft splints and The esuwas. "The is in the manner the woof weavers technic consists in passing over two or FIG. WRAPPED WEAVING FROM A MOUND IN OHIO. The ridges. Two splints or weavers compose the woof and they are twisted with a The Aleut and Haida baskets in half turn around each warp stem. OF THE MOHAVES. Fig. The only difference 2. or water bottles." WEAVING. . and many style. ings. Other examples will be found illustrated in "Indian Basketry. more warp elements there must be an odd number at each half turn for in the rest round the same pairs of warps are not inof warps. twined work vertical warps crossed by horizontal weft element. ing requires a set of warp elements arranged parallel to each other. 195. cluded in the half turns. which is clearly shown in Fig. the Pomas 200 "shows how. are also made in a similar manner. i. WRAPPED WEAVING FIG. 196. surface. 127 Diagonal twined weaving or twill. tee or Hudson stitch. or bird-cage twine. therefore. on the outside. TWILLED WEAVING PRESSED ON ANC IENT POTTERY OF ALABAMA.

ment of the twine is passed horizontally along the upright warp stem. while the other is wrapped around it and the upright warp. which is the . 201. changing from diagonal to plain weaving. inclining to the right and the other to the left is caused by the weaver's from above or below. as seen in Fig.128 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 199. ALEUT AND HAIDA BASKETS IN THE FROHMAN COLLECTION. The variation of one row of stitches TWINED WEAVING. 202. When the rows of these stitches are wrapping forced closely upon one another the effect is as in Fig. the on the surface." enabled to con- WRAPPED '"TWINED WEAVING. APACHE. generally on the inside. artist is trol absolutely the figure 3. DIAGONAL FIG. 19S. FIG. 200. WORK VARIETY OF TWINED OUTSIDE. KLIKITAT. In this weave one ele- FIG.

Neah Bay weavers. TWINED WEAVING. THE TI WEAVK FIG. In the middle of the figure. outside of the basket these various methods stand for delicate patterns in color. at the right side. INSIDE. NEAH BAY WEAVING. 255 Indian Basketry). how the wrapped or Neah Bay twined work appears on the lower right-hand corner In the exquisite piece is and in the woman the inside view of diagonal twined weaving." page 99. 203 "shows a square inch of the inside of a basket. it will be seen inside. TWINED. form of weave is confined to the Pomas. It is described in "Indian 'The ti (proBasketry. WRAPPED FIG. 205. 20-2. 129 exact method followed by the Fig. : . It is believed that this LATTICE 4. . 201. with plain twined weaving in the two rows at the top plain twined weaving in which each turn passes over two warp rods in four rows just below. FIG. WRAPPED. TWINED WEAVING. see Fig. 203. On the from which FIG. OF THE POMAS. 200). (For example." (See Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. under the name of the Ti Weave. the skillful has combined four styles of two-ply twined weaving. TWINED WEAVING. this drawing was made.

207. INSIDE. nounced tee) twined weaving consists of four elements THREE-PLY TWINED WEAVING. weaving is the use of three weft splints and other kinds of weft elements instead of two. stem adjoining. as FIG." 5. this fashion are very rigid and strong. Baskets made in holding the warps firmly together. broidery. and there are four ways of administering the weft. the basket weaver holds in her hand three weft elements of any of the kinds mentioned. and frequently the hoppers of mills for grinding acorns. TIIKKK-PLY BRAID AXI> (H'TSIDE. since in every third T . so that in passes inward. (a) the upright warp of rods. viz.. On the outside there is the appearance of a two-ply string laid looks like plain along the warp stems. false emb. each one of the strands. Three-ply braid. OUTSIDE. Skokomish. 206 and 207). 208. while on the inside the texture twined weaving. I'm. By referring to the lower halves of Figs. (See Fig. d) a regular plain twined weaving of two elements. In twisting these three. DITTO. 205). 206 and 207 the outside and the inside of this technic will be made plain. FIG. TWINED WORK. DITTO.130 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (b) a horizontal warp crossing these at right angles. and also water-tight jars are thus constructed. d. After that the process is repeated. FiG. and (c. "Three-ply twined FIG. The reason for this is apparent. INSIDE. Frapped. it Tn REE-PLY BRAID. Three-ply twine. In this technic (a)' THREE-PLY TWINE (Figs. Three-ply. 209. Tlinkit. a. c. is carried behind the warp a whole revolution the three w eft elements have in turn passed behind three warp elements.

