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. By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES "i AUTHOR OF INDIAN BASKETRY. New York. (L . IN ARIZONA. ' "1903 HENRY MALKAN. ETC. THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO RIVER ETC.How TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. THE INDIANS OF THE PAINTED DESERT REGION. 1 William Street.

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rose at once to meet the occasion. named Fields. learned the art and was a good workman. It has been my purpose in arranging the following pages to introduce all the stitches. The young man was "Lige. The earliest remembrances of my life are connected with that art. are for children. when those who practised it merely as a fad have forgotten that they ever were interested in it. too. It is singularly appropriate that I. Well do I remember. time his solemn asseveration was that "he'd had his backbone taken out." and into my youthful ears he used to pour his tales of of woe at the hardships of a basket-maker's life." and throw it up on the top of the fire and well back into the throat of the chimney. Like Just now the making of Indian and other baskets is a fad. were pinned through the center with a large steel bodkin to a heavy flat board. throwing its grateful heat into the cold room and cheering all who came within its influence. as a child. HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In half an hour or less it would be a bed of fire. the worker bending down almost double over the work." or he never could do it." Now that the work of Basket Making is being taken up in earnest. the son of my father. We used the old-fashioned English grates. oldest brother. and made a mixture of coal dust and the thick ends or "nubbins" cut from the ends of new splints or "weavers" introduced into the coarse kinds of all My baskets. and I began the studies which culminated two years ago in the publication of my "Indian Basketry.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and after a fire of coals was well alight my father would take a coal scuttle full of this mixture which he called "backing. but it will do I When . other fads it will have its day and then die. In the making some of the larger and coarser baskets the bottoms. not simply a trader in baskets. as my father was a basket maker. treading on the work itself the weavers were woven in. as during the recent Eastern coal strike. of course. After I came to the United States the work of the Paiuti Indians soon arrested my attention. bent over for a few minutes my childish back seemed to be and when I asked Lige how ihe could endure it for hours at a broken. I wish to do my share in helping it along by making a book of helpful instructions and hints that will be worthy the dignity of the subject. after being started. But unlike many fads there is something in the making of baskets that will keep the art alive. from the simplest to the most complex. but personally a skilled workman himself. practically usable. The earlier lessons. My father. Two of his workmen were father and son. INTRODUCTION. should write a treatise on basket making. always a man of originality. a season when coal was dear and scarce. and.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

if not the first. Where possible. Let me at the outset say that the divisions of the subject are purely It does not necessarily follow that the coil weave is harder than the mat weave because the latter comes first in the book. into an object from which imagination may conjure countless fascinatnecessary to for the . That the Indian had to learn everything in that way. married and died. dyeing. at least. indeed. Teachers should encourage their pupils to try every possible Thus invention is stimulated. one of the first. . and returned flushed with victory or sad and despondent through defeat that it was a place where children were born. and general preparation of the material. . and Gray. Especially do I wish to thank Mr.. and the lifeless pile is transformed into a palpable living entity. Ga. but tell that same child that this pile was once a who castle. and endeavor persisted in is failure. let him make his own selections. design. who lived in stirring times achieved things who went forth to war with all pomp and ceremony. electric cars. The skill and dextbe exceedingly useful in the later work. walked and plighted their troth. make some divisions. while what we read or are told may be inaccurate or positively false.HOW no harm TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. but individual thought and expression are to adults to erity thus gained will secured. telegraphs. Let him know that while he is doing this experimenting he is following exactly the plan of Edison. It was arbitrary. Indian felt let them select as the Indian did. Stimulate his and inventiveness in the use of materials. peopled by lords and ladies. true and false. A pile of rocks means little to an unimaginative child. and their preparation in the shape. and weave of his baskets. director of the Industrial School of Columbus. water gas. She had no other teacher than experience. John Sheridan Neligh. as far as I can learn. I have given full credit for everything borrowed. and that knowledge gained by experience is sure and certain. Teach them the value of That failure means endeavor. and. let him determine what is best adapted for this basket and for that. If I have failed to do so I gladly apologize and in later editions the necessary acknowledgements or corrections if will call my attention to them. and these were thought the best purpose in view. and the thousand and one things that mean our progressive civilization. Let the child experiment in the drying. and Bell. . and not only may valuable dismaterial. or. teacher of basketry in the schools of the will make some kind reader . any subject and it enlivens it. It is this thought that should animate every teacher and worker in In going out to choose materials let the children feel as the basketry. In this work I have tried to suggest to the teacher how to make Put human interest into the subject more interesting to her pupils. 7 do the work here outlined. never failure. A variety of materials has been introduced purposely. where all the events that go to make up life transpired. and Lowe. and dyes. coveries be the result. For material for these pages I have ransacked everything I could find. and others of our great inventors who have given us telephones. ing and interesting pictures. Show him that all progress comes that way. where lovers. educated. to show what may be done and to 'Stimulate to personal investigation and experiment.

My grateful acknowledgements are also tendered to Miss Annie United FIG. from whose "Cane Basket I Work" I have bodily taken much will find as valuable material. WHITING. States. helpful wife. For all the photographs of my . for original suggestions. DESIGNED AND MADE BY MARGARET C. CORN HUSK POPPY BASKET. of Teachers' College. Miss Mary White's "How to Make Baskets'' has also been drawn from. hope in return Miss Firth much in If suggestions that she can avail herself of for English readers. has been most generous in her helpfulness. Firth. baskets to photograph. Columbia University. Miss M. and And these thanks also include his help given in a variety of ways. she can. B. 3. MASS. DEERPIELD. I assure her she is most heartily welcome.8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Hyde.

The mat. To any person the exercises will be helpful. 143. The \veb. III. The plait. V. I have deemed it best to discuss each one separately. simple methods of work. The two chapters respectively on The Choice and the Preparation are five of Materials may be skipped or not as the reader desires. There stand. and the practical character of chapter her work will prove a boon to all my readers. PIG. The purpose is to give to the solitary student every advantage for self training and to every teacher suggestions which will aid in her work with children. . the students at the college and the major part of the on dyes I am indebted to her. II.HOW work made by TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. IV. SPOKES TURNED UP FOR SIDES. all of which it is well to underThese are distinguished by the following names: I. The net. In these lessons' I have begun with the simplest materials and work. The coil. While in some regards these five methods overlap each other.

FANCY SPLINT BASKET. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. New York.PIG. 4. .

love. . more or interwoven. in spirit as far or fancy. that made basket-making to the old Indians almost an act of religion. I I CHAPTER II." and such people had better read no further. sentient. at least feel as/ much ? If she sought to present the highest she saw in Nature in the most perfect fashion. Nature herself. viz. for them. their preparation. inharmonious colors. aspimythology. the weave. sign. If the poor uncivilized Indian thus basket-maker clearly should be felt when she approached her work. It was a perfect exemplification I of the idea suggested by the good of the sublimity of the poet Herbert. de. carelessness. were Hence the work was approached in a of art. This at once eliminates the hideous and grotesque in shape. her colors are natural her weaves are ral her designs are natural natural with all the perfection added of conscientious art. And in NaThe Indian's forms are natuture the true inspiration will be found. THE SPIRIT IN WHICH BASKET MAKING SHOULD BE APPROACHED. perhaps. color . should not I also seek to do the same ? An affirmative answer then compels a study of Indian Basketry This will produce a growing love form?. it would be better to say. their liarmoniousness. should not I. the design. impossible deSimplicity signs. is something Xow all this making baskets for "the : higher civilization. the spirit. right the veriest nonsense to the person who is merely money there is in it. inadequate weaves." and in the work of basket-making much will depend upon : the motive." There is more in life than the mere outward expressions of it we call "work. and weave. who said out of a room. religion. poetry. to the all uncontaminated Indian meant a work less ration.. which hope. From this the natural process will be a reference of the Indian work to their original source.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the tout ensemble. Browning well wrote "Not on the vulgar mass called work Must judgement pass. designs. poetic of my readers the ideas given will clearly The attitude of mind and heart in the illuminate what follows. and then in the shape. . There are no fanciful forms." or "because it is quite But to the the rage. colors and weaves. . a conscientiousness of endeavor in the gathering of the materials. the must approach it in true worker desirous of emulating Indian work the true Indian spirit and this I have endeavored to describe in my Suffice it to say here that the basket larger book on Indian Basketry. The true imitator of Indian work or. as removed from that of mere commercialism. or indifference. emotion-full. glaring. in which it is approached and done. national pride. the product of a sweeping believe. There was an earnestness of purpose. desire. passing whim it was from that of levity.

your pupils. simple things.12 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER this BASKETS. FIG. effects incalculable. to love the simple in nature. the dignity. the grace. the unnaturally complex from your line of observation. yet all based upon natural simplicity. 5. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 1 Banish the hideous. and upon the triad and gamut naturally are Diversity without end. the grotesque. is the keynote. design and color the built. Learn to imitate in form. the power that come from purity and simplicity. and your work will gradually take upon itself the character. Begin then by training yourself. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS FAN. your children. New York. variety illimitable. .

the colors will all mean something more to you than what merely shows on the outside. You can thus make the basket your poem." The pleasure of such achievements as this who can tell. its own. as well as a useful aid in training towards manual dexterity and skill. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. your cathedral. the design. 13 I have shown the marvellous personality of the basket. design and This personality cannot be deciphered by reading weaver's the exponent of something within yourself. but can be learned only from the In your work endeavor to follow this Indian idea. who can estimate? Thus the basket becomes a factor in moral and spiritual development. 6. your painting. FIG. color all How that each one has a significance in shape. then the shape. and the moral uplift as desire and endeavor are crystalized into actuality. too. has done.HOW Elsewhere. from elements as TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. lips. Thus work and worker are both ennobled and there are given to the world more things of beauty to be "joys forever. your sculpture. New York. as the Indian own Make your basket in hieroglyphics." and whose "loveliness will increase and never pas* into nothingness.

FIG. The Haida found the cedar bark and spruce root the Poma slough Thus each locality yielded root. filling and dye. CHAPTER III. The powers of observation are lated. some of the chief benefits that should accrue from basket-making are lost if they do not largely do so. CHOICE OF MATERIALS. the method one would get the real value out Indian of basket making. senses alert. the yucca and a desert grass called wu-u-shi. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. So with eyes a-down. it was not to trade that the weaver looked for her basket-making materials. The Mono found the willow. where the art is stimuused . She must find the materials in her own environment. raffia or willow ready dyed and done up in bundles to her hand. the root of the tule. BASE OF BASKETS SHOWN IN FIG. the martynia. The Hopi found the willow. 6. Now while it is not essential that white weavers of baskets should closely confine themselves to material they personally gather. She had no store to which she could go and purchase cane. and. 7. maiden hair fern stem.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. knowledge of local materials gained. Though trade and barter were common with the primitive Indians. the squaw-grass. she set of the is if Here. sweet gras-s. forth to seek for splints. New York. the red bud. as elsewhere. the best to follow. to its weavers the materials' required for the exercise of their art .

. SWALE GRASS TRAY. mined the settlement of a tribe of people. have a tradition which clearly points in a measure in that direction. for instance.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. MASS. imagination and skill. There are few really useless things under the sun. which is a new and direct gain to the community. 15 to help the poor commercially. DEERP1ELD. DESIGNED AND MADE BY GERTRUDE ASHLEY. tain lives camp because civilized races habitat is largely determined locates i>n the desert. 8. hitherto useless material is converted into a financial benefit. The Chemehuevis. This principle should be applied to this art. In some instances there can be but little question that the location all of materials for the pursuit of the art of basket weaving has deter- FIG. and the (history of commercial growth is largely the detailing of how the useless was converted into the useful by invention. The cattleman among The miner near the range where his cattle roam the foundryman near the foundry which employs him the clerk near the store in which he is engaged. canyon or mounthere he finds the precious metal. . . We know that by commercialism.

So the Indian woman's voice was naturally raised in favor of a location where her basket-making material was easiest obtained." . should pitch our We permanent camp. AND advantage feel there is in field trips. a zest and purpose to a ramble to "On this trip let us imagine ourselves Indian women and Indian children going out to hunt grasses or other material for basketwill do this for several weeks.i6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. MADE BY MADELINE T. FIG 9. and then as the result of making. as Indians. our explorations we will decide where we. MASS. WYNNE. This hint can be made interesting by teachers of the art. RED BIRD BASKET. in stimuIt can also be used to excellent lating the imagination of the child. DEERFIELD. It gives an object in view.

CHETEMACHE MATS. Many a nervous. . He is a benefactor in the highest. broken-down adult would find new life and health in doing what Out of doors Into God's Out of doors I have here suggested. FIGS. Breathe in it drink it in absorb it in. send melancholia and depression to the devil. \J Put such a thought as this into the mind gives added pleasure to outdoor rambling. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. pure air. power are hourly being manufactured. sunlight and odors. vigor. New York. nerves and brain with pure life and health. defy the demon of dyspepsia and come back into the world of men and women con! ! . For. come from such trips should not be This. the highest faculty in true education. There is His chemical labratory where Get out into the health. when one thinks that he has found a material that is suitable either for weaver. Selection of the best next follows. 10 AND 11. are healthfully exercised and stimulated. fullness of it.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. filling or dye. and thus both senses and brain. fullest sense who trains another to habits of observation. . throw physics to the dogs. Experimentation follows observation in this field. And this is not merely good for a child. blood. scious of strength and power to do what you will. dyspeptic. Fill up lungs. should ever be kept in exercise. of child or adult and it Then the incalculable benefit in the necessary stimulation of the will powers of observation that overlooked. it must be tested.

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their In "Indian Basketry. It is merely suggestive. One may be cut sevtan. as most of us firmly believe. except. quantity. viz." With all our scientific knowledge we cannot improve upon the methods and results of the Indians. at the outset it will be well their colors in your locality. makes no pretention to completeness. that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew before. in the matter of speed. its habitat. Care should be taken. that wherever an Indian has been over the ground. In this diversity the true student will find pleasure. of centuries of practical experience and therefore. One who has learned how to use willows cannot immediately work in reed or rat- and yucca strands need very different handling from squaw grass or pine needles. to avoid the grasses with saw-toothed or other sharp edges. what they if you have any Indian workers have been in the habit of using in their basketry work. THE PREPARATION OF MATERIALS. is found I shall locality.it can be made. following the suggestions given in this chapter every teacher may enThe following list large the sphere and scope of her benefactions. perfectly beautiful. Their dyes are unfading. not named here.. be obliged if a sample be sent to me. To teach others how a useless weed may be converted into a commercial commodity is to create wealth. It must not be supposed that familiarity with and skill in the use of one material can be transferred at will to some other material!. Each material demands personal study and use. wealth means added cojnfort and happiness. One thing. Personal experimentation should be the keynote in the mind of every adult who seeks to gain the greatest good from basket-making. California. even though her methods may be bettered. in the work of that Indian will be found the very best basket-making material of thai region. to Pasadena. and methods of preparation. The overcoming of difficulties exercises the faculty of invention. 19 CHAPTER IV. 72 to 85. she -may be sure of. appropriate and harmonious. and a caution given to children." pages material as perfect as. I gathered together much information as to materials used by the Indians. For her selection is the result. with its local and Indian name. and among the poor and needy. how prepared and any further particulars that may be of interest. possibly.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In that chapter the student will find many suggestions that may aid her in utilizing the material df her own section. "I will know for myself! 1 will experiment and test and find out everything that can be found out as to the resources of my neighborhood that can be utilized in this work. perhaps. however. The Indian's judgment may be relied upon. and to she can use from her own stimulate the weaver to find out what \Yhen any new material. If it be true. By to see. . habit or growth. it is equally true that he is a benefactor who finds a use for that which has hitherto been deemed useless.

20 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . 13. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. FIG.

numbered from i to No. is found only in Southern and Eastern Asia. The material purchased from the seed The leaf stores is the epidermis of the leaf stripped on both sides. Nos. who has a large number of children to direct. 5 and 6 being used for the coarser work. RATTAN climbing the tallest trees. and 15. the chief type. The much-despised and hated cockle-bur may be used as a stimulant of the child's imagination in the beginning of These burs can be found anywhere. 2. 3. and is put up into bundles of round cane or flat strips. to use it in connection with cane and reed in the manufacture began of sma'll baskets. a form can be created. leave them to their own imagination. and would be useless for this work. itself is very brittle. Its long strands are from one and a half to two feet in length. and seldom exceeding an inch in thickness. is the most expensive. and again ascending. Raffia is the native name given to a Madagascar palm of the tribe Lepidocaryeae. falling in festoons. is one of the most popular of basket-making materials because it is long. a^ type of the sub-tribe Raphieae. and is known as ground-rattan. Sometimes it attains the astounding length of 500 feet. Nos. and was originally shipped to France and England to be used mainly as florists' twine. It has a long leaf. have gathered them they can be shown in one lesson how that. majnly found in the East Indies. tough. 21 such grasses. is an arborescent grass. by Then it is well to sticking them together. It grows erect in dense tufts. flexible and fissile. stripped from its outside is tough and pliable. materials can be used. and it is For. whereais in the use of the shorter splints of the Indian much time would be occupied and patience exhausted in rethreading or reinserting these thus teacher much preferable to the shorter splints of the Indian. allowing them to create any &hape they RAFFIA may is desire. the workers there at once perceived its adaptability and seized upon it as an excellent and ideal weaving material for beginners. The rattan of China and Japan is of the genus Raphis. though the BamIt busa. and when the revival of the art of basketry reached England. being the finest. especially as they afford so much greater opportunity for the exercise of skill and artistic effort. and there are plenty of in handling if careless other materials without using these that may do injury. it is short and soon used up lengths. 4 are common sizes. ideal weaving material for the untrained fingers of be- It is soft and flexible and ginners or the weak fingers of children. and thus the tree is often from 60 to 70 feet high to the tips of the leaves. and then the Germans. for tying up fruit trees and other gardening purWith their native economy the French. The recent awakening to the importance of basketry has brought rattan into marked prominence. It grows in all warm countries. but the fibre It is tied in long hanks. 'holds an important place in the list of basketThe BAMBOO materials. to the a compajratively easy task to see that each pupil has her needlefull of raffia. growing to the height of 20. i.HOW erely TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. It is a palm of the genus Calamus. COCKLE-BUR. 50 and even 120 making . and when the children his work. over 50 feet in length. Prepared for commerce rattan is stripped of its leaves and bark. light. As strength and digital dexterity increase stronger easily handled. poses.

22 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

used in A grass that can be used is SENECA-GRASS. whose tall. ponds. or as unwrapped BROOM CORN LONG and is (Sorghum Vulgare) much cleainer and coils sewed together as illustrated elsewhere. CORN SWEET LONG for the inner coil. also makes excellent filling better than the moss. the (Aesculus). GRASS is largely used in some parts of the United It is States and Canada for the making of simple and pretty baskets. though. splints are made from worked. the Bamboo-palm. are found throughout the whole country and children should be encouraged to do the best they can with such as they can find. wide strips. several wood being white. which is used by the Cahuilla Indians as wrapping splint for their coiled ware. it is cut into The wood splints of the desired width. Raffia vinifera. longer or shorter. and the root purposes. This moss is largely used for the 'stuffing of mattresses. Where mo cutter is to be had the strips may be made with scissors. The Southern variety referred to above . The special kind (S. and also for splints for the mat weave work herein described. a type of a tribe of aquatic plants which grow immersed in shallow bogs and other waters. the knives being set by gauge and screw. elsewhere pictured. smooth." which has three or more tiny but sharp knives protruding from its base. dries well and is excellent for many In California the Scirpus Tatora is called tule. are peeled and make excellent material for wrapping splints. A chapter is devoted to sweet grass weaving. 23 Both with a diameter. though rattan is more common in America for general purposes. As the splint is drawn through the cutter. lacustris). giving the raffia now so largely used. spongy and easily commerce are purchased in long. round stems are seen projecting above the water in lakes. In the South there grows in va'st quantities the (Tillandsia usneoides) whose dense pendulous tufts drape the trees. The ingenious teacher will find many ways of using even as the Indians do. adansoni). TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. To prepare these for basket work two cutting implements are used. nothing durable HUSKS. brown color. Pine needles. PINE NEEDLES. the BUCK-EYE kinds of which are well adapted to this purpose. and of the dwarf palmetto (S. properly Zostera. one species alone. and even for weavers. in the larger speeies. of course. and stems are used in basketry work. a tree growing from 20 to 35 feet high. The PALAI family affords much material for basketry. MOSS.HOW feet. of this has a cuticle of a rich. The broad strip is placed inside the grooves of the "sheer. The (Scirpus) of different species may be largely BULLRUSH basketry. of from 4 to 8 inches. can be expected from such perishable material. and can be used for filling for the inner coil of baskets. but this rs a slow and laborious task. pools and rivers. bluish-green. as has already been shown. The leaves of the palmetto (Sabal palmetto). adapted either for material for the inner coil of coiled baskets. sometimes also known as holy-grass and vanilla-grass. leaves Good soft. From Virginia to Texas there grows along the coast a pine which has spiculae or needles from ten to twelve well The>se needles dry easily and are inches in length.

Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIG. 15. FIG. SPLINT BASKETS. REED BASKETS MADE AT DEERFIELD. 16. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. MASS.

the black is rusty and poor. the There are some pliant species of China). This bark is prepared and the fibre used for textile purposes. 18. a slender branching shrub with tough. The fibre of the cocoanut. picked at the right time the black is perfect. Apache and Havasupai baskets are worked out with it. This is* the stem FERN. (S. which is the same as The SILK the pita of Central America. When FIG. is a valuable fiber produced principally from' the Bromelia Sylvestris. of the Adiantum pedatum. It must be gathered when the pod is at its blackest. FOUNDATION SPLINT CUTTER. could be so prepared as to make a fairly good wrapping splint for coiled work. All lovers of the fine basketry of Northern California know the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry. called COIR. too late.HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. and all the designs of the Pima. a kind of wild pineapple. though the name pita is given indiscriminately to the fibre obtained from the MAIDEN HAIR SMILAX GRASS . which are used in basket-making. Gathered too soon it is greenish. Arrangements have been made for the gathering of abundant quanthese long pine needles and a sample bunch will be sent by mail free on receipt of twenty-five cents. WEAVER FIG. whiclh will grow enough for a small class. 17. tities of being made by The Basket Fraternity to secure these seeds for sale. SPLINT CUTTER. The MARTY NT A is a plant capable of cultivation in any part of A small package of seeds can be purchased for twentythe country. the long-leafed pine (pinus palustris). An effort is five cents. In Australia and New Zealand grows the pimelea. stringy bark. and generally known as the Georgia pine. Pseudo known as bull-brier. of British Honduras.

25. New York. . Work of Students.26 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. Teachers' College. RAFFIA BOUND PICTURE FRAMES.

also known as henequen. Mat splints. and Sisal grass The Century Dictionary gives shall be glad to be enlightened." A . and is largely used for making ship's cajbles. and the finer work is made by splitting the willow into splints and using them for wrapping. In their preparation most of the common grasses will dry if put in little exa warm but shady place. DEERFIELD STRAW BASKETS. Somehow the words "Sisal Willow" have come into use in I am free to confess I do not know what the Sisal Willow basketry.HOW various species O'f TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER This is BASKETS. which is the fibre of the agave ixtli or I henequen. There are two or three species of that are largely culIn Europe the Almond-leafed willow tivated for basket-making. as resists damp- ness better than the simple hemp. or sisal it hemp. and kept turned over every day. (Salix Amygdalkia) and especially the Golden Willow or osier (S. and Sisal hemp. Other materials will be found referred to in later pages showing the infinite variety the ingenious teacher may utilize. perience will soon demonstrate the best method of "curing. WILLOW FIG. of England is made from this latter species. is 160. are made more pliable by slight soaking and then running between the thumb and dull edge of shears. 27 Agave. as do the California and other Indians. but can find no reference to Sisal Willow. especially when made of palmetto or similar material. Most of the coarse basketry Vitellina) are used for this purpose.

