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THE INDIANS OF THE PAINTED DESERT REGION. THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO RIVER ETC..How TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES "i AUTHOR OF INDIAN BASKETRY. (L . 1 William Street. ' "1903 HENRY MALKAN. IN ARIZONA. ETC.

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I wish to do my share in helping it along by making a book of helpful instructions and hints that will be worthy the dignity of the subject. Like Just now the making of Indian and other baskets is a fad. named Fields. when those who practised it merely as a fad have forgotten that they ever were interested in it." Now that the work of Basket Making is being taken up in earnest. the worker bending down almost double over the work. The earlier lessons. of course. time his solemn asseveration was that "he'd had his backbone taken out. The earliest remembrances of my life are connected with that art. a season when coal was dear and scarce. My father." and throw it up on the top of the fire and well back into the throat of the chimney. throwing its grateful heat into the cold room and cheering all who came within its influence. bent over for a few minutes my childish back seemed to be and when I asked Lige how ihe could endure it for hours at a broken." or he never could do it. too. It is singularly appropriate that I. HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In half an hour or less it would be a bed of fire. Well do I remember. were pinned through the center with a large steel bodkin to a heavy flat board. after being started. not simply a trader in baskets. the son of my father." and into my youthful ears he used to pour his tales of of woe at the hardships of a basket-maker's life.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. treading on the work itself the weavers were woven in. The young man was "Lige. as a child. In the making some of the larger and coarser baskets the bottoms. are for children. as my father was a basket maker. but personally a skilled workman himself. oldest brother. other fads it will have its day and then die. After I came to the United States the work of the Paiuti Indians soon arrested my attention. learned the art and was a good workman. rose at once to meet the occasion. but it will do I When . always a man of originality. and. We used the old-fashioned English grates. Two of his workmen were father and son. and made a mixture of coal dust and the thick ends or "nubbins" cut from the ends of new splints or "weavers" introduced into the coarse kinds of all My baskets. It has been my purpose in arranging the following pages to introduce all the stitches. and I began the studies which culminated two years ago in the publication of my "Indian Basketry. should write a treatise on basket making. as during the recent Eastern coal strike. INTRODUCTION. But unlike many fads there is something in the making of baskets that will keep the art alive. and after a fire of coals was well alight my father would take a coal scuttle full of this mixture which he called "backing. practically usable. from the simplest to the most complex.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

and Bell. as far as I can learn. coveries be the result. any subject and it enlivens it. telegraphs. The skill and dextbe exceedingly useful in the later work. let him determine what is best adapted for this basket and for that. where lovers. walked and plighted their troth. and the lifeless pile is transformed into a palpable living entity. That the Indian had to learn everything in that way. who lived in stirring times achieved things who went forth to war with all pomp and ceremony. If I have failed to do so I gladly apologize and in later editions the necessary acknowledgements or corrections if will call my attention to them. never failure. John Sheridan Neligh. Show him that all progress comes that way. and that knowledge gained by experience is sure and certain. if not the first. and. married and died. to show what may be done and to 'Stimulate to personal investigation and experiment. but tell that same child that this pile was once a who castle. and the thousand and one things that mean our progressive civilization. It was arbitrary. or. Teachers should encourage their pupils to try every possible Thus invention is stimulated. dyeing. educated. make some divisions. indeed. and others of our great inventors who have given us telephones. and returned flushed with victory or sad and despondent through defeat that it was a place where children were born. ing and interesting pictures. Let me at the outset say that the divisions of the subject are purely It does not necessarily follow that the coil weave is harder than the mat weave because the latter comes first in the book. peopled by lords and ladies. Where possible. Especially do I wish to thank Mr. and dyes. where all the events that go to make up life transpired. Ga. 7 do the work here outlined. and weave of his baskets. let him make his own selections.HOW no harm TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and Lowe. In this work I have tried to suggest to the teacher how to make Put human interest into the subject more interesting to her pupils. . electric cars. water gas. It is this thought that should animate every teacher and worker in In going out to choose materials let the children feel as the basketry. Indian felt let them select as the Indian did. at least. A variety of materials has been introduced purposely. while what we read or are told may be inaccurate or positively false. Let him know that while he is doing this experimenting he is following exactly the plan of Edison. . into an object from which imagination may conjure countless fascinatnecessary to for the . . and Gray. Teach them the value of That failure means endeavor.. and endeavor persisted in is failure. A pile of rocks means little to an unimaginative child. She had no other teacher than experience. one of the first. teacher of basketry in the schools of the will make some kind reader . true and false. and not only may valuable dismaterial. and these were thought the best purpose in view. design. Let the child experiment in the drying. and general preparation of the material. director of the Industrial School of Columbus. For material for these pages I have ransacked everything I could find. and their preparation in the shape. Stimulate his and inventiveness in the use of materials. I have given full credit for everything borrowed. but individual thought and expression are to adults to erity thus gained will secured.

has been most generous in her helpfulness. WHITING. MASS. Hyde. CORN HUSK POPPY BASKET. and And these thanks also include his help given in a variety of ways. Columbia University. States. she can. baskets to photograph. for original suggestions. DEERPIELD. helpful wife. Firth. DESIGNED AND MADE BY MARGARET C. of Teachers' College. B. Miss M. I assure her she is most heartily welcome. 3.8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. My grateful acknowledgements are also tendered to Miss Annie United FIG. from whose "Cane Basket I Work" I have bodily taken much will find as valuable material. For all the photographs of my . hope in return Miss Firth much in If suggestions that she can avail herself of for English readers. Miss Mary White's "How to Make Baskets'' has also been drawn from.

PIG. all of which it is well to underThese are distinguished by the following names: I. In these lessons' I have begun with the simplest materials and work. The two chapters respectively on The Choice and the Preparation are five of Materials may be skipped or not as the reader desires. . The mat. SPOKES TURNED UP FOR SIDES. While in some regards these five methods overlap each other. 143. There stand. The net. II. The purpose is to give to the solitary student every advantage for self training and to every teacher suggestions which will aid in her work with children. III. simple methods of work.HOW work made by TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. IV. The coil. The \veb. and the practical character of chapter her work will prove a boon to all my readers. V. To any person the exercises will be helpful. the students at the college and the major part of the on dyes I am indebted to her. I have deemed it best to discuss each one separately. The plait.

New York. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . FANCY SPLINT BASKET.PIG. 4.

sentient. their liarmoniousness. poetry. the tout ensemble. If the poor uncivilized Indian thus basket-maker clearly should be felt when she approached her work. for them. right the veriest nonsense to the person who is merely money there is in it." and in the work of basket-making much will depend upon : the motive. de. colors and weaves." There is more in life than the mere outward expressions of it we call "work. who said out of a room. at least feel as/ much ? If she sought to present the highest she saw in Nature in the most perfect fashion. sign. emotion-full. aspimythology. should not I. impossible deSimplicity signs." or "because it is quite But to the the rage. . This at once eliminates the hideous and grotesque in shape. more or interwoven. inharmonious colors. and then in the shape. viz. designs. the weave. poetic of my readers the ideas given will clearly The attitude of mind and heart in the illuminate what follows. or indifference. were Hence the work was approached in a of art. their preparation. national pride. is something Xow all this making baskets for "the : higher civilization. as removed from that of mere commercialism. a conscientiousness of endeavor in the gathering of the materials. I I CHAPTER II. THE SPIRIT IN WHICH BASKET MAKING SHOULD BE APPROACHED. color . .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. It was a perfect exemplification I of the idea suggested by the good of the sublimity of the poet Herbert. From this the natural process will be a reference of the Indian work to their original source. the product of a sweeping believe. love. the spirit. . and weave. Nature herself. inadequate weaves. Browning well wrote "Not on the vulgar mass called work Must judgement pass. religion. should not I also seek to do the same ? An affirmative answer then compels a study of Indian Basketry This will produce a growing love form?. the must approach it in true worker desirous of emulating Indian work the true Indian spirit and this I have endeavored to describe in my Suffice it to say here that the basket larger book on Indian Basketry. The true imitator of Indian work or. the design. glaring. carelessness.. in spirit as far or fancy. There was an earnestness of purpose. passing whim it was from that of levity. perhaps. to the all uncontaminated Indian meant a work less ration. it would be better to say. There are no fanciful forms." and such people had better read no further. her colors are natural her weaves are ral her designs are natural natural with all the perfection added of conscientious art. in which it is approached and done. that made basket-making to the old Indians almost an act of religion. And in NaThe Indian's forms are natuture the true inspiration will be found. which hope. desire.

and your work will gradually take upon itself the character. the grotesque. yet all based upon natural simplicity. . variety illimitable. the grace. to love the simple in nature. 1 Banish the hideous.12 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER this BASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 5. the dignity. and upon the triad and gamut naturally are Diversity without end. the unnaturally complex from your line of observation. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS FAN. New York. effects incalculable. your pupils. FIG. simple things. is the keynote. your children. the power that come from purity and simplicity. Begin then by training yourself. design and color the built. Learn to imitate in form.

BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS.HOW Elsewhere. 6. New York. your cathedral. design and This personality cannot be deciphered by reading weaver's the exponent of something within yourself. its own. but can be learned only from the In your work endeavor to follow this Indian idea. FIG. from elements as TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. has done. too. 13 I have shown the marvellous personality of the basket. the colors will all mean something more to you than what merely shows on the outside. . You can thus make the basket your poem. your sculpture." The pleasure of such achievements as this who can tell. Thus work and worker are both ennobled and there are given to the world more things of beauty to be "joys forever. as well as a useful aid in training towards manual dexterity and skill. then the shape." and whose "loveliness will increase and never pas* into nothingness. as the Indian own Make your basket in hieroglyphics. lips. and the moral uplift as desire and endeavor are crystalized into actuality. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. the design. color all How that each one has a significance in shape. who can estimate? Thus the basket becomes a factor in moral and spiritual development. your painting.

sweet gras-s. raffia or willow ready dyed and done up in bundles to her hand. Though trade and barter were common with the primitive Indians. Now while it is not essential that white weavers of baskets should closely confine themselves to material they personally gather. 7. knowledge of local materials gained. to its weavers the materials' required for the exercise of their art . The Hopi found the willow. The Haida found the cedar bark and spruce root the Poma slough Thus each locality yielded root. the best to follow. as elsewhere. the martynia. BASE OF BASKETS SHOWN IN FIG. where the art is stimuused . The powers of observation are lated. some of the chief benefits that should accrue from basket-making are lost if they do not largely do so. So with eyes a-down. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. the squaw-grass. the method one would get the real value out Indian of basket making. filling and dye. She must find the materials in her own environment. 6. CHOICE OF MATERIALS. she set of the is if Here. the red bud. CHAPTER III. maiden hair fern stem. it was not to trade that the weaver looked for her basket-making materials. senses alert. FIG. and.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The Mono found the willow. forth to seek for splints. the yucca and a desert grass called wu-u-shi. She had no store to which she could go and purchase cane. the root of the tule. New York.