On the surface. and as each element passes under one and over the other of the remaining two elements. The ornamentation in which mythological symbols are concealed consists of a species of false embroidery in which the figures appear on the outside of the basket but not on the inside. In the needlework of the civilized c) THREE-PLY. In three-ply braid the weft elements (b) are held in the hand in the same fashion." '( part is in plain twined weaving the upper part is in three- "In Tlinkit basketry spruce root.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . 210 shows a square inch from the surface of a Hopi twined jar. Fig. TWINED WORK. FIG. OVERLAID TWINED WEAVING. which is exceedingly tough. when the work is driven home. warp and two remain in BRAID. 211. the upper parts of Figs. 206 and 207 and 208 and 209. FIG. This process is better understood by examining inside a warp stem. but instead of being twined simply they are plaited or braided. FALSE EMBROIDERY.is the body worked in . no matter how the rest is built up. it is carried THREE-PLY FIG. THREE-PLY AND 210. PLAIN TWINED WORK. it is impossible to discriminate between The three-ply braid is found at three-ply twine and three-ply braid. the starting of all Poma twined baskets. The lower ply twine. FRAPPED 212. of a revolution one element passes behind the front.

211). An interesting (d) modification of this Tlinkit form of overlaying or false embroidery occurs occasionally among the Poma Indians under the name of bog or bag. FIG. when each of the weft elements passes between two warp rods outward. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. In this Thompson River FRAPPED FIG. Around this twine the third element is wrapped or served. 217. woman FIG. passing about the other two and between the warp elements. Two of them are spun from native hemp or milkweed. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. IX is 215. and it is fully explained and illustrated by James Teit in his Memoir on the Thompson River Indians. YOKl'T BASKET FIG. Skokomish type.132 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. YOKUT BASKET wrapped around it once. Straws of different colors are employed (Fig. and then the whole is pressed down close to the former rows of weaving. but the Indian woman twines it into the textile while the process of basket making is going on that is. On . BASKETRY. WASHOE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. POMO BAM TT'SH WEAVE FROHMAN COLLECTION. the colored or overlaid element . 216. IN 218. the laying of this third element would be called embroidery. example the twine or weft element is three-ply. and form the regular twined two-ply weaving.

Franz Boas for the s . DECORATED YOKUT BOTTLE-NECK IN use of Mr. 212). is 220. The fastening off is coarsely done. YOKUT DANCE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. FIG. This combination extremely interesting. but on the inside the turns are perpendicular. leaving the surface extremely rough.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. kS* . FROHMAN COLLECTION." little attention to the stitches will A FIG. but after the style of the Makah Indians of Cape Flattery.< . who are Wakashan (Fig. FIG." . Teit's figure. but the wrapping of corn husk outside the twine are not done in Nez Perces fashion. 221. KLIKITAT IMBRICATED WORK. I am indebted to Dr. IN 219. The author says that it "seems to have been acquired recently through intercourse with the Shahaptins. show that the bags and the motives on them are clearly Xez Perces or Shahaptian. the outside of this bag the wrapping is diagonal.

190 is of new White Mountain Apache Basketry. 215 is a Washoe basket in the Frohman collection. E. The whole five are most beautiful specimens. with striking designs." Of analysis. with a circle of dancers on the flange. WORK OF THOMPSON Mr. 218 is a good specimen of the Bam Tush Poma weave. 216 and 217 are Yokut baskets of good shape. Sargent. 222. fully explained on page 96. The weave is of the coiled variety. Fig. "Indian Basketry. . FIG. of old coiled work gathFig. weave and de- F1G IMBRICATED COINED 223. bottle neck. 219 and 220 are both fine Yokut baskets. AFTER JAMES TE1T. 189 shows some beautiful specimens ered by Mr." the latter being a Figs. the weave of which is described in "Indian baskets in Fig. They are all Apache baskets. KLIKITAT BASKETRY. sign. IMBRICATED BASKETRY RIVER INDIANS. and with quail plumes as an additional decoration on the rim..1^4 S HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Figs. pine cone design. As a frontispiece in "Indian Basketry" Their materials are. The latter has a circle of dancers and of the rattlesnake dia- monds. WORK. CALLED Iv^lKITAT. 322 Indian Basketry). Sargent's collection. Jr. Coiled Basketry I have already quoted Professor Mason's clear The following pictures show a variety of specimens of coiled work. A. in Arizona and New Mexico. are seen two Klikitat basket weavers at work. Fig. Portland. Ore. largely from the Frohman collection. and the design is similar to that of Maidu (Fig.

sixty years ago. and he names the Puyallups. 221 the detail of this imbricated method of weave is shown. POMA SHU-SET WEAVE BOWL AND BURDEN BASKET IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. 224." Indians. is understood that here tian family. Cowlitz. while the sewing is done with the outer and tough portion of the root. who are Salishan.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Eells says that some women in every tribe on Puget Sound could produce the stitch. The Thompson River the art. the entire surface is covered with work of this kind. Skagit. cedar or spruce root. Snohomish. James the strips not being over an eighth of an inch wide. Yakima. all of whom are of the ShahapClallam. FIG. Mr. The body of the basket is in the root of Thuja gigantea. In Fig. who are Salishan. Strips of cherry bark." In some of the finer old baskets in the National Museum. and Squaxon. Teit describes and illustrates this type of weaving among the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia. Twanas. forming a sort of "knife plaiting. and Spokanes. '35 for the foundation. of the Klikitat. dyed with Oregon grape. Nisqualli. and so with each one it is bent backward and forward so that the sewing is entirely concealed. are added as ornament. have long known RC . cedar bast and grass stems. and the ornamentation in strips of Elymus triticoides and Primus demissa (Fig. It It is the native art it is a modern acquirement. "The strip of colored bark or grass is laid down and caught under a passing stitch before another stitch is taken this one is bent forward to cover the last stitch. 222). doubled on itself so as to be underneath the next stitch. collected . Imbrication is one of the most restricted of technical processes. Makah. Chehalis.