Experiment will soon teach the value of this. To learn to dye well is a liberal education in many things. . get it out. experiment in every way. In "Indian Basketry" I tell of some Indian mordants. mix in a little of it. As a general principle. Just as an artist experiments in color on his palette board and thus finds what he wants.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. And who that has done this has not felt the charm and delight of sweet. and. and. when they are rubbed on rattan. restful harmonies in these masterpieces' nay mistresspieces of ancient the outset let anything more than a . In "Indian Basketry" I have said something about them. third and every other place. and the chapter on colors is well worth another reading in connection with these hints. however. As a rule all materials and dyes need a mordant. Explicit directions in so subtle and elusive a matter as dyeing is not to be expected in a book of this character. Also. They are the accursed things which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful. So begin with determination and courage. exquisite melodies of soft. if you have in some long forgotten closet a copy of your great-grandmother's old recipe book. led astray the Indian with aniline dyes did he make mistakes in color. more harmonious. In the first place. Discourage their use in others. CHAPTER V. chemistry teaches that where you have an acid dye it is well to have an alkali mordant. Vegetable dyes are softer in tone. and when an alkali dye an acid mordant. ten to one you will find wonderfully suggestive helps there. Do not touch them. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not -suit such soft and flexible work as basNever until the white man of no artistic taste perverted and ketry. If you are preparing a red. work ? In this chapter I desire to stimulate each thoughtful and earnest student to the endeavor to reach what these wild weavers reached. Thus a valuable and interesting discovery may be made. and better in accord with basketry work. This is to "fix" the dye. cheaply. Alum is a good ordinary mordant and can be had. and they cannot be improved upon. anywhere. so may you. and happen to 'have some other dye at hand. Hence to get rhe true conception of color one has but to study the old baskets. be understood fully that this is not presented as chapter of suggestion and hints. Miss White tells of "one basket-maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. more permanent. fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are " anathema " to ajll " " true basketry lovers. delicate. color it a beautiful shade which is We quite as fast as most dyes. reminding you of the days when your ancestors spent many hours over the dye pot or tub. know 'somewhat of their methods. Remember that experience will widen your horizon and enlarge your capacities. second. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid. DYES At : HOW TO MAKE AND it USE THEM. and test the result." Hence. tender.

Miss Hyde prefers much less. the stems. deep Combined with cream of tartar it gives a bright red. Be sure to keep your hands out of this mixture. and are used. So before the materials are immersed.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. can also be used with good results. Cochineal. You will not care satisfactory. but the acid will rot the material to be dyed. and the root is the part to use. Use a stick to stir it with. Logwood extract gives a fine brown. and the dye can be used with safety. The bark of the maple and pine both give nice shades of brown. . Do not buy it in stick form. gives the color must be confessed it is difficult to handle without exMiss Hyde found Chase's Recipe Book give her help. This allows the soda to completely neutralize the sulphuric acid. though not as strong as logwood gives satisfactory Walnut and hickory nut shells results if an extra quantity is used. There is nothing to fear. to be purchased of any druggist. This gives a bright yellow. TAN. and one will find great pleasure in experimenting with bark from different trees. and thus prepares for the permanent fixing of the dye a thing much to be desired. to handle the poke berries as they stain the hands. As> soon as the indigo is dissolved fully. however. LOW. diluting with water when red. Butternut bark. and is easy to handle. and combined PURPLE. add water and put in soda until it stops foaming. Madder gives a dull red. John's wort (hypiricum perforatum). Indigo. The sulphuric acid is poured on the indigo. Cranberries give a dull red. But this dye is never strong even though a large quantity of the leaves The powder of BROXVN Blood Root gives a deep yellow. Saffron can be bought from the druggists. which can be found growing everywhere on the roadside. preferably about fo-ur ounces to two gallons of water. ORANGE. It is well to make plenty of this mixture. Dragon's blood gives a pleasing orange. perience. as water will not readily dissolve the stick. the acid must be neutralized by the addition of soda. This gives a light yellow that is very pleasing. and alcohol must be used for the purpose. The powder can be bought from any druggist. which keep stirring often. though animal. leaves and flowers. Learners will find that indigo will not dissolve in water. Sulphuric acid will dissolve it. is suggested for a dark. and stirred vigorously. in used. Onion skins give a dull yellow that is> very satisfactory. but it GREEN. and beets a color similar but more The poke berry gives a purple red. while the fruit gives a reddish or what might better be termed a light or pink tan. causing the liquid to foam in an alarming manner. This allows the fibre of the raffia or rattan to take up the mordant. drop by drop. and stems give a good tan. 2Q Miss \Yhite suggests the use of a solution of three ounces of alum dissolved in a quart of water. YELGather St. The powder is easier to handle. . with ammonia a good purple. This can be bought from the druggists powder form in the South it can be found growing in the fields. RED. Sumac leaves. Inj the making of dye here are a few hints as to material. When the alum is well dissolved place the liquid in a small tub and soak the material to be dyed in it for fully two hours. for blue.

makers. TO MAKE THE A Butternut bark. let it remain longer. enough (as experience will soon demonstrate). is of taking on soft and harmonious colors. TO Be sure and strain the dye. "Basket workers. walnut shucks. a little more will do no harm. All of the above will generally give their color with a half hour's good boiling. onion skins. The green coloring matter had gone new matter or changed matter was in its place. that can be held in both hands. stumble upon many interesting facts. or groups of workers. always using a wooden stick for the purpose. it for them. and if found not strong enough can either be boiled down or more material used. In u sing beets. general proportion to be observed is two ounces to one gallon of water. This gives a fairly strong dye. In every case the dye must be boiling when the material is immersed. if necessary. a society whose work in fine basketry other pages of this book will well testify to. all > DYE THE arrest the work of the dye and give irregular color effects. of the Pocumtuck Basket Society of Deerfield.30 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. use about one pound to a gallon of water. The following is from the pen of Miss Margaret C. as if there is any sediment it is liable to etc. In an early bulletin 'of the Basket Fraternity I hope to publish a full and detailed account of Deerfield and its work. This time their green dye came out "brown. TIME TO COLLECT MATERIALS.. All the materials are to be boiled. or of becoming an capable It is fortunate that many individual basket offence to the eye. and they secured a delicious shade of green. On the other hand. Even in this work one is liable to . poke berries. For a dye pot a good enamel kettle is as serviceable as anything. Experience has demonstrated that the best time to collect these materials is in October or November. Thus observation and interest are stimulated the first elements of all true education. put in about five or six large beets to a gallon of water. who work in raffia. in either doing their or employing someone own dyeing who has in indigo. sumac. It does not need much suggesting to show how that to an intelligent teacher this practically prepared the hearts and minds of her pupils for a valuable lesson in natural history. If this is not Let it remain in the liquid from 15 to 20 minutes. and no craftsman will continue long to rest satisfied with seeing his design developed in the loud and vulgar colors that raffia dyed In itself raffia is a material that in chemical or aniline dyes produce. when the seeds and fruit are ripe and the sap is well down in the trunks of the trees. cochineal needs fully two hours to C* C? produce good results-. Three or four weeks later they again wished some green dye. fustic. so that the color evenly reaches: all the parts. DYES. Cranberries. \Yhiting. MATERIAL. It can be diluted. Keep turning the material over and over. put in more. . are following the exampe of Deerfield. realize the necessity of natural dyes in order to and lasting color combinations in their designs. By . Mass. First mordant as before described. skill and time to do madder and copperas. have only lately begun to produce good and is a fundamental it need. and went and gathered more walnut shucks. If these do not produce the desired color.. For instance." and the disappointed children were unable at first to comprehend the reason for the change. one teacher had her scholars gather walnut shucks for dyeing purposes.

from Mrs. New York.HOW these TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 3! means the dld-fashioned processes of hand-dyeing are being revived. whose maker whimsically proclaimed to grow in "the vale of cedars. which her own desire to produce turns to admirable account. that which was decorated with a stiff row of tulips. for a charity." and still another developed in orange and black with a barbaric design in white beads. are so pleasing to the eye. who can say?" . of Brooklyn. whose "Colonial Dyes" of over a dozen shades and tones of reds. of Students. Teachers' RATTAN. Miller's colors proved the charm possible to FIG. obtain from the color harmonies of vegetable dyes. The much lamented decay of good design and of excellence in ornamental work has been largely helped by the manufactured dyes how great an influence toward the tasteless and tawdry has been wrought by the invention of aniline colors. Miller. The basket with a holly design. how their mere possession gives suggestion of patterns and combinations to the eye of a skillful basket-maker. 135. yellows. Such an one is Mrs. browns. . greens and blues done in small vats prepared by old rules of tried permanence. and far-reaching effects may quite reasonably be hoped for from the individual dyers who are thus being encouraged. Work SIMPLE WEB BASKETS OF College. tried by the garish modern colors that it is impossible to be'lieve the future will consent to accept. another that bore trees. of baskets made by a group of amateur but skillful basket-makers in a surburban town belonging to Greater New York. all show the inspiration harmonious colors give to the designer. Quite recently a modest sale.

SINGLE WEAVING. In both these cutters the broad . in width. A . DOUBLE WEAVING. A SPLINT.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 19 tapestry needle is good to begin with) strong scissors. 22. indeed an old rasp file Rubber thimble and finger caps will answer the purpose very well. or strand A . TOOLS AND TERMS USED.splint is inserted. resulting splints is the name given to the strip or splint. an awl about four inches long. a small hamimer. CHAPTER VI. to have Fig. FIG. and can be set by means of the thumb screw brass fillers to cut the splints from an eighth of an inch to dition. The student should be provided with the follotwing tools needle (about a No. and then rapidly pulled. 18 and the an inch at the proper distance Fig. the 26 West 23rd street. FIG. . PAIRING. kindly permitted me accompanying engravings made from her two cutters. or weaver. employed by the Hyde Exploring Expe: . are cut to the required length. 19. This should be about five or six inches long and two inches broad. 17 consists of a number of knives set apart for the 'making of splints for weavers. are useful. New York. Cutters for preparing wood splints are used by the Eastern Indians. when these members are tender. is adjustable. flat pliers or pincers a narrow piece of heavy. 21. a yard measure and foot rude a sharp knife a pair of small. pressed upon With a pair of scissors the the knives. FIG 20. FJG. flat iron or steel that can be used as a hammer between the spokes of a basket. . Miss Marie Toxuse.

they must be included in the four to make up this twist. and if one or more weavers have already been used. 23. the other behind the where two weavers are used. weavers are taken on to the next spoke twist them so that the lower weaver takes the place of the upper. 23. 21. . WEAVING. It is to pack tightly together this kind of weaving that the flat piece of iron referred to in the list of tools is so useful.is where two weavers are used DOUBLE instead of one. For starting.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. PAIRING. either for beauty or strength. The fingers in Fig. 22. TRIPLE WEAVE. 24. 33 piece of material used for wrapping. TRIPLE TWIST. 19 hold a The warp the foundation splints are the ribs. Then as the FIG. or twined. upon which the basket is built up. This weave is used where a break or dividing line in a basket is desired. but one is placed same spoke. being laid at the same time on the top of the weavers that preceded it. then each weaver is brought in succession before two spokes and behind one. thus alternating. the bones. splint. This is a variation of the triple weave. 24. FIG. The woof splints are the weavers which are wrapped. SINGLE WEAVING. and before the next. the framework. or worked in various ways in and out of the warp splints. the spokes. This is shown in Fig. though four or more weavers may be used. Three weavers are placed behind three consecutive spokes. This is clearly shown in Fig. It is also used as a border finishing weave. as in Fig. four weavers are placed behind four consecutive spokes. This. Each in its transit to the back of the fourth spoke must be laid on the top of the other three weaver?. see Fig. see Fig. (This is before. ROPE TWIST. The weaver is placed behind one spoke or foundation rod. 20. ROPE TWIST.

Work of Students. RAFFIA WRAPPED ARTICLES. raffia to advantage in teaching little children illustrating the use of two materials of different degrees of flexibility. CHAPTER VII. the radius board Cut an inner . Teachers' College. 26. the more readily does one see the possibilities and limitations of each . even though the immediate results are not the ones you individually are seeking. HOW TO BEGIN. bristol Cut a 6-inch square from being three inches. and from dampen the raffia several hours before using. here given." In all the following exercises it is well to PICTURE FRAMES. One of the first and most important results to be attained is the familiarizing the student (be he child or adult) with the materials to Hence the wisdom of following out alii the suggestions be used. this cut a circle. New York.34 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Miss Hyde suggests: "One may combine bristol board with FIG. The greater the variety of materials used.

Then wrap the board with raffia in its native color. FIG. let the child feel that this frame is to enshrine a picture that means something to him. or some beloved friend or scene. MAGAZINE HOLDER OF WRAPPED RAFFIA. This for a small picture. 26. opening allows A In the making of these picture frames cultivate a senise of proporThe frame must not be too large for the picture it is to hold nor too small. simple loop may be made of the raffia with which to hang up the frame. as preferred. and a toy umbrella." possibilities in this use of materials are suggested made of Here are a book mark." but it is a frame especially for a picture of papa or mamma. 35 1-4 inches. or dyed. all wrapped raffia. as well as its mind and of a picture. too.HOW circle with radius i TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Thus the heart of the child. . merely "a frame anyhow. "artistic. a napkin-ring. or made fingers are engaged in the work. For the book-mark any kind of splint may . It is not simply a frame for any kind tion. giving a diameter of 2 1-2 inches. or the baby. 28. Then. This is the prime element in all work we designate Other interesting in Fig.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Q El k CU <! tf fo o tf o ^ o H R d tf H J O ffi H N <J O 9 p H 8 O .

To finish let the coil gradually diminish. For the umbrella take a Glue a piece of cork upon one end. and later in the chapter on Indian Stitches. Take a sufficient number of strands of raffia to make 1-4 inch coil and wrap with a strand of colored raffia Coil and sew back and leaving distances of 1-2 inch between wraps. The coiling of natural colored raffia and wrapping with a strand of dyed material is an easy method for children. Into this piece of No. page 160. as clearly engraving. SIMPLE COILED BASKETS. 30. Then shown in the Work \ PIG. and then edged with plaited raffia. A SIMPLE BASKET FOR CHILDREN. giving one twist around each spoke and going on to the next one. make small holes and glue therein seven lengths of No. i or No. sewed on. 37 raffia is wrapped from one spoke to another. Teachers' College.HOW be used. of Students. and the stitches should not be noticed. The napkin-ring is made by wrapping the raffia around a splint or card-board base. 4 rattan. as. . forth holding the coil to the left. circled into ring form. New York. Then begin to wrap with raffia. 2 rattan. This mode of wrapped weaving was long ago used by the Mohave Indians in the making of their carrying baskets. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. shown in Indian Basketry.

let the pupil undertake the making of a table mat of any suitable material similar When it is the to Fig.nJ f>- ' r| \a. 31 and 32 clearly show the simplest forms of this kind of work. FIG. one at a time. A width of paper. wood (such as ash. This simple checkenvork is the basis for good work later on. size desired. and width. awl or piercer. CLOSED. number of splints of equal MATERIALS REQUIRED. 35. accuracy and speed in the manipulation of mat and good exercise will be had by imitating Figs. all kindergarten teachers are more or less familiar with. Then take same number and weave them. scissors. 32. 31. After a little practice in this with coarse splints>.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the material is so different in character. and then unravel or split the splints as It is well to gain shown in the illustration. Take a number of splints of equal length Place ten or a dozen side by side. etc. et or bowl of water. ^ ft J-i . 33. over and under the warp at right angles.. OPKX. A buck- CHECKERBOARD. etc. oak. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. While mat weaving uses the warp and woof in exactly the same manner as they are used in what I have termed the web weaving.) palmetto. and needs such different handl- ing.\' ii-L FIG. 34. Figs. It will be seen that the splints are fine. splints. 36 . knife. that it is deemed wise to differentiate and give two separate sets The earliest stages of this form of weaving of lessons in their use. THE MAT WEAVE.'. This makes the warp. sew the edges tight with white thread. CHAPTER VIII.

) Take a short splint.) In Figs. thrusting splints through the long Pull tight. open it and fold around long splint to the right. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. Take two weavers of equal width. splint to left and through long as FOLDING EXERCISE. with result is the accordeon fold (B. up. The next short splint fold around long splint to the left. place them side by side. can be utilized in the Fold all the splints lengthwise. (See C) in the fallowing order: down.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Back and forth the folds then go retaining them at right angles. Take the two long FIG 33. holding them with ends at right angles. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. many splints as desired. from left to right. So on alternating. splint to right. right and left. 37. 10. These weaves making of many beautiful baskets later on. . (See Fig. then the horizontal over the perpendicular. TABLE MAT. Fold the perpendicular splint up over the horizontal one. 38. 11. with ends reversed. or fold one long splint as shown in A. 39 and 40 are seen four beautiful specimens of . 39 with weavers of two colors. taking care that each fold is absolutely even. 38. Fig. ones. Pull tight. from right to left and so on.The accordeon fold. The . Fig.

ETC. FIGS. 39 AND 40.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. !!<. New York. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. CHETEMACHE MATS. ACCORDEON PLAIT. 38.

Take top splint. 4! Chetemache weave. under and over as if going to make ordinary square mat weave. Lay two two vertically. In these mats. Their dyes are evidently vegetable and the exquisite color effects produced are worthy of imitation. The binding is simple. . DIFFERENT COLORS. horizontally and weaver Take four long splints. as seen in the illustration. oblique or diagonal. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE.. Change \vork to right hand.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and then sewed on with a fine on the upper edge of the mat. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. The colors are a dull Indian red PATTERN PRODUCED PATTERN PRODUCED BY INTERLACING BY INTERLACING STRANDS OF STRANDS OF DIFFERENT COLORS. with the natural greenish-gray of the palmetto. PIG. fold backwards. and later on. using splints of palmetto. 34. ISOLATED FIGURES PRODUCED BY MODIFYING ORDER OF INTERSECTION. conjure up designs from her own imagination. La. and black. This tribe of Indians lives on Avery Island. FIG 36. and makes beautiful baskets of a variety of shapes. holding in left hand. bringing edge parallel with the right edge of the perpendicular splint. 37. the designs are worked out with different colors. A flat splint is laid lengthwise FIG. The design is easily followed and the learner will find it excellent practice to endeavor to imitate.

. 41. FIG. 43. SPLINT PICTURE FRAME FOUNDATION.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. SPLINT PICTURE FIG. SPLINT MAT WEAVE BASKETS. 42. FRAME.

Fig. two ends. 18. one of which is illustrated Another form napkin ring may PICTURE FRAME. These sizes determined it is easy to cut splints the required length. Fig-. in great variety of shapes and sizes. Trim off loose edges and the result is Fig. obliquely and press edges towards center to keep the work evenly. When the corners are turned up. fold upper horizontal downwards as before.. folding as directed. 38. in B. taking care. 43 is shown how this square mat weave may be utilized. 2.its upper edge lie parallel with the bottom horizontal splint. folding it around the fourth warp easily splint from either end. Then study. fastener for the cover to the handle of the basket made by taking a long splint. the woof splints of the sides can be continued around the corners and used as the woof splints of the ends. 4 on Fig. 38. instead of obliquely folding and creasing the splint. 42. The question of basket size can always be determined with a little In mat weaving the width of splint must be considered. tucking in the edges as per the illustration. which can have cardboard or leather back glued or sewed upon it. Work held in left hand. or easel. making. Fig. two sides. C. This crosses right perpendicular splint. to allow two inches or so for turning in (tucking in) at the edges. Fig. 41. 3. These even widths can best be made with the cutter shown in Fig. When the It is made same as A. and proceed. then wrapping one of the folds with the other in an oblique wrap. A of napkin ring can be made from in the edges. In Fig. 43. The bottom of A is of mat foundation (simple checkerboard). 38. there are practically five sides. the upright or warp splints are turned over and deep enough is tucked in. however. It should never be forgotten that good work of any kind can be done only with splints of perfectly even width. Then Hold now left perpendicular folded horizontally as before. hanger. bringing them together and then proceeding to unite them with the ordinary flat mat weave. 41. the lid for D. Cornucopias.. (See D. Prepare foundation as described for Fig. thus strengthening the A little practice soon enables one to do this "tucking in" or parts.) NAPKIN RING. 38.) A beautiful variation of the lower edge of the weaving of a diagonal band is shown in H. Pass under first folded splint. boxes. viz. Material required: eight long splints of one or various colors necessary number of short splints. one set to the left. as long as required. is "doubling" cover skilfully. There are now two perpendicular sets of splints. Then insert small splints and fill up the vacant spaces marked I.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and two horizontal. this strip of diagonal weaving. covers. Where the splints meet they can be tucked in. etc. Fig. is A D . tucking (G. 43 fold left splint obliquely.) be made by leaving a little longer ends to the diagonally woven strip. Fig. Open up as Fig. one set to the right. may be made upon these principles. Here. 43. bottom. 37. (F. and binding it to the fourth warp splint from the other end. A little practice will make the weaver perfectly conversant with this pretty variation. it is merely twisted in a curve back to the place it would have had if folded and creased. with ring .

Hold required to be. Teachers' College. or palmetto. up between the two. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Work splint. of Students. Figs. Then wrap around left foundation is D made To produce : FIG. A little practice will soon teach how to affix to basket. cane. clothes baskets. alternating over and under. Take two pieces of rattan. it is in the same way as its cover C. The handle is made as follows willow. 44. over and around right foundation splint back between the two.44 HOW The basket deeper. taking care always to overwrap or tuck in all ends. 44 and 45 show a variety of small models of baskets made by Excite the interest of children in the students at Teachers' College. foundation canes in thumb and forefinger of left hand with weavers under one and over the other. and so on. down and around left splint. The result will be an interesting collection. except that the narrowing together towards the top the warp splints should be made to taper a little. the thickness desired and the length the handle is For weavers use long mat splints well soaked. New York. forms of baskets in actual use. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. and then urge them to imitate or reproduce in minature. showing market baskets. grocers baskets. cotton .

in which holes an inch apart are bored. leaving an end two and one-half inchee long. It of splints. can well be exemplified and important lessons given. and has a decided value in teaching the handling legitimately comes under the head of mat weaving. keeping is practically useful. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. up through next hole on the right. of Students.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to use. top and bottom. To cane chairs is not a difficult art. etc. etc. . etc. CAXING CHAIRS. Here adaptability to purpose. overcome the problems involved. at bottom row. Hold the frame on the Count the holes. . New York. . purchase from a kindergarten suppy house a small. Now bring long end of cane. and fine fine. hampers. two persona. such as is used how carried what it is to carry whether carried by one or : How . which will each basket readily suggest themselves to the teacher. and pull a piece lap top uppermost. 45. medium. of fine cane up through the center bottom hole. 45 All these are simple and need no detailed inbaskets. Cane is coarse. different methods of work. To practice. square frame. fine. P'jii peg into both of these holes to keep cane in place. locality used. It must be soaked in water before using. and down through center top hole. The children will readily structions further than those already given. Show how environment influences everything and that the use of different baskets in different localities for the same purpose is the result of different growths. Teachers' College. yet Work FIG. Buy or make pegs to fit these holes.

. right. then to the left. 49. Take cane now this lacing Peg. over a single splint. from the lower left corner to the upper right. For a binding stitch over the holes. WEAVE OF CHAIR CANE. CANING A CHAIR. and from the lower right to the upper left. 48. actual weaving must beThe splint must be taken under a cross. Now start to the left of the center This done. A . TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (See Fig. At the fourth row from the center. FIG. viz.46 it flat. over single. CANE TIE. run a splint to the up- Now. 46). process until right side of frame is reached. working from center to left. working first to the right. Now put in the in exactly the same way. FIG. continue taking care not to and lace as on the the frame will be horizontal splints right and center to to corresponding hole on top row. starting n PIG. FIG. 47. filled with lines of vertical splints. from lower left-hand corner. per right-hand corner and continue these diagonal lines exactly the same as the vertical ones. but towards the left side of frame. wide enough to cover the holes of the edge. under a cross. however. gin. The frame is now a network of squares. HOW Peg it. CANING A CHAIR. 46. This diagonal weaving must be done in the two ways. inserting one end down splint of fine cane is now brought through the hole at one corner. pull the cane tight. take a splint of binding cane.

as shown in Fig. Now begin the diagonal weaving from lower left corner to upper right corner. 49. In finishing off the ends. . Now follow these by putting in another set vertiThe fourth cally on top of the first ones and through the same holes. 52. While doing the work endeavor to have one The explanations that follow will then be perfectly simple. row is horizontally put in and must be woven as follows over one upper vertical. without any attempt tO' tie. at the same time pulling the upper vertical to the right.) Everyone is familiar with the octagonal meshed weave of the ordinary cane-seated chair. DOLL'S HAT AND TRAY OF PLAITED RAFFIA. and going over or under as the case may require. This will be found to hold securely. 48. 47 up through every other hole. Sit on a small stool or hassock and tilt the chair forward upon your Find the center as before described. which should always be on the under side of tlhe frame. finish off with the bind- FIG. Put in the splints vertically lap. is completed. When the diagonal weaving ing as before described. thus couching it. These go under and over the horizontal pairs and vertical pairs as shown in Fig. (See Fig. creasing firmly. : : portion. In many chairs there are little problems in the corners that the good sense of the weaver will easily solve if he is careful to have a due regard for proof these as a pattern close at hand. and horizontally. Pass it underneath the loop. FIG 53. bring the loose end to the nearest loop. The one thing of importance to remember is that the first row of splints must be put on loosely.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. HOOP AND SCHOOL BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA. across the binding and back again through the same hole. draw tight. then once again. under lower vertical. for there are six rows of splints and the later woven rows tighten up to the others. 47.