The Chemehuevis. tain lives camp because civilized races habitat is largely determined locates i>n the desert. . . and the (history of commercial growth is largely the detailing of how the useless was converted into the useful by invention. have a tradition which clearly points in a measure in that direction. There are few really useless things under the sun. 8. canyon or mounthere he finds the precious metal. imagination and skill. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This principle should be applied to this art. We know that by commercialism. DEERP1ELD. for instance. 15 to help the poor commercially. mined the settlement of a tribe of people. The cattleman among The miner near the range where his cattle roam the foundryman near the foundry which employs him the clerk near the store in which he is engaged. SWALE GRASS TRAY. hitherto useless material is converted into a financial benefit. MASS. DESIGNED AND MADE BY GERTRUDE ASHLEY. In some instances there can be but little question that the location all of materials for the pursuit of the art of basket weaving has deter- FIG. which is a new and direct gain to the community.

MASS. in stimuIt can also be used to excellent lating the imagination of the child. FIG 9. It gives an object in view. AND advantage feel there is in field trips. So the Indian woman's voice was naturally raised in favor of a location where her basket-making material was easiest obtained. DEERFIELD. as Indians. MADE BY MADELINE T. our explorations we will decide where we. and then as the result of making. should pitch our We permanent camp. WYNNE.i6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." . This hint can be made interesting by teachers of the art. a zest and purpose to a ramble to "On this trip let us imagine ourselves Indian women and Indian children going out to hunt grasses or other material for basketwill do this for several weeks. RED BIRD BASKET.

vigor. filling or dye. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. when one thinks that he has found a material that is suitable either for weaver. should ever be kept in exercise. fullness of it. and thus both senses and brain. Selection of the best next follows. it must be tested. pure air. He is a benefactor in the highest. send melancholia and depression to the devil. And this is not merely good for a child. throw physics to the dogs. \J Put such a thought as this into the mind gives added pleasure to outdoor rambling. Many a nervous. Breathe in it drink it in absorb it in. nerves and brain with pure life and health. scious of strength and power to do what you will. 10 AND 11. defy the demon of dyspepsia and come back into the world of men and women con! ! . . New York. sunlight and odors. There is His chemical labratory where Get out into the health. blood. broken-down adult would find new life and health in doing what Out of doors Into God's Out of doors I have here suggested. Experimentation follows observation in this field. of child or adult and it Then the incalculable benefit in the necessary stimulation of the will powers of observation that overlooked. Fill up lungs. are healthfully exercised and stimulated. the highest faculty in true education. CHETEMACHE MATS.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIGS. dyspeptic. power are hourly being manufactured. come from such trips should not be This. For. fullest sense who trains another to habits of observation. .

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. wealth means added cojnfort and happiness. and a caution given to children. how prepared and any further particulars that may be of interest. Their dyes are unfading. For her selection is the result. following the suggestions given in this chapter every teacher may enThe following list large the sphere and scope of her benefactions. that wherever an Indian has been over the ground. One who has learned how to use willows cannot immediately work in reed or rat- and yucca strands need very different handling from squaw grass or pine needles. To teach others how a useless weed may be converted into a commercial commodity is to create wealth. perfectly beautiful. in the work of that Indian will be found the very best basket-making material of thai region.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. be obliged if a sample be sent to me. makes no pretention to completeness. In that chapter the student will find many suggestions that may aid her in utilizing the material df her own section. even though her methods may be bettered. One thing. she -may be sure of. and to she can use from her own stimulate the weaver to find out what \Yhen any new material. viz. One may be cut sevtan. ." With all our scientific knowledge we cannot improve upon the methods and results of the Indians. and methods of preparation. that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew before. habit or growth. I gathered together much information as to materials used by the Indians. Personal experimentation should be the keynote in the mind of every adult who seeks to gain the greatest good from basket-making. It must not be supposed that familiarity with and skill in the use of one material can be transferred at will to some other material!." pages material as perfect as. The overcoming of difficulties exercises the faculty of invention. at the outset it will be well their colors in your locality. The Indian's judgment may be relied upon. If it be true. It is merely suggestive. however. except. not named here. quantity. THE PREPARATION OF MATERIALS. its habitat. appropriate and harmonious. of centuries of practical experience and therefore. perhaps. California. is found I shall locality. In this diversity the true student will find pleasure. what they if you have any Indian workers have been in the habit of using in their basketry work. to Pasadena. "I will know for myself! 1 will experiment and test and find out everything that can be found out as to the resources of my neighborhood that can be utilized in this work. in the matter of speed. with its local and Indian name. 72 to 85. to avoid the grasses with saw-toothed or other sharp edges. and among the poor and needy. as most of us firmly believe. their In "Indian Basketry.it can be made. 19 CHAPTER IV. possibly. Care should be taken. Each material demands personal study and use. it is equally true that he is a benefactor who finds a use for that which has hitherto been deemed useless. By to see.

FIG. 13.20 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. New York.

falling in festoons. and seldom exceeding an inch in thickness. especially as they afford so much greater opportunity for the exercise of skill and artistic effort. COCKLE-BUR. allowing them to create any &hape they RAFFIA may is desire. light. Nos. and is put up into bundles of round cane or flat strips. As strength and digital dexterity increase stronger easily handled. being the finest. It has a long leaf. numbered from i to No. The much-despised and hated cockle-bur may be used as a stimulant of the child's imagination in the beginning of These burs can be found anywhere. to the a compajratively easy task to see that each pupil has her needlefull of raffia. a^ type of the sub-tribe Raphieae. Prepared for commerce rattan is stripped of its leaves and bark. 'holds an important place in the list of basketThe BAMBOO materials. i. 21 such grasses. 50 and even 120 making . 5 and 6 being used for the coarser work. 2.HOW erely TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. flexible and fissile. itself is very brittle. is the most expensive. and then the Germans. by Then it is well to sticking them together. and again ascending. Its long strands are from one and a half to two feet in length. to use it in connection with cane and reed in the manufacture began of sma'll baskets. It grows erect in dense tufts. but the fibre It is tied in long hanks. and thus the tree is often from 60 to 70 feet high to the tips of the leaves. is one of the most popular of basket-making materials because it is long. over 50 feet in length. Raffia is the native name given to a Madagascar palm of the tribe Lepidocaryeae. the chief type. and when the children his work. though the BamIt busa. for tying up fruit trees and other gardening purWith their native economy the French. and when the revival of the art of basketry reached England. have gathered them they can be shown in one lesson how that. leave them to their own imagination. majnly found in the East Indies. RATTAN climbing the tallest trees. whereais in the use of the shorter splints of the Indian much time would be occupied and patience exhausted in rethreading or reinserting these thus teacher much preferable to the shorter splints of the Indian. and 15. 4 are common sizes. and there are plenty of in handling if careless other materials without using these that may do injury. and was originally shipped to France and England to be used mainly as florists' twine. materials can be used. is an arborescent grass. 3. the workers there at once perceived its adaptability and seized upon it as an excellent and ideal weaving material for beginners. Sometimes it attains the astounding length of 500 feet. growing to the height of 20. The rattan of China and Japan is of the genus Raphis. tough. The recent awakening to the importance of basketry has brought rattan into marked prominence. it is short and soon used up lengths. The material purchased from the seed The leaf stores is the epidermis of the leaf stripped on both sides. who has a large number of children to direct. and is known as ground-rattan. a form can be created. It grows in all warm countries. and would be useless for this work. poses. ideal weaving material for the untrained fingers of be- It is soft and flexible and ginners or the weak fingers of children. is found only in Southern and Eastern Asia. stripped from its outside is tough and pliable. Nos. It is a palm of the genus Calamus. and it is For.

.22 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

leaves Good soft. though rattan is more common in America for general purposes. smooth. can be expected from such perishable material. The Southern variety referred to above . sometimes also known as holy-grass and vanilla-grass. Where mo cutter is to be had the strips may be made with scissors. the (Aesculus). TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. whose tall. it is cut into The wood splints of the desired width. Raffia vinifera. several wood being white. the Bamboo-palm. In the South there grows in va'st quantities the (Tillandsia usneoides) whose dense pendulous tufts drape the trees. nothing durable HUSKS. and stems are used in basketry work. From Virginia to Texas there grows along the coast a pine which has spiculae or needles from ten to twelve well The>se needles dry easily and are inches in length. lacustris). To prepare these for basket work two cutting implements are used. and can be used for filling for the inner coil of baskets. and also for splints for the mat weave work herein described. spongy and easily commerce are purchased in long. splints are made from worked. though. a tree growing from 20 to 35 feet high. wide strips. The (Scirpus) of different species may be largely BULLRUSH basketry. The ingenious teacher will find many ways of using even as the Indians do. As the splint is drawn through the cutter. This moss is largely used for the 'stuffing of mattresses. of this has a cuticle of a rich. pools and rivers. in the larger speeies. Pine needles. also makes excellent filling better than the moss. brown color. The special kind (S. and the root purposes. as has already been shown. one species alone. and of the dwarf palmetto (S. but this rs a slow and laborious task. MOSS. and even for weavers. 23 Both with a diameter. of from 4 to 8 inches. dries well and is excellent for many In California the Scirpus Tatora is called tule. or as unwrapped BROOM CORN LONG and is (Sorghum Vulgare) much cleainer and coils sewed together as illustrated elsewhere. the knives being set by gauge and screw. are found throughout the whole country and children should be encouraged to do the best they can with such as they can find. ponds. used in A grass that can be used is SENECA-GRASS. elsewhere pictured." which has three or more tiny but sharp knives protruding from its base. giving the raffia now so largely used. properly Zostera. round stems are seen projecting above the water in lakes. GRASS is largely used in some parts of the United It is States and Canada for the making of simple and pretty baskets. which is used by the Cahuilla Indians as wrapping splint for their coiled ware. longer or shorter. the BUCK-EYE kinds of which are well adapted to this purpose. are peeled and make excellent material for wrapping splints. CORN SWEET LONG for the inner coil. A chapter is devoted to sweet grass weaving. adapted either for material for the inner coil of coiled baskets. PINE NEEDLES.HOW feet. adansoni). of course. bluish-green. a type of a tribe of aquatic plants which grow immersed in shallow bogs and other waters. The leaves of the palmetto (Sabal palmetto). The PALAI family affords much material for basketry. The broad strip is placed inside the grooves of the "sheer.

FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 15. SPLINT BASKETS. MASS. REED BASKETS MADE AT DEERFIELD. New York. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. 16.

The MARTY NT A is a plant capable of cultivation in any part of A small package of seeds can be purchased for twentythe country. a kind of wild pineapple. is a valuable fiber produced principally from' the Bromelia Sylvestris. though the name pita is given indiscriminately to the fibre obtained from the MAIDEN HAIR SMILAX GRASS . Arrangements have been made for the gathering of abundant quanthese long pine needles and a sample bunch will be sent by mail free on receipt of twenty-five cents. SPLINT CUTTER. 17. WEAVER FIG. and all the designs of the Pima. called COIR. the There are some pliant species of China). This is* the stem FERN. too late. of British Honduras. of the Adiantum pedatum. Gathered too soon it is greenish.HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. which is the same as The SILK the pita of Central America. FOUNDATION SPLINT CUTTER. a slender branching shrub with tough. Pseudo known as bull-brier. In Australia and New Zealand grows the pimelea. tities of being made by The Basket Fraternity to secure these seeds for sale. the black is rusty and poor. and generally known as the Georgia pine. 18. whiclh will grow enough for a small class. Apache and Havasupai baskets are worked out with it. which are used in basket-making. (S. An effort is five cents. All lovers of the fine basketry of Northern California know the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry. stringy bark. It must be gathered when the pod is at its blackest. When FIG. picked at the right time the black is perfect. This bark is prepared and the fibre used for textile purposes. The fibre of the cocoanut. could be so prepared as to make a fairly good wrapping splint for coiled work. the long-leafed pine (pinus palustris).