Cane Basket Work. Knapp. Page & Co. Little. 170 Strand. Raphia and Reed Weaving. Milton Bradley Co. Bulletin of the U. No. Henry Malkan. Calif. First Series. BIBLIOGRAPHY. James. Brown & Co. Directions for Collectors of American Basketry. Co. Stearns.. Battle Creek... L. The Indians of the Painted Desert Region. Purdy. Springfield. Second Series. T. White. Eliz. Martha Watrous. London. Carl. XXI.i 36 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Los Angeles. New York. O. S. 39. Boston. Museum. Review and Herald Pub. Nat. Mary. How to Make Baskets.. Mich.. George Wharton. SHI-BC. ftu- FIG. 1902. Sanborn. Cane Basket Work. Mass. A School Without Books. New York. THE SUN BASKETS OF THE POMAS IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers. Upcott Gill. 225. . Indian Basketry. CHAPTER Firth. Annie. Mass. DECOKATED Mason.. Part P. Doubleday.

a loan collection of fine Indian Baskets in your village ? Then join The Basket Fraternity and get nineteen others to do and the collection will be sent to you without charge. .- L.. Do you want a lecture on Indian Basketry will see ? Read page 4 and you how it may be had.v~-i'f> . '^-.':"-.".:~~ . It has a large charter membership from roll will The charter in remain open until the end of 1903. Its only conditions for Do you want town or so..THE BASKET FRATERNITY.:'. organized by George \Vharton James. membership are that you are interested Indian or other baskets. and source of information THE among basket lovers that BASKET FRATERNITY has been its start."-T :r. and send your Fraternity fee of one dollar.r^-' a demand exists for a means of communication between. rc-.

To make and style 9. native shapes and designs. alien designs. but especially and primarily of baskets made by the aboriginal tribes of North America. superintendents and teachers in its service. To prepare a set of stereopticon slides. 7. To organize a "traveling library" of veritable typical Indian baskets and send these as required to members of the fraternity for Such a collection of basketry is already made. To arrange rials for 12. study and exhibition. with accompanying lecture. for the gathering and distribution of Indian matebasket weaving which shall be sold to members of the fraternity at as near cost as possible. 5. free to all members of the fraternity. 4. 6. disseminate information among its members relating to the art and the objects of the fraternity. and is ready for its travels on call from those entitled to it. illustrated bulletin of general or specific interest to basketry lovers and collectors and to send this bulletin. and issue quarterly an . to prepare. and especially for the pleasure and study of members of this fraternity. when issued. 14. secure the ends aimed at in Sections 12 and 13. foster the use of aniline dyes. To seek to influence the Indian department of the United States Government to earnestly endeavor to work to this end among all the agents. and restore the use of native dyes. and of representative Indian fine and typical baskets of all weavers. ITS OBJECTS ARE a : To form To means of communication between basket lovers throughout the world. To prepare such slides also for sale. a national collection of typical baskets of every weave to be found throughout the world.T 1. 11. which will be loaned on payment of a small fee to any member of the fraternity. 2. To photograph aboriginal weavers and make a collection of said its the Indians the modern commercial methods. 8. organized for the purpose of bringing together those who have felt the charm and fascination of Indian basketry. 13. hastily prepared materials and crude workmanship. HE BASKET FRATERNITY is a society of basket lovers. and to require all young Indian girls to learn the art as part of their school training. To seek in every revive the art and prevent dying out prepared materials and artistic work. way to among the Indians. This collection to be placed in some suitable location where it will be accessible at all times to basket lovers. 10. To encourage the opposite of the spirit referred to above to seek to retain the love for good and artistic work to banish aniline dyes. 3. carefully : . To To To distribute among its members photographs or engravings of makes. To discourage among photographs. which encourage the making of baskets merely for sale. collect reliable and accurate knowledge of Indian weavers' methods and work.