51 is composed entirely of plaited belts. 54 and 55 are composed of model hats made by the students at Teachers' College. sewed with the edges outermost. stimulate interest by showing how these plaits can be utilized. and the bottom belt shows that tttie ends are utilized for tying. THE PLAIT OR BRAID. soon demonstrate >how much raffia must be used to obtain a plait of any given size. To facilitate this place a screw hook in the wainscoting or on the under side of the work table. A little These laces can be dyed so as to give design in the plait. and see that it is closely and evenly done. Columbia University. let the child practice on simple plaiting with strands of raffia. 50. for their own personal use. Fig. both made of plaited All the articles of Figs. 52 shows a hoop of plaited raffia. Every schoolboy and girl is more or less familiar with the simple forms of plaiting. 50 is the beginning of a small mat. a handle. on which the A little practical experience will raffia can be placed while plaiting.53 sihows a small raffia. one Below it to the left is one of with. In the center of Fig. Ga. New York. The saddle girth above is of braided sisal hemp expressly for that purpose. The rings are ordinary brass rings. Under the direction of the teacher this can easily be converted into a harness. to plait the entire length needed before beginning to use the plait. Figs. another shape. used by boys and girls in one of their out-door games. not by tying. Neligh's school in Columbus. Belts. 52 and 53 were made by small children at Mr. To give purpose to the work. CHAPTER IX. To the right and below is a band made by sewing the plaits together. lengthen It is not necessary it by splicing. etc. toy harness and the like are easily made from this plaited work. and the other without. In these three the plaits are flat and sewed edge to edge with a large darning needle. Alternate plaiting and sewing give variety. bag-handles. They are all of braided raffia. Fig.48 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. To gain digital dexterity it is well to introduce it into a Course of Basketry. and a tray. Sew on one side only. Both boys and girls can be much interested in this plaiting if the articles made are converted into playthings. doll's hat. In the making of these hats seek to draw out the individuality of . Fig. experimentation will soon show that the design depends entirely upon how the colored lace is placed at the beginning of the plait. with the edges outer- most and sewed as the coil grows. First of all. used for car- rying books. for the boy's own use in playing horses. using for thread a fine strand of raffia. In this the plaits are coiled flat. or something useful. beginning first with coarse and later using finer material. covered with the lace. made of corset lacings. thus avoiding knots. Above it are two wall pockets. When a length of raffia is about to give out. and below is a school-bag.

the policeman's helmet. ive shapes. the outing hat. the Coolie. the Chinese. whilst a girl from the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania will make a Dutch farmer's hat. ARTICLES OF PLAITED RAFFIA. 50. geography. To add interest to the work the child know something of the wearer of these different kinds of hats. etc. 49 each child or student. social and domestic customs. Others will try the Panama. sombrero. while in the hats of the peasantry of the world a host more FIG. Here come in opportunities for fascinating little chats on history. etc. ETC. the reasons that used to exist for the different kinds of headgear used in the various regiments of the ^ame army.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the poke In army hat>s< of different nations are a score of suggestbonnet. . another a A Southern girl will naturally try a colonial. Let one make a continental hat. still another a Puritan. let of excellent suggestions may be found.

produced. neatness in sewing the plaits together. Firmness of weave. New York. Figs. . make such an one as you would personally like to wear. the shape of the face and Thus she is head. 51. individuality. of the wearer. solidity of the basket as a whole. and good shape are all sought after. Teachers' College. the form. the conscious exercise of choice. the color of the hair. Remember that a good milliner in choosing a hat studies. harmony of color wihere it is used. FIG. 56 and 57 are various baskets of plaited raffia made by the Various colors are used and pretty students of Teachers' College. choice of a able to produce a hat that will harmonize with the individuality of the wearer. etc. 58. Then. Then try to make a hat that would suit some friend. Work of Students. and the effects manner of making is clearly shown in Fig.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER taste BASKETS. too. PLAITED BELTS. Five-stranded plaits of raffia often come in very useful. native in the may be exercised and called into existence modern outing hat.. "If you make a modern hat." This demands personality.

. 50a. 51 FIG. BOTTOM OF DEERFIELD BASKET.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . Teachers' College. New York. Work of Students. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. FIG. 54.

etc. It should be slightly dampened for several hours before using. Even unbraided raffia may be rushes. secure twelve strands raffia of two colors and a stick about a yard long and one and one-half inches wide. of Students. yucca fibre. used. Twisted hemp. 53 CHAPTER X. 55." it will be seen that carrying The nets were and are made by the Mission Indians of California. "Indian Basketry. as shown in A.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Hold the stick in any easy position so that a strand of raffia may be doubled and tied around the . THE NET. Various materials can be used in this work. Pimas have a carrying basket in which the net is used. Work PIG. 61. Teachers' College. For a netted work or handkerchief-bag. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. braided raffia. Fig. From page 158.

Draw the knot tight. Put on the rest of stick. The ends are then cut evenly. Separate to about an inch apart. the strands in like manner. as shown in Fig-. then knot each strand at about the distance of an inch with the nearest strand of the next pair. BASKETS OF PLAITED RAFFIA. 56. bag is A pretty effect of complete. narrowing the meshes Work FIG. Make even meshes all the way across. Teachers' College. of Students'. At the bottom the whole of the strands are gathered together and tied with a single or braided strand. Continue this all the way down for five or six rows. of two bot- . Then slip the knots from the stick.54 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. and proceed to close up the bag by knotting the loose sides together. 59. a length of plaited raffia put through the upper mesh and tied. tom rows is caused by loosely braiding the strands meshes before knotting them. and the towards the bottom.

Teachers' College. The ends can then be cut and thie bag is complete. A . of Students. and the number of strands When BASKETS OP PLAITED RAFFIA. Fig. New York.HOW Another TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. 55 the meshes of equal size two sides. then joining the FIG. 61. at the bottom. style of bag made by keeping all the to the bottom. twine bag may be made in the same manner as A. are the bag is lined with silk or turkey red cotton it is a pretty and serviceable article. of raffia and sewed desired they may be made 57. way by matching t)he knots and meshes together and then knitting two strands from the front and two from the back together for the finishing row. If tassels Work on. except that the meshes must be much smaller.

and tied tightly on the top. In netting with raffia or other materials! an infinite variety of articles may be made. STITCH AND 59. limited to the size of the ball of twine. B is a small netted purse of raffia of fine mesh. STRAND DETAIL OF FIVE PLAIT. it can be suspended wherever needed. 58. C is netting the same as described in the work-bag A. Fig. 61. NET MESH. and all different. D is a pretty little basket made of a fibre brought from Puerto .50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 62. 60. FIG. but has a bottom and top of coiled and sewed plaited raffia. KNOT OF RAFFIA. FIG. With a tassel on the bottom. C and D. as suggested in B. using the single net stitch of Fig. ETC. NETTED BAGS OF RAFFIA. the twine allowed to come through one of the meshes. FIG. SNIGLE NET MESH. FIG. 60. FIG. 61.

It is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. When all the rings are covered. FIG." Any of these may be imitated in raffia. stitch shown in Figs. FIG.HOW Rico. FIG. FIG. 66. similar to Figs. for which I am indebted to the "Priscilla Needlework as required. and then join by passing a ribbon or five-strand plait of raffia (see Fig. These may be imitated from any book of fancy needlework. 67 and 68. 62 to 66. 57 composed entirely of fancy stitches. overlap them. as slhown in Fig. 58) an inch wide. 65. NET MESH. 69. 64. then under and over. NET MESH. 63. etc. A pretty napkin-ring can be made by taking ten curtain rings about an inch in diameter and covering them with the buttonhole Raffia or any fibre may be used. through. Book for 1903. knotted or fastened These fancy stitches give wonderful variety to basket work and can be introduced here and there as taste and skill dictate. . NET MESH. NET MESH. yucca fiber. The size of rings may be varied to suit the size of napkin.

<! H H a fe .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

twine. raffia. the upright stitches lend themiselves to the greatest variety of intricate patterns. etc. corn husks. and others as large as a flour barrel some specimens have . except that an oval center was first made by bending a strong and thick needle to the . 70. while cat-tail. Taking a length of the coil material." The simplest form of coiled work is shown in Fig. 36. This gives the even and beautiful spiral effect. THE COIL WEAVE. Colis of coiled trays made by the students of Teachers' Fig. it is tightly wrapped with thread. . raffia. or whatever is to be used for sewing. coil to diminish gradually and make a secure fastening. Let the children go out and gather their own material for these 'simple trays. Great care should be exercised in putting in new material to reUpon this depends the evenness of the work. broom corn. The zig-zag introduced and the mat then completed with three rounds of coil. and in o-thers. is basket makers in American West and Southwest. or of A leather. allowing spaces of one inch between wraps then fasten and sew. lege. the stitches being is needed for the sewing. Dye the hemp and take an amount equivalent to three-eight inch coil wrap for a distance of three-fourths of an inch. with colored quills). in design. There are specimens delicately made that will pass through a lady's finger ring. : etc. of the best the world. as in the Pima granaries. as in a table mat. the root material is shredded so fine that nearly 100 stitches In form. thus giving a radiaTo finish allow the tion from the center as the work progresses. It large variation. strong tapestry needle The coil is then begun. will be easily mastered. made exactly as the mat in Fig. The variation of B. rushes. when performed by an exquisitely beautiful. . is The first grass coil is sewed to its outer edge. as this is. stitching material one-half inch wide. straw.. sweet grass. sedges. such as grass. 72 is of a group of mats and baskets made of long pine needles. taken just past the proceeding one. as the work progresses. The is coil is one of the favorite weaves. Of these Miss Hyde writes and thus instructs how to make They are made of hemp. perfectly flat. and. As Professor Mason has well written: "Coiled basketry in point of size presents the greatest extremes. 70 is of raffia. viz. They are pretty and useful. The material of the coil may be almost anything capable of being coiled. shredded The plain mat of Fig. Fig. 59 CHAPTER XI. plenish the coil. The center may be birch bark (ornamented. or built up into the most exquisite jar shape. and made with comparative ease. combined with grasses. split willows. with a center of cedar-bark.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 70. Fig. the coiled ware may be are made within an inch of space. the Indians of the simple and yet capable of artist. each time inserting the needle with point toward you between every wrap. 71 gathered in the immediate neighborhood of New York. the fancy one is of sweet grass. D is an oval mat..

PINE NEEDLE COILED BASKETS. New York. 71.FIG. 72. Teachers' College. . Work of Students. SIMPLE COILED TRAYS. FIG.

amples was made of the helix or spirally coiled type of basket. to produce the bulge of the vessel. the width of brim three-quarters of an inch. 74. It is two and a quarter inches across at the botis the lid.HOW shape required. usually willow. with the aid of a bodkin. these long pine needles baskets are known they will become wonderfully popular in a short time. to form the tapering upper part and neck. A grass stems or osiers softened in water was first spirally wrapped a little at one end with a flat. The handles of G are each of two circular coils. sewed on after the basket was elsewhere finished. as the basis. This wrapped portion was then wound upon itself. Here are two important things to be attained. yet made in the same way. When FIGS. 74. to which A tom and 1 the lid is. 72.) tiguous inner coil. first outward. and used makes an excellent tray for the toilet table. In the making of all these baskets stimulate the student to stability . 6l This was then filled up with darned work. MANUFACTURE OF SPIRALLY COILED WEAVES. Cushings description: simple coiled weave. Figs. F is C is smaller and the two upper coils are made oval so as to afford two B is a dainty little basket. including brim. three and one-eighth inches. are dissimilar in shape. decked off with a piece of ribbon. manufacture of the Havasupai. and sewed to the sides-. 73. No "wobblety" bottom. a "cute little hat." circular in shape. The top is an inch and a half in diameter. for the It TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. limber splint of tough wood. the out(Fig. Each 'has a base of two coils. was rounded upward and the sides were made by coiling the wisp higher and higher. E and G. then inward. or a mat dinner table." This su'bject will be found more fully discussed in the chapter on . two and a half inches in diameter. 74) being firmly fastened as it progressed to the one already made by passing the splint wrapping of the wisp each time it was wound around the latter through some strands of the conThe bottom (Fig.) er coil thus formed (Fig. slight protuberances which act as handles. 73. 75. and no slovenly work in the sides will be tolerated. A basket must sit firmly on the table and be tightly woven.boiling baskets. flanged and fits snug. 75 clearly show the Indian method of making the "In the I quote Lieut. into which the two little twigs or splint-loops were firmly woven. 75. Fig. 73. which are good exand firmness. the diameter of bottom. the height two and a quarter inches. the beginning small wisp of fine flexible at the center of the bottom.

G. Coiled work without foundation. in some cases systematically splitting the sewing material underneath. with a welt. These will now be taken up systematically and illustrated (fig. (5) three stems in tria bundle of splints or small stems (7) a bundle of grass or small shreds. and in book on Indian Basketry. B. 76. (i) a single (3) stem or rod. I. Fuegian coiled basketry. The stitches pass around the foundation in progress (i) interlocking. there are nine different varieties of coiled basketry which he analyzes and describes as my follows : "The foundation may be a thin welt laid on top of (4) it . E. Packing inclosed. Packing inclosed. two stems laid side . Simple interlocking coils. (2) a stem with . Indian Stitches. K. One rod inclosed. matting. . Grass-coil foundation. ill A iJ) B & // \] C -> FIG. two rod foundation. Scores of exquisite baskets made by this stitch are pictured. . H. Double-stem coil. or bagging: A. C. of the coil beneath. Single-rod foundation. D. . F. three-rod foundation.ide. but not inclosing the foundation underneath (2) under one rod . CROSS SECTIONS OF VARIETIES IN COILED BASKETRY. 76). two or more stems over one another . Splint foundation. As Professor Mason has shown in his bulletin. two rod and splint foundation. rod and welt foundation. however many there may be (3) under a welt of the coil beneath (4) through splints or other foundation.62 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. angular position (6) by '=. With these explanations it is possible to make the following nine varieties of coiled basketry.

HOW
A.

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

COILED
of this class

WORK WITHOUT FOUNDATION.

Speci-

have been already mentioned. The sewing material is babiche or fine rawhide thong in the cold north, or string of some In the Mackenzie Basin will be found the former, sort farther south. and in the tropical and subtropical areas the latter. If a plain, spiral spring be coiled or hooked into one underneath, the simplest form of An improvement of this is effected the open coiled work will result.

mens

FJG. 77. DETAIL OF INTERLOCKING STITCHES.

FIG.

ROD COIL

78.

DETAIL OF SINGLEIN BASKETRY.

FIG.

TWO

79.

RODS, VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION OF

FIG.

SO.

COILED WORK.

ROD AND WELT

when the moving thread in passing upward after interlocking is twined one or more times about its standing part (Fig. 76 A.) B. Simple interlocking coils. Coiled work in which there may be any sort of foundation, but the stitches merely interlock without catching under the rods or splints or grass beneath. This form easily passes into those in which the stitch takes one or more elements of the foundation, but in a thorough ethnological study small differences can not be overlooked (fig. 76 B). Fig. 77 represents this style of workmanship on a coiled basket in grass stems from Alaska, collected by Lucien M. Turner. The straws for sewing merely interlock without gathering the grass roll.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

C. In rattan basketry and Pacific coast Single-rod foundation. ware, called by Dr. J. W. Hudson Tsai in the Poma language, the foundation is a single stem, uniform in diameter. The stitch passes around the stem in progress and is caught under the one of the preceding coil, In a collection of Siamese basketry in the U. S. Naas in fig. 76 C. tional Museum the specimens are all made after this fashion the foundation is the stem of the plant in its natural state, and the sewing is with splints of the same material, having the glistening surface outward. As
;

FIG.

SI.

FOUNDATION OF THREE RODS.

FIG.

82.

OF SPLINTS.

FOUNDATION

FIG. COILS,

S3.

STRAW FOUNDATION.

INTERLOCKING

FIG.

84. OPEN COIL, INCLOSING PART OF FOUNDATION.

this is

somewhlat unyielding, it is difficult to crowd the stitches together, and so the foundation is visible between. In America single-rod basketry is widely spread. Along the Pacific coast it is found in northern Alaska and as far south as the borders of Mexico. The Poma Indians use it in some of their finest work. The roots of plants and soft stems of willow, rhus, and the like are used for the sewing, and being soaked thoroughly can be crowded together so
as to entirely conceal the foundation
(fig. 78).

rod in this style lies on top of the other the stitches pass over two rods in progress and under the upper

D.

Two-rod foundation.

One

;

HOW
one
of the pair

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

65

cal series.

below, so that each stitch incloses three stems in a vertiattention to fig. 76 D will demonstrate that the alternate rod or the upper rod in each pair will be inclosed in two series of stitches, while the other or lower rod will pass along freely in the middle of one series of stitches and show on the outer side. Exbe seen among the Athaamples of this two-rod foundation are to tribes of Alaska, among the Poma Indians of the Pacific coast, pascan and among the Apache of Arizona. An interesting or specialized variseen among the Mescaleros of New Mexico, who ety of this type is us'e the two-rod foundation, but instead of passing the stitch around the interlock the stitches so that neither upper rod of the coil below, simply

A

little

FIG.

INTERLOCKING COILS, 85. SHRED FOUNDATION.

FIGS.

86,

87

AND

88.

FUEGIAN COILED BASKET AND DETAILS.

one of the two rods is closed twice. This Apache ware is sewed with yucca fiber and the brown sterns of other plants, producing a brilliant
effect,

and the

result of the special technic

is

a flat surface like that of

pottery

(fig. 79).

of precisely the

The U. S. National Museum possesses a single piece same technic from the kindred of the Apache on the

lower Yukon. E. Rod and welt foundation. In this kind of basketry the singlerod foundation is overlaid by a strip or splint of tough fiber, sometimes the same as that with which the sewing is done at others a The stitches pass over the rod and strip which strip of leaf or bast. are on top down under the welt only of the coil below, the stitches inThe strip of tough fiber between the two rods which terlocking.
;

o ^ g 02 Oc 0) i-H - 5J5 ^5 o .w 55 pq 4 r^ g O o I-H O t ( fe a .

among the pueblos and missions. 67 serves for a welt has a double purpose strengthening the fabric and This style the space between the rods (fig. or cercis stem. In basketry of this type the foundation consists of a number of longer or shorter splints massed together and sewed. 82). the stitches passing under one or more of the splints in the In the Poma language it is called chilo. and in northern Africa. In the Great Interior Basin. In the California area the materials for basketry are of the finest quality. 76 E and fig. only the outer and : . of small midribs The foundation is a bunch of grass or from palm: leaves. 76 F). fig. and when the stitches are pressed closely together the foundation does not appear. willow. where the has no standing in that tribe. The effect in all such ware is good. Hudson bam-tsu-wu. is most compact. G. D. younger portion of the stem will do for sewing. Among the Poma and other by tribes in the western part of the United States the most delicate pieces Dr. Three or four small uniform willow stems serve for the is as follows foundation. 76) C. as in the case of the Mission baskets in southern California. corrugated." The technic the most elaborate character can be wrought on them. J. On the surface of the barn-tsu-wu basketry the Poma weaver adds pretty bits of bird feathers and delicate pieces The basket represents the wealth of the maker. Two rod and splint foundation. but it coil beneath (fig. rhus. examples this upper rod is replaced by a thin strip of material serving fora welt (see fig. in others the splitting is designed and beautiful. for the reason that the maker has perExcellent examples of this kind are to fect control of her material. Grass'-coil basketry. or shredded yucca. The type of foundation passes easily into forms (fig. The sewing. under In some the upper one of the bundle below. chinking of coil work is seen on old Zuni basket-jars and on California examples. The sewing may be done with split stems of hard wood. of the stems of rushes (Juncus acutus). worked into the foundation. Surfaces are beautifully corrugated. passes around the three stems constituting the coil. as shown in fig. or stiff grass (Epicampes rigidum). The willow stems and carex root are Sewing done with these susceptible of division into delicate filaments. This is the type of foundation called Dr. the stitches interlocking. and patterns of coiled basketry. F. 76 G. 76 H). . Splint-foundation. ware is rude when the sewing passes carelessly through the stitches In the Klikibelow. and F. tat basketry the pieces of spruce or cedar root not used for sewing material are also I.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. black or white carex root. Three-rod foundation. W. H. The interior parts Such in such examples are made up into the foundation (fig. pliant material of the California tribes is wanting. (See In the larger granary in fig. 81 also in cross section in fig. 76 I). Hudson calls them the ''jewels of of basketry are in this style. be seen in the southwestern portions of the United States. rush stems. Tribes practicing this style of coiling generally have fine material and some of the best ware is so made up. So). and the like. and the gift of shell. which may be in splints of willow. 83 and the cross section given baskets of the Pima a bundle of straws furnishes the foundation. In this style the foundation is made thicker and stronger by laying two rods side by side and a splint The surface will be or welt on top to make the joint perfectly tight. of one of these to a friend is considered to be the highest compliment. or.

FIG. .68 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. COILED RAFFIA BASKTES. 90.

It is so-called by him because each stitch is not bound to* the preced- work made by a ten year old boy. two different methods of coiled basketry are shown. and my friend. what we might term. after the center has been begun. which coiled lazy stitch. Among the basketry belonging to the grass-coil foundation type are the Hopi plaques. 90 is another specimen. it is well to experiment in the various styles with the home materials. though. found in Egypt and in northern Africa as far as the Barbary states. The resemblance of this to half-hitches. of the a work-basket of the same stitch. of course." The student can utilize almost all of these methods in one kind of or another. with rush stems interlocking. which were brought very early in contact with Spaniards and African slaves. Here. and the stitches. B. the patterns. McLeod. lazy stitch. 69 while the sewing is done with broad strips of tough bark. when time permits. 85). 90 is the next step in coiled basketry. these stitches. Mr. is the other crafts of that little been a source of encouragement village display. E. 84. no one but the merest tyro could be deceived if he held the basket in his hands. of which a figure is given. In B. reached. K. and is then decreased until it is 3 1-2 inches at the top. The suggestion is here made that this particular form of workmanship may be due to acculturation. A. L. of DeerI have pleasure field. Whiting. Mass. might easily mistake this for a genuine Indian basket.. The bottom is two and a half inches in diameter. In this ware the foundation is slight. "The baskets produced at Deerfield. Though made of raffia. show the fundamental traits of sound workmanship and an intelligent use of material. and their example has to the production of the good work . built upon a thick bundle of the woody stems of the yuccas. fig. then it is sewed to the preceding coil. and. Fuegian coiled basketry. many people looking at the photograph. the same method is followed. herewith in presenting a description of the baiskets illustrated and the work of this Society by Miss Margaret C. has some beautiful specimens of the weaver's art done in this. the color of the sewing material. as in fig. 89. as in A. great similarity will be noticed in the size of the coil. are made in the stitch shown in Fig. but instead of being in the ordinary over-and-over stitch it consists of a series of half hitches or buttonhole stitches (fig. 86). consisting of one or more rushes the sewing is in buttonhole stitch or .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. which furnish also the sewing material from the split leaf If this be examined in comparison with a style of basketry (fig. The diameter increases up to five inches. Most of the celebrated baskets of the Pocumtuck Society. Mass. what he calls. wihich will be read with interest and profit. inasmuch as this type of basketry is confined in America to the Hopi pueblos. Asiatic types on the Pacific is most striking (fig.. ing coil as in all their finer work. In fig. the new part of the coil is wrapped for a certain number of stitches. the sewing is done with rushes. the pure coiled work of the Indian. with the addition of a cross stitch over the stitch which binds the two coils toThe Indians of Kern County occassionally use the former of gether. fig. 89. In the Fuegian coiled basketry. 86). We have now C.