Work of Students. FIG. Teachers' College.26 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. RAFFIA BOUND PICTURE FRAMES. . 25.

In their preparation most of the common grasses will dry if put in little exa warm but shady place. and the finer work is made by splitting the willow into splints and using them for wrapping. Other materials will be found referred to in later pages showing the infinite variety the ingenious teacher may utilize. Most of the coarse basketry Vitellina) are used for this purpose. or sisal it hemp." A . DEERFIELD STRAW BASKETS. are made more pliable by slight soaking and then running between the thumb and dull edge of shears. and is largely used for making ship's cajbles. and Sisal hemp. WILLOW FIG. of England is made from this latter species. which is the fibre of the agave ixtli or I henequen. and kept turned over every day. as resists damp- ness better than the simple hemp. There are two or three species of that are largely culIn Europe the Almond-leafed willow tivated for basket-making. but can find no reference to Sisal Willow. as do the California and other Indians. (Salix Amygdalkia) and especially the Golden Willow or osier (S. especially when made of palmetto or similar material. perience will soon demonstrate the best method of "curing. Somehow the words "Sisal Willow" have come into use in I am free to confess I do not know what the Sisal Willow basketry. also known as henequen. Mat splints. and Sisal grass The Century Dictionary gives shall be glad to be enlightened.HOW various species O'f TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER This is BASKETS. 27 Agave. is 160.

In "Indian Basketry" I have said something about them. exquisite melodies of soft. This is to "fix" the dye. As a general principle. more harmonious. Experiment will soon teach the value of this. and test the result. and. DYES At : HOW TO MAKE AND it USE THEM. and when an alkali dye an acid mordant. so may you. know 'somewhat of their methods. Do not touch them. ." Hence. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not -suit such soft and flexible work as basNever until the white man of no artistic taste perverted and ketry. get it out. if you have in some long forgotten closet a copy of your great-grandmother's old recipe book. So begin with determination and courage. when they are rubbed on rattan. and they cannot be improved upon. and happen to 'have some other dye at hand. CHAPTER V. Just as an artist experiments in color on his palette board and thus finds what he wants. In the first place. Also. cheaply. mix in a little of it. reminding you of the days when your ancestors spent many hours over the dye pot or tub. led astray the Indian with aniline dyes did he make mistakes in color. chemistry teaches that where you have an acid dye it is well to have an alkali mordant. Alum is a good ordinary mordant and can be had. delicate. Hence to get rhe true conception of color one has but to study the old baskets. Discourage their use in others. ten to one you will find wonderfully suggestive helps there. color it a beautiful shade which is We quite as fast as most dyes. third and every other place. Miss White tells of "one basket-maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. tender. restful harmonies in these masterpieces' nay mistresspieces of ancient the outset let anything more than a . be understood fully that this is not presented as chapter of suggestion and hints. And who that has done this has not felt the charm and delight of sweet. and the chapter on colors is well worth another reading in connection with these hints. Thus a valuable and interesting discovery may be made. however. second.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid. Explicit directions in so subtle and elusive a matter as dyeing is not to be expected in a book of this character. If you are preparing a red. experiment in every way. more permanent. and better in accord with basketry work. Vegetable dyes are softer in tone. work ? In this chapter I desire to stimulate each thoughtful and earnest student to the endeavor to reach what these wild weavers reached. anywhere. As a rule all materials and dyes need a mordant. and. Remember that experience will widen your horizon and enlarge your capacities. They are the accursed things which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful. To learn to dye well is a liberal education in many things. In "Indian Basketry" I tell of some Indian mordants. fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are " anathema " to ajll " " true basketry lovers.

is suggested for a dark. Onion skins give a dull yellow that is> very satisfactory. to be purchased of any druggist. Inj the making of dye here are a few hints as to material.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. When the alum is well dissolved place the liquid in a small tub and soak the material to be dyed in it for fully two hours. The sulphuric acid is poured on the indigo. and are used. The powder is easier to handle. ORANGE. As> soon as the indigo is dissolved fully. though animal. diluting with water when red. Learners will find that indigo will not dissolve in water. add water and put in soda until it stops foaming. John's wort (hypiricum perforatum). Be sure to keep your hands out of this mixture. Butternut bark. and the dye can be used with safety. and beets a color similar but more The poke berry gives a purple red. but it GREEN. The bark of the maple and pine both give nice shades of brown. as water will not readily dissolve the stick. but the acid will rot the material to be dyed. the stems. LOW. Miss Hyde prefers much less. causing the liquid to foam in an alarming manner. . and combined PURPLE. Dragon's blood gives a pleasing orange. Sumac leaves. You will not care satisfactory. and alcohol must be used for the purpose. Use a stick to stir it with. and is easy to handle. Cranberries give a dull red. and thus prepares for the permanent fixing of the dye a thing much to be desired. while the fruit gives a reddish or what might better be termed a light or pink tan. Logwood extract gives a fine brown. deep Combined with cream of tartar it gives a bright red. This allows the fibre of the raffia or rattan to take up the mordant. . This gives a light yellow that is very pleasing. in used. 2Q Miss \Yhite suggests the use of a solution of three ounces of alum dissolved in a quart of water. and stems give a good tan. for blue. and stirred vigorously. however. can also be used with good results. RED. Indigo. the acid must be neutralized by the addition of soda. TAN. Do not buy it in stick form. though not as strong as logwood gives satisfactory Walnut and hickory nut shells results if an extra quantity is used. So before the materials are immersed. This allows the soda to completely neutralize the sulphuric acid. Cochineal. perience. YELGather St. There is nothing to fear. which keep stirring often. gives the color must be confessed it is difficult to handle without exMiss Hyde found Chase's Recipe Book give her help. This gives a bright yellow. Saffron can be bought from the druggists. Sulphuric acid will dissolve it. preferably about fo-ur ounces to two gallons of water. Madder gives a dull red. to handle the poke berries as they stain the hands. The powder can be bought from any druggist. and the root is the part to use. It is well to make plenty of this mixture. which can be found growing everywhere on the roadside. But this dye is never strong even though a large quantity of the leaves The powder of BROXVN Blood Root gives a deep yellow. and one will find great pleasure in experimenting with bark from different trees. drop by drop. with ammonia a good purple. This can be bought from the druggists powder form in the South it can be found growing in the fields. leaves and flowers.

always using a wooden stick for the purpose. cochineal needs fully two hours to C* C? produce good results-. that can be held in both hands.30 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. or of becoming an capable It is fortunate that many individual basket offence to the eye. First mordant as before described. Thus observation and interest are stimulated the first elements of all true education. If this is not Let it remain in the liquid from 15 to 20 minutes. when the seeds and fruit are ripe and the sap is well down in the trunks of the trees. let it remain longer. walnut shucks. or groups of workers. Keep turning the material over and over. a society whose work in fine basketry other pages of this book will well testify to. sumac. one teacher had her scholars gather walnut shucks for dyeing purposes. have only lately begun to produce good and is a fundamental it need. makers. general proportion to be observed is two ounces to one gallon of water. if necessary. of the Pocumtuck Basket Society of Deerfield. The following is from the pen of Miss Margaret C. It does not need much suggesting to show how that to an intelligent teacher this practically prepared the hearts and minds of her pupils for a valuable lesson in natural history. skill and time to do madder and copperas. realize the necessity of natural dyes in order to and lasting color combinations in their designs. In every case the dye must be boiling when the material is immersed. onion skins. All of the above will generally give their color with a half hour's good boiling. In an early bulletin 'of the Basket Fraternity I hope to publish a full and detailed account of Deerfield and its work. . and went and gathered more walnut shucks. all > DYE THE arrest the work of the dye and give irregular color effects. In u sing beets. fustic. put in more. MATERIAL. and they secured a delicious shade of green. Mass. as if there is any sediment it is liable to etc. It can be diluted. \Yhiting. TO MAKE THE A Butternut bark. DYES. enough (as experience will soon demonstrate). This time their green dye came out "brown. All the materials are to be boiled. are following the exampe of Deerfield. a little more will do no harm. "Basket workers. For instance. stumble upon many interesting facts. The green coloring matter had gone new matter or changed matter was in its place. and if found not strong enough can either be boiled down or more material used. TO Be sure and strain the dye. and no craftsman will continue long to rest satisfied with seeing his design developed in the loud and vulgar colors that raffia dyed In itself raffia is a material that in chemical or aniline dyes produce. TIME TO COLLECT MATERIALS. so that the color evenly reaches: all the parts. poke berries. By . Three or four weeks later they again wished some green dye. is of taking on soft and harmonious colors. it for them. Cranberries.. Experience has demonstrated that the best time to collect these materials is in October or November. On the other hand." and the disappointed children were unable at first to comprehend the reason for the change. Even in this work one is liable to . put in about five or six large beets to a gallon of water. who work in raffia. For a dye pot a good enamel kettle is as serviceable as anything. This gives a fairly strong dye. use about one pound to a gallon of water. in either doing their or employing someone own dyeing who has in indigo. If these do not produce the desired color..

of Students. another that bore trees. 135. of Brooklyn. are so pleasing to the eye." and still another developed in orange and black with a barbaric design in white beads.HOW these TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Work SIMPLE WEB BASKETS OF College. how their mere possession gives suggestion of patterns and combinations to the eye of a skillful basket-maker. tried by the garish modern colors that it is impossible to be'lieve the future will consent to accept. which her own desire to produce turns to admirable account. Quite recently a modest sale. . obtain from the color harmonies of vegetable dyes. The much lamented decay of good design and of excellence in ornamental work has been largely helped by the manufactured dyes how great an influence toward the tasteless and tawdry has been wrought by the invention of aniline colors. The basket with a holly design. Such an one is Mrs. and far-reaching effects may quite reasonably be hoped for from the individual dyers who are thus being encouraged. whose maker whimsically proclaimed to grow in "the vale of cedars. who can say?" . Miller. browns. Teachers' RATTAN. that which was decorated with a stiff row of tulips. yellows. for a charity. Miller's colors proved the charm possible to FIG. greens and blues done in small vats prepared by old rules of tried permanence. New York. of baskets made by a group of amateur but skillful basket-makers in a surburban town belonging to Greater New York. all show the inspiration harmonious colors give to the designer. from Mrs. 3! means the dld-fashioned processes of hand-dyeing are being revived. whose "Colonial Dyes" of over a dozen shades and tones of reds.