poor houses. first . Address all communications and make all P. CALIFORNIA. unite in asking for the loan of an Indian basketry collection." by George Wharton James. prisons. as well as the baskets made by the Indians. it will be sent to them on guarantee of its safety and the payment of freight charges both ways. insane asylums and other eleemosinary establishments in order that easy and simple employment may be found for the unfortunate which will help relieve the harmful monotony of their lives. and Fraternity is Pasadena.iving Indian comprise fully twenty portraits of typical Indian It will be issued weavers. either to members of the fraternity or to outsiders desirous to organize classes for the teaching of of knowing of its work basketry." i. one will be sent. To set in motion all possible machinery for the creating of markets for baskets so made. Whenever twenty members of the fraternity.15. O. : Fraternity. It will be issued October i.00 per year. of application for bulletin will be forwarded as early as possible after receipt of the fraternity fee of one dollar. with descriptive accounts of their work. and to enlarge the circle of those who know and love good . the national collection and the traveling libraries of Indian baskets are located. The fourth bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Designs. in order that their makers may derive as much financial benefit as possible from their labors. Forms STATION A. members of the fraternity are assured that they will receive The four bulletins. The membership will be sent on request. It will April The and third bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Basket Shapes. The first of these is a beautifully illustrated hand-book entitled "How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. is in The second preparation and will be entitled ' ' Weavers. Whenever fifty members of the fraternity petition for a lecturer. basketry work. issued quarterly. Forms of application for such a loan will be sent on request. payable on application. To promote the organization of classes for the teaching of basketry in orphan asylums. living in one town or section. California. referred to in Section 14. The fraternity fee is $1. PASADENA. 3.To arrange for lectures on Indian basketry when and where possible. L." and will contain fully twenty illustrations of baskets of superior design. 2. Orders payable to The headquarters " where the nucleus of of The Basket ' ' ^ THE BASKET: FRATERNITY." and originator of The Basket fee the 1. EnIn return for this trance may be made at any time during the year. 1 6. will guarantee a small fee and necessary expenses. author of "Indian Basketry. in order to further the work of the fraternity. It will be issued July i. 17." will contain not less than twenty plates of exquisitely shaped Indian baskets.

THE HOME OF THE WASHOE INDIAN. XVII. XX.INDEX. I. The Web Weave IX. The Spirit in which Basket-Making should be Approached. The Preparation Dyes . upon appplication. . VIII. The Coil Weave XII. Web Weaving Fancy Borders Continued Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets A Few Baskets XIX. VI. How to to Make and Use Them 28 32 34 37 Tools and Terms How Begin The Mat Weave The Plait or Braid X. Borders 77 XIV. More about Bases 84 89 93 103 107 123 125 XV. NEVADA. VII. our photo booklet of fine and beautiful baskets. The Net Weave XI. loan 3-011 will for inspection." . Choice of Material IV. of Materials . Finishing the Basket How to Make Indian Baskets Bibliography 136 If you desire Amerind Art in WASHOE. CARSON CITY. PAIUTI OR SHOSHONE BASKETRY we can We interest you. Chap. Insertion and 48 52 58 73 XIII. XVI. XVIII. Address THE EMPORIUM. XXI. 10 14 III. Introduction 5 II. 18 V.