92. FIG. Teachers' College. 93. Teachers' College. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. FIG. Work of Students. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Work of Students. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. New York.

9). for from the first have owed a good part of their reputation to the natural dyes they employ. and have frankly refused to use designs or color combinaIn their designs they pretions that belong to the red man's choice. . for it lightens the dark interior of the basket. a butterfly. and . like all masters in art. problem large basket woven of the natural colored raffia for a ground color bears two landscape designs for its decoration on one swelling side is seen a group of trees in dull rioh greens against a blue sky. serves a useful purpose. madder. the flower is worked out in red and black upon a white background with a conventional border in the same colors upon the side of the basket (Fig. slyly prepared for the observant. and with the varying shades and tones their old-fashioned dves offer they produce harmonies the public is quick to value. One craftswoman decorates her carefully shaped basket with a nice drawing of white mice on a dull olive background (Fig. the seeds being divided on the black surface by dull green lines while the cover with its brown stem for a handle rising from the green calyx. raffia have. Or another weaver produces her effects from the use of color and exquisite stitches in a basket all done The in greens. 14). She combines their varying lines with colored raffia in large card trays and plaques. Jl now being done by different localities. . An individual preference is shown in one worker's use of the swale grasses grown in the meadows about Deerfield (see Fig. about its circumference (see Fig. may not be imitated by those whose taste is sophisticated and minds trained to other and different standards of beauty. been of chief public service. the way it is translated into the medium of raffia furnishes the herself.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. With indigo. 8). fustic. other groups of village workers in basketry in In the matter of color the Deerfield workers in their baskets probably. a fer to work out the themes and harmonies of Nature flower. an animal or even a landscape may serve for suggestion. The Pocumtuck Basket Society. Turn up the basket and one will find. the house in black and and the upper edge of the roof and trees just touched with the pink reflections from a big pink moon that rises in the pale sky it is almost needless to say this is named "Night and Day. copperas and logwood these craftswomen hiave uttered their convincing protest against the crude and vicious color discords of the chemical dyes. This charming surprise. worked with a much finer stitch. a beautifully drawn black-berry flower in white raffia in the black bottom. One . A different temperament has chosen a blackberry for a motive of form and decoration. have wisely recognized that the Indian. 2) another chooses the piccotee pink for chief decoration upon the cover of her shallow bowl. after the longgone earliest inhabitants of their valley." Only a bold designer could carry out with success so simple Another covered basket by the same workyet complicated a scheme. er is made with a useful handle that holds fast the lid on double braided cords it is developed in blues with a row of red birds solemnly hopping for the individual craftswoman to solve for . a house in red with windows a<nd doors in black and a lighter green foreground on the opposite occurs exactly the same landscape all dark in blues and greens. with much thought given to the perfection of form. . is all black with a row of large dull black beads pointing the edge of the lid. as the raffia workers have named themselves. beauty that lies in the natural corn husk when laid smooth in large .

93 are all of coiled raffia baskets made by the students at Teachers' College." and consists one smooth turn about the coil and a stitch down into the space on the row beneath the coil is formed of split or whole reeds. and bearing big blossoms worked from the many4iued pinks of the crepe-like husks (see done in Fig.3)In choice of shapes the Pocumtuck basket makers cling to the strictly useful and simple forms a bowl must stand firm on a bottom sufficiently large to sustain it. SPLINT AND 94. 91. a cover must fit.HOW surfaces TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and sometimes varied from large to small in the development of a single basket. each weaver seeking to produce the best possible effect. each rising from two spreading gray-green leaves. BOOK MARK OF WEB WEAVE. The stitch chiefly . FIG. Wrapped spaces of . 6 FIG. a handle must be strong or the jury of society will not give its approval. employed is that which has been dubbed "lazy stitch. WEAVING ON EVEN SPOKES. different sizes being chosen to fit the desired effect. Here variety in shape and design were worked out. are introduced but are not allowed to interfere with structural strength. 92. ." Figs. 95. is shown in still another basket of a large cylindrical form shaded indigo blues for background to four poppy stalks.

under 4. one before and the other behind the same spoke. for use. The odd spoke may be used in starting. To have the woof of one over and one under. as shown in Fig. of the raffia weaver pretty little book-mark may be made with rattan or other material for the foundation of raffia. over 3. 96. and when tips of spokes are cut into points a book mark is ready The following exercises will all be useful for later work. palmetto. Indeed the division into miat and web weaving is purely arbitrary. A little practice will soon teach the better way to the student. 22. It must never be forgotten that proper web weaving can never be clone with an even number of spokes and a single weaver. Take eight . or can be inserted later. under 6. 97. Tuck the end i. The result is a series of ridges on the surface. there must be an odd number of spokes. A MAT OR BOTTOM FOR ROUND BASKET. one ahead of the first round. Figs. Where. uniformly. etc. Yet this differs from the checkerwork of the civilization. i. over two AND STARTING WEAVER.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the web. 73 CHAPTER XII. 21. We iniow woof is come to the most common of all of the basket weaving of the the pliable material. A wooden splints. the effect of a single weaver can be obtained by using two weavers. however. 20. weaver into the part woven so as to hide and firmly fasten it. SPOKES. throughout. little care at first will soon render one expert in thus using two weavers. 95. HOLDING SPOKES FIG. and so Tuck the end of the on. it ODD AND EVEN NUMBER OF is essential to vise an even number of spokes for the warp. weaving only in the fact that the warp elements are rigid and mat BOOK MARKS. One long and three short flat Place these as shown in Fig. 94. THE WEB WEAVE. 23 and 24 show the simple stitches. over 7. and with a long weaver splints are required. FIG. Next round pass under two. then under 8 and under 2. until five or six rounds have been woven. Weave over 5. over under between 8 and i. DIVIDING INTO SINGLE SPOKES. both starting together.

making two complete rounds. one spoke. for the loop. 97 and begin to weave behind and before each spoke separately. underneath. and so on until the whole edge is bound. under the four at left. the splints to be bent. so as to readily evenness. and so on. for ten or fifteen minutes. as the beauty of every edge depends upon its making everything It is well to soak a border after it is made. Sharpen one end and thrust it into the center. This separation must be done with great care and evenness. It will then dry as left. 100. When the weaver has been placed across each side of the top set of spokes. INSERTING ODD SPOKE. ac2. After placing the weaver under one side and over another. This would spoil the looks of the basket. to weave as shown quired. 99 until the mat or base is the size redesired to make a mat of this. it is passed under the last row of weaving Then pass it around that spoke. Now cut spokes to a point and of even length. 98. leaving an open curve as shown in Fig. PIG. Run the spoke down as far as possible. allow its being bent into perfect shape. i down beside No. as a STARTING NEW WEAVER. 4 rattan. 101 and 102.74 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. shown in Figs. and it will be found that the weaver comes behind the same spoke with which we begun in the first row. 96. 98. 2 rattan. in front of the next. in Fig. the further the better. 2. Then turn over and continue FIG. over the four at bottom. 14 to 16 inches long. and the appearance of the basket improved. RIGHT SIDE OF CENTER WITH ODD SPOKE. under the last row of weaving before next spoke. 8 or 9 inches Hold the eight long spokes as long. and a weaver of No. as allowing from i 1-2 inches to 5 or 6. 99. . Another simple border is made. separate the spokes as shown in Fig. Weave one row. If it is OPEN BORDER NO. spokes of No. as strength and beauty both depend upon the way this is done. In making these borders remember always to soak. Then be absolutely accurate in even. just before it reaches the next spoke. Then push spoke No. Then weave under flie four to the right. Soak ends for a few minutes. so the odd spoke is >now inserted as shown in Fig. finish the last row by binding it as overcasting is done. It will often be necessary. cording to taste. as strength is thus added. shown in Fig.

Mr. 2. Neligh informs me that he has found it to be excellent practice to have hi's pupils make the web weave with raffia. 105 are may be cut off. DETAIL. Pins are firmly fastened into a board. SIMPLE OPEN BORDER. the shape the object is to be. OPEN BORDER NO. When the basket is completed and dry the unnecessary ends If it is desired to hide the point of new with old weaver. The warp strands of raffia are then tightly tied around these pins. FIG. 103. with about three-quarters of an inch to spare. 104. When the weaving the object desired. OF NO. to start a new one. the two may be spliced as shown in Fig. proceed. 104. 102. 75 Leave the end of the last weaver [weaver runs out. 103). STARTING of the work of his pupils. 2. 100. OPEN BORDER PIG. The student is now ready to make simple . Then FIG. Cross this with an equal length of the new weaver. behind a spoke.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. is done the edges are sown together to make SIMPLE BASKETS. (See Fig. NEW WEAVER. 101. SPLICING. sires. In Fig. SPLICING WEAVERS. FIG. One may use a needle or not as he de- shown some specimens FIG. and the woof strands then woven as in other work.

but after about an inch of the mat is woven draw the weaver tighter. and 99.76 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 97. WEB WEAVING WITH RAFFIA. 105. As must be finished off with next chapter. Begin the mat as described in Figs. slightly curves up the spokes and gives the soon as the basket is as large as required it bowl shape desired. The basket below the mat is begun in exactly the same way. Use the mat in Fig. closed border No. This FIG. which will be described in the . baskets of the web weave. 106 as an example. 96. finishing off with border as desired. 98. i.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS,

77

CHAPTER

XIII.

INSERTION AND BORDERS.
Before proceeding further with the chapter on Web-Weaving well to gain a full knowledge of insertion and borders. These "In descriptions are taken from Miss Firth's "Cane Basket Work." making open borders where it is necessary to run one spoke down
it is

FIG.

106.

Work

SIMPLE RATTAN BASKETS,
of Students, Teachers' College,

WEB WEAVE.
New
York.

beside another, the awl must be first inserted to open a passage for the extra spoke, and care must be taken to have a smooth end, or the weaving will be pulled out of place. It is al'so important to have each spoke double the length of the height of the basket, allowing the extra length necess'ary for the loop at the top. For convenience

7

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

spoke may be cut half an inch beyond the length required for the sides, and extra spokes, a little more than double that length, inserted when the weaving is finished. This will give the appearance of three spokes, and if well varnished will not be likely to get out of place.

The extra

half-inch

must not be

cut off the

first

spoke

till

the others

have been inserted.

"As the extra length necessary for each border is given with the directions for working it, one can be easily substituted for another according to taste."

FIG.

107.

DETAIL OF INSERTION.

PIG.

108.

INSERTION.

Pretty effects are caused by insertion, the details of which will The spokes of readily be comprehended from Figs. 107 and 108. the trellis work of the insertion are finer than the foundation. "This can be used with any border but looks well with open border, Fig. 102. The fine starting on the right hand side of a coarse spoke, crossing the open space to the next on the right, following it inside

FIG.

109.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

3.

FIG.

110.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

4.

the bend till the open space is again reached, where it crosses to the left-hand side of the same 'spoke from which it started." NO. 3. "This is only another variation of the same prinicple, the spokes being cut about 3 inches longer than double the height needed for the sides of the basket. At about 2 inches from the top weave one row of pairing and fasten off ends. An

OPEN BORDER

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

79

inch farther up start another row of pairing, add three rows of single Proceed as for Open weaving, and finish with another row of pairing. Border No. 2 as far as to the insertion, but instead of inserting the spoke in hand beside the same spoke as in the upper part, miss one, and slip it down beside the next. This border needs careful manipu-

FIG.

111.

DETAIL, OF PLAIT.

FIG.

112.

PLAIT.

lation to
size of

OPEN BORDER
ple as

keep the spokes in place. It can be varied according to basket and taste of worker." NO. 4. "This border necessitates double

spokes, on which two rows of pairing are worked at any desired distance. See Fig. no. The upper part is done on the same princiis brought up behind the next, the last being gathered under the first, as shown in Fig. in. For the next row this movement is reversed, each spoke being passed down behind the next, the last threaded under the first. When the

SINGLE PLAIT.

Open Border No.

5."

Each spoke

FIG.

113.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

FIG.

4321
114.

DETAIL, OF LAST

THREE SPOKEa

work

thoroughly dry, the protruding ends must be cut off as closeSee Fig. 112. PLAIT. Insert an extra short spoke beside each of those already in use, and proceed with the two spokes together as
is

ly as practicable.

DOUBLE

in single plait.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

"Take spoke No.

i,

and

at

about 11-2

beyond the edge of the basket bend it downwards, passing it behind No. 2, before No. 3 and behind No. 4, leaving the end at the front
inches

2. which must be threaded behind and before and behind the three spokes first Finish with plait already deused. In order to keep the pattern. 117. scribed. bring it down behind the second (Fig. this must now be threaded from behind under the spoke first used. See Figs. and behind No. 4. BORDER 116. and working on the same principle bring it down behind No. DETAIL OF NO. i. before No. Length of spokes needed for borthe der 10 inches. One upright spoke is still left. as spoke No. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. 1. bring i. and before the third. in and 112. as just described. 2. of these. and will complete the pattern. it Two upright spokes are still behind the second and thread left.8o HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. CLOSED BORDER NO. "This is the same border and worked FiG. 5. it Take the first before and behind two spokes first used. 115. 3. Take spoke No. . of the basket to form the plait. Proceed in this way till all the spokes are down but three Take the first of these. FIG. and spoken of FIG. 113). again leaving the end at the front of the basket. CLOSED BORDER NO. 2.

lay it in front of and beside spoke No. 6 (Fig. 4 (which is still upright). No. the last upright spoke still left being brought way. making one "pair" of ends turned down. bring it in front of and beside spoke No. Take the longest of the first pair. 3 and the spoke in I. CLOSED BORDER NO. bring it before No. FIG. 121. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. it down beside No. I (the spoke first used. 3. and which may be marked by a piece of cotton till the worker becomes familiar with the border). one have been brought down. 5 (which is still upright) and behind No. 119. 8l I and behind No. bringing it out to the front under spoke No. FIG. and if correctly worked. and slip it behind and under spoke No. 5. 5 being brought down beside it as before. 2. Take the longer of the first pair. 3.'' The 5. always be two pairs of ends after the first pair is started. FIG. 120. 4 (Fig. Take No. making the edge still more Proceed on this principle till all the upright spokes but substantial. passing it under No. 2.HOW right) bringing TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. down beside it in the usual . longest of the first pair must now be brought before No. 2. and bring it beside No. 4 and behind is down. CLOSED This will make a second "pair of ends. "pair" No. 117). but never more than two. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. BORDER DETAIL OF NO. there will and behind No. 122. The canes forming these side (the longer of the two "pairs" must each in turn be kept side by till the next being to the right) and held perfectly flat under the thumb Pick up No. 2. 2 FIG. The shortest of each pair in turn is left to be cut off at the front when the work is finished. Take the longest end of the last pair. 3. or to be threaded through to the inside and cut off there. Two pairs of ends will still be left. 118). and passed under the same spoke.

spokes as easily as with two or five. 6 (Fig. SPLIT SPOKE FOR ROUND BASE. above the weaving. "Lay spoke No. 124." CLOSED BORDER NO. 2. the last upright spoke being brought down beside it. all the spokes are down but one. / (which is still upright) down beside it. 3. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. bringing it behind and under spoke No. to the front immediately needed 8 inches. FIG. No. 5. i. FOR ROUND BASE. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 8.82 HOW it. SPIRT'S THREADED No. down. Pick up No. but the same kind of border may be worked with three. or more. ceed thus . 125. . 121). class No. FIG. bringing No. 2. 4 behind No. 2 behind No. which are much the same. No. 1?6. FIG. . Pro. 3 five spokes are at first turned right spoke is left. PIG. and that these must never vary till not one upIn Border No. 5 behind No. 4. i behind No. until familiar with its No. "Before attempting this border. 3 behind . lay it down behind right) down bes de it (Fig. the worker will do well to work out No. No. 2 No. 7. I and lay it behind No. 2 is the simplest of this principles. and after the pairs are started there will always be five to work from till the end is reached. 123. always remembering that the number of single spokes turned down at the first determines the number of pairs. 6 (which is still upPick up No. bringing No. 120). till Take the longest spoke of the first of the five pairs left. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. 3 No. 3 as large as would be needed for any ordinary basket front of Each spoke must be brought Length of spokes . or four.

HOW
Five pairs are

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

Take the longest of the first pair, bringing still left. Take beside and in front of spoke No. I and under spoke No. 2. the longest of the first of the four pairs left, bringing it beside and in In threading through front of spoke No. 2 and under spoke No. 3. these ends, it must be remembered that the short spokes come out immediately above the weaving and under the roll of spokes which forms the edge. Take the longest of the first of the three pairs left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 3, and under spoke No.
it

FIG.

WEAVING OP 127. ROUND BASE WITH

FIG.

128.

TWO WEAVERS.
Take

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES IN PAIRS.

the longest of the first of the two pairs left, bringing it beand in front of spoke No. 4 and under spoke No. 5. Take the long spoke still left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 5 and under spoke No. 6. If the two spokes which lie together have been kept lying flat on the edge of the weaving, the border will look even and handsome (Fig. 122). Length of spokes required 10
4.

side

inches.

84

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

CHAPTER

XIV.

MORE ABOUT

BASES.

In her books Miss Firth gives several methods of making bases. BASE. A simple oval base may be made as follows. Take 4 lengths, No. 4 rattan, 24 inches long, 6 lengths, No. 4, 6 inches long and one length, 3 inches long. Place the six short pieces for the width and the long pieces as shown in Fig. 123. The two lower spokes must be placed on the table, and the short ones placed across them in The lower of these two spokes must be pairs, at intervals of an inch. the center pair, and the pair at each end. The upper spoke must be the reverse of the lower, the short piece being placed above that in the same order as the lower spoke. When the base is finished it will be seen that this short piece forms a middle around which the four spokes are woven. The other two long spokes must be placed in a position exactly reverse to the two first, as in Fig. 124. They must then be pressed closely together, the left hand holding them firmly in their place, while the right weaves with the inside spoke of the two which first used, passing it over the two short ends of the second pair of long spokes, and under and over and under the three short The outside spoke must follow, but in reverse order. The secpairs. ond pair of long spokes must be treated in exactly the same way as the

OVAL

UNDER

OVER

first.

ROUND BASE WITH DOUBLE WEAVERS.
spokes
of

Take
of

12

No. 4

rattan, six inches long,

and a long weaver

rattan. In six of the twelve spokes, make a split in inch long as shown Fig. 125. Then thread the six unsplit

No. I the center about an
spokes
in

through the
center.

split

ones.

(Fig.
it,

126).

Keep

flat

and cross exactly

leaving one end several inches longer than the other. Slip loop of weaver over six of the split spokes, bringing under part of weaver over, and top part under the next six spokes (Fig. 127). Repeat this as described with Fig. 95 until Be sure that the under weaver is always three rounds are made. brought to the top before the top one is taken underneath, to prevent the weavers getting twisted. Now separate spokes into sets of two, (Fig. 128), pulling the spokes well apart to allow room for the weavers Then pair around the double spokes for to be well pushed down. three rounds, after which separate each 'spoke and pair as in Fig. 129. round base SINGLE BASE with a single instead of a double weaver may be made by the insertion of an extra spoke after the dividing of the spokes begins.

Take weaver, double

ROUND

WITH

WEAVER. A

BASE, take 13 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 5 inches long, and 5 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 12 inches long. Split the 13 in center as before described, and thread them on the 5 spokes spokes Put the odd spoke in center of the five. Then as shown in Fig. 130. half an inch between the spokes, place them as shown in Fig. allowing

OBLONG OVAL

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

130, but with two spokes together at each end. Double the weaver and Take the underneath part place the loop over the double side spokes. of the weaver and weave down the side, then go back and take upper part of weaver and weave beside it, counting double spokes at end as

one spoke.
base flat on the table, and always from left to take up the base in the left hand, grasping the weavers where they pass the double side spokes. Take the weaver from underneath and bring tightly across the five long spokes, place behind the double side spokes, then put the base flat on the table and weave down the side. Go back, taking up the base again, and take the top weaver behind the five spokes, lay down the base, then weave down the side. Repeat this until you have two
right.

Weave holding the To do the end

weavers crossing the five spokes top and bottom and on either side. Pair around these, Divide the five spokes into 2-1-2. (See Fig. 131). but still weave down the side. When both ends have been divided in this way, take each spoke singly, beginning with the double side spokes,

FIG.

130. COMMENCING OBLONG OVAL BASE.

FIG.

129.

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES
SEPARATED.
of the nine spokes at either end, but
still

and pair around each weave down the sides.

only

both ends are done, continue weaving straight round with one we'aver and then the other, but not pairing. While doing the base, draw the weaver firmly towards the right, and when doing the ends bring the weaver firmly clown between the spokes, which must be drawn as far apart as possible to admit of this In a well-made base the weaving is always being done efficiently. drawn down so firmly that the spokes cannot be seen in between. To get the oval bases of the size required, first take the measurement across the basket. If this is 4 1-2 inches, and the length is to be 8 inches, the spokes across would have to be placed within a distance of 6 inches, measuring from each lot of double spokes at the end. The reason of this is, that enough space must be left at either end to allow 2 inches of weaving, as in a base 41-2 inches across there would be 2 inches of weaving on either side, allowing one-half inch for the five spokes down the center.
first

When

86

HOW
If this rule is

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

in the lids of oval baskets

followed, the right size can always be counted on, and it is particularly necessary that the size should

be assured before starting.

BASE. Another method of making an oval base is to take six 5-inch spokes, four 7-inch spokes and one 4-inch spoke, all of No. 4 rattan, with three weavers of No. 2 rattan. Split the six five inch spokes as described in Fig. 125. Thread them on the four seven-inch and the one four-inch spokes, the short one in the center, leaving about half an inch between each of the six. The six spokes are held horiand the five are vertical. Start a weaver, back of the vertical spokes and lying along the uppermost horizonal spoke, with the end toward the right. Bring it around in front of the vertical spokes (above the upper horizontal one), the>n back and down diagonally to the left, coming out below the upper horizontal spoke. Here it is
zontally,

OVAL

FIG.

131.

OBLONG

OVAL BASE.

brought around in front of the vertical group, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical spokes and above the first horizontal one. It is then brought diagonally down in front of the vertical spokes, to the Next it right of them and just above the second horizontal spoke.
crosses diagonally down and back of the vertical spokes, to the left of them and below the second horizontal spoke, where it is brought over the vertical ones, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical

spokes, and just above the second horizontal one as shown in Fig. 132. The same process binds the other four horizontal spokes making an ornamental cross effect over each one, on the inside of the basket as seen in Fig. 133. After all six horizontal spokes have been bound, the spokes are separated and the weaving begins, and is continued until
;

the size desired

is

attained.

BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INSERTED CORraffia twined basket, having a pespokes at each of the four corners, is shown in Fig. 134. The rubber bands holding three groups of spokes make it more convenient for the maker to manipulate the numerous spokes, When a as each time around a spoke is inserted at its proper place. group is twined with two strands of raffia the rubber band is slipped off the next group and snapped around the set of spokes just finished and so on. Any number of spokes may be inserted according to the size of the base desired. Take 12 spokes No. i rattan 10 inches long, 4 short strands raffia

NERS. A
culiar

base of fine rattan or

way

of inserting the

When the twining crosses to the next angle another spoke is bent in half and again fastened to its place. diagonally bring the strand under neath to the beginning of the diagonal crossing where it is securely Now cross over to another angle and let one of the halves of twisted. DETAIL OF toward the center. under one. DETAIL FIG. raffia pass underneath and the other across the top spokes to the opposite corner diagonally twisting again. and these are cut the length of the angle where they are to be placed. This gives a cross of raffia over the grouped spokes. If the work is be made practically water tight.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER and add spokes of BASKETS. Twine around as many times as this . natural and green. This group is now securely held with another rubber band and thus continue with the remaining spokes. carefully impacking each stitch as the twist is made. 132. colored raffia lasts. Care must be exercised so that the crossed spokes always lie flat until the base is well started. OF CENTER OF OVAL BASE. work increases extra spokes must be inserted. a rubber band over the first group of six. r'attan and weavers of Before beginning the work see that the rattan is well soaked in warm In fact this basket should be frequently placed under water water. Weave around three or four times with uncolored raffia and then bending one of the extra spokes of rattan in half lay it snugly at the bend in the angle of the crossed spokes. raffia as desired. 87 in red. 133. It thus makes two new Twine the raffia over each of the two new spokes and snap spokes. Now begin to twine the two strands of raffia from the outside in tightly done it may Cross five spokes FIG. over one. at right angles to five other spokes and placing a raffia strand across the laid spokes. CENTER OF OVAL BASE. 135 Page 126 of "Indian Basketry" shows method of this twined effect. Fig. Looping the colored raffia over a spoke and separating each end. begin to twine with both colored and uncolored until a corner is reached now drop and clip the raffia not needed and twine in the corner spoke with the colored raffia. and the twinings pushed closely toward the center. When the As . letting the raffia continue for a stitch or two beyond a corner before changing to a differently colored strand.

Columbus. round or flat. the base is the desired diameter stop adding spokes and gather three of the grouped spokes into one and then shape the basket as desired. This basket is closely allied to the Alaskan baskets. ing and with the raffia sew over and over edge. . S.88 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. in its method of enlarging. Ga. John P. Finish off by folding down the ends of the spokes and add a coil of three or four rattans the length of the circumference of the open- FIG. of the Industrial School. 134. securely fastening the ends by hiding them under three or four of the twined stitches. four sided. all the way around. but is unique For these directions I am indebted to Mrs. BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INS ERTED CORNERS. Any shaped basket may be formed from this base. Neligh.

Start the base as described in either Fig. Then proceed to make closed border No. and proceed to weave as before. The bottom basket to the right is made in the same manner. 135 is of -more simple web weave baskets made by the students at Teachers College. 2 rattan for both spokes and weaver. i as described in Fig. 2 rattan. 106 are now to be described. for sides. Weave up in this way for about an inch and a quarter. 96 or Fig. The covered basket with the handle is equally easy to -make. then twist. Begin the base as already described. Begin as before described. then bridge the space by bending the two end spokes . The lid is made in exactly the same way as the base. Where they meet tuck in ends and basket is complete. 115. weave as high as desired and finish off with closed border No. Then thread WE WOVEN I'. The one to the left and the upper one are both made of No. and weavers of No. turning the weaver back around the spoke on each side of the open space. spokes. When pliable bend up as possible. open loop for handle about an inch across. and a When the side is about an inch the sides close in towards the top. 15 pieces of finer rattan. half high cut short two of the spokes and turn in as for a closed Then continue to weave. To fasten lid rattan. 8g CHAPTER XV. Finish taking care that the angle of the sides is evenly preserved. 2 rattan. turn up. Fig. Make base as deWhen woven up to the end of spokes take scribed in Figs. Make the base the size desired. When about 6 inches across. We now return to the making of baskets by the web weave.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as soon as base is as large as required. drawing weavers tight so that for weavers. 4 rattan 14 inches long. For the base take six spokes of No. loop through lid and border of basket. finishing the border with the rope twist. Make the lid in like fashion. For the upper one take eight spokes of No. Take 24 spokes of No. The handle is of three long strands of rattan. weave plait of straw or any other material either made or purchased until the sides are as high as desired. 2. turn up foundation spokes for sides. Turn np foundation spokes for the sides. about two and a half inches long. inserting the extra ones so as to have all the spokes as near equidistant Now soak for a few minutes. so that bottom is convex. WEB WEAVING CONTINUED. A pretty basket is shown in Fig. weave the sides and finish off with one of the closed borders. The lid is made in same way as base or using both splint and plait and basket together take piece of finest making an one end of handle splint through basket and lid one way and the other way. BIRD NEST. and thrust into base by the side of the spokes. 136. then turn up the foundation 125. The two baskets on the right of Fig. spokes were. drawing weavers tightly. Make base. with simple closed border. doubled and twisted while pliable. 2 rattan for foundation. leaving open space where these border. 96 or 125.

. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. ..-*" . :: jj ii))li o t t fa . W" ' " .

gi over the space. and twelve. Now insert double spokes for fancy base and weave about an inch and a quarter finishing it by any form of closed border desired. 139 s-hows the arrangement of the base. and do not be surprised if the following nesting time a pair of birds takes possession. This adds strength and gives fewer ends to care for. formed by thrusting a piece of rattan the size desired. Some prefer to make the handle before binding the top. taking care to do it evenly. fourteen or sixteen in number. down to the base. Leave the ends of the spokes irregular so as to let the top of the nest appear like a bundle of twigs. thus making a secure binding. however. Then sew around edges with a piece of thread to hold them in Bend spokes up for sides. If an place. 95. Now use fancy plaited straw as a weaver for the sides and weave as high as desired. say five inches. working in two of the spokes instead of one. First lay the spokes star shape as shown.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 'BASKET BASE. until it is impossible to weave higher. 138 shows an unfinished basket from which. or as desired. The handle is : . \Vhen 'the basket all is as high as desired turn down and tuck on a the inside of basket like overcasting. Fig. If an extra odd spoke is introduced a single weaver will do. with a wide splint above it. until it is about 8 inches in diameter. Then wrap with broader splint. (taking care to tuck the ends in as far as possible. as desired. Place in a tree. A. the spokes. even number of spokes is kept.bottom is convex. much sold wood splints or rattan. The foundation spokes may be of palmetto. Now rapidly draw the top together. In making the photograph I failed to notice that it was somewhat out of The base is made as any ordinary mat. us ng a weaver long enough to wrap both handle and top. through the weaving. and then wrapping as described for the binding. Fig. the student may gain a few ideas. Fig. Finish with a simple border as WITH FANCY shown in to the left. 139 shows two small wood splint baskets of a type Europe. inserting new spokes shape. the weaving must proceed as described with Fig. woven so tightly that the .

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

All the ten inches long. over which it went in the first round). and seven others about 21-2 inches long. held firmly. As soon as the weaver has been . sortment of the Hyde Exploring Expedition.-taken around once it will be necessary (in order to have the weaver go under the spokes in the second round. is en- gaged as weaver and teacher. They are placed across each other in a circle. plait. the spokes firmly pressed upon the board. hence it is deemed appropriate to give full particulars as ito the methods of weaving. and bound with three or four rows of simple web weavThen using twined weaving the spokes are covered as much as ing. Now. and thread on the . on which the work is to be done. 140. weave the three splints together. 93 CHAPTER SPLINT XVI. SPLINT BASKETS. V length required. pulling it as tightly as possible. when it will appear as Fig. thrusting the end In these descriptions are all will be seen that the mat. bend into the ring form. In starting the base of a splint basket place a small board. Exercise great care in spokes. Cut the broad splints the book mark. Most of the spokes. New York. For the napkin ring take one wood splint 7-8-inch wide. taking care that Ithey are equisplints distant and regular at the edges. This must be done. take each spoke and bend it up to form the foundation for the sides. on the Then. twined and web weave utilized. The required. of splints. These are most popular baskets. twining the weaver around the edges and returning from side to side. ends of the spokes may be cut as desired. pointed or shaped. as the weaving continues. When as many rounds are woven as necessary.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to take the weaver over two spokes as shown in Fig. and is now ready for the weaving of the between two sides. it of the baskets are easy to make and any ordinary student can make them from the descriptions given. in order as shown in Fig. take the weaver in the right hand. except the Fig. 142. and. and. where Miss Marie Toxuse. each time round. one by one. hold it firmly with the left hand (see Fig. 26 West 23rd Street. The stitch is finished off by tying the sweet grass. Now take a 7-8-inch wide colored splint. 15 contains five articles made solely This is composed of one spoke. and two Then take a narrow wood splint weaver and web 3-8-inch wide. place the lap.a variety of those The photographs were all made from the asgenerally preferred. either rounded. small spokes are cut so as to be very narrow in the center and widen out towards the edge. 143. while with the right the weaver is worked in and out of the 141). AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. tuck in the edges of the foundation splints and complete the weaving. an Abenaki Indian. or they will be keeping pulled out of place.

FIG. 141. INSERTING WEAVER IN SPLINT BASE. .

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The under of these two splints is woven under one and over one of the side spokes as in all ordinary weaving. is left looped. 3-4 of an inch wide. CLOTHES HAMPER OF belt of six splints of three colors. Thus the loops alternate in the rows. Following this set of nine rows of looped stitches is a belt of weave made with ordinary white splints. weavers put in two for the bottom row and follow with one in the row above. The square basket for the sides is weave and SPLINTS. in In each of these three pairs of rows. Them finish with one row of narrow splint. The next belt is of one splint. simple mat weave for the bottom. long and i -2-inch wide. 4 is a large fancy basket of splints. and outside with sweet grass and bind with a narrow splint. putting Now the three splints lengthwise and the 15 across ait right angles. and presented to Mr. turn up for sides and web weave with splints any size smaller than When within three and a half inches of the top. and twisting again over the next and so on. ation for the edges is made by taking a 3-8-inch wide splint. T. thus particularizing the colors.) three splints are used instead of two. the splints to be 6-8 of an inch wide. with four rows of splints (or rather. the edges being strengthened by turning in the foundation spokes. thrusting it under one of the weavers. i foot 8 inches in diameter at City. missing one weaver. Two colors of splints are used and the handles are of plaited sweet grass. Now curl it down and under the next spoke in the bot- . The base is of extra strong wood splints. in taking the "over" stitch. The handles are of splints i -8-inch wide twisted with narrower splint and tied to the edge of the basket. 140. The diagonal mat weave basket in the left corner is made as is the one described elsewhere. arranged as Fig. Now a . Curl a third splint into each double row as described immediately for Fig. colored. two of green. curl it back and up under the next spoke in the row above. The first nine rows of weaving on the sides are of doubled splints. The use of the extra third In inserting the splint is to get the "curl" shown in the design. Fig. and about 3 feet long. Then another belt of narrow white spl nts. missing a weaver. Make of these a mat foundation. under three and over two. drawing under the next. For the hand basket take one splint 5-8-inch wide and two 1-2Then 15 splints about 26 inches inch wide. instead of being pulled tight. two double rows). F. When the upper weaver of the lower row comes from under the spoke. making a bow by The spiral ornamentlacing back and forth and tucking in the end. Q5 outside of the ring. the top and four or five inches less at the bottom. made by Abenaki Indians of Pierreville. twisting again. sewed with strong thread to the sides. then binding strong splints around the rims. then wrapping around the spiral shape. so that it alternates with the lower one over the foundation spokes. 4. nearly an inch and a half wide. web weave i-S-inch. and web top. two red. and the side splints are also extra strong. but the upper splint. Barnes. which is simply hideous. two purple. colored." New York It is 2 feet 9 inches in height. The arrangement of the loops is such that the loops of the second row come over the spokes of the row beneath. (I am not commending the color scheme. under two and over two. about i -8-inch wide. Canada. strengthen the rim inside with stout splint. editor "The Papoose.

140.96 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. P. FIG. 142.G. JUMPING TWO SPOKES. . New York. BEGINNING BASE OF SPLINT BASKET. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

the latter at the sides. as described in Figs. One single row of plain weave with a wide splint and five of loop weave. followed with three narrow splint weave. Each pair manner. as shown by the design. 5. The lid is made of five broad and two narrow splints. small wrapped loop is affixed to both basket and lid. and so on woven in like 7 the lid is SWEET GRASS foundation fan. For a handle. On these are woven twined rows of sweet grass. 97 complete round is made. of rows is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER until the BASKETS. Two or three rows of narrow weavers fix the spokes in position. Now by tightly wrapping and tucking ' in. and tuck well under the sweet grass down one of the foundation spokes. the grass composes the woof. The lid is> composed (as is the base') of splints that broaden as they reach the periphery. 140. loop. taking narrow splint weavers loop the border. rows of plain simple weaving gives firmness. trim {weave two or three rows with plain white narrow splint. both of which are bound on with a narrow splint as is clearly seen in the engraving. Then the spoke splints are bent at right angles and six or seven rows of weaving taken upon The foundathis portion. take a stout wooden splint. The only difference between the basket at the bottom to the SPLINT AXD SWEET GRASS BASKETS. Then the rim is strengthened inside with a colored splint. tion splints are now turned upright again and a row of the "loop" weave with inch-wide splints made. and. Two rows of loop weave and then the spokes are curved down. 5 is a The splints are cut so as to be very center and widen rapidly towards the edge. 6 four basIn the bottom one to the kets of splints and sweet grass are shown. which thus forms a kind of shelf or rim. This belt of ''curled" weave is followed by weaving belts above it. 22 and and splint narrow in the This can readily be seen sweet grass Now The sweet grass must be dampened and pressed closely into 134. when the handle is wrapped on the top. The former is affixed to the latter by lacing the binding of the basket to that of the lid. five splints each way. FAN. four similar to those below it. each splint thus formtaken. and the spokes are turned under. and the edges bound as is the rim of the basket.HOW torn row. At the top. Upon this place lengths of sweet Then wrap tightly as shown in Fig.- Fig. When within an inch of the edge position as each row is woven. wrapped around and bound on with small white splints. fastening it to the last row of splint weave. 5. after which it is finished off with three strong splinits inside and one colored one outside. and eleven or twelve rows of narrow splint weave Then the splints are bent out and split. left the base is composed of simple mat foundation. The finishing border is of these same splints wound under and over and looped as will clearly be seen in the design. A . These are turned up for the sides and twined weaving of sweet When the desired height is attained. and use the "twined"" weave or pairing. 5. complete. Place the splints crossed for the Then with a single strand center. by looking at the fan in Fig. the foundation spokes as shown in Fig. and. which has been well anchored by fastening it below. take two strands weave under and over for five or six rows. fastening off the end grass. and outside with a row of sweet grass. spokes are turned down and tucked in. In Fig. as the simple splints of Fig. ing two.

FIG. New York. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. 144.

They are then turned up for the sides and described. and the rim strengthened with other splints and bound with a narrow splint. or a trifle larger. For this the spokes must be very narrow in the center and broaden towards the edges. lid. But the two small splints which together are about 1-8 of an inch wider than the broad splint on which they rest are crossed from bottom to top under every other spoke. sweet grass twined in up to the top. is made quite differently. of Fig. twined sweet grass completes the sides.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. one under. 7 shows the bases and lids of the baskets of Fig. 6 will be described in a later Bulletin of the Basket Fraternity. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. the edge strengthened by a suitable splint and bound as before. as in all ordinary web weaving. which are bound as before made in like manner. 6. Then the spokes are turned in. The spokes are now turned down. The spokes are then turned in. however. 6 is composed of even splints about halfan-inch wide and laid as shown in Fig. 99 right and the one just described is that after a few rows of sweet grass are twined into the sides one wide and two narrow splints are introduced. formThen more ing a little nipple or elevation between the spokes. The method of making the handkerchief basket in Fig. Fig. The handle is fastened to a loop which is held secure by being taken under the sweet grass of the under side of the lid in several places. and the twining continued until the flange of the cover is as deep as required. New York. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. 140. Three or four rows of simple web weave at the outer edge of the base tighten the spokes. one over. They are then woven with twined sweet grass until the lid is the size of the basket. and a study The of them will make the foregoing instructions much more clear. 144 is of mat weave and web weave. The carrying basket of Fig. 145. The wide splint is woven. . The lid The round basket is FIG.

SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. 146. FIG. .100 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

woven with plaited sweet grass. and so on alternating the wrapping of the curled splint around the foundation splints exposed by the upper and lower of the two broad weavers. the rim being strengthened and bound with wood splints. with the third for the curling and wrapping around the plait of sweet grass as described in the carrying basket. web woven. This is followed with a splint 5-8-inch wide. When the lid is the right size to fit the basket. after which introduce the broad splints. one row of simple 'splint weave. Weave five rows of finely plaited sweet grass two of narrow splint. Turn down and tuck in the foundation spokes. strengthen the edges or rim with a stout splint inside and sweet grass outside. The work basket of Fig. after the turning up of the sides. The handle is composed of a heavy triple plait of sweet grass. under the upper part of the next foundation splint. under a foundation splint. 140. In Fig. using thickly plaited sweet grass for weaver. When the spokes are in place. and 3-8 of an inch wide. turn the spokes down. Now continue the weaving of the sides with six rows of plain web weave and six rows of double plaited sweet grass as before. First hold splints. IOI using plaited sweet grass. and complete the weave with the plaited sweet grass until the flange is the size desired. Then three i-4-inch splints are \voven. Now we take three weavers an inch wide and a long plait of extra thick Make two rows plaited grass. 13 the top basket is a very pretty creation in plaited sweet In both top and bottom the foundation spokes are narrow grass. Then two i i -4-inch wide splints. They are first \voven in web weave with narrow wood splint for about ten rows. plain splints. Loop the plait and bind to the side by twisting or curling the third wood splint around the plait. Then twine weave sweet grass for an inch and a quarter. web weave. and the curl weave to give ornamentation. The edges of the base are made tight with four or five rows of simple The spokes are then turned up for the sides. fasten by six or eight rows of ordinary web weaving with sweet grass. 18 inches long. The base. however. In the basket itself. and then bind with narrow splint.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the edge of the lid being turned down. strengthened and bound as before described. web weave. the weaving for about an inch is composed of plaited sweet grass. . is formed as shown in Fig. Then take together with two plaits of thickly plaited sweet grass and proceed to web weave. Cross these in simple mat weave with twelve similar Turn these up for ends and sides. and the rim strengthened and bound with simple wood splints. over the plait. then completed with plaited sweet grass. Then strengthen and bind the edge as before described. Take four splints about 23 inches long. splint web weave. in the center widening towards the edge. of ordinary web weave with two of these wide splints. The lid requires the splints narrow in the center and widening out . the ends being looped as to the edges. fastened to the sides with an ordinary wood splint. 144 is made essentially in the same manner. the thick plaited sweet grass and the curl as on the Then complete the top of the lid with six or eight rows of sides. shown in the figure.

and the weaving done with twined weave. until the lid is right size. For the lid the splints must be narrow in the center and widening towards the edge. The handle is of heavy plaited sweet grass. then strengthen and bind rim as elsewhere described. 145 shows the top and bottom or a basket and lid of a. Fig. 140 six or seven rows of simple web weaving with narrow wood splint holding it firmly Turn up sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. 148. together. After laying out the spokes the first inch or grass. 6. MADEIRA BORDER NO. 140. 2. 2. 147. so the til may be grass. Strengthen the edge and bind as elsewhere described. The lid is made as the one in Fig. the corners being turned over and doubled and then twined with plaited sweet grass. FIG. 6. then strengthen edge and finish off. turn down the foundation spokes. When within an inch of top web weave with 3-4-inch wide wood splint. . 146 the square basket is made of mat foundation. The lid is made as the round lid of Fig. finish the weave unis the flange of the desired size. Turn up for the sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. The diagonal handkerchief basket is composed of diagonal mat weave. 6 and laced on as there described. The round basket has a base as described in Fig. PAIRING FOR PLAIT. the edges being woven with nine or ten rows of splint web weave. In Fig. splint and plaited sweet grass basket. MADEIRA BORDER NO. simple web woven with narrow splints or plain sweet Then twine weave with plaited sweet grass. Strengthen the rim with stout splint inside and and sweet grass outside and bind with narrow splint. The lid is of simple twined plaited sweet made as the lid described in Fig. using 1-2inch wide splints. FIG. The foundation spokes are then turned up for the sides. using plaited sweet grass for weaver.IO2 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The base is formed as shown in Fig.

in front one. Do not draw the spokes down too closely. 148). room of for inserting the last spokes. To finish. and then. and now take one lot of double spokes behind the next lot. ''Treat all the double spokes as one. No. and the hold should be shifted round as each . "Take one spoke behind one. they one in the descriptions. MADEIRA BORDER It is NO. FANCY BORDERS. 2. after being taken behind one. as it has a much prettier effect when they are so. inserting beside each spoke an extra one of six inches. as the last spokes are threaded through to complete the border. very simple. in front of one only. and leave the end on the outside of the basket (Fig. Take one spoke in a close curve behind the next and bring the end down against the border (Fig. rest. so as each spoke is brought round the next it should be held firmly in its place by the left hand. 4 rattan or triple ones of as. i Allow four inches for this border. Allow spokes of eight inches for and use double spokes of No. to have the spokes double throughout the basket. It is not necessary. and suitable for violet baskets and small candy-bas- kets of various kinds. 103 CHAPTER XVII. "Repeat this round. when the weaving is finished. threading the last spokes through the spokes already turned down. "It is necessary to keep this plait very close to the basket. "When this first part is done." MADEIRA BORDER NO. although many spokes may be used. and the last is inserted first -behind and then in front of the next two spokes already turned down. turn the basket upside down to do the plait around the edge. i. in front of one. drawing all the spokes closely down except the first. 147). is threaded over the next spoke which is turned down. "Repeat this round. proceed in the same way behind one. and leave the ends on the outside of the basket. on the same principle as for the preceeding border only in this there will be more to thread through. the extra length being pushed into the basket. For the sake will of brevity. which may be worked in the ordinary way with single spokes. however.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as the border should be about one inch in depth. . "When the last two lots of double spokes are reached. allowing the four inches for the border. the further side of the spoke against which they this border. in front of the next. so that when you come to the finish you have be treated . the ends are all cut off neatly. "To make it. behind one. which must be left a little loose. Be careful not to draw the first spokes down close to begin with they must be left open. the spokes should all be double. the first swoke.

as it is flat outside and the ends are all cut off neatly inside. Finish off with the plait This border is worked on the outside 5. and then. three inches. This is a very light and graceful border. 4. If uneven the effect of the basket is quite spoilt. "The first of MADEIRA BORDER in the usual way. This is finished on the same principle as the "Madeira Borders. Depth of border without plait. i 1-2 inches.IO4 HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER last BASKETS. CYCLE . behind three and in front of three if kept close together it has the effect of a double ridge or twist. Repeat this round until only seven upright spokes remain. If the edge of the border. the basket. Great care is needed to keep a nice straight edge round the top of the border. in front of two. in front of two. the first of these will be taken in front of two. the plait in the "Madeira Border No. spoke used. Repeat this round." NO. Finish off on the same principle as for the preceeding borders. and push the end well down inside. and Use three spokes together. This border but it is is called the "Cycle. "Do MADEIRA BORDER use No. two spokes together. only now the spokes curve round to make the other side of plait. behind two." as it is ivsed on the cycle baskets very useful on many other kinds. When the last spoke has been threaded through the loop of the first. behind one. and plait the ends. Finish by threading the spoke through the loop of the first. 2 rattan together. . in front of three. to pass . "Now go round again. It must not be spread out. turned down. when only five upright spokes are left." of MADEIRA BORDER NO. principally those which have lids. therefore it is necessary to keep the spokes straight to the top. behind three. in and behind one. Care should be taken in doing this that the ends of the spokes are left long enough to go over the next spoke. Materials required "Allow 8 inches for this border. curving one spoke beneath the next in the same way. "Take one spoke behind three spokes. 2. and the ends must be cut off neatly. Thus. and use three spokes of No. Depth of border withas for same way NO. the plait is finished. out plait." the last spokes being threaded through the turned-down spokes in their order. behind two. 3. Take one spoke behind two. 4 rattan. in front of one. in front of one. behind one. Allow spokes 16 inches and use No. after going behind and in front of the next six will be the first to be taken behind the first spoke the others following in their course. these." BORDER. in front of two." Allow spokes of 14 inches. in front of two. leaving the end outside. leaving the end outside the basket. Allow spokes of six inches. behind one. i rattan. and then to bend them to interlace with other spokes. measuring occasionally to keep the border as described for the preceeding borders of of the correct depth. front of two Take one spoke behind three spokes. "Take one spoke in front of two spokes. leaving the end outside for the plait. This border is worked on the inside.