an awl about four inches long. and can be set by means of the thumb screw brass fillers to cut the splints from an eighth of an inch to dition. are cut to the required length. 21. PAIRING. .splint is inserted. flat iron or steel that can be used as a hammer between the spokes of a basket. resulting splints is the name given to the strip or splint. a small hamimer. 19. flat pliers or pincers a narrow piece of heavy. to have Fig. are useful. 18 and the an inch at the proper distance Fig. FJG. TOOLS AND TERMS USED. a yard measure and foot rude a sharp knife a pair of small.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Miss Marie Toxuse. This should be about five or six inches long and two inches broad. employed by the Hyde Exploring Expe: . the 26 West 23rd street. FIG. . SINGLE WEAVING. 22. and then rapidly pulled. is adjustable. FIG 20. DOUBLE WEAVING. in width. 19 tapestry needle is good to begin with) strong scissors. pressed upon With a pair of scissors the the knives. or weaver. A SPLINT. The student should be provided with the follotwing tools needle (about a No. kindly permitted me accompanying engravings made from her two cutters. indeed an old rasp file Rubber thimble and finger caps will answer the purpose very well. A . In both these cutters the broad . when these members are tender. CHAPTER VI. FIG. Cutters for preparing wood splints are used by the Eastern Indians. 17 consists of a number of knives set apart for the 'making of splints for weavers. or strand A . New York.

and if one or more weavers have already been used. 24. 24. TRIPLE WEAVE. thus alternating. splint. then each weaver is brought in succession before two spokes and behind one. The fingers in Fig. 21. or twined. they must be included in the four to make up this twist. see Fig. but one is placed same spoke. the framework. . Each in its transit to the back of the fourth spoke must be laid on the top of the other three weaver?. ROPE TWIST.is where two weavers are used DOUBLE instead of one. the other behind the where two weavers are used. PAIRING. This is shown in Fig. This is clearly shown in Fig. 19 hold a The warp the foundation splints are the ribs. The woof splints are the weavers which are wrapped. ROPE TWIST. It is also used as a border finishing weave. the spokes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. being laid at the same time on the top of the weavers that preceded it. though four or more weavers may be used. WEAVING. weavers are taken on to the next spoke twist them so that the lower weaver takes the place of the upper. upon which the basket is built up. as in Fig. and before the next. either for beauty or strength. 22. 33 piece of material used for wrapping. see Fig. FIG. or worked in various ways in and out of the warp splints. It is to pack tightly together this kind of weaving that the flat piece of iron referred to in the list of tools is so useful. The weaver is placed behind one spoke or foundation rod. Three weavers are placed behind three consecutive spokes. 23. SINGLE WEAVING. This is a variation of the triple weave. This. (This is before. four weavers are placed behind four consecutive spokes. 20. Then as the FIG. 23. For starting. the bones. TRIPLE TWIST. This weave is used where a break or dividing line in a basket is desired.

26. the more readily does one see the possibilities and limitations of each . bristol Cut a 6-inch square from being three inches. Work of Students. The greater the variety of materials used." In all the following exercises it is well to PICTURE FRAMES. this cut a circle. New York. CHAPTER VII. and from dampen the raffia several hours before using.34 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. One of the first and most important results to be attained is the familiarizing the student (be he child or adult) with the materials to Hence the wisdom of following out alii the suggestions be used. raffia to advantage in teaching little children illustrating the use of two materials of different degrees of flexibility. here given. even though the immediate results are not the ones you individually are seeking. Teachers' College. Miss Hyde suggests: "One may combine bristol board with FIG. RAFFIA WRAPPED ARTICLES. HOW TO BEGIN. the radius board Cut an inner .

26. simple loop may be made of the raffia with which to hang up the frame. Then. or made fingers are engaged in the work. It is not simply a frame for any kind tion. too. "artistic. This is the prime element in all work we designate Other interesting in Fig. MAGAZINE HOLDER OF WRAPPED RAFFIA. and a toy umbrella. all wrapped raffia. or the baby. This for a small picture. Then wrap the board with raffia in its native color. opening allows A In the making of these picture frames cultivate a senise of proporThe frame must not be too large for the picture it is to hold nor too small. or dyed. or some beloved friend or scene. 35 1-4 inches." but it is a frame especially for a picture of papa or mamma. as preferred. giving a diameter of 2 1-2 inches. For the book-mark any kind of splint may . Thus the heart of the child. . let the child feel that this frame is to enshrine a picture that means something to him. merely "a frame anyhow." possibilities in this use of materials are suggested made of Here are a book mark. 28. a napkin-ring. FIG.HOW circle with radius i TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as well as its mind and of a picture.

Q El k CU <! tf fo o tf o ^ o H R d tf H J O ffi H N <J O 9 p H 8 O .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

i or No. sewed on. forth holding the coil to the left. and later in the chapter on Indian Stitches. The coiling of natural colored raffia and wrapping with a strand of dyed material is an easy method for children. circled into ring form. as clearly engraving. This mode of wrapped weaving was long ago used by the Mohave Indians in the making of their carrying baskets. Take a sufficient number of strands of raffia to make 1-4 inch coil and wrap with a strand of colored raffia Coil and sew back and leaving distances of 1-2 inch between wraps. The napkin-ring is made by wrapping the raffia around a splint or card-board base. as. 37 raffia is wrapped from one spoke to another. Then begin to wrap with raffia. Into this piece of No. shown in Indian Basketry. Teachers' College. SIMPLE COILED BASKETS. and the stitches should not be noticed. page 160. For the umbrella take a Glue a piece of cork upon one end. and then edged with plaited raffia. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 4 rattan. make small holes and glue therein seven lengths of No. 2 rattan. of Students. A SIMPLE BASKET FOR CHILDREN. . New York. To finish let the coil gradually diminish.HOW be used. giving one twist around each spoke and going on to the next one. Then shown in the Work \ PIG. 30.

that it is deemed wise to differentiate and give two separate sets The earliest stages of this form of weaving of lessons in their use. sew the edges tight with white thread. wood (such as ash. number of splints of equal MATERIALS REQUIRED. This makes the warp. etc.'. and needs such different handl- ing. 31 and 32 clearly show the simplest forms of this kind of work. one at a time. ^ ft J-i . oak. 34. and then unravel or split the splints as It is well to gain shown in the illustration. size desired. CHAPTER VIII. the material is so different in character. 35. Take a number of splints of equal length Place ten or a dozen side by side. 33. splints.) palmetto. THE MAT WEAVE. and width. knife. 32. awl or piercer. This simple checkenvork is the basis for good work later on. OPKX. etc.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. CLOSED. FIG. While mat weaving uses the warp and woof in exactly the same manner as they are used in what I have termed the web weaving.nJ f>- ' r| \a. all kindergarten teachers are more or less familiar with. accuracy and speed in the manipulation of mat and good exercise will be had by imitating Figs. After a little practice in this with coarse splints>. Then take same number and weave them. A width of paper. Figs.\' ii-L FIG. scissors. over and under the warp at right angles. A buck- CHECKERBOARD.. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. let the pupil undertake the making of a table mat of any suitable material similar When it is the to Fig. 31. et or bowl of water. It will be seen that the splints are fine. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. 36 .

So on alternating. 38. TABLE MAT. from left to right. or fold one long splint as shown in A. 11. taking care that each fold is absolutely even.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. with result is the accordeon fold (B. (See C) in the fallowing order: down. 38.) Take a short splint. then the horizontal over the perpendicular. 37. 39 with weavers of two colors. . splint to right. Fig. 10. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. can be utilized in the Fold all the splints lengthwise. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. Fold the perpendicular splint up over the horizontal one. place them side by side. ones.) In Figs. right and left. Fig. with ends reversed. (See Fig. These weaves making of many beautiful baskets later on. The . Pull tight. 39 and 40 are seen four beautiful specimens of . holding them with ends at right angles. thrusting splints through the long Pull tight. open it and fold around long splint to the right. The next short splint fold around long splint to the left. splint to left and through long as FOLDING EXERCISE. from right to left and so on. Take two weavers of equal width. many splints as desired. Back and forth the folds then go retaining them at right angles. Take the two long FIG 33. up.The accordeon fold.

39 AND 40.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. ETC. . 38. !!<. FIGS. New York. CHETEMACHE MATS. ACCORDEON PLAIT.

A flat splint is laid lengthwise FIG. and black.. and later on. This tribe of Indians lives on Avery Island. and makes beautiful baskets of a variety of shapes. and then sewed on with a fine on the upper edge of the mat. using splints of palmetto. under and over as if going to make ordinary square mat weave. In these mats. with the natural greenish-gray of the palmetto. 4! Chetemache weave. conjure up designs from her own imagination. FIG 36. The design is easily followed and the learner will find it excellent practice to endeavor to imitate. DIFFERENT COLORS. The binding is simple. fold backwards. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. Their dyes are evidently vegetable and the exquisite color effects produced are worthy of imitation. The colors are a dull Indian red PATTERN PRODUCED PATTERN PRODUCED BY INTERLACING BY INTERLACING STRANDS OF STRANDS OF DIFFERENT COLORS. holding in left hand. Take top splint. bringing edge parallel with the right edge of the perpendicular splint. Lay two two vertically. 37. horizontally and weaver Take four long splints.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the designs are worked out with different colors. Change \vork to right hand. La. ISOLATED FIGURES PRODUCED BY MODIFYING ORDER OF INTERSECTION. PIG. 34. . oblique or diagonal. as seen in the illustration. MAT FOUNDATION WORK.