Splint Picture Frame Splint Mat Weave Baskets 105. 9. 62. 33. Oi. 76. 3. 85. Deerfleld Splint Baskets Reed Baskets. 44. 83. Closed Border No. 8. 20. 101. Mouse Basket Corn Husk Poppy Basket Fancy Splint Basket Splint and Sweet Grass Fan Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass Base of Baskets shown in Fig. 2. 75. 4. 80 80 so Detail of Closed Border No. 47 Closed Border No. 17 18 20 22 2 63 63 63 78. 112. 113. 126. 17. 79. Fig 1. IIU. 54 121. 58. 74. Weave. 40.. 7. 13. 92. Weave 107. 90. Deerfleld Deerfleld 14 15 16 1? 16. 1 Detail of Closed Border No. 52. Web New Weaver Weavers Market and Other Baskets " Caning a Chair Cane Tie Caning a Chair "Weaving with Raffia Rattan Simple Baskets. etc Chetemache Mat Diagonal Mat 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 45 46 46 46 46 49 51 100. Deerfleld Weaver Splint Cutter Foundation Splint Cutter A Splint Single Weaving . 82. 99. 2 Starting Splicing Inserting Odd Spoke Right Side of Center Odd 75 75 75 75 42. 84. Straw Foundation 63 64 64 64 64 Weave 33 33 26 Open Coil. 125.ILLUSTRATIONS. 110. Articles of Plaited Raffla. 94. 43. 2 Open Border No. 73. 68. 52 119. 25. 41. 48. 69. 104. 47. 53 120. Detail of Ins< rtiun Insertion Open Border No. 79 79 SO 2. 115. 54. Simple Coiled Baskets Simple Mat Weave Open " Closed Table Mat Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Isolated Figures Produced by Modifying Order of Intersection 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 39 41 41 41 41 Fugeian Coiled Basket Details Coiled Raffia Baskets and 65 66 68 66 70 70 93. 81. IT 118. 53. etc 50a Bottom of Deerfleld Basket 51.. 5. 128. 108. Splint Picture Frame Foundation. Deerfleld Straw Baskets Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets Picotie Pink Basket. 1 Detail of Open Border No.. Five Strand Plait of Raffia. Xi-t etc. 27. 24. Weaving of Round Bnsc with Two Split 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 s:. 66. Inclosing Part of Foundation Interlocking Coils.. 56. Deerfiekl. Page. 19. 9S. 106. fc. Detail Plait of Plait 3 4 Open Border No. 71. Red Bird Basket. 5. Magazine Holder 30. 127. Mesh . Baskets of Plaited Raffla . with Spoke Simple Open Border No. 3 Detail of Oval Base " 124. 63. 32. Weaving on Even Spokes Holding and Spokes' Starting Weaver Dividing into Single Spokes 72 72 73 73 74 74 36. Chetemache Mat " Grass Tray. 22. 14. Book Mjark of Weave Splint and Web 95. 72. Open Border No. Weavers Round Base with Spokes in Pairs.wale Apple Green Basket. 96. Double Pairing Triple Weaving 24 25 25 32 3 32 32 80. 70. Plaited Belts 50 Hoop and School Bag Raffia Doll's Hat and Tray Raffia Plaited Raffla Hats Detail of Last Three Spokes of Plaited of Plaited 55. 6.. 31. 49. 117. 57. 58 58 10 12 i: Covered Napkin Rings Simple Coiled Baskets with VariSimple Coiled Trays Pine Needle Coiled Baskets Wrapping Before Coiling Beginning the Coil Detail of Coil Cross Sections of Varieties' Coiled Basketry Detail of Interlocking Stitches Detail of Single-Rod Coil in 58 58 60 60 01 61 61 62 10. 102. 64. 18. 59. Accordeon Plait.. Fig. 34. 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 122 123'. 65. 91. 26. Stick and Knot of Raffia Single Net Mesh Netted Bags of Raffia. 15. 4 6 S 67. 85 85 . 12. 11 I. 21.. 129. Foundation of Two Rods Rod and Welt Coiled Work Foundation of Three Rods Foundation of Splints Interlocking Coils. Button Hole Stitch on Ring " " " ation Page. Mat Foundation Work 39. 130. 3. 109. Round Base with Spokes Separated Commencing Oblong Oval Base Spoke for Round Base Spokes' Threaded for Round Base. 6. 97. 75 76 Weave Web 77 78 78 78 78 79 7J of Chair Cane 50. Shred Foundation Rope Twist Raffla Bound Picture Frames Raffla "Wrapped Articles' Toy Chair of Wrapped Raffia 65 86-87-XN. 103. 23. 11. 89. 46. 77. 111.. 2829. 45. 61.

105 of Finished Border 105 Flat Plait Border. 205.. 196. 140. 176. 156. 154 Surface Effects of Twined Open Twilled Weaving 125 Ditto 126 Ditto. 139.. 170. 187. Baskets of Rattan. 152. 210. 155. 148. Commencing Flat Plait Border.105 Flat Plait Border Second Position 105 of Spokes with Portion in progress. 134. 198.. 178.131 Frapped Twined Work Washoe Basket Yokut Basket Ditto 168. 130 130 130 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 Three Ply and Plain Twined Work. 199. L'lis. 117 118 132. Page. 98 and Plaited Sweet Grass Splint 99 Baskets Splint and Plaited Sweet Grass 100 Baskets 102 Madeira Border No. 164. Detail of Center of Oval Base " " 86 87 87 Commencing Ditto. Pi . 127 Ditto Wrapped Weaving of the Mohaves' 127 127 Ditto.. 192. Finishing ditto 119 119 . 177. 160. 143. Klikitat.119 119 182. . 185. Called 117 134 CENTRA OHIL "C. Work 110 203. 201.. 133. 124 on Mat Checkerwork Weave 125 150 151. 166. Base of Splint Basket 120 Binding a Handle Waste Paper Basket 120 120 Square Basket Weaving Sides Section ditto with Straignt Corner. 175. Ditto. 206. 141.Fig. . Jumping Two Spokes Weaver Ditto Outside Binding Handle of Oval Basket. 194. 165. Outside Overlaid Twined Weaving 209. 200. 154. -in'. . 157. Outside Ditto. Pressed on Ancient Pottery. 159. 114 Starting Lid of Square Basket. 146. 181. 215. Twined Weaving. Square 113 Spokes' Work Basket. 184. etc. 195. Outside. 2 102 Madeira Pairing for Plait 189. Wood Base. 135. 193. Turning Weaver Round Corner . INN. 183. Finishing Base of Twined Weaving with serted Corners In84 31 90 90 92 92 96 94 Shallow Oval Basket 118 Starting Handle of Oval BasketInside 136: 137. 149..114 216. Raffia 108 and Splint 108 Bases' of Fig. 191. 219.i \ \Yrappc-d T\\ ined Weav129 Crossed Warp. 172. 171. 112 Turning Down Spokes 113 Ditto.. Imbricated Imbricated Klikitat Poma Bam Tush Weave Yokut Dance Basket Yokut Bottle-Neck Basket Klikitat Imbricated Weaving Basketry Coiled Work of 134 Thompson River Indians Work. 180. 173. Inside 129 The Ti Weave of the Pomas 129 Three Ply Braid and Twined Work. 128 Wrapped Twined Weaving NV. 131. from a Mound in Ohio Twined Weaving in Two Colors 126 128 Apache. 114 221. 117 222.. 179. 142.110 Ill Wristlets or Cuff Protectors 112 Baskets from the Philippines 27 Baskets Deerfleld Straw Section of Fluted Flower Basket. Finished 106 Splint and Twined Baskets Collar Baskets of Rush. ing Inside Inside Three Ply Braid. Baskets 128 Diagonal Twined Weaving Variety of Twined Work. 158. 218. Twined Weaving. 207. 144. 197. Detail of Twisted Handle Ditto Turning Spokes Weaver Around Last Oblong Carrying Basket Commencing Handle of Key Basket 114 220.-I ii I 129 !. 211. 153. Rattan Basket with Plaited Straw Simple as' Web Web Woven Bird Nest Basket with Fancy Base Splint Web Weave Inserting Weaver in Splint Base. 120 Finishing off the Flat Rattan in 90186. 190. 138. 174. Curve Partly Worked 113 Fluted Flower Basket Starting Square Work Basket. 169. . 117 223. 217. 145. Binding Handle of Oblong Oval Base " Key Basket. 167. Plaited Handle Method of Holding Basket Weaving Sides Yakutat Rattle Baskets Old Coiled Basketry When 121 121 123 124 Coarse White Mountain Apache Baskets. 147. 9 Spokes Turned Up for Sides Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass. .