Allow spokes 13 inches long. FIG. When the double spokes arc reached they must be used together . place between the next two upright spokes.HOW in front of TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the spokes finished. from the outside. FLAT PLAIT BORDER. and through the loop of this it must be threaded to the inside all the other spokes will then be threaded through in their places. In starting this border. 105 and the again. be threaded through." is efficient in this border six inches for spokes FLAT PLAIT BORDER. as the closer come together the handsomer the border will look when When a pupil be sufficient. and place ic between the first two upright spokes bring down the first upright spoke beside it. I spoke in a curve over the other two. it will be takem in front of the last upright spoke one turned down. Now proceed to plait as follows Take the first spoke from outside. Take the first from inside. '''Turn down 149). FLAT PLAIT IN PROGRESS. but room should be left for the end spokes to After the first two spokes have been used. two first . will BORDER SECOND 150. 6 or 7 rattan. Repeat this with the second and third spokes then there will be three spokes inside and two spokes outside. then draw the first upright spoke down beside it. and bring it down beside the third spoke outside Be careful in doing this not to draw the spoke too tightly (Fig. and with the right WITH PORTION OF FIG. FINISHED BORDER. 149. the fir sit spoke must not be drawn close down to the weaving. Hold the three spokes sharply to the outside of the basket (Fig. POSITION OF SPOKES. Use for this No. FLAT PLAIT hand bring No. BORDER FINISHED. 152. bring the first spoke from inside between the same upright spokes to outside. : . but they must not be more than 1-2 inch apart. . 151. FJG. FLAT PLAIT draw the border down as firmly as possible. COMMENCING FIG. second and third in the left hand. 150).

thus making it double like the others. outside. and pass them under the three that were first turned down. to . In finishing this border the principle is to make all the single spokes used in starting double to agree with the rest of the border. To do this the longer one of each of the double spokes inside the basket is used to follow out their course. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. in Fig. 151. 151). 152)." Take three twos out of the three threes. first threading it just through the first single spoke. Take the first double spokes from the inside and thread through the place shown in Fig. Teachers' College. so that it may lie flat beside that then follow its course under single spoke No. finish the The other four double spokes must be used in the same way border (which is shown complete in Fig. FIG. first single spoke under the black spoke to passes through to the outside of the basket. 3 and then to the follow the course of the where it . There are four other double spoke s>. and these must all be treated in the same way as the first double spoke. that it may lie flat beside that. This brings five lots of double spokes to the inside of the basket Take first two lots and thread through as shown (see Fig. 151. and. When the last upleaving the short spoke to be cut off afterwards. right spoke has been turned down there will be two lots of double as . Now take the longer of these and thread one up through the single spoke. spokes inside and three lots of triple spokes outside. one spoke both inside and outside the basket and when the triple spokes are reached the two longer ones must be used together as one. New York. Work of Students. 153. Then take the longer one of these.io6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

inch above this. Then begin the knot stitch. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. though the long leaved pine may be used. Above this about the same spaced width a final twining is made. spirally coiling the flat ratof raffia. Pair or twine weave with raffia six or eight rounds. 137. twine around three rays until you come around to the pdace of beginning. and to the left. 140. Take a twining weaver and about an inch from the center proceed to twine over six or seven until a fiat circle is formed by bringing the twining around to the place of beginning. BOX. lar BASKET. and six bunches of tule or rush 14 or 15 inches in length and 21 single lengths to the bunch. Kensington colbasket. 154 and 155 are shown a rush.. at one end.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 1546. under. silk-lined. A. introducing bands of color according to taste. See that this twining is equidistant from the base. outward from edge of base. Indian Basketry. The short ends of the rays are finished bending a first group of And so on in three over a group to the left under the next group. 153 are two made baskets. succession until the edge is finished. Bind the top with natural or colored raffia as shown. CHAPTER XVIII. neatly In Fig. 154. Then line with fancy silk or other material. make a larger circle an inch from the first twined circle. the ket take a length of No. Fig. A FEW BASKETS. Start the base as described in Fig. and that the wall slants THE KENSINGTON In Figs. and in Figs. first letting a group cross over another group. in which additional spokes are added for base and sides when needed. Procure six yards of double twining material. Tie together with weaver desired diameter or oval of the basket. This gives a fancy effect and affords a place for decorating with ribbon as seen in the plate. To make this knotted stitch basForm a loop. 156 and 157 herewith. twine around the groups of three all the way round to the last place of beginning. 136. This is made of rush or tule. Examples of this twined weave are shown in Figs. 7 flat rattan. 133. Tie these securely at the middle and then tie together flat radiating from a center. An extra twining or three strand twisting over a coil gives additional strength to the edge. An COLLAR . raffia is good. Fig. Now having secured a firm base it is desired to shape the side of basket. then insert new spokes and continue the twined weaving until base is size desired. 155. a raffia collar box and a splint basket. Now taking care to twine around three only. Bend up spokes and proceed with the twined weaving. Continue to twine a second time round to make the base firm and flat. About an inch from the outside circle. See A. Fig.

O hH fa fa O M H 02 d i i fa fa fa <) tf 72 P a o 02 fa M 01 <JJ M O u fa .i ' / />O' ' <* .

narrow splint. weavers. 109 taiv as the weaving progresses. The cover to the box is a button-holed band of flat rattan with a wove>n< top made by stringing web strands of raffia one way and weaving closely across the web with raffia. The final weaver to be a broad length of splint. After cutting away the holding bands of raffia or cord and modelBut if used for sewing a ing the basket may be considered finished. THE ASH SPLINT BASKET. Use three broad bands in this way and then finish off with six rows of two colored twining. 20 inches long and two yards 3-8-inch white splint. with a fourth inch strap of darker splint.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. lining of silk may add to its value. bottom up. Take a wide length splint very narrow. and a white). Now carefully secure the ends of the Take up the basket and place it before you right side up. Fold over the outer s pokes and tuck under twinings on the inside Cut off the alternate rays even with top of to keep them in place. Ornament with narrower bands of colored splint by overlaying the broad bands. (The splints should always be moist when bending is done). . of The edgeing rim around around the edge the bottom is an over and over weaving the bate two times round. filling a wall one inch high. Continue sewing until all of cane is used and finish with double button-hole stitch. over two again. A very common and useful DIAGONAL" MAT BASKETRY. Overcast the two woof strands together to hold them taut. When once round see that the next stitch goes between the stitches already on the first part of the work. 154. fastening spokes in place with raffia or fine splint. The bottom is made by stringing web strands from end to end and holding them in place by woof strands placed an inch apart. the Now take two of the I -8-inch weavers (a green and. The ornamental banding is made by slipping the colored ray back of and over weave and slipping the end again in place along its un- derlying spoke. Bend all the spokes upward from the salver-like rim. and weave in more of the narrow splint for about one and a half inches. Take the raffia over two bands of the rattan. Take eight yards Fig. Make base as shoAvn in Fig. Twine the two together with a stout strip of ash Then make another base same first. Then make a "button-hole" stitch and. under one. of ash the same width as spoke and weave in over one under one for the beginning of final wall. basket. Spread the spokes of the basket on a flat surface. i5 4 C. The two-toned effect shown in the plate was made by running green spokes on the upper base before twining. then the button-hole loop again. Bring the edges of the rattan as close together as possible. In an earlier chapter this branch of weaving was fully presented. securing the ends. four yards I -4-inch green splint. size as the first and place it above letting the rays of the lower mat come between the rays of the upper mat. green and white. weave over owe. See Fig. 18 3-8-inch wide splints. knotting carefully and tightly. 140.

The bottom is made of a ring." Fig. 60 is a Hopi Yucca Basket made on this diagonal mat weave. SURFACE EFFECTS OF TWINED OPEN WORK. 5. It should not be forgotten that in making the rings the joints should be spliced perfectly. l 2 inches in diameter. TWINED WEAVING. On to page 120 "Indian Basketry. FIG. CHAIR. 20 inches long. the other 2 inches. fold. Cut four pieces of rattan. / THE MAGAZINE : . Using make one this as a pattern a little care will enable the student similar to it. is shown a Pueblo In- dian mat. This dainty and pretty little toy. 2^4 inches long. Figs. These may be made of tule. Now wrap the two rings with raffia (Fig. about 13 inches long. 27). Wooden base. HOLDER. the outer edge being bound. 2 2. 4. page 108. I rattan. Tack legs and back to the rings. one 2. 124. These are home woven as bought are pic- WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. Rear legs and back are made from one piece. Proceed as in ordinary diagonal weave. two lengths of No. one piece. 27). as is also the large basket to the left on page 83. cross-wrapped with raffia so as to fit perfectly. Fig. completes the mat. 156. a toy chair is pic- TOY FIG. to a toilet table as a ring holder. Detail of Magazine Holder 2. Make two rings. 6^4 inches long. Bottom brace for main and center frames. two pieces. Center frame. 158. two pieces. 6$/ inches long. The main portion is of simple mat con- Then about twenty rows of web struction over two and under two. 28 and 29. On an earlier page (Fig. Bottom brace for side frame. 107. pair of objects which may as well be tured in Fig. can patience. The top border is made with a double page 65 "Indian Basketry. 3. soaked and bent into desired shape. 104.y inches long. is made as follows i. same size. CROSSED WARP tured. as shown in Fig. Insertion for back is piece of No. and then tacked or sewed in. which easily be Materials are. weaving. Main frame 22 inches long. shows a Hopi weaver at work on this On weave. is 157.no HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. made from s also a useful adjunct made with a little 4 rattan for front legs. of palmetto or any flat and reasonably firm material. and nail the two rings together." Fig. 2 pieces.

16. 16 inches. 15 inches. This latter method. Thoroughly soak Nos. one piece. also 4 to i. as the tack soon pulls out from the raffia. with twisted raffia. 112 of FLUTED FLOWER No. 8 rattan make an ordinary round base with an even number of spokes measuring 5 inches across. WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. With the fourteen pieces No. . Bend into shape required. 9. however. Bottom brace for center frame. 14 inches long. or tacked through the raffia to the rattan or wood of the frame. one piece. It is better sewed. Ornamented 7. wrapped frame for main frame. Tack 4 to 5. : 6% FIG. Tack 6 to 5 tack the ends of 10 to 6 put 2 into end holes of 5. Nos. Tack the long pieces to make two of the ends of the short pieces and thus make a frame these. 56 of No. split thick cane or rattan. both sides. Handle. I. four pieces 8. 2. Tack shown. then \vrap with raffia. 6. 4. Tack 8 to I. for at holes to 5. . 2 green rattan. made as follows Take two pieces of rattan long and two pieces i% inches long. 56 of No. 9 and 10. 2 green rattan. 5 rattan. 2 green rattan. Wire scroll. 2. 2 pieces No. No. Then wrap with wide raffia. is not wise. 7 inches long. The wire scrolls may now be sewed in with raffia. two pieces. 19 inches. . Ill old box lid. I.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Brace for ends. 8 rattan. as 158. Tack 3 to I and 2. Then wrap them with strands of raffia. In the middle of each end saw out a hole large enough to allow center frame to rest snugly within. Tack 9 to 5. 6 inches long. 10. 3*4 inches long. with ends below wood an inch and a quarter. 3 inches broad. Tack 10 to points where they cross 2. . 21 inches long. To put together. 6-Hs inches long. tying them in the center. BASKET Get 14 pieces of No. 32 of No. binding 3 at both ends to i. 48 inches. 2 green rattan.

112 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. placing two beside the next lots of two spokes on either side of the four undivided double spokes added to it. and you will get the right spokes at the side. ing them down most sharply in the center of each When this has been done do nine rows of plain weaving. but the twelve FIG. 165). weaving. 159. FIG. and pushing them right down to the base of the basket (Fig. 2 white cane. placing one spoke on either side of the one do three rows of Turn the spokes upright. which remain undivided. 164. Take the center spoke of each group of seven in the base. j> orci er Insert the thirty-two spokes of 16 inches. placing two beside each two. The four spokes must be four spokes there will be twelve left upright. TURNING DOWN SPOKES. 21 inches. Pair round once. spoke in base. Now Now insert the fifty-six spokes of 19 inches. spokes. dividing all the spokes into twos. Then twenty-nine rows of plain triple twist with No. Between each of these lots of double spokes. BASKETS FROM THE PHILIPPINES. presstwelve (Fig. four lots of four spokes. so that each curve has four lots of . must be bent down to the outside of the basket to form the curve. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. 2 green rattan. Cut off the ends of the spokes and insert the fifty-six spokes of No. These four spokes are at equal distances round the basket. excepting 164).

Do eight rows of weaving. WORK BASKET. CURVE PARTLY WORKED. used together as one. Pair round once to divide into twos. Pair of green rattan. STARTING SQUARE (All the pairs of spokes are border. in readiness for the FIG. round once. still keeping the central side spokes undivided. FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. 165. 166.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Insert the 112 spokes PIG. 167. TURNING WEAVER ROUND CORNER SPOKES. the depth of which is 3}^ inches. and for the sake of brevity will be spoken of as . SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. placing two beside each two round the basket. FIG. dividing all the spokes into two.

166). twenty-nine spokes. 4 inches. push two ends down beside one lot of four spokes on the inside of the Twist the two pieces of rattan round each other. TURNING WEAVER FIG. taking two lots of double spokes together each time. Insert the forty-four spokes through the holes in the wooden base. 16 inches. . Do the border in front of one. 16 inches. putting in a few spokes at a time. leaving 2^2 inches below. and then continue the work round. Now turn the basket upside down and pair round once. behind one. behind one. the ends into the basket at the opposite side. "169. Handle Sharpen the ends of the two pieces of No.) of two. 6 rattan. 12 inches. Take two pieces of No. spokes of No. and keeping the row of pairing even with the edge of the weaving. 13 inches. and leave behind. leaving end inside. and weave a short way round the basket (Fig. FIG. Forty-four FIG AROUND LAST SPOKE. All this must be worked underneath the wooden base. 168. SQUARE WORK WOOD FIG. 13 rattan. TWISTED HANDLE. two pieces of No. and push basket. behind two. STARTING LID OF SQUARE BASKET. In doing this. four spokes of No. 7 inches. one piece of No. in front of one. for the lid. nineteen spokes of No. Repeat this round. 13 rattan." using four spokes together to plait with. When this is done plait round as described for "Madeira Borders. 6 rattan. start the border when about six spokes have been inserted. in front one. cross these. This border is worked on top of the basket. the spokes being curved from left to right. rials SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE MateRequired A square wooden base. 2 rattan.114 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. in front of one. BASKET. 170. 16 rattan and _ Take one piece in front of three spokes. 7^/2 inches across. draw the four ends to equal lengths and twist round the handle to the opposite side thread through to the outside two pieces on either side of the handle cane. 13 rattan. thread both ends from inside round the handle cane just below the border. . BASE. DETAIL OF 171.

Continue to place the spokes and pair them. The two pieces of No. cross them. and weave across the spokes.) six rows of flat colored rattan one row of triple twist two rows of plain weaving. the lid. 24). Sharpen the ends and push them into the basket beside the fourth (counting from either end) and at the second row of triple twist. keeping it in a straight line." same way as explained for "Made- To make this basket of a good shape it is necessary to keep an equal distance between each spoke the corner spokes should be pulled outwards. leaving one weave out (leave an end of about i inch). Take two spokes of 16 inches and place flat on the table together. When the other end is reached turn it over as before. Turn this over from right to left. corners. fold a strand of No. Lid Twenty-nine spokes. 2 cane. and then twist the ends of the No. Do one row of flat colored rattan. 25). turn it over and . place a piece of flat colored cane over the top of the handle. one going under and the other over. 2 cane round it. To finish. When the round weave goes behind the double corner spokes it must be taken round them again but when the weave comes on the outside. 7^ Allowing y? inch on either side for the border round it. thread round the handle cane just below the triple twist. the base up. 13 rattan (12 inches) can now be inserted . (This cannot be twisted round Do two rows of plain weaving. the last spokes being double (Fig. 167 and 168). 168). 13 The two rattan (4 inches). Take a piece of No. With the ends do the plait in the ira Borders. and the shorter end of the spokes will still point towards the work. The piece of No. and then do another row of pairing. three rows of triple twist. leaving end inside. and.HOW Turn TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as it fits inside the basket. one row of triple twist. and four rows of single Do - . this brings measurement of the center square of lid to 6 l 2 inches. Border "Cycle" Border. in front of one. in each corner. behind one. while those on either side are pushed in. 2 cane and put the loop over the spokes 4^/2 inches from the nearest ends (Fig. must be used together as one. with 2 spaces of about y inch between each twist. this is not necessary (Figs. Take the two weaves round the double spokes at the end. In front of two spokes. If correctly worked this basket should measure 8 inches across. resting on the plaited border there (it is shown in Fig. one row of flat colored. Do four rows of single weaving. keeping them l in their places with the left hand. and then place a piece of No. will be inches. so that when flat on the table the weaving will continue from the left hand side. and weave a few inches on either spokes side. beside the corner spoke. weaving. until a piece is clone measuring 6 / 2 the / inches (fifteen spokes). and place the long spokes into position. therefore. thread the ends through to the inside. 13 rattan at each corner must be cut evenly with the weaving before the border is done. bring the other back. . . for handles. 16 inches. Place another spoke flat on the table about y> inch further on and pair round.

When two outside rows of plain weaving have been done (counting in the ordinary way the number of times one weaver crosses the same spoke). Now weave in a spoke at either side next to the pairing.Il6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. When two weavers have been used. the spokes are drawn in while using the remaining two weavers. Bind the loop with flat cane. the first side spoke must be woven in. to slip . and secure the other end in the same manner on the opposite side. or the lid will have a very untidy appearance. one spoke. one flat two weaving. behind one. For handle. Do two rows of single weaving with one piece of flat cane. two pairing. counting from the side. one flat. This pairing must be kept as close as possible to the weaving. six weavers of No. 7 inches. which are then thoroughly wet and bent upward with a slight flare. . cross them. Take a spoke of 16 inches and. 2 rattan. and in . leaving about /2 inch over at either end. one spoke. and weave each end a short way round the basket. through the under loop. 4 rattan which has been soaked until These cut into four pieces and then separated into pairs. . Every second row of weaving must be taken twice round the double spokes at the ends. two weaving. . Place a piece of colored rattan over the top of it. one spoke four weaving. and with a piece of wire secure one end of the rattan against the third and fourth spokes. four weaving. piece flat green. A bottom is woven 2^4 inches in diameter. 13 rattan tied to the side of the basket. one spoke four weaving. Materials for Basket Eight 2O-inch spokes of No. Insert one spoke by weaving it in in the ordinary way. Border In front of two. one spoke. 4 n-inch of No. are bent into loops at about ten inches from one end of each and Handle is A . 2 rattan round it in the same way as the side handles sew the lid on with flat cane at the back. . repeat. The edge is then bound off and finished with the simple border described this in the directions for a basket with a twisted handle in the first part of the chapter. four weaving. l . form a loop by threading a weaver around a few rows of the weaving take the ends inside the basket. weave down in place of the weaver then take the weaver over or under the spoke and weave down the side. one securely. 4 rattan. Bend the rattan in a half-circle. four rows of weaving. and twist the strand of No. the spokes are flared more decidedly. one length No. and when two more have been woven in this way. one spoke. in front of one. pliable length of No. then do two rows of pairing round the lid. 4 rattan. front just in the center and directly under the border of the basket. . one flat two weav. and dividing the double spokes at each corner. one spoke. two weaving. Handle (on top) One piece of No. and a short piece of No. two rows weaving. ing. catching in the ends of the flat cane with the spokes to which they are nearest. one four plain weaving. leaving an end of 4^4 inches. will fasten it BASKET WITH TWISTED HANDLE HAVING INTERLACED ENDS Miss White thus describes the method of making basket. weave back again. one spoke. make another loop to catch over the first bind this also with fine flat cane. one spoke two weaving. on eight and a half 20-inch spokes. 13 rattan. Get the center of the lid. one spoke. rattan.

nineteen spokes across five. OF KEY BASKET COMMENCING. 7 spokes inches. Make . 8 rattan. The Materials required five of No.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. which makes the loop uppermost on one end of the knot and on the other the ends. HANDLE OF KEY BASKET. The short ends are now crossed one under a long end and one over (as shown in Fig. FIG. one in each hand of the worker. see Fig. Insert the fifty side spokes. nineteen spokes of No. although the process cannot be the same. 8 rattan. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET an ordinary base. with the long ends turning up. 172. This knot is placed about half way between the top and bottom of the basket. DETAIL. This knot is placed on the opposite side of the basket from the first one and attached in the same way. and are then made into another knot copied from the first one. The long ends are twisted together for about twelve inches. 171. and brought together. putting by one on either side of the five long spokes at each end. COMMENCING 174. bringing the ends of the loop through which it passed over it. The loops are held firmly where the short end of each comes against the long end (making sure that the short ends are on the same sides of the loops). weave with Nos. measuring 16 6 inches. fifty spokes of No. 18 inches. for. TWISTED HANDLE. I. 171). it is so simple that one can easily follow its coils. The long ends are also brought together making a knot like Fig. FIG. 3 and 40 flat. knotted in this way. short ends are finished off by weaving one to the right over and under several spokes and the other to the left. 18^ inches. BINDING HANDLE 175. OF 172. FIG. Use No. 8 rattan. who passes one loop through the other. PIG. 2 rattan. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET. 173.

OP KEY BASKET FINISHING. and begin by threading one end from the inside to the outside beside the handle cane and just bePull the end out until it is long enough to be neath the border. 102. Border "Loop. or allowed to get wider in others. up against the handle cane. 174). BINDING HANDLE two rows of weaving. 3 Weave pieces of No. Now FIG. and the shape will be spoilt. Thirty-six spokes of No. Materials u I inches. and repeat the cross on the outside leave the end . rattan. Also be careful to keep an even distance between each spoke. in front of one leave the end inside to be cut off afterwards. Turn up and do three rows of twist No. . carried on top of the handle to the opposite side and 4 inches over. alter- In making this basket great care*is necessary to get it a nice shape with a sharp angle at each corner. carry over the basket. Round the foot do four rows of plain weaving and border. and tie the longer ends together. one piece on either side of the center spoke in the side (as shown in Fig. eight rows of flat rattan (colored) and round rattan alternately twelve rows of plain weaving one row of pairing. Handle Insert the two pieces of No. sticking . Two Oblong wooden Spokes of No. 3 rattan." the result being shown in Fig. 177. Now with the long end of rattan bind neatly round the handle and flat rattan together. SHALLOW OVAL BASKET. 16 inches. Handle Length of handle according to taste. behind one. and insert in the same way on the opposite side. Cross it on the outside (as in Fig. 13 rattan. In order to d6 this keep the corner spoke pulled outward and press the one on either side well in. using one white and one colored weaver nately. 3 rattan thirteen rows of plain weaving. required base. take it over the handles to the opposite side. and forty flat. rattan. KEY BASKET colored and white. thirty-six spokes through the holes in the wooden base. the basket will become uneven. . FIG. colored. See Fig. If this is not done. Put on in the same way as described for the "Key Basket. keeping one round of rattan just meeting the next. 40 flat rattan. and the spokes are drawn together in some parts. turn the basket up and do two rows of triple twist and twentywith No. Put the . 176. leaving 3 inches below for the foot." 2 inches high. . 175).u8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and winding tightly. 13 rattan. Get a long strand of No.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 16 rattan down beside the center side spoke and one piece beside the first spoke on either side repeat on the opposite side. Weave with 3. (straight round) of flat rattan. and six rows of weaving. 179. Leave one end several inches long. 6. in the opposite Without unwinding any of the rattan. one on either side of each spoke. 30 inches." See Figs. 3 rattan have been done. Then ninety. taking at each side. Materials spokes the thickness of a slate pencil. 176). FIG. Border "Flat Plait. 180. 149 to 152. except the center one Turn up sharply and do two rows of triple twist. it SHALLOW OVAL BASKET then cut off neatly. Cut off the ends of the spokes. and pull the end of rings (Fig. 16 rattan. three of No. 19 inches. 181. and with the other weave to rattan.four of No. FIG. Do seven rows of single weaving three rows each spoke singly. INSIDE VIEW. FIG. placing one beside each of the five long spokes and the first of the double side spokes. Split the thirteen willows in the center and thread onto the five of 19 inches. Now . 40 flat round the center handle rattan from the inside just below the border. Of FIG. 119 it When the handle has been bound round as close to the border as can be. seven at either end. 7.it round way to that in which it was wound. until quite tight . thirteen of 13 inches and fourteen of inches long. leaving an end of 3 inches.rattan. 16 and 40 flat rattan. push the end up and pull out between the Twist the rattan back again. 4 and continue weaving until the base measures 18 by 12 inches. 4. and insert the ninety-four spokes of No. Thread a piece of No. 178. OF OVAL BASKET. Add the fourteen spokes. . BINDING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. STARTING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. FINISHING HANDLE do two rows of triple twist to divide the spokes with No. these take five of 19 inches. OUTSIDE VIEW. . When loose enough for about six rings up. cut the flat rattan. Weave like an ordinary oval base until twenty rows of weaving with No. loosen it by twisting. Rattan may required Willow be substituted. Handle Place one piece of No. 7 rattan.