FIG. SPLINT PICTURE FRAME FOUNDATION. 43. SPLINT MAT WEAVE BASKETS. FRAME. SPLINT PICTURE FIG. 42. . 41.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG.

the woof splints of the sides can be continued around the corners and used as the woof splints of the ends. Fig. 3. viz. there are practically five sides. When the corners are turned up. as long as required.) NAPKIN RING. one of which is illustrated Another form napkin ring may PICTURE FRAME. A of napkin ring can be made from in the edges. C. Open up as Fig. 2. Pass under first folded splint. taking care. Then study. however. it is merely twisted in a curve back to the place it would have had if folded and creased. with ring . (See D. to allow two inches or so for turning in (tucking in) at the edges. 37. Then Hold now left perpendicular folded horizontally as before. and binding it to the fourth warp splint from the other end. These even widths can best be made with the cutter shown in Fig. 43 fold left splint obliquely.. Where the splints meet they can be tucked in. or easel. A little practice will make the weaver perfectly conversant with this pretty variation. 38. When the It is made same as A. In Fig. Fig. fastener for the cover to the handle of the basket made by taking a long splint. bottom. and proceed. (F. 18. boxes. fold upper horizontal downwards as before. 41. then wrapping one of the folds with the other in an oblique wrap. 4 on Fig. These sizes determined it is easy to cut splints the required length. Here. Trim off loose edges and the result is Fig. 43.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 43 is shown how this square mat weave may be utilized. which can have cardboard or leather back glued or sewed upon it. 42. 38. obliquely and press edges towards center to keep the work evenly. may be made upon these principles. in B. one set to the right. folding as directed. Then insert small splints and fill up the vacant spaces marked I. This crosses right perpendicular splint. the upright or warp splints are turned over and deep enough is tucked in. is A D . instead of obliquely folding and creasing the splint. There are now two perpendicular sets of splints. Work held in left hand. etc. 38. two sides.) A beautiful variation of the lower edge of the weaving of a diagonal band is shown in H. Fig-. in great variety of shapes and sizes. one set to the left. folding it around the fourth warp easily splint from either end. two ends. bringing them together and then proceeding to unite them with the ordinary flat mat weave. hanger. It should never be forgotten that good work of any kind can be done only with splints of perfectly even width. 38. this strip of diagonal weaving. covers.its upper edge lie parallel with the bottom horizontal splint. Fig. The question of basket size can always be determined with a little In mat weaving the width of splint must be considered. Prepare foundation as described for Fig. the lid for D. thus strengthening the A little practice soon enables one to do this "tucking in" or parts. tucking (G. Cornucopias. 41. 43. tucking in the edges as per the illustration. is "doubling" cover skilfully. Fig. Material required: eight long splints of one or various colors necessary number of short splints.) be made by leaving a little longer ends to the diagonally woven strip. Fig. and two horizontal.. making. The bottom of A is of mat foundation (simple checkerboard).

grocers baskets.44 HOW The basket deeper. Work splint. cotton . showing market baskets. Take two pieces of rattan. and so on. New York. The result will be an interesting collection. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. The handle is made as follows willow. Figs. foundation canes in thumb and forefinger of left hand with weavers under one and over the other. 44 and 45 show a variety of small models of baskets made by Excite the interest of children in the students at Teachers' College. up between the two. it is in the same way as its cover C. alternating over and under. of Students. A little practice will soon teach how to affix to basket. and then urge them to imitate or reproduce in minature. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. except that the narrowing together towards the top the warp splints should be made to taper a little. Hold required to be. Then wrap around left foundation is D made To produce : FIG. 44. over and around right foundation splint back between the two. Teachers' College. the thickness desired and the length the handle is For weavers use long mat splints well soaked. down and around left splint. or palmetto. clothes baskets. forms of baskets in actual use. taking care always to overwrap or tuck in all ends. cane.

. 45. Cane is coarse. and fine fine. . etc.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to use. two persona. top and bottom. CAXING CHAIRS. and down through center top hole. locality used. yet Work FIG. hampers. Buy or make pegs to fit these holes. fine. New York. It of splints. medium. such as is used how carried what it is to carry whether carried by one or : How . Now bring long end of cane. leaving an end two and one-half inchee long. keeping is practically useful. at bottom row. etc. can well be exemplified and important lessons given. P'jii peg into both of these holes to keep cane in place. of fine cane up through the center bottom hole. It must be soaked in water before using. Show how environment influences everything and that the use of different baskets in different localities for the same purpose is the result of different growths. Hold the frame on the Count the holes. and has a decided value in teaching the handling legitimately comes under the head of mat weaving. overcome the problems involved. Here adaptability to purpose. purchase from a kindergarten suppy house a small. etc. Teachers' College. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. of Students. The children will readily structions further than those already given. in which holes an inch apart are bored. To practice. To cane chairs is not a difficult art. different methods of work. up through next hole on the right. which will each basket readily suggest themselves to the teacher. and pull a piece lap top uppermost. 45 All these are simple and need no detailed inbaskets. . square frame.

under a cross.. from the lower left corner to the upper right. For a binding stitch over the holes. Now put in the in exactly the same way. 46. This diagonal weaving must be done in the two ways. from lower left-hand corner. FIG. working first to the right. actual weaving must beThe splint must be taken under a cross. 49. FIG. wide enough to cover the holes of the edge. pull the cane tight. take a splint of binding cane. CANING A CHAIR. inserting one end down splint of fine cane is now brought through the hole at one corner. FIG. process until right side of frame is reached. however. run a splint to the up- Now. At the fourth row from the center. starting n PIG. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (See Fig. then to the left. The frame is now a network of squares. working from center to left. Now start to the left of the center This done. per right-hand corner and continue these diagonal lines exactly the same as the vertical ones. 47. continue taking care not to and lace as on the the frame will be horizontal splints right and center to to corresponding hole on top row. filled with lines of vertical splints. CANE TIE. 48. over single. 46). CANING A CHAIR. A . but towards the left side of frame. Take cane now this lacing Peg.46 it flat. over a single splint. and from the lower right to the upper left. viz. HOW Peg it. WEAVE OF CHAIR CANE. gin. right.

The one thing of importance to remember is that the first row of splints must be put on loosely. bring the loose end to the nearest loop. 49.) Everyone is familiar with the octagonal meshed weave of the ordinary cane-seated chair. 48. is completed. FIG 53. 47. finish off with the bind- FIG. row is horizontally put in and must be woven as follows over one upper vertical. DOLL'S HAT AND TRAY OF PLAITED RAFFIA. across the binding and back again through the same hole. While doing the work endeavor to have one The explanations that follow will then be perfectly simple. without any attempt tO' tie. This will be found to hold securely. In many chairs there are little problems in the corners that the good sense of the weaver will easily solve if he is careful to have a due regard for proof these as a pattern close at hand. and horizontally. and going over or under as the case may require. : : portion. (See Fig. for there are six rows of splints and the later woven rows tighten up to the others. These go under and over the horizontal pairs and vertical pairs as shown in Fig. thus couching it. under lower vertical. 47 up through every other hole. Now follow these by putting in another set vertiThe fourth cally on top of the first ones and through the same holes. In finishing off the ends. creasing firmly. Sit on a small stool or hassock and tilt the chair forward upon your Find the center as before described. HOOP AND SCHOOL BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Pass it underneath the loop. at the same time pulling the upper vertical to the right. Put in the splints vertically lap. 52. draw tight. then once again. Now begin the diagonal weaving from lower left corner to upper right corner. as shown in Fig. which should always be on the under side of tlhe frame. . When the diagonal weaving ing as before described.

First of all. Both boys and girls can be much interested in this plaiting if the articles made are converted into playthings. let the child practice on simple plaiting with strands of raffia. To gain digital dexterity it is well to introduce it into a Course of Basketry. 52 shows a hoop of plaited raffia. or something useful. for their own personal use. Neligh's school in Columbus. When a length of raffia is about to give out. THE PLAIT OR BRAID. and a tray. for the boy's own use in playing horses. 54 and 55 are composed of model hats made by the students at Teachers' College. Fig. both made of plaited All the articles of Figs. a handle. 50 is the beginning of a small mat. doll's hat. Belts. thus avoiding knots. In the center of Fig. They are all of braided raffia. 51 is composed entirely of plaited belts. Sew on one side only. To facilitate this place a screw hook in the wainscoting or on the under side of the work table. 50. used for car- rying books. Fig. Every schoolboy and girl is more or less familiar with the simple forms of plaiting.48 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. toy harness and the like are easily made from this plaited work. on which the A little practical experience will raffia can be placed while plaiting. In these three the plaits are flat and sewed edge to edge with a large darning needle. used by boys and girls in one of their out-door games. and below is a school-bag. To give purpose to the work. Under the direction of the teacher this can easily be converted into a harness. Above it are two wall pockets. another shape. using for thread a fine strand of raffia. The rings are ordinary brass rings. soon demonstrate >how much raffia must be used to obtain a plait of any given size. Ga. Alternate plaiting and sewing give variety. The saddle girth above is of braided sisal hemp expressly for that purpose. lengthen It is not necessary it by splicing. In the making of these hats seek to draw out the individuality of . covered with the lace. Fig. and see that it is closely and evenly done. experimentation will soon show that the design depends entirely upon how the colored lace is placed at the beginning of the plait. bag-handles. etc. made of corset lacings. with the edges outer- most and sewed as the coil grows. stimulate interest by showing how these plaits can be utilized. sewed with the edges outermost. one Below it to the left is one of with. New York. Figs.53 sihows a small raffia. A little These laces can be dyed so as to give design in the plait. not by tying. In this the plaits are coiled flat. 52 and 53 were made by small children at Mr. and the bottom belt shows that tttie ends are utilized for tying. CHAPTER IX. Columbia University. and the other without. to plait the entire length needed before beginning to use the plait. beginning first with coarse and later using finer material. To the right and below is a band made by sewing the plaits together.

. 50. whilst a girl from the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania will make a Dutch farmer's hat. another a A Southern girl will naturally try a colonial. still another a Puritan.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the poke In army hat>s< of different nations are a score of suggestbonnet. let of excellent suggestions may be found. while in the hats of the peasantry of the world a host more FIG. ive shapes. the policeman's helmet. Here come in opportunities for fascinating little chats on history. To add interest to the work the child know something of the wearer of these different kinds of hats. Others will try the Panama. sombrero. the Chinese. social and domestic customs. ARTICLES OF PLAITED RAFFIA. the reasons that used to exist for the different kinds of headgear used in the various regiments of the ^ame army. the outing hat. etc. the Coolie. geography. 49 each child or student. etc. Let one make a continental hat. ETC.

produced. 56 and 57 are various baskets of plaited raffia made by the Various colors are used and pretty students of Teachers' College. Figs. FIG. of the wearer. PLAITED BELTS. Then. the color of the hair.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER taste BASKETS. the conscious exercise of choice. the shape of the face and Thus she is head. 58. Remember that a good milliner in choosing a hat studies. solidity of the basket as a whole. New York. 51. make such an one as you would personally like to wear. . Five-stranded plaits of raffia often come in very useful. native in the may be exercised and called into existence modern outing hat. neatness in sewing the plaits together. individuality.. "If you make a modern hat. Firmness of weave. and good shape are all sought after. too. harmony of color wihere it is used. and the effects manner of making is clearly shown in Fig. Then try to make a hat that would suit some friend. Teachers' College. etc. the form. Work of Students. choice of a able to produce a hat that will harmonize with the individuality of the wearer." This demands personality.

. BOTTOM OF DEERFIELD BASKET. 50a. 51 FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

Teachers' College. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. Work of Students. New York. 54. . FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

used. 55. of Students. secure twelve strands raffia of two colors and a stick about a yard long and one and one-half inches wide." it will be seen that carrying The nets were and are made by the Mission Indians of California. Twisted hemp. Hold the stick in any easy position so that a strand of raffia may be doubled and tied around the . From page 158. Teachers' College. Fig. THE NET. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. 61. Even unbraided raffia may be rushes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. For a netted work or handkerchief-bag. braided raffia. "Indian Basketry. It should be slightly dampened for several hours before using. 53 CHAPTER X. Work PIG. etc. as shown in A. New York. yucca fibre. Various materials can be used in this work. Pimas have a carrying basket in which the net is used.