.. DETAIL - SEND TEN CENTS FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.. ji' ^ . " ' ri''^^^Nit. FROHMAN TRADING Co ALASKA...(. (.'i. WHOLESALE: AND PORTLAND.-'. CALIFORNIA AND NORTHERN INDIAN BASKETS T- i9O2 AND CURIOS.'.. QBE.if si . .

DRIVING. General Eastern Passenger Agent. CAL. WHERE GOLF. O. RIDING. NUTTING. McCORMICK. J 349 Broadway or E. F. Passenger Steamers Between Fast Time. and Pullman Tickets. M. New York and Superb Service. Two NEW DAILY TRAINS NEW ORLEANS TO CALIFORNIA. address L. and all information. and Time Tables. New York. Battery Place. HUNTING. M. Baggage Checked. P.. MORSE. lowest Rates. B. FISHING. COAST EXPRESS. Old Mexico. s. . CAN BE ENJOYED EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR. Arizona. TEXAS. SUNSET LIMITED PACIFIC (""TEL m WHEELS.. to Peerless California. H. New Mexico.CALIFORNIA A REGION OF WONDERS. TENNIS. Railroad. TOURISTS WILL FIND THE MOST PICTURESQUE LANDS ALONG THE ROUTES OF THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC Through Texas. New Orleans. BOATING. SAN FRANCISCO. POLO. HOUSTON. P. Maps. T. BATHING. Excellent Cuisine. A. T. Steamer. COACHING. For Free Illustrated Pamphlets.

Baskets for Practical Use. Palm Leaf Hats. Palm Leaf Basketry. CONTENTS I. DOUBLEDAY. which more advanced basket-making. Centres and Weaves. PAGE & CO. VI. Flower Baskets. IX.MORE BASKETS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM BY MARY WHITE nPHE success first of White's Miss volume has led to this companion work. How to Raffia and Rush Seat Chairs. EAST. $1. with new appliances. II. XI. VIII. X. 34 UNION SQUARE.00. Unusual Materials. the making of hats and and numberless other matters about many of which the readers of the initial volume have chair seats written for information. NEW YORK . V. Hanging Baskets. net. Shapes and weaves of treats of greater beauty and intricacy are described. IV. Raffia Basketry. Hints on Dyeing. A Few PRICE. VII. Square Baskets. III. unusual materials.

the Simplest Baskets Borders Covers Handles Work Baskets Candy Birds' Nests Baskets Scrap Baskets the Finishing Touch Oval Baskets How to Cain Chairs Some Indian What the Basket Means to Stitches . NEWYORK . Weaving.BASKETS BY MARY WHITE FIFTH EDI T I HOW TO MAKE O X THE new drawn great interest in Indian baskets has attention to the art of basketwith the result that basketry has making. CONTENTS Material. Preparation. Mats and . This little manual is Miss White the only guide to the work. found immediate favor. and then tells how to weave. EAST. the Indian. Raffia and their Some . PRICE. of its Uses . . .00 DOUBLEDAY. Tools. . . . PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. . and finally the complicated and beautiful work for which the Indians first is were once famous. not only in schools and training classes. - net. the simpler forms. but as a most attractive pastime and means of occupation among grown people as well. . few necessary impledescribes in detail the ments and materials. . next the more difficult patterns. but which now rapidly becoming a lost art. . $1.