WASTE PAPER BASKET when the weaving three canes together until within 6 inches of the border. 184. 182. 178 and 179). all 183. 182). and fro between the three spokes until eighteen rows cross the center one (Figs. 185. 180). and the end pushed up against one of the canes and then cut off (Fig. taking OFF THE FLAT RATTAN IN BINDING A HANDLE. FINISHING FIG. Fig. the end of the flat rattan must be FIG. STRAIGHT CORNER. Now continue to bind over the top of the handle (Fig.120 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 176 shows how the handle ought to look when finished. When the border is reached. SECTION SQUARE BASKET WITH threaded round the center handle rattan just beneath it. In doing this the short end must be caught in beside one of the handle canes. LEAVING SIDES. 181. SQUARE BASKET. PAPER BASKET Materials required Twelve spokes WASTE . FIG. FIG. is continued as in Fig.

2 spokes No. Ma- Required One board for base. SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE . until it Then insert the forty-eight spokes as usual. counting the handles as spokes. 12 inches forty-eight spokes No. 6. 2 spokes of No. six times in all. 125 to 129). Bend spokes outward and continue weaving for eight more double rows. 6 inches square 38 spokes of No. : . Now do your check pattern again ten rounds of triple twist. Insert the handle in holes made for it in the wooden base. Above the wooden base weave one row of rope twist. i and 2 rattan. 187. two of 36 inches (to be cut off when the twist is finished) and two longer. The handles can be put on terials at discretion. insert new weaver of dyed raffia or rattan and weave one Put a ten-inch inch. For this 4 lengths of No. IJI of No. 6 rattan. see Fig 184. 22 inches No. 16 rattan. 183). METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING SIDES. Work until you have three checks one row of triple twist twenty-two rows of plain weaving one round of triple twist. Insert a short spoke close beside handle to be used in its stead for down and Finish with Closed Border No. weaving the border. will be needed. Finish with plaited border . for half an inch. 13 rattan. The two longest are carried on for a row of pairing. inches from each end make a sharp bend. BASKETS. the number of spokes being The even. (Fig. 16 inches. Weave the base in the ordinary way (see Figs. FIG. and is 9 inches across. 183). . 2. For handle. handle must be still counted as a spoke. turn the basket right side up. 27 inches. 18fi. after which turn the base upside 1 1/2 in Weave finish the foot before proceeding with the sides. weave singly. i rattan. then another half inch or inch in natural color. sloping the foot to taste. Weave with Nos. leaving 6 inches below the wood. 7. 6 inches. Now . o. and at FIG.HOW TO MARK INDIAN AND OTHER . 20) with two weavers. PLAITED HANDLE. 10 inches. singly (see Fig. turn them up after so doing weave ten rows of triple twist and six rounds of two colors to make the check pattern (Fig. Start the weavers on a side of the base which has not a handle through it. Insert spokes for sides wooden base. taking each weaver three times around. 6.

KLIKITAT BASKET IN FROHMAX COLLECTION. If for a workbasket. Now progresses. On finishing the plait the ends must all be pointed and thrust as far down to the base on the other side of the basket as possible. Where this handle is desired one of the spokes must be left long enough to form the handle. the spokes twined ready for the sides. if preferred. FIG. and finish with Closed Border No. 186. 187a.122 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. place the basket on smooth board. 2 or Open Border No. 2 according to taste. spoke close to each side of the handle. to be used in its stead in weaving border. PLAITED HANDLE. spoke. and plait as shown. plenty of rattan being left for this purpose. line with silk to taste. . A handle that is very easy to make is shown in Fig. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING all up and Fig. thrust a small awl through the base into the board. 187 clearly shows the base finished. When the sides of the basket are woven insert two other spokes. The awl thus acts as a pivot on which the basket may be moved while the side weaving SIDES. making a three-plait with two spokes instead of one. one on each side of this long These may all be doubled.

before it is allowed to dry. 188. f. Only in this way can designs the weaver desires baskets of one color. one should correct all irregularities. however. willow and other ware small fibers will split off from the work. While the work is damp it can easily be twisted into shape. FIG. If so. in the chapter on dyes. splint. flat and the and see that they are all of this nature seem small. YAKTTAT GOOD LUCK RATTLE BASKETS.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. not to scorch the basket. follow the methods it may be as well to dye the completed work. be worked out. is madeDyeing. hence. should always be done before the basket while the materials are still unformed. In rattan. 123 CHAPTER XIX. Things depends the difference between a poor and a good basket. of the saire size. In all raffia work care should be taken to cut off loose ends as the weaver progresses with her work. and these can be either In singeing be careful singed off or rubbed off with fine sandpaper. suggested make the bottom 1 in Those who desire to varnish or polish " Miss White's "How to Make Baskets their baskets may find recipes . See if the shape is as it should be especially examine the loops of the border . TN FROHMAN COLLECTION. I think. FINISHING OFF A BASKET. yet upon them often lid to fit.

SARGENT. FIG. E. E. WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE BASKETS THE COLLECTION OF H. 190. JR. JR. 189.FIG. SARGENT. OLD COILED BASKETRY IN THE COLLECTION OF H. IN .

hence in this chapter nothing but practical hints can be given. 191). Many North Pacific Coast as well as Atlantic Coast and Canadian Indians use this weave. In what follows I have done little more than quote what that distinguished savant and sweet-spirited gentleman. Indeed it is practically impossible to tell the one from the other (see Fig. Curator of the Division of Ethnology of the United States National Museum. how the Indian has well for all students of basketry to learn produced the wonderful results that make her basket work so famous. HOW TO MAKE It is INDIAN BASKETS. TWILLED BASKETRY. and the warp is the same as the weft. Of the poetry and religion woven I into Indian baskets I larger book have fully discussed this can here say nothing. Professor Otis T.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. will suffice to start the earnest student upon the true pathway. 192. mark and inwardly digest" what is there written. 192 and 193- American Basketry. Splints of every imaginable kind of material are used for this work." . Mason. This is practically the mat weave of the preceding pages. which. has written in his "Directions for Collectors of CHECKERWORK BASKETRY. 125 CHAPTER XX. Even in the mechanical work the Indian showed a fertility of invention and a skill in execution little short of marvellous. TWILLED WEAVING. A variation of the mat weave is that which Professor Mason calls by this name. would work FIG. intelligently cannot do better than "read. At the very outset we are confronted by the magnitude of the subject. however. thus producing a twilled effect as seen in Figs. 191. and he who WORK OR MAT WEAVE. The fundamental technic of this work is in passing each strand of the woof over two or more warp strands. In my phase of the subject. COARSE CHECKER- PIG.

193. n. Plain twined weaving. This type of weaving was employed by the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley. woven work. but it is doubtful if one can be invented that these Indians have not long known. The ordinary Indian work. FIG. TWILLED WEAVING. vellous ingenuity in the working out of designs in this weave by varying the laying of the splints and the use of different colors.NK1J IN TWO COLORS. of twine or yucca fiber. all This is the most intricate and elegant of Professor Mason thus writes of the varieties of twined weaving as follows "Twined work has a set of warp rods or rigid elements. though in three-ply twining and in braid twining three weft elements are employed. the WICKER WORK finest web basketry of civilization is specimens being the plaques of the Hopis. On the specimen shown (Fig. "The North Americans of antiquity were very skillful in administering the twilled technic. or the opposite.126 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. H. in its southern portions. is fastened to one of the rigid uprights and then wrapped once around each wrap element. firmly fastened to the hoop at the top and the rigid members at the bottom. and is still used by the Mohaves. : 195 and 196." The Fijians make remarkable baskets by comIn this country the Chetamaches show marbinations of this weave. rigid hoop is sustained by four uprights. 39 and 40). Holmes it will be seen that in the ancient weaving of the Mississippi Valley. The process is clearly shown WRAPPED A in Figs. : . 194) the weft goes over one and under three. all rigidly The warp extends from the top to the bottom. . 10. as in wickerwork but the weft elements are commonly administered in pairs. continuing in a coil until the top is reached. Scores of designs may be made by the curious. different structures result as follows I. WEFT. WEAVING made only at Oraibi. (See Figs. each time and each way. According to the relation of these weft elements to one another and to the warp. the weft would not pass over the same number of warp elements that it passed under." Figs. 165 and 167. over single warps. and specimens of which are found in "Indian Basketry. TWINED WEAVING. affixed at the bottom. From examples reproduced by W. In passing from warp to warp these elements are twisted in half-turns on each other so as to form a two-ply or three-ply twine or braid. ISC. The weft. FIG. TU1.

198 are made in this weave. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 222 Indian Basketry). TWILLED WEAVING PRESSED ON ANC IENT POTTERY OF ALABAMA. the Pomas 200 "shows how. of the Havasupais are made in this of the fine baskets of (see Fig. The ridges. cluded in the half turns.HOW 2. 127 Diagonal twined weaving or twill. in which one weft element remains rigid and the other is wrapped about the cross3. OF THE MOHAVES. Latticed twined weaving. and many style. are not vertical as in plain twined weaving. on the outside. over two or more warps. tee or Hudson stitch. 199). Other examples will be found illustrated in "Indian Basketry. or water bottles. which is clearly shown in Fig. DIAGONAL TWINED this style between cross the and the plain warp strands. The only difference 2. surface. Two splints or weavers compose the woof and they are twisted with a The Aleut and Haida baskets in half turn around each warp stem. 196. twined work vertical warps crossed by horizontal weft element. 197." WEAVING. Wrapped twined weaving. therefore. more warp elements there must be an odd number at each half turn for in the rest round the same pairs of warps are not inof warps. Three-ply twined weaving and braiding in several styles. by varying the color of the weft splints and The esuwas. Fig." This primitive mode of weavPLAIN "TWINED WEAVING FIG. around 5. i. . Fig. 194. 195. or bird-cage twine. WRAPPED WEAVING FROM A MOUND IN OHIO. 4. WRAPPED WEAVING FIG. ings. "The is in the manner the woof weavers technic consists in passing over two or FIG. but pass diagonally over the . are also made in a similar manner." (See Fig. ing requires a set of warp elements arranged parallel to each other.

200. APACHE.128 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 199. 201. generally on the inside. In this weave one ele- FIG. 19S. while the other is wrapped around it and the upright warp." enabled to con- WRAPPED '"TWINED WEAVING. WORK VARIETY OF TWINED OUTSIDE. KLIKITAT. changing from diagonal to plain weaving. DIAGONAL FIG. The variation of one row of stitches TWINED WEAVING. ment of the twine is passed horizontally along the upright warp stem. ALEUT AND HAIDA BASKETS IN THE FROHMAN COLLECTION. as seen in Fig. When the rows of these stitches are wrapping forced closely upon one another the effect is as in Fig. inclining to the right and the other to the left is caused by the weaver's from above or below. artist is trol absolutely the figure 3. 202. FIG. the on the surface. which is the .

In the middle of the figure." page 99. . TWINED WEAVING. at the right side. (For example. 20-2. the skillful has combined four styles of two-ply twined weaving. Neah Bay weavers. it will be seen inside. TWINED WEAVING. with plain twined weaving in the two rows at the top plain twined weaving in which each turn passes over two warp rods in four rows just below. form of weave is confined to the Pomas. 129 exact method followed by the Fig. On the from which FIG. 203 "shows a square inch of the inside of a basket. WRAPPED. TWINED WEAVING.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." (See Fig. THE TI WEAVK FIG. 203. NEAH BAY WEAVING. 255 Indian Basketry). how the wrapped or Neah Bay twined work appears on the lower right-hand corner In the exquisite piece is and in the woman the inside view of diagonal twined weaving. WRAPPED FIG. It is described in "Indian 'The ti (proBasketry. OF THE POMAS. outside of the basket these various methods stand for delicate patterns in color. 201. : . It is believed that this LATTICE 4. under the name of the Ti Weave. see Fig. TWINED. this drawing was made. INSIDE. 205. FIG. 200).

209. DITTO. viz. Frapped. (b) a horizontal warp crossing these at right angles. this fashion are very rigid and strong. DITTO. while on the inside the texture twined weaving. On the outside there is the appearance of a two-ply string laid looks like plain along the warp stems. broidery. INSIDE. weaving is the use of three weft splints and other kinds of weft elements instead of two. since in every third T ." 5. Three-ply braid. a. Tlinkit. By referring to the lower halves of Figs. In this technic (a)' THREE-PLY TWINE (Figs. and (c. each one of the strands. so that in passes inward. false emb. Three-ply. is carried behind the warp a whole revolution the three w eft elements have in turn passed behind three warp elements. as FIG. After that the process is repeated. and frequently the hoppers of mills for grinding acorns. Three-ply twine. nounced tee) twined weaving consists of four elements THREE-PLY TWINED WEAVING. FiG. TIIKKK-PLY BRAID AXI> (H'TSIDE. and also water-tight jars are thus constructed. INSIDE. 207. "Three-ply twined FIG. the basket weaver holds in her hand three weft elements of any of the kinds mentioned. Baskets made in holding the warps firmly together. 206 and 207 the outside and the inside of this technic will be made plain.. it Tn REE-PLY BRAID. and there are four ways of administering the weft. 208. FIG. d) a regular plain twined weaving of two elements. 205). (a) the upright warp of rods. c. d. Skokomish.130 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. OUTSIDE. I'm. (See Fig. stem adjoining. TWINED WORK. In twisting these three. The reason for this is apparent. 206 and 207).

FIG. it is carried THREE-PLY FIG. but instead of being twined simply they are plaited or braided. warp and two remain in BRAID.is the body worked in . . no matter how the rest is built up. OVERLAID TWINED WEAVING. The ornamentation in which mythological symbols are concealed consists of a species of false embroidery in which the figures appear on the outside of the basket but not on the inside. the starting of all Poma twined baskets. it is impossible to discriminate between The three-ply braid is found at three-ply twine and three-ply braid. FIG. of a revolution one element passes behind the front. which is exceedingly tough. Fig. PLAIN TWINED WORK. In three-ply braid the weft elements (b) are held in the hand in the same fashion. This process is better understood by examining inside a warp stem. On the surface.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 210 shows a square inch from the surface of a Hopi twined jar. and as each element passes under one and over the other of the remaining two elements. 206 and 207 and 208 and 209. In the needlework of the civilized c) THREE-PLY. THREE-PLY AND 210. The lower ply twine. when the work is driven home. FALSE EMBROIDERY. FRAPPED 212." '( part is in plain twined weaving the upper part is in three- "In Tlinkit basketry spruce root. the upper parts of Figs. TWINED WORK. 211.

Around this twine the third element is wrapped or served. 217. WASHOE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. passing about the other two and between the warp elements. YOKUT BASKET wrapped around it once. An interesting (d) modification of this Tlinkit form of overlaying or false embroidery occurs occasionally among the Poma Indians under the name of bog or bag. the colored or overlaid element . Two of them are spun from native hemp or milkweed. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. example the twine or weft element is three-ply. and form the regular twined two-ply weaving. IN 218.132 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. BASKETRY. 216. Skokomish type. the laying of this third element would be called embroidery. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. IX is 215. 211). In this Thompson River FRAPPED FIG. Straws of different colors are employed (Fig. woman FIG. On . YOKl'T BASKET FIG. POMO BAM TT'SH WEAVE FROHMAN COLLECTION. and it is fully explained and illustrated by James Teit in his Memoir on the Thompson River Indians. FIG. when each of the weft elements passes between two warp rods outward. but the Indian woman twines it into the textile while the process of basket making is going on that is. and then the whole is pressed down close to the former rows of weaving.

who are Wakashan (Fig. FIG. FIG. but after the style of the Makah Indians of Cape Flattery. YOKUT DANCE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. IN 219. Teit's figure. but the wrapping of corn husk outside the twine are not done in Nez Perces fashion. Franz Boas for the s . I am indebted to Dr. FROHMAN COLLECTION. The fastening off is coarsely done. show that the bags and the motives on them are clearly Xez Perces or Shahaptian.< .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. KLIKITAT IMBRICATED WORK. DECORATED YOKUT BOTTLE-NECK IN use of Mr. leaving the surface extremely rough." . 212). kS* . The author says that it "seems to have been acquired recently through intercourse with the Shahaptins. This combination extremely interesting. is 220." little attention to the stitches will A FIG. the outside of this bag the wrapping is diagonal. 221. but on the inside the turns are perpendicular.

222. with striking designs. They are all Apache baskets. Sargent's collection. The latter has a circle of dancers and of the rattlesnake dia- monds. weave and de- F1G IMBRICATED COINED 223. pine cone design. IMBRICATED BASKETRY RIVER INDIANS. 215 is a Washoe basket in the Frohman collection. 219 and 220 are both fine Yokut baskets. with a circle of dancers on the flange. 190 is of new White Mountain Apache Basketry. KLIKITAT BASKETRY." the latter being a Figs. FIG. and with quail plumes as an additional decoration on the rim. sign. "Indian Basketry. The weave is of the coiled variety. 322 Indian Basketry). Fig. are seen two Klikitat basket weavers at work. Coiled Basketry I have already quoted Professor Mason's clear The following pictures show a variety of specimens of coiled work. AFTER JAMES TE1T.1^4 S HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the weave of which is described in "Indian baskets in Fig. bottle neck. in Arizona and New Mexico. Jr. Figs. and the design is similar to that of Maidu (Fig. 218 is a good specimen of the Bam Tush Poma weave. E. A. 189 shows some beautiful specimens ered by Mr. Portland. Sargent. Ore. . 216 and 217 are Yokut baskets of good shape. As a frontispiece in "Indian Basketry" Their materials are. CALLED Iv^lKITAT. WORK. Fig. WORK OF THOMPSON Mr. The whole five are most beautiful specimens.. fully explained on page 96. largely from the Frohman collection. of old coiled work gathFig." Of analysis.

cedar bast and grass stems. Snohomish. sixty years ago. have long known RC . '35 for the foundation. 221 the detail of this imbricated method of weave is shown. all of whom are of the ShahapClallam. dyed with Oregon grape. who are Salishan. POMA SHU-SET WEAVE BOWL AND BURDEN BASKET IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. James the strips not being over an eighth of an inch wide." Indians. 222). and Spokanes. Chehalis. Makah. of the Klikitat. is understood that here tian family. the entire surface is covered with work of this kind. Imbrication is one of the most restricted of technical processes. It It is the native art it is a modern acquirement. Cowlitz. 224. cedar or spruce root. The body of the basket is in the root of Thuja gigantea. doubled on itself so as to be underneath the next stitch. while the sewing is done with the outer and tough portion of the root. FIG. forming a sort of "knife plaiting. Skagit. who are Salishan. collected . Nisqualli. In Fig. and Squaxon. are added as ornament. and he names the Puyallups. Yakima.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. "The strip of colored bark or grass is laid down and caught under a passing stitch before another stitch is taken this one is bent forward to cover the last stitch. Strips of cherry bark. Mr. and the ornamentation in strips of Elymus triticoides and Primus demissa (Fig. Teit describes and illustrates this type of weaving among the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia. and so with each one it is bent backward and forward so that the sewing is entirely concealed. Twanas." In some of the finer old baskets in the National Museum. Eells says that some women in every tribe on Puget Sound could produce the stitch. The Thompson River the art.

Knapp. Brown & Co. Eliz. Co. Mich. Little.. Second Series. Springfield.. Part P. Mass. Los Angeles. New York. Directions for Collectors of American Basketry. Doubleday. Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers. DECOKATED Mason. George Wharton. Purdy. The Indians of the Painted Desert Region. 1902. How to Make Baskets. Museum. SHI-BC. James. L.. Battle Creek. Raphia and Reed Weaving. Martha Watrous. Annie. White. New York. Stearns. Cane Basket Work. London. BIBLIOGRAPHY. S. Mass. Carl. THE SUN BASKETS OF THE POMAS IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. No. Henry Malkan. Nat. Mary. Boston. Calif. T. O. Page & Co. First Series. Bulletin of the U.. A School Without Books. XXI.i 36 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 39. 225. Review and Herald Pub.. . Indian Basketry. 170 Strand. Cane Basket Work. ftu- FIG. CHAPTER Firth. Upcott Gill. Milton Bradley Co. Sanborn..

:'. organized by George \Vharton James.. a loan collection of fine Indian Baskets in your village ? Then join The Basket Fraternity and get nineteen others to do and the collection will be sent to you without charge.:~~ . It has a large charter membership from roll will The charter in remain open until the end of 1903.THE BASKET FRATERNITY.':"-.r^-' a demand exists for a means of communication between. and source of information THE among basket lovers that BASKET FRATERNITY has been its start. Do you want a lecture on Indian Basketry will see ? Read page 4 and you how it may be had. rc-. . and send your Fraternity fee of one dollar. '^-..v~-i'f> .- L. membership are that you are interested Indian or other baskets."."-T :r. Its only conditions for Do you want town or so.

6. but especially and primarily of baskets made by the aboriginal tribes of North America. 14. To seek to influence the Indian department of the United States Government to earnestly endeavor to work to this end among all the agents. 11. for the gathering and distribution of Indian matebasket weaving which shall be sold to members of the fraternity at as near cost as possible. and of representative Indian fine and typical baskets of all weavers. HE BASKET FRATERNITY is a society of basket lovers. organized for the purpose of bringing together those who have felt the charm and fascination of Indian basketry. and is ready for its travels on call from those entitled to it. when issued. which will be loaned on payment of a small fee to any member of the fraternity. and especially for the pleasure and study of members of this fraternity. ITS OBJECTS ARE a : To form To means of communication between basket lovers throughout the world. illustrated bulletin of general or specific interest to basketry lovers and collectors and to send this bulletin. a national collection of typical baskets of every weave to be found throughout the world. carefully : . To organize a "traveling library" of veritable typical Indian baskets and send these as required to members of the fraternity for Such a collection of basketry is already made. and issue quarterly an . study and exhibition. collect reliable and accurate knowledge of Indian weavers' methods and work. To encourage the opposite of the spirit referred to above to seek to retain the love for good and artistic work to banish aniline dyes. way to among the Indians. This collection to be placed in some suitable location where it will be accessible at all times to basket lovers. 2. To make and style 9.T 1. To photograph aboriginal weavers and make a collection of said its the Indians the modern commercial methods. 13. 5. with accompanying lecture. To prepare such slides also for sale. To discourage among photographs. To arrange rials for 12. 10. 7. 4. secure the ends aimed at in Sections 12 and 13. disseminate information among its members relating to the art and the objects of the fraternity. 8. superintendents and teachers in its service. To prepare a set of stereopticon slides. and restore the use of native dyes. foster the use of aniline dyes. native shapes and designs. and to require all young Indian girls to learn the art as part of their school training. free to all members of the fraternity. To seek in every revive the art and prevent dying out prepared materials and artistic work. 3. hastily prepared materials and crude workmanship. to prepare. which encourage the making of baskets merely for sale. To To To distribute among its members photographs or engravings of makes. alien designs.