Put on the rest of stick. Separate to about an inch apart. New York. Then slip the knots from the stick. 59. of Students'. Draw the knot tight. BASKETS OF PLAITED RAFFIA. narrowing the meshes Work FIG. as shown in Fig-. The ends are then cut evenly. bag is A pretty effect of complete. then knot each strand at about the distance of an inch with the nearest strand of the next pair. a length of plaited raffia put through the upper mesh and tied. Continue this all the way down for five or six rows. Make even meshes all the way across. Teachers' College. and the towards the bottom. At the bottom the whole of the strands are gathered together and tied with a single or braided strand. and proceed to close up the bag by knotting the loose sides together. 56. tom rows is caused by loosely braiding the strands meshes before knotting them. of two bot- .54 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the strands in like manner.

twine bag may be made in the same manner as A. style of bag made by keeping all the to the bottom. The ends can then be cut and thie bag is complete. except that the meshes must be much smaller. Teachers' College. are the bag is lined with silk or turkey red cotton it is a pretty and serviceable article. 61. of Students. Fig. New York. then joining the FIG. A . at the bottom.HOW Another TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. 55 the meshes of equal size two sides. of raffia and sewed desired they may be made 57. and the number of strands When BASKETS OP PLAITED RAFFIA. way by matching t)he knots and meshes together and then knitting two strands from the front and two from the back together for the finishing row. If tassels Work on.

ETC. the twine allowed to come through one of the meshes. STRAND DETAIL OF FIVE PLAIT. 61. C is netting the same as described in the work-bag A. FIG. STITCH AND 59. FIG. In netting with raffia or other materials! an infinite variety of articles may be made. it can be suspended wherever needed. but has a bottom and top of coiled and sewed plaited raffia. SNIGLE NET MESH. B is a small netted purse of raffia of fine mesh. and all different. using the single net stitch of Fig. 61. 62. Fig. 58. 60. FIG. NET MESH. FIG. 60. FIG.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. C and D. D is a pretty little basket made of a fibre brought from Puerto . limited to the size of the ball of twine. as suggested in B. and tied tightly on the top. With a tassel on the bottom. NETTED BAGS OF RAFFIA. KNOT OF RAFFIA.

When all the rings are covered. overlap them. 63. NET MESH. 64. 69. The size of rings may be varied to suit the size of napkin. These may be imitated from any book of fancy needlework. FIG. then under and over. knotted or fastened These fancy stitches give wonderful variety to basket work and can be introduced here and there as taste and skill dictate. 57 composed entirely of fancy stitches. 62 to 66. . Book for 1903. A pretty napkin-ring can be made by taking ten curtain rings about an inch in diameter and covering them with the buttonhole Raffia or any fibre may be used. through. stitch shown in Figs. NET MESH. as slhown in Fig.HOW Rico. for which I am indebted to the "Priscilla Needlework as required. FIG. 65. and then join by passing a ribbon or five-strand plait of raffia (see Fig. 66. similar to Figs. etc. yucca fiber. FIG. FIG. NET MESH. NET MESH. It is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 58) an inch wide. 67 and 68." Any of these may be imitated in raffia.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. <! H H a fe .

as the work progresses. the coiled ware may be are made within an inch of space. while cat-tail. 72 is of a group of mats and baskets made of long pine needles. twine. As Professor Mason has well written: "Coiled basketry in point of size presents the greatest extremes. 70. is The first grass coil is sewed to its outer edge. raffia. 36. Fig. : etc. it is tightly wrapped with thread. The zig-zag introduced and the mat then completed with three rounds of coil. with a center of cedar-bark." The simplest form of coiled work is shown in Fig. lege. plenish the coil. Fig. . the upright stitches lend themiselves to the greatest variety of intricate patterns. 70.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. broom corn. as this is. perfectly flat. or whatever is to be used for sewing. Great care should be exercised in putting in new material to reUpon this depends the evenness of the work. THE COIL WEAVE. D is an oval mat. or built up into the most exquisite jar shape. raffia. the fancy one is of sweet grass. is basket makers in American West and Southwest. The variation of B. combined with grasses. corn husks. sweet grass. split willows. in design. 70 is of raffia. They are pretty and useful. 59 CHAPTER XI. rushes. coil to diminish gradually and make a secure fastening. It large variation. etc. made exactly as the mat in Fig. such as grass. each time inserting the needle with point toward you between every wrap. except that an oval center was first made by bending a strong and thick needle to the . and in o-thers. taken just past the proceeding one. Of these Miss Hyde writes and thus instructs how to make They are made of hemp. The center may be birch bark (ornamented. the Indians of the simple and yet capable of artist. There are specimens delicately made that will pass through a lady's finger ring. of the best the world. sedges. viz. stitching material one-half inch wide. . Let the children go out and gather their own material for these 'simple trays. This gives the even and beautiful spiral effect. straw. Colis of coiled trays made by the students of Teachers' Fig. 71 gathered in the immediate neighborhood of New York. Dye the hemp and take an amount equivalent to three-eight inch coil wrap for a distance of three-fourths of an inch. The material of the coil may be almost anything capable of being coiled. thus giving a radiaTo finish allow the tion from the center as the work progresses. shredded The plain mat of Fig. Taking a length of the coil material. will be easily mastered.. and.. when performed by an exquisitely beautiful. as in the Pima granaries. the root material is shredded so fine that nearly 100 stitches In form. the stitches being is needed for the sewing. and others as large as a flour barrel some specimens have . allowing spaces of one inch between wraps then fasten and sew. and made with comparative ease. with colored quills). or of A leather. as in a table mat. strong tapestry needle The coil is then begun. The is coil is one of the favorite weaves.

FIG. Teachers' College. FIG. 71. SIMPLE COILED TRAYS. . 72. PINE NEEDLE COILED BASKETS. Work of Students. New York.

with the aid of a bodkin. a "cute little hat. The handles of G are each of two circular coils. 74. 73. sewed on after the basket was elsewhere finished. Here are two important things to be attained. 75. Cushings description: simple coiled weave." This su'bject will be found more fully discussed in the chapter on . Fig. A grass stems or osiers softened in water was first spirally wrapped a little at one end with a flat. first outward.) tiguous inner coil.HOW shape required. E and G. A basket must sit firmly on the table and be tightly woven. for the It TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. When FIGS. as the basis. to form the tapering upper part and neck. In the making of all these baskets stimulate the student to stability . 74) being firmly fastened as it progressed to the one already made by passing the splint wrapping of the wisp each time it was wound around the latter through some strands of the conThe bottom (Fig. MANUFACTURE OF SPIRALLY COILED WEAVES. It is two and a quarter inches across at the botis the lid. the out(Fig. to produce the bulge of the vessel. two and a half inches in diameter. the diameter of bottom. yet made in the same way. flanged and fits snug. 75. 6l This was then filled up with darned work. amples was made of the helix or spirally coiled type of basket. was rounded upward and the sides were made by coiling the wisp higher and higher. slight protuberances which act as handles. No "wobblety" bottom. the height two and a quarter inches." circular in shape. and no slovenly work in the sides will be tolerated. 72. and used makes an excellent tray for the toilet table. then inward. to which A tom and 1 the lid is. or a mat dinner table. are dissimilar in shape. decked off with a piece of ribbon. three and one-eighth inches. Each 'has a base of two coils. 74. This wrapped portion was then wound upon itself.boiling baskets. 75 clearly show the Indian method of making the "In the I quote Lieut. The top is an inch and a half in diameter. into which the two little twigs or splint-loops were firmly woven. 73.) er coil thus formed (Fig. manufacture of the Havasupai. Figs. limber splint of tough wood. usually willow. and sewed to the sides-. the beginning small wisp of fine flexible at the center of the bottom. F is C is smaller and the two upper coils are made oval so as to afford two B is a dainty little basket. which are good exand firmness. these long pine needles baskets are known they will become wonderfully popular in a short time. including brim. the width of brim three-quarters of an inch. 73.

Indian Stitches. three-rod foundation. I. As Professor Mason has shown in his bulletin. two or more stems over one another . Scores of exquisite baskets made by this stitch are pictured. however many there may be (3) under a welt of the coil beneath (4) through splints or other foundation. rod and welt foundation. . K. . 76. ill A iJ) B & // \] C -> FIG. there are nine different varieties of coiled basketry which he analyzes and describes as my follows : "The foundation may be a thin welt laid on top of (4) it . Packing inclosed. Splint foundation. CROSS SECTIONS OF VARIETIES IN COILED BASKETRY. with a welt. H. Double-stem coil. These will now be taken up systematically and illustrated (fig. C. in some cases systematically splitting the sewing material underneath. Packing inclosed. With these explanations it is possible to make the following nine varieties of coiled basketry.62 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Coiled work without foundation. Fuegian coiled basketry. two stems laid side .ide. B. but not inclosing the foundation underneath (2) under one rod . 76). Single-rod foundation. E. Grass-coil foundation. two rod and splint foundation. and in book on Indian Basketry. two rod foundation. of the coil beneath. D. or bagging: A. G. . (i) a single (3) stem or rod. One rod inclosed. matting. F. The stitches pass around the foundation in progress (i) interlocking. Simple interlocking coils. angular position (6) by '=. (2) a stem with . (5) three stems in tria bundle of splints or small stems (7) a bundle of grass or small shreds.

HOW
A.

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

COILED
of this class

WORK WITHOUT FOUNDATION.

Speci-

have been already mentioned. The sewing material is babiche or fine rawhide thong in the cold north, or string of some In the Mackenzie Basin will be found the former, sort farther south. and in the tropical and subtropical areas the latter. If a plain, spiral spring be coiled or hooked into one underneath, the simplest form of An improvement of this is effected the open coiled work will result.

mens

FJG. 77. DETAIL OF INTERLOCKING STITCHES.

FIG.

ROD COIL

78.

DETAIL OF SINGLEIN BASKETRY.

FIG.

TWO

79.

RODS, VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION OF

FIG.

SO.

COILED WORK.

ROD AND WELT

when the moving thread in passing upward after interlocking is twined one or more times about its standing part (Fig. 76 A.) B. Simple interlocking coils. Coiled work in which there may be any sort of foundation, but the stitches merely interlock without catching under the rods or splints or grass beneath. This form easily passes into those in which the stitch takes one or more elements of the foundation, but in a thorough ethnological study small differences can not be overlooked (fig. 76 B). Fig. 77 represents this style of workmanship on a coiled basket in grass stems from Alaska, collected by Lucien M. Turner. The straws for sewing merely interlock without gathering the grass roll.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

C. In rattan basketry and Pacific coast Single-rod foundation. ware, called by Dr. J. W. Hudson Tsai in the Poma language, the foundation is a single stem, uniform in diameter. The stitch passes around the stem in progress and is caught under the one of the preceding coil, In a collection of Siamese basketry in the U. S. Naas in fig. 76 C. tional Museum the specimens are all made after this fashion the foundation is the stem of the plant in its natural state, and the sewing is with splints of the same material, having the glistening surface outward. As
;

FIG.

SI.

FOUNDATION OF THREE RODS.

FIG.

82.

OF SPLINTS.

FOUNDATION

FIG. COILS,

S3.

STRAW FOUNDATION.

INTERLOCKING

FIG.