PRICE. Linsey Woolsey BY THE SAME AUTHOR. EAST. Wheeler has had a leading part. but its chief Held will lie among the thousands of home-seekers whose range of experiment has not been wide enough to warrant successful practice. drawn from the author's own experience in spreading this valuable home industry. based upon principles of art. Rug Weaving Woven Rag . 20.HOW CANDACE WHEELER TO MAKE RUGS BY ILLUSTRATED. and this bi^ok will be found exceedingly valuable and suggestive to all who are interested in such work. Rugs. the Pattern . PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. of beauty in house interiors. Neighborhood Industries. The healthy modern movement toward the hand-made things of daily use in the home is one in which Mrs. CONTENTS. A STUDY will DOUBLEDAY. Dyeing. NEW YORK . PRICE net. Si. It undoubtedly be a helpful book to decorators. Woolen . HPHIS *- admirably clear little volume gives specific instructions for the weaving of rugs. Ingrain Carpet Rugs. Portieres . Cotton Rugs. Si. of PRINCIPLES HOME DECORATION net. 80.

" said PRACTICAL COOKING Yuan hundred years ago. preparation and serving of food. net. Hill. in her new book. "is gether should match.FIVE THOUSAND SOLD ON PUBLICATION AND SERVING BY JANET McKENZIE HILL "Cookery. of the Boston Cooking School.oo DOUBLEDAY. S2. There are 200 helpful photographic illusThe book trations. the Brillat-Savarin of China two matrimony t\vo things served to- And again: "Into no department of should indifference be allowed to creep into none less than cookery." The first 5000 were sold on publication." life like Alei. and tells everything a housekeeper needs to know about the selection. in color and black and white. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. EAST. which ma\ be washed. ^HE many ' PRICE. contains 730 pages and is strongly bound in aluminum cloth. NEW YORK . because it is practical. Practical Cooking and Serving." accumulated gastronomic knowledge of centuries and the best modern domestic science have alike been drawn upon by Mrs.

- ^ff ' ^JE-'A-r^L -'^^." etc.00 net . . -r- ' ' -~ ' -- A PEAK OF EROSION IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST With 1 6 full-page pictures and 50 half-page illustrations from photographs Crown 8vo Decorated cloth $2.vr - .THE INDIANS OF By THE PAINTED DESERT REGION GEORGE WHARTON JAMES of Author "In and Around the Grand Canyon of the in Colorado River Arizona. ." "Indian Basketry. ^^^^p^^l .

stranger's the chief ordered his daughter to head. a large portion is of the book domestic life devoted to this interesting tribe. j they have Mr. and there much interesting information about Indian basketry and blanket weaving. A chapter is given to the religion significance : of the Hopis. his "shampoo the This is considered a great luxury. Mr. . one Indian divorcing wife because she declined to shampoo his head. When the author first visited the " Navahoes. but the author had to do when he photographed these Indians. and one especially beautiful is sung in accompanied by songs. who were placed reservation without water or fuel. the homes and invite their husbands to marry them. giving a picture various Indian tribes and has own will agreeable and entertaining to every one. it Much " of their as the author describes is surely unique. fraught Western with many journey ov-er dangers on account scarcity in a of sudden storms and absence of shelter. besides visited his of water. Each act has a religious some beautiful religious ceremonies. honor of the birth of every child.The Indians of the like its Painted Desert Region author's valuable book work on the 1 the Grand Canyon is the result of experience. and the women build their own them . The women instead of talking about "Women's Rights have for ages possessed and knit their men weave the women's clothing own stockings. chapter upon the legends of the Havasupais is is fascinat- ing and the book full of romantic and picturesque Indian is An entire is chapter devoted to the Hopi snake dance. The Indian worst insult that is it is possible to offer to a Wallapais this throw her long hair away from her face. James written about them in style. to The love. which be quite new The first Indian tribe visited was the Hopis. and with no soil fit upon countrv has inflicted for cultivation. of personal adventures and hardships desert. James also writes of the ill-treatment which our upon the Navahoes.

.

IX. Massachusetts . II. THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE NAVAHO AND HIS HISTORY. Hopi. ADVENT OF THE WALLAPAIS. V. THE PAIN-TED DESERT REGION. HAVASUPAIS' RELIGIOUS DANCES AND BELIEFS. THE HOPI VILLAGES. NAVAHO AS A BLANKET WEAVER. XVI. XI. NAVAHO AT HOME. VI. XIV.. XV. and fifty industries. XIII. DESERT RECOLLECTIONS. of photographs taken by the author or by his special consist of sixteen full-page Accurately portraying the country. AND THEIR HISTORY. religious rites. III. cially several and Havasupai they are a most valuable addition to the text. Navaho. FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE HOPI. and half-page plates. THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE HOPI. BROWN. BIBLIOGRAPHY LITTLE. X. HAVASUPAIS AND THEIR LEGENDS. espe- of those showing the famous "Snake Dance. A FEW HOPI CUSTOMS. XII. and personal appearance of the Indians. the Indians generally objecting to the photographing of some of the ceremony. WALLAPAIS.The Indians The series artist of the Painted Desert Region illustrations are faithful reproductions of the beautiful who accompanied him. IV. CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I. VIII. PUBLISHERS Boston. & 254 Washington Street CO. SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE HAVASUPAI. PEOPLE OF THE BLUE WATER AND THEIR HOME. VII. Some of the subjects. T'HK HOPI SNAKE DANCE." are unique.