15. unite in asking for the loan of an Indian basketry collection. will guarantee a small fee and necessary expenses. Forms of application for such a loan will be sent on request. in order to further the work of the fraternity." by George Wharton James. To set in motion all possible machinery for the creating of markets for baskets so made." and originator of The Basket fee the 1. the national collection and the traveling libraries of Indian baskets are located. of application for bulletin will be forwarded as early as possible after receipt of the fraternity fee of one dollar." i.00 per year. poor houses. The fraternity fee is $1. referred to in Section 14. basketry work. Whenever fifty members of the fraternity petition for a lecturer. It will be issued July i. The first of these is a beautifully illustrated hand-book entitled "How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. Address all communications and make all P. it will be sent to them on guarantee of its safety and the payment of freight charges both ways." and will contain fully twenty illustrations of baskets of superior design. To promote the organization of classes for the teaching of basketry in orphan asylums. Forms STATION A. 1 6. issued quarterly. It will April The and third bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Basket Shapes. 2. 3. and to enlarge the circle of those who know and love good . author of "Indian Basketry. one will be sent. The fourth bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Designs. with descriptive accounts of their work.To arrange for lectures on Indian basketry when and where possible. in order that their makers may derive as much financial benefit as possible from their labors. L. either to members of the fraternity or to outsiders desirous to organize classes for the teaching of of knowing of its work basketry. and Fraternity is Pasadena. prisons. PASADENA. Orders payable to The headquarters " where the nucleus of of The Basket ' ' ^ THE BASKET: FRATERNITY. California. It will be issued October i. insane asylums and other eleemosinary establishments in order that easy and simple employment may be found for the unfortunate which will help relieve the harmful monotony of their lives. 17. : Fraternity. members of the fraternity are assured that they will receive The four bulletins. is in The second preparation and will be entitled ' ' Weavers. O. EnIn return for this trance may be made at any time during the year. payable on application. as well as the baskets made by the Indians. Whenever twenty members of the fraternity.iving Indian comprise fully twenty portraits of typical Indian It will be issued weavers. living in one town or section. The membership will be sent on request. first . CALIFORNIA." will contain not less than twenty plates of exquisitely shaped Indian baskets.

The Coil Weave XII. XXI. 10 14 III. 18 V. Choice of Material IV. The Net Weave XI. Finishing the Basket How to Make Indian Baskets Bibliography 136 If you desire Amerind Art in WASHOE. Borders 77 XIV. XX. our photo booklet of fine and beautiful baskets. XVII. VII. THE HOME OF THE WASHOE INDIAN. VIII. loan 3-011 will for inspection." . Insertion and 48 52 58 73 XIII. Chap. The Spirit in which Basket-Making should be Approached. of Materials . The Web Weave IX. PAIUTI OR SHOSHONE BASKETRY we can We interest you. How to to Make and Use Them 28 32 34 37 Tools and Terms How Begin The Mat Weave The Plait or Braid X. The Preparation Dyes . . NEVADA. XVIII. Address THE EMPORIUM. Introduction 5 II. Web Weaving Fancy Borders Continued Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets A Few Baskets XIX. More about Bases 84 89 93 103 107 123 125 XV. upon appplication. CARSON CITY. XVI.INDEX. I. VI.

Articles of Plaited Raffla. 59. Fig 1. 73. 115. Stick and Knot of Raffia Single Net Mesh Netted Bags of Raffia. 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 122 123'. 8. Baskets of Plaited Raffla . Red Bird Basket. 125. 15. 117. etc 50a Bottom of Deerfleld Basket 51. Weave. 43. 113.wale Apple Green Basket. 111. 130. Deerfleld Weaver Splint Cutter Foundation Splint Cutter A Splint Single Weaving . 110. 3. Chetemache Mat " Grass Tray. 33. 103. 11 I. Deerfleld Deerfleld 14 15 16 1? 16. Closed Border No.. 2 Open Border No. 17 18 20 22 2 63 63 63 78. with Spoke Simple Open Border No. 68. 5. 54 121. 89. 65. 4. Page. Mesh . 20. 66. Mouse Basket Corn Husk Poppy Basket Fancy Splint Basket Splint and Sweet Grass Fan Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass Base of Baskets shown in Fig. 58. 80 80 so Detail of Closed Border No. 21. 79 79 SO 2. Deerfleld Splint Baskets Reed Baskets. Deerfiekl. 81. 2 Starting Splicing Inserting Odd Spoke Right Side of Center Odd 75 75 75 75 42. 90. 18. etc Chetemache Mat Diagonal Mat 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 45 46 46 46 46 49 51 100. 46. Weave 107. 63. 27. Detail Plait of Plait 3 4 Open Border No. Detail of Ins< rtiun Insertion Open Border No. Weaving of Round Bnsc with Two Split 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 s:. 3. 85 85 . 45. 75 76 Weave Web 77 78 78 78 78 79 7J of Chair Cane 50. 53. 22. 99. 127. 101. 102. Weavers Round Base with Spokes in Pairs. Five Strand Plait of Raffia. 77. 92. Web New Weaver Weavers Market and Other Baskets " Caning a Chair Cane Tie Caning a Chair "Weaving with Raffia Rattan Simple Baskets. 11. 26. 61. Foundation of Two Rods Rod and Welt Coiled Work Foundation of Three Rods Foundation of Splints Interlocking Coils. 32. Round Base with Spokes Separated Commencing Oblong Oval Base Spoke for Round Base Spokes' Threaded for Round Base. 47.. 25. 3 Detail of Oval Base " 124. Fig. 58 58 10 12 i: Covered Napkin Rings Simple Coiled Baskets with VariSimple Coiled Trays Pine Needle Coiled Baskets Wrapping Before Coiling Beginning the Coil Detail of Coil Cross Sections of Varieties' Coiled Basketry Detail of Interlocking Stitches Detail of Single-Rod Coil in 58 58 60 60 01 61 61 62 10. 2829. 24. 34. 79. 53 120. 47 Closed Border No. 69. Inclosing Part of Foundation Interlocking Coils. 75. 12. IT 118. 44. Open Border No. 106. 49. Deerfleld Straw Baskets Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets Picotie Pink Basket. 56. Xi-t etc.. 13. IIU. Mat Foundation Work 39. 97. 72. 84. 23.ILLUSTRATIONS. 2. Double Pairing Triple Weaving 24 25 25 32 3 32 32 80. 1 Detail of Closed Border No. 41. 1 Detail of Open Border No. 82. 76. Book Mjark of Weave Splint and Web 95. 129. Magazine Holder 30. 14. 71. 85. 5. 109. 96. 126. Splint Picture Frame Foundation. 104. 9.. 6. 64. Straw Foundation 63 64 64 64 64 Weave 33 33 26 Open Coil. Weaving on Even Spokes Holding and Spokes' Starting Weaver Dividing into Single Spokes 72 72 73 73 74 74 36. 108. fc.. 19. 31. 57. 83.. 4 6 S 67. Splint Picture Frame Splint Mat Weave Baskets 105. 52 119. 54. 91. 52.. 17. 94. Oi. 48. Button Hole Stitch on Ring " " " ation Page. 40. 128. 70. 62. Plaited Belts 50 Hoop and School Bag Raffia Doll's Hat and Tray Raffia Plaited Raffla Hats Detail of Last Three Spokes of Plaited of Plaited 55. Shred Foundation Rope Twist Raffla Bound Picture Frames Raffla "Wrapped Articles' Toy Chair of Wrapped Raffia 65 86-87-XN. 9S. 112. Simple Coiled Baskets Simple Mat Weave Open " Closed Table Mat Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Isolated Figures Produced by Modifying Order of Intersection 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 39 41 41 41 41 Fugeian Coiled Basket Details Coiled Raffia Baskets and 65 66 68 66 70 70 93. 74. Accordeon Plait. 6. 7..

131. 114 Starting Lid of Square Basket. 130 130 130 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 Three Ply and Plain Twined Work. 217. Inside 129 The Ti Weave of the Pomas 129 Three Ply Braid and Twined Work. 180. 134. 9 Spokes Turned Up for Sides Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass. 184. 138. Imbricated Imbricated Klikitat Poma Bam Tush Weave Yokut Dance Basket Yokut Bottle-Neck Basket Klikitat Imbricated Weaving Basketry Coiled Work of 134 Thompson River Indians Work. 128 Wrapped Twined Weaving NV. 154. 120 Finishing off the Flat Rattan in 90186. 194. . Page. 157. 155. Pressed on Ancient Pottery. -in'. 177. 196. Commencing Flat Plait Border.. Twined Weaving. 166. 154 Surface Effects of Twined Open Twilled Weaving 125 Ditto 126 Ditto. 158.105 Flat Plait Border Second Position 105 of Spokes with Portion in progress. 183. Outside Ditto. 200. 172. . 195. Finished 106 Splint and Twined Baskets Collar Baskets of Rush. 211. 218. 185. 176. 135. 127 Ditto Wrapped Weaving of the Mohaves' 127 127 Ditto.-I ii I 129 !. 149. 197. 117 118 132. 140. Baskets 128 Diagonal Twined Weaving Variety of Twined Work. 171.110 Ill Wristlets or Cuff Protectors 112 Baskets from the Philippines 27 Baskets Deerfleld Straw Section of Fluted Flower Basket. 219. 133.. 178. Curve Partly Worked 113 Fluted Flower Basket Starting Square Work Basket. 160. 210. Jumping Two Spokes Weaver Ditto Outside Binding Handle of Oval Basket. Work 110 203. 205. . 156. 117 223. 206. 192. 147. 153. Ditto. Klikitat. Turning Weaver Round Corner . . 187. 145. 164.Fig. 193. Baskets of Rattan. 98 and Plaited Sweet Grass Splint 99 Baskets Splint and Plaited Sweet Grass 100 Baskets 102 Madeira Border No. 190.. 139. 165.. 179. 191. 169. 148. 114 221. Finishing ditto 119 119 . 143. Rattan Basket with Plaited Straw Simple as' Web Web Woven Bird Nest Basket with Fancy Base Splint Web Weave Inserting Weaver in Splint Base. Square 113 Spokes' Work Basket. 112 Turning Down Spokes 113 Ditto. 198. Called 117 134 CENTRA OHIL "C. 144. 174..119 119 182. Detail of Twisted Handle Ditto Turning Spokes Weaver Around Last Oblong Carrying Basket Commencing Handle of Key Basket 114 220. 170. 124 on Mat Checkerwork Weave 125 150 151. . Pi . 117 222. from a Mound in Ohio Twined Weaving in Two Colors 126 128 Apache. 159. 167. 181. Binding Handle of Oblong Oval Base " Key Basket.. 141. Outside Overlaid Twined Weaving 209. Raffia 108 and Splint 108 Bases' of Fig. L'lis. 173. Finishing Base of Twined Weaving with serted Corners In84 31 90 90 92 92 96 94 Shallow Oval Basket 118 Starting Handle of Oval BasketInside 136: 137. 105 of Finished Border 105 Flat Plait Border. 207. INN. Base of Splint Basket 120 Binding a Handle Waste Paper Basket 120 120 Square Basket Weaving Sides Section ditto with Straignt Corner. 146. 2 102 Madeira Pairing for Plait 189... ing Inside Inside Three Ply Braid. 215.114 216. 152. Plaited Handle Method of Holding Basket Weaving Sides Yakutat Rattle Baskets Old Coiled Basketry When 121 121 123 124 Coarse White Mountain Apache Baskets. Outside. 175. Wood Base.131 Frapped Twined Work Washoe Basket Yokut Basket Ditto 168. 199. Twined Weaving. etc. 201. Detail of Center of Oval Base " " 86 87 87 Commencing Ditto. 142.i \ \Yrappc-d T\\ ined Weav129 Crossed Warp.

WHOLESALE: AND PORTLAND...'i. FROHMAN TRADING Co ALASKA. . CALIFORNIA AND NORTHERN INDIAN BASKETS T- i9O2 AND CURIOS. " ' ri''^^^Nit. (. ji' ^ . QBE.-'. ..(..'. DETAIL - SEND TEN CENTS FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE..if si .

Battery Place. and Time Tables. Old Mexico. O. MORSE. COAST EXPRESS. and all information. TOURISTS WILL FIND THE MOST PICTURESQUE LANDS ALONG THE ROUTES OF THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC Through Texas. McCORMICK. General Eastern Passenger Agent. HUNTING. New York and Superb Service. New Mexico. TENNIS. F. FISHING. and Pullman Tickets. SUNSET LIMITED PACIFIC (""TEL m WHEELS. NUTTING. to Peerless California. Two NEW DAILY TRAINS NEW ORLEANS TO CALIFORNIA. HOUSTON. J 349 Broadway or E. P. M. New York. New Orleans. address L. Passenger Steamers Between Fast Time. lowest Rates.. A. RIDING. COACHING. H. SAN FRANCISCO. POLO. s. P. BOATING. T. . CAN BE ENJOYED EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR.. BATHING. Excellent Cuisine. M. T. Baggage Checked. WHERE GOLF. For Free Illustrated Pamphlets. Arizona. DRIVING. Steamer.CALIFORNIA A REGION OF WONDERS. Maps. Railroad. B. CAL. TEXAS.

$1. IV. X. with new appliances. Palm Leaf Hats. VI. DOUBLEDAY. EAST. V. PAGE & CO. Hints on Dyeing. Raffia Basketry. NEW YORK . VII. XI. which more advanced basket-making. III. CONTENTS I. Unusual Materials. Square Baskets. unusual materials. Hanging Baskets. Palm Leaf Basketry. IX. VIII. 34 UNION SQUARE. Centres and Weaves. II. How to Raffia and Rush Seat Chairs. Flower Baskets. net. the making of hats and and numberless other matters about many of which the readers of the initial volume have chair seats written for information.00. A Few PRICE. Baskets for Practical Use. Shapes and weaves of treats of greater beauty and intricacy are described.MORE BASKETS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM BY MARY WHITE nPHE success first of White's Miss volume has led to this companion work.

next the more difficult patterns. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. the Simplest Baskets Borders Covers Handles Work Baskets Candy Birds' Nests Baskets Scrap Baskets the Finishing Touch Oval Baskets How to Cain Chairs Some Indian What the Basket Means to Stitches . .00 DOUBLEDAY. . $1. and finally the complicated and beautiful work for which the Indians first is were once famous.BASKETS BY MARY WHITE FIFTH EDI T I HOW TO MAKE O X THE new drawn great interest in Indian baskets has attention to the art of basketwith the result that basketry has making. . EAST. few necessary impledescribes in detail the ments and materials. and then tells how to weave. Raffia and their Some . Preparation. . the simpler forms. but which now rapidly becoming a lost art. Mats and . . Weaving. . Tools. . This little manual is Miss White the only guide to the work. . the Indian. but as a most attractive pastime and means of occupation among grown people as well. of its Uses . PRICE. not only in schools and training classes. found immediate favor. NEWYORK . - net. CONTENTS Material. .

HOW CANDACE WHEELER TO MAKE RUGS BY ILLUSTRATED. PRICE net. Linsey Woolsey BY THE SAME AUTHOR. Rug Weaving Woven Rag . Neighborhood Industries. and this bi^ok will be found exceedingly valuable and suggestive to all who are interested in such work. CONTENTS. Wheeler has had a leading part. of PRINCIPLES HOME DECORATION net. HPHIS *- admirably clear little volume gives specific instructions for the weaving of rugs. Cotton Rugs. It undoubtedly be a helpful book to decorators. the Pattern . drawn from the author's own experience in spreading this valuable home industry. Si. Rugs. Portieres . 80. Woolen . but its chief Held will lie among the thousands of home-seekers whose range of experiment has not been wide enough to warrant successful practice. A STUDY will DOUBLEDAY. 20. EAST. Si. Ingrain Carpet Rugs. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. Dyeing. of beauty in house interiors. The healthy modern movement toward the hand-made things of daily use in the home is one in which Mrs. PRICE. NEW YORK . based upon principles of art.

EAST. which ma\ be washed." said PRACTICAL COOKING Yuan hundred years ago. There are 200 helpful photographic illusThe book trations. and tells everything a housekeeper needs to know about the selection. S2. the Brillat-Savarin of China two matrimony t\vo things served to- And again: "Into no department of should indifference be allowed to creep into none less than cookery. contains 730 pages and is strongly bound in aluminum cloth. ^HE many ' PRICE. Hill. in her new book. "is gether should match. net. Practical Cooking and Serving. of the Boston Cooking School. preparation and serving of food." The first 5000 were sold on publication.FIVE THOUSAND SOLD ON PUBLICATION AND SERVING BY JANET McKENZIE HILL "Cookery." life like Alei. because it is practical. NEW YORK ." accumulated gastronomic knowledge of centuries and the best modern domestic science have alike been drawn upon by Mrs.oo DOUBLEDAY. in color and black and white. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE.

" etc. . - ^ff ' ^JE-'A-r^L -'^^.THE INDIANS OF By THE PAINTED DESERT REGION GEORGE WHARTON JAMES of Author "In and Around the Grand Canyon of the in Colorado River Arizona. -r- ' ' -~ ' -- A PEAK OF EROSION IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST With 1 6 full-page pictures and 50 half-page illustrations from photographs Crown 8vo Decorated cloth $2. .00 net .vr - . ^^^^p^^l ." "Indian Basketry.

and one especially beautiful is sung in accompanied by songs. one Indian divorcing wife because she declined to shampoo his head. The women instead of talking about "Women's Rights have for ages possessed and knit their men weave the women's clothing own stockings. his "shampoo the This is considered a great luxury. fraught Western with many journey ov-er dangers on account scarcity in a of sudden storms and absence of shelter. The Indian worst insult that is it is possible to offer to a Wallapais this throw her long hair away from her face. giving a picture various Indian tribes and has own will agreeable and entertaining to every one. and there much interesting information about Indian basketry and blanket weaving. the homes and invite their husbands to marry them. a large portion is of the book domestic life devoted to this interesting tribe. to The love. James also writes of the ill-treatment which our upon the Navahoes. who were placed reservation without water or fuel. besides visited his of water. but the author had to do when he photographed these Indians. which be quite new The first Indian tribe visited was the Hopis. of personal adventures and hardships desert. chapter upon the legends of the Havasupais is is fascinat- ing and the book full of romantic and picturesque Indian is An entire is chapter devoted to the Hopi snake dance. and the women build their own them .The Indians of the like its Painted Desert Region author's valuable book work on the 1 the Grand Canyon is the result of experience. James written about them in style. Each act has a religious some beautiful religious ceremonies. j they have Mr. When the author first visited the " Navahoes. stranger's the chief ordered his daughter to head. Mr. honor of the birth of every child. it Much " of their as the author describes is surely unique. and with no soil fit upon countrv has inflicted for cultivation. A chapter is given to the religion significance : of the Hopis. .

.

THE HOPI VILLAGES. THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE HOPI. and half-page plates. NAVAHO AT HOME. VIII. HAVASUPAIS AND THEIR LEGENDS. FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE HOPI. THE PAIN-TED DESERT REGION. espe- of those showing the famous "Snake Dance. VI. VII. BROWN. AND THEIR HISTORY. SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE HAVASUPAI. Some of the subjects. T'HK HOPI SNAKE DANCE.. DESERT RECOLLECTIONS. NAVAHO AS A BLANKET WEAVER. XIV. PUBLISHERS Boston. and fifty industries. CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I. WALLAPAIS. Massachusetts . IV. HAVASUPAIS' RELIGIOUS DANCES AND BELIEFS. BIBLIOGRAPHY LITTLE. X. XII. the Indians generally objecting to the photographing of some of the ceremony. religious rites. A FEW HOPI CUSTOMS. IX. II. & 254 Washington Street CO. XVI. Hopi. ADVENT OF THE WALLAPAIS. XV. cially several and Havasupai they are a most valuable addition to the text. XI. Navaho. of photographs taken by the author or by his special consist of sixteen full-page Accurately portraying the country. THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE NAVAHO AND HIS HISTORY." are unique. PEOPLE OF THE BLUE WATER AND THEIR HOME. III. and personal appearance of the Indians. V. XIII.The Indians The series artist of the Painted Desert Region illustrations are faithful reproductions of the beautiful who accompanied him.

James's in these own perilous experiences.AN IMPORTANT NEW BOOK DESCRIBING THE MOST STUPENDOUS SCENE ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT In and Around the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES Illustrated pictures in with thirty full-page plates and seventy the text 8vo Cloth Price. beauties of the crowded with pictures of the marvels and Canyon. give a wonderful personal interest wonder on pages of graphic description of the most stupendous natural the American Continent. . is of absorbing interest. volume.00 CROSSING THE COLORADO TO THE SHINUMO. and Mr. $3. Philadelphia Public Ledger. Dramatic narratives of hairbreadth stories escapes and thrilling adventures. their legends and customs. of Indians.

.TEMPLES AND BUTTES TO THE EAST FROM THE GRAND SCENIC DIVIDE.

San Francisco. from the notes of Indian white hunters. such a book than Professor his James. a ring of actuality about this book. he has quoted wherever he could matter of interest and value. He own has not been content to describe the wonders in his words. One of the typical books of the great West. San Francisco Bulletin. Too much cannot be said praise of Will be the standard with reference historic. New an The Grand Canyon exposition either with has never before received - such pen or camera. but from historical records. . There York. freely - guides. illustrated work of which too much can is scarcely be said in praise. . Legend and and local drawn upon in for the effect color. is - Boston Advertiser. dramatic .. . Brooklyn Standard Union. Prescott.Outing. The most - thorough its the Colorado and Chicago of the Grand Canyon of surroundings to be found anywhere. and from the accounts of natives. . Argonaut. . so that its many . An ders. Arizona. He feels has told his story so fascinating a manner that one almost within sight and sound of the great canyon. The Grand Canyon this one of the world's wonsatisfying and volume its is the most thorough and attractions thus presentation of many rugged man of in far offered. --Arizona Daily Journal-Miner. work. and find explorers and discoverers. respects the book possesses a charm peculiarly own. . is probably no the writing the country in who is better for . San Francisco Chronicle. There qualified . to the main features - and scientific of the Great Canyon of the tradition are Colorado.IN A & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON veritable storehouse of wonders. miners. scenic. description Tribune. in Literary World. .

XXII. THE TANNER-FRENCH TRAIL. IX. XXXII. THE MYSTIC SPRING TRAIL. THE OLD HOPI TRAIL. LATER EXPLORATIONS. PHOTOGRAPHING THE GRAND CANYON. IV. CONTENTS THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS CANYONS. XX. XXX. WHAT DOES ONE SEE? ON THE RIM. JOHN D. AN ADVENTURE IN BEAVER CANYON. XXXI. THE RED CANYON AND OLD TRAILS. XI. EXPLORATIONS BY MAJOR J. XVI. POWELL (1869-72).IN & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON CHAPTER I. THE SHINUMO AND ITS ANCIENT INHABITANTS. VIII. W. XIII. XIX. XII. GRAND CANYON FOREST RESERVE. VI. & CO. III. XIV. XXI. XVII. XXXIII. THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. THE GRAND VIEW TRAIL. LEE'S FERRY AND THE JOURNEY THITHER. XXVII. RELIGIOUS AND OTHER IMPRESSIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON. THE GEOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON. XXV. XXIV. XXVIII. XXIX. FIRST IMPRESSIONS. THE CLIFF AND CAVE DWELLINGS. BOTANY OF THE GRAND CANYON.. VII. THE TOPOCOBYA TRAIL AND HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON. EXPLORATIONS FROM THE TIME OF THE SPANIARDS (1540) TO MAJOR J. AND THE DEAD VOLCANOES. FROM THE SANTA FE RAILWAY TO THE CANYON BY STAGE. THREE DAYS OF EXPLORING IN TRAIL CANYON WITH THE X. XV. V. HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON AND ITS WATERFALLS AND LIMESTONE CAVES. BASS AND HIS CANYON EXPERIENCES. XXIII. AND A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE TOURIST. W. THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS. XVIII. THE HAVASUPAI INDIANS AND THEIR CANYON HOME. PEACE SPRINGS TRAIL. Two DAYS' HUNT FOR A BOAT IN A SIDE GORGE NEAR THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. UP AND DOWN GLEN AND MARBLE CANYONS. W. MR. XXVI. BOSTON . LITTLE. W. POWELL (1869). 254 BROWN. II. LEE AND THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GRAND CANYON REGION. Publishers WASHINGTON STREET. FLAGSTAFF. WRONG COMPANION. To THE CANYON BY RAILWAY.

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