84. OPEN COIL, INCLOSING PART OF FOUNDATION.

this is

somewhlat unyielding, it is difficult to crowd the stitches together, and so the foundation is visible between. In America single-rod basketry is widely spread. Along the Pacific coast it is found in northern Alaska and as far south as the borders of Mexico. The Poma Indians use it in some of their finest work. The roots of plants and soft stems of willow, rhus, and the like are used for the sewing, and being soaked thoroughly can be crowded together so
as to entirely conceal the foundation
(fig. 78).

rod in this style lies on top of the other the stitches pass over two rods in progress and under the upper

D.

Two-rod foundation.

One

;

HOW
one
of the pair

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

65

cal series.

below, so that each stitch incloses three stems in a vertiattention to fig. 76 D will demonstrate that the alternate rod or the upper rod in each pair will be inclosed in two series of stitches, while the other or lower rod will pass along freely in the middle of one series of stitches and show on the outer side. Exbe seen among the Athaamples of this two-rod foundation are to tribes of Alaska, among the Poma Indians of the Pacific coast, pascan and among the Apache of Arizona. An interesting or specialized variseen among the Mescaleros of New Mexico, who ety of this type is us'e the two-rod foundation, but instead of passing the stitch around the interlock the stitches so that neither upper rod of the coil below, simply

A

little

FIG.

INTERLOCKING COILS, 85. SHRED FOUNDATION.

FIGS.

86,

87

AND

88.

FUEGIAN COILED BASKET AND DETAILS.

one of the two rods is closed twice. This Apache ware is sewed with yucca fiber and the brown sterns of other plants, producing a brilliant
effect,

and the

result of the special technic

is

a flat surface like that of

pottery

(fig. 79).

of precisely the

The U. S. National Museum possesses a single piece same technic from the kindred of the Apache on the

lower Yukon. E. Rod and welt foundation. In this kind of basketry the singlerod foundation is overlaid by a strip or splint of tough fiber, sometimes the same as that with which the sewing is done at others a The stitches pass over the rod and strip which strip of leaf or bast. are on top down under the welt only of the coil below, the stitches inThe strip of tough fiber between the two rods which terlocking.
;

w 55 pq 4 r^ g O o I-H O t ( fe a . o ^ g 02 Oc 0) i-H - 5J5 ^5 o .

worked into the foundation. or stiff grass (Epicampes rigidum). in others the splitting is designed and beautiful. passes around the three stems constituting the coil. Splint-foundation. In basketry of this type the foundation consists of a number of longer or shorter splints massed together and sewed. the stitches interlocking. So). of one of these to a friend is considered to be the highest compliment. under In some the upper one of the bundle below. In the Great Interior Basin. or shredded yucca. G. chinking of coil work is seen on old Zuni basket-jars and on California examples. is most compact. but it coil beneath (fig. 76 F). younger portion of the stem will do for sewing. willow. and the like. among the pueblos and missions. and the gift of shell. The effect in all such ware is good. 82). 76 E and fig. which may be in splints of willow. 83 and the cross section given baskets of the Pima a bundle of straws furnishes the foundation. 81 also in cross section in fig. the stitches passing under one or more of the splints in the In the Poma language it is called chilo. rhus." The technic the most elaborate character can be wrought on them. rush stems. In the California area the materials for basketry are of the finest quality. H. or. where the has no standing in that tribe.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The sewing may be done with split stems of hard wood. Two rod and splint foundation. Tribes practicing this style of coiling generally have fine material and some of the best ware is so made up. 67 serves for a welt has a double purpose strengthening the fabric and This style the space between the rods (fig. 76 I). This is the type of foundation called Dr. be seen in the southwestern portions of the United States. as in the case of the Mission baskets in southern California. Among the Poma and other by tribes in the western part of the United States the most delicate pieces Dr. of small midribs The foundation is a bunch of grass or from palm: leaves. Three or four small uniform willow stems serve for the is as follows foundation. and when the stitches are pressed closely together the foundation does not appear. The willow stems and carex root are Sewing done with these susceptible of division into delicate filaments. Grass'-coil basketry. tat basketry the pieces of spruce or cedar root not used for sewing material are also I. D. J. examples this upper rod is replaced by a thin strip of material serving fora welt (see fig. On the surface of the barn-tsu-wu basketry the Poma weaver adds pretty bits of bird feathers and delicate pieces The basket represents the wealth of the maker. F. . pliant material of the California tribes is wanting. only the outer and : . The interior parts Such in such examples are made up into the foundation (fig. for the reason that the maker has perExcellent examples of this kind are to fect control of her material. 76 G. W. ware is rude when the sewing passes carelessly through the stitches In the Klikibelow. Hudson calls them the ''jewels of of basketry are in this style. and in northern Africa. black or white carex root. or cercis stem. (See In the larger granary in fig. corrugated. The type of foundation passes easily into forms (fig. Three-rod foundation. In this style the foundation is made thicker and stronger by laying two rods side by side and a splint The surface will be or welt on top to make the joint perfectly tight. 76) C. Hudson bam-tsu-wu. as shown in fig. Surfaces are beautifully corrugated. The sewing. 76 H). fig. and patterns of coiled basketry. and F. of the stems of rushes (Juncus acutus).

90. . COILED RAFFIA BASKTES.68 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG.

Though made of raffia. 69 while the sewing is done with broad strips of tough bark. and is then decreased until it is 3 1-2 inches at the top. and the stitches. In B. which furnish also the sewing material from the split leaf If this be examined in comparison with a style of basketry (fig. In fig. K. after the center has been begun. We have now C. might easily mistake this for a genuine Indian basket. Here. show the fundamental traits of sound workmanship and an intelligent use of material. of course. with rush stems interlocking. wihich will be read with interest and profit. "The baskets produced at Deerfield. two different methods of coiled basketry are shown. reached. fig. 89. The resemblance of this to half-hitches. A. and their example has to the production of the good work . Whiting. E... B. 85). of which a figure is given. great similarity will be noticed in the size of the coil. Asiatic types on the Pacific is most striking (fig. It is so-called by him because each stitch is not bound to* the preced- work made by a ten year old boy. the same method is followed. herewith in presenting a description of the baiskets illustrated and the work of this Society by Miss Margaret C. which were brought very early in contact with Spaniards and African slaves.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the sewing is done with rushes. Mr. and my friend. inasmuch as this type of basketry is confined in America to the Hopi pueblos. are made in the stitch shown in Fig. Among the basketry belonging to the grass-coil foundation type are the Hopi plaques. McLeod. 90 is the next step in coiled basketry." The student can utilize almost all of these methods in one kind of or another. though. In this ware the foundation is slight. has some beautiful specimens of the weaver's art done in this. as in A. 84. The bottom is two and a half inches in diameter. fig. of the a work-basket of the same stitch. In the Fuegian coiled basketry. the pure coiled work of the Indian. 89. the color of the sewing material. lazy stitch. L. these stitches. The diameter increases up to five inches. which coiled lazy stitch. the patterns. many people looking at the photograph. then it is sewed to the preceding coil. what we might term. Fuegian coiled basketry. The suggestion is here made that this particular form of workmanship may be due to acculturation. built upon a thick bundle of the woody stems of the yuccas. found in Egypt and in northern Africa as far as the Barbary states. ing coil as in all their finer work. Mass. is the other crafts of that little been a source of encouragement village display. of DeerI have pleasure field. 86). consisting of one or more rushes the sewing is in buttonhole stitch or . and. 90 is another specimen. the new part of the coil is wrapped for a certain number of stitches. with the addition of a cross stitch over the stitch which binds the two coils toThe Indians of Kern County occassionally use the former of gether. it is well to experiment in the various styles with the home materials. what he calls. Most of the celebrated baskets of the Pocumtuck Society. but instead of being in the ordinary over-and-over stitch it consists of a series of half hitches or buttonhole stitches (fig. 86). Mass. when time permits. as in fig. no one but the merest tyro could be deceived if he held the basket in his hands.

FIG. Teachers' College. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. 92. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. Teachers' College. Work of Students.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Work of Students. 93. New York. FIG. . New York.

serves a useful purpose. other groups of village workers in basketry in In the matter of color the Deerfield workers in their baskets probably. madder. The Pocumtuck Basket Society. and have frankly refused to use designs or color combinaIn their designs they pretions that belong to the red man's choice. One craftswoman decorates her carefully shaped basket with a nice drawing of white mice on a dull olive background (Fig. An individual preference is shown in one worker's use of the swale grasses grown in the meadows about Deerfield (see Fig. raffia have. er is made with a useful handle that holds fast the lid on double braided cords it is developed in blues with a row of red birds solemnly hopping for the individual craftswoman to solve for . for it lightens the dark interior of the basket. the house in black and and the upper edge of the roof and trees just touched with the pink reflections from a big pink moon that rises in the pale sky it is almost needless to say this is named "Night and Day. . worked with a much finer stitch. 14). like all masters in art. fustic. She combines their varying lines with colored raffia in large card trays and plaques. the seeds being divided on the black surface by dull green lines while the cover with its brown stem for a handle rising from the green calyx. a butterfly. A different temperament has chosen a blackberry for a motive of form and decoration. the way it is translated into the medium of raffia furnishes the herself." Only a bold designer could carry out with success so simple Another covered basket by the same workyet complicated a scheme. for from the first have owed a good part of their reputation to the natural dyes they employ. a fer to work out the themes and harmonies of Nature flower. copperas and logwood these craftswomen hiave uttered their convincing protest against the crude and vicious color discords of the chemical dyes. as the raffia workers have named themselves. and . a beautifully drawn black-berry flower in white raffia in the black bottom. Turn up the basket and one will find. Jl now being done by different localities. . with much thought given to the perfection of form. slyly prepared for the observant. about its circumference (see Fig. 2) another chooses the piccotee pink for chief decoration upon the cover of her shallow bowl. With indigo.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. a house in red with windows a<nd doors in black and a lighter green foreground on the opposite occurs exactly the same landscape all dark in blues and greens. an animal or even a landscape may serve for suggestion. One . the flower is worked out in red and black upon a white background with a conventional border in the same colors upon the side of the basket (Fig. beauty that lies in the natural corn husk when laid smooth in large . have wisely recognized that the Indian. This charming surprise. . may not be imitated by those whose taste is sophisticated and minds trained to other and different standards of beauty. 8). been of chief public service. 9). problem large basket woven of the natural colored raffia for a ground color bears two landscape designs for its decoration on one swelling side is seen a group of trees in dull rioh greens against a blue sky. and with the varying shades and tones their old-fashioned dves offer they produce harmonies the public is quick to value. Or another weaver produces her effects from the use of color and exquisite stitches in a basket all done The in greens. after the longgone earliest inhabitants of their valley. is all black with a row of large dull black beads pointing the edge of the lid.

FIG. 93 are all of coiled raffia baskets made by the students at Teachers' College. are introduced but are not allowed to interfere with structural strength. different sizes being chosen to fit the desired effect. . 92. a cover must fit. is shown in still another basket of a large cylindrical form shaded indigo blues for background to four poppy stalks. 6 FIG. and bearing big blossoms worked from the many4iued pinks of the crepe-like husks (see done in Fig.HOW surfaces TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. each rising from two spreading gray-green leaves. each weaver seeking to produce the best possible effect. Wrapped spaces of . Here variety in shape and design were worked out. 95. WEAVING ON EVEN SPOKES. 91. and sometimes varied from large to small in the development of a single basket. The stitch chiefly . employed is that which has been dubbed "lazy stitch. BOOK MARK OF WEB WEAVE." and consists one smooth turn about the coil and a stitch down into the space on the row beneath the coil is formed of split or whole reeds." Figs. a handle must be strong or the jury of society will not give its approval. SPLINT AND 94.3)In choice of shapes the Pocumtuck basket makers cling to the strictly useful and simple forms a bowl must stand firm on a bottom sufficiently large to sustain it.