beauties of the crowded with pictures of the marvels and Canyon. give a wonderful personal interest wonder on pages of graphic description of the most stupendous natural the American Continent.00 CROSSING THE COLORADO TO THE SHINUMO. James's in these own perilous experiences. is of absorbing interest. and Mr. . volume. $3. Philadelphia Public Ledger. Dramatic narratives of hairbreadth stories escapes and thrilling adventures. their legends and customs.AN IMPORTANT NEW BOOK DESCRIBING THE MOST STUPENDOUS SCENE ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT In and Around the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES Illustrated pictures in with thirty full-page plates and seventy the text 8vo Cloth Price. of Indians.

.TEMPLES AND BUTTES TO THE EAST FROM THE GRAND SCENIC DIVIDE.

Legend and and local drawn upon in for the effect color. The Grand Canyon this one of the world's wonsatisfying and volume its is the most thorough and attractions thus presentation of many rugged man of in far offered. There qualified . he has quoted wherever he could matter of interest and value. Brooklyn Standard Union. . There York. freely - guides. He feels has told his story so fascinating a manner that one almost within sight and sound of the great canyon. . San Francisco. description Tribune. is - Boston Advertiser. scenic. so that its many . work. Arizona. . The most - thorough its the Colorado and Chicago of the Grand Canyon of surroundings to be found anywhere. One of the typical books of the great West. He own has not been content to describe the wonders in his words. such a book than Professor his James. and find explorers and discoverers. to the main features - and scientific of the Great Canyon of the tradition are Colorado. miners. Argonaut. dramatic . respects the book possesses a charm peculiarly own. and from the accounts of natives. . a ring of actuality about this book. --Arizona Daily Journal-Miner. Too much cannot be said praise of Will be the standard with reference historic.IN A & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON veritable storehouse of wonders. New an The Grand Canyon exposition either with has never before received - such pen or camera.. An ders. . .Outing. Prescott. . is probably no the writing the country in who is better for . from the notes of Indian white hunters. San Francisco Chronicle. illustrated work of which too much can is scarcely be said in praise. but from historical records. in Literary World. San Francisco Bulletin.

III. LATER EXPLORATIONS. XV. FLAGSTAFF. POWELL (1869-72). FIRST IMPRESSIONS. XXIV. HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON AND ITS WATERFALLS AND LIMESTONE CAVES. THREE DAYS OF EXPLORING IN TRAIL CANYON WITH THE X. CONTENTS THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS CANYONS. XVIII. XXI. LEE AND THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. IV. 254 BROWN. XXV. XXXI. THE MYSTIC SPRING TRAIL. W. GRAND CANYON FOREST RESERVE. XIII. THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. XVI. XVII. MR. BOTANY OF THE GRAND CANYON. XXX. WRONG COMPANION. THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS. VIII. RELIGIOUS AND OTHER IMPRESSIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON. To THE CANYON BY RAILWAY. BASS AND HIS CANYON EXPERIENCES. WHAT DOES ONE SEE? ON THE RIM. XIX. Publishers WASHINGTON STREET. POWELL (1869). XX. LITTLE. & CO. THE TOPOCOBYA TRAIL AND HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON. W. XIV. VI. AND THE DEAD VOLCANOES. XXXIII. THE GRAND VIEW TRAIL. PEACE SPRINGS TRAIL.IN & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON CHAPTER I. THE OLD HOPI TRAIL. VII. XII. UP AND DOWN GLEN AND MARBLE CANYONS. AND A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE TOURIST. W. W. XXVIII. XXII. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GRAND CANYON REGION. THE HAVASUPAI INDIANS AND THEIR CANYON HOME. EXPLORATIONS BY MAJOR J. THE RED CANYON AND OLD TRAILS. XXVII. XXVI. Two DAYS' HUNT FOR A BOAT IN A SIDE GORGE NEAR THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. THE GEOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON. V. THE CLIFF AND CAVE DWELLINGS. THE TANNER-FRENCH TRAIL.. BOSTON . LEE'S FERRY AND THE JOURNEY THITHER. XXXII. XI. XXIX. FROM THE SANTA FE RAILWAY TO THE CANYON BY STAGE. AN ADVENTURE IN BEAVER CANYON. II. EXPLORATIONS FROM THE TIME OF THE SPANIARDS (1540) TO MAJOR J. IX. THE SHINUMO AND ITS ANCIENT INHABITANTS. PHOTOGRAPHING THE GRAND CANYON. XXIII. JOHN D.

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