21. Figs. A MAT OR BOTTOM FOR ROUND BASKET. the effect of a single weaver can be obtained by using two weavers. there must be an odd number of spokes. The result is a series of ridges on the surface. Take eight . throughout. 73 CHAPTER XII. one ahead of the first round. DIVIDING INTO SINGLE SPOKES. 23 and 24 show the simple stitches. The odd spoke may be used in starting. uniformly. one before and the other behind the same spoke. it ODD AND EVEN NUMBER OF is essential to vise an even number of spokes for the warp. the web. over 7. HOLDING SPOKES FIG. weaving only in the fact that the warp elements are rigid and mat BOOK MARKS. To have the woof of one over and one under. 97. under 4. palmetto. both starting together. It must never be forgotten that proper web weaving can never be clone with an even number of spokes and a single weaver. We iniow woof is come to the most common of all of the basket weaving of the the pliable material. 20. FIG. THE WEB WEAVE.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Tuck the end i. Weave over 5. Indeed the division into miat and web weaving is purely arbitrary. over two AND STARTING WEAVER. as shown in Fig. over 3. 94. over under between 8 and i. or can be inserted later. One long and three short flat Place these as shown in Fig. and so Tuck the end of the on. 95. Next round pass under two. 22. Where. and with a long weaver splints are required. weaver into the part woven so as to hide and firmly fasten it. little care at first will soon render one expert in thus using two weavers. however. of the raffia weaver pretty little book-mark may be made with rattan or other material for the foundation of raffia. until five or six rounds have been woven. for use. under 6. SPOKES. then under 8 and under 2. A little practice will soon teach the better way to the student. Yet this differs from the checkerwork of the civilization. and when tips of spokes are cut into points a book mark is ready The following exercises will all be useful for later work. 96. i. etc. A wooden splints.

Then weave under flie four to the right. 98. as strength and beauty both depend upon the way this is done. as the beauty of every edge depends upon its making everything It is well to soak a border after it is made. . under the last row of weaving before next spoke. Weave one row. Then be absolutely accurate in even. 99 until the mat or base is the size redesired to make a mat of this. just before it reaches the next spoke. Now cut spokes to a point and of even length. as strength is thus added. This would spoil the looks of the basket. 99. Sharpen one end and thrust it into the center. Soak ends for a few minutes. one spoke. over the four at bottom. 8 or 9 inches Hold the eight long spokes as long. After placing the weaver under one side and over another. as allowing from i 1-2 inches to 5 or 6. 101 and 102. PIG. 96. the further the better. 4 rattan. 97 and begin to weave behind and before each spoke separately. the splints to be bent. Then turn over and continue FIG. 98. it is passed under the last row of weaving Then pass it around that spoke. RIGHT SIDE OF CENTER WITH ODD SPOKE. in front of the next. finish the last row by binding it as overcasting is done.74 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and it will be found that the weaver comes behind the same spoke with which we begun in the first row. INSERTING ODD SPOKE. and so on. under the four at left. ac2. 14 to 16 inches long. leaving an open curve as shown in Fig. In making these borders remember always to soak. shown in Fig. underneath. as a STARTING NEW WEAVER. for ten or fifteen minutes. Then push spoke No. and the appearance of the basket improved. spokes of No. making two complete rounds. This separation must be done with great care and evenness. If it is OPEN BORDER NO. and so on until the whole edge is bound. and a weaver of No. so the odd spoke is >now inserted as shown in Fig. 2. 100. It will often be necessary. to weave as shown quired. It will then dry as left. separate the spokes as shown in Fig. cording to taste. Run the spoke down as far as possible. in Fig. so as to readily evenness. When the weaver has been placed across each side of the top set of spokes. i down beside No. 2 rattan. shown in Figs. for the loop. Another simple border is made. allow its being bent into perfect shape.

OPEN BORDER PIG. 2. 104. 102. to start a new one. Mr. the two may be spliced as shown in Fig. Neligh informs me that he has found it to be excellent practice to have hi's pupils make the web weave with raffia. OPEN BORDER NO. 100. In Fig. and the woof strands then woven as in other work. The student is now ready to make simple . proceed. 2. Pins are firmly fastened into a board. 103). the shape the object is to be. behind a spoke. is done the edges are sown together to make SIMPLE BASKETS. 101. SIMPLE OPEN BORDER. When the basket is completed and dry the unnecessary ends If it is desired to hide the point of new with old weaver. The warp strands of raffia are then tightly tied around these pins. One may use a needle or not as he de- shown some specimens FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (See Fig. 104. OF NO. 105 are may be cut off. NEW WEAVER. Cross this with an equal length of the new weaver. SPLICING WEAVERS. Then FIG. FIG. DETAIL. 75 Leave the end of the last weaver [weaver runs out. When the weaving the object desired. STARTING of the work of his pupils. 103. FIG. SPLICING. with about three-quarters of an inch to spare. sires.

slightly curves up the spokes and gives the soon as the basket is as large as required it bowl shape desired. closed border No. Use the mat in Fig. 106 as an example. but after about an inch of the mat is woven draw the weaver tighter. 96.76 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Begin the mat as described in Figs. 98. finishing off with border as desired. As must be finished off with next chapter. baskets of the web weave. The basket below the mat is begun in exactly the same way. and 99. i. which will be described in the . WEB WEAVING WITH RAFFIA. 97. 105. This FIG.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS,

77

CHAPTER

XIII.

INSERTION AND BORDERS.
Before proceeding further with the chapter on Web-Weaving well to gain a full knowledge of insertion and borders. These "In descriptions are taken from Miss Firth's "Cane Basket Work." making open borders where it is necessary to run one spoke down
it is

FIG.

106.

Work

SIMPLE RATTAN BASKETS,
of Students, Teachers' College,

WEB WEAVE.
New
York.

beside another, the awl must be first inserted to open a passage for the extra spoke, and care must be taken to have a smooth end, or the weaving will be pulled out of place. It is al'so important to have each spoke double the length of the height of the basket, allowing the extra length necess'ary for the loop at the top. For convenience

7

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

spoke may be cut half an inch beyond the length required for the sides, and extra spokes, a little more than double that length, inserted when the weaving is finished. This will give the appearance of three spokes, and if well varnished will not be likely to get out of place.

The extra

half-inch

must not be

cut off the

first

spoke

till

the others

have been inserted.

"As the extra length necessary for each border is given with the directions for working it, one can be easily substituted for another according to taste."

FIG.

107.

DETAIL OF INSERTION.

PIG.

108.

INSERTION.

Pretty effects are caused by insertion, the details of which will The spokes of readily be comprehended from Figs. 107 and 108. the trellis work of the insertion are finer than the foundation. "This can be used with any border but looks well with open border, Fig. 102. The fine starting on the right hand side of a coarse spoke, crossing the open space to the next on the right, following it inside

FIG.

109.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

3.

FIG.

110.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

4.

the bend till the open space is again reached, where it crosses to the left-hand side of the same 'spoke from which it started." NO. 3. "This is only another variation of the same prinicple, the spokes being cut about 3 inches longer than double the height needed for the sides of the basket. At about 2 inches from the top weave one row of pairing and fasten off ends. An

OPEN BORDER

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

79

inch farther up start another row of pairing, add three rows of single Proceed as for Open weaving, and finish with another row of pairing. Border No. 2 as far as to the insertion, but instead of inserting the spoke in hand beside the same spoke as in the upper part, miss one, and slip it down beside the next. This border needs careful manipu-

FIG.

111.

DETAIL, OF PLAIT.

FIG.

112.

PLAIT.

lation to
size of

OPEN BORDER
ple as

keep the spokes in place. It can be varied according to basket and taste of worker." NO. 4. "This border necessitates double

spokes, on which two rows of pairing are worked at any desired distance. See Fig. no. The upper part is done on the same princiis brought up behind the next, the last being gathered under the first, as shown in Fig. in. For the next row this movement is reversed, each spoke being passed down behind the next, the last threaded under the first. When the

SINGLE PLAIT.

Open Border No.

5."

Each spoke

FIG.

113.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

FIG.

4321
114.

DETAIL, OF LAST

THREE SPOKEa

work

thoroughly dry, the protruding ends must be cut off as closeSee Fig. 112. PLAIT. Insert an extra short spoke beside each of those already in use, and proceed with the two spokes together as
is

ly as practicable.

DOUBLE

in single plait.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

"Take spoke No.

i,

and

at

about 11-2

beyond the edge of the basket bend it downwards, passing it behind No. 2, before No. 3 and behind No. 4, leaving the end at the front
inches

this must now be threaded from behind under the spoke first used. 115. Length of spokes needed for borthe der 10 inches. In order to keep the pattern. scribed. bring it down behind the second (Fig. as spoke No. it Take the first before and behind two spokes first used. and spoken of FIG. i. 2. Take spoke No. 2. before No. See Figs. Proceed in this way till all the spokes are down but three Take the first of these. FIG. DETAIL OF NO. it Two upright spokes are still behind the second and thread left. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. again leaving the end at the front of the basket. CLOSED BORDER NO. CLOSED BORDER NO. 5. 4. bring i. 117. 2. and before the third. 1. which must be threaded behind and before and behind the three spokes first Finish with plait already deused. in and 112. One upright spoke is still left.8o HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as just described. BORDER 116. and will complete the pattern. and working on the same principle bring it down behind No. of the basket to form the plait. . "This is the same border and worked FiG. and behind No. of these. 113). 3.

The canes forming these side (the longer of the two "pairs" must each in turn be kept side by till the next being to the right) and held perfectly flat under the thumb Pick up No. 2. bring it before No. FIG. and passed under the same spoke. 5 (which is still upright) and behind No. passing it under No. CLOSED This will make a second "pair of ends. 6 (Fig. and which may be marked by a piece of cotton till the worker becomes familiar with the border). 5. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. Two pairs of ends will still be left. always be two pairs of ends after the first pair is started. 2. 117). 3. longest of the first pair must now be brought before No. and slip it behind and under spoke No. lay it in front of and beside spoke No. 8l I and behind No. "pair" No. 119. Take No. or to be threaded through to the inside and cut off there. but never more than two. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. 4 and behind is down. 120. bring it in front of and beside spoke No. 118). 5 being brought down beside it as before. it down beside No. making the edge still more Proceed on this principle till all the upright spokes but substantial. 3. the last upright spoke still left being brought way. Take the longer of the first pair. and if correctly worked. there will and behind No. 2 FIG. 2.'' The 5. 2. down beside it in the usual . FIG. 121. and bring it beside No. No. making one "pair" of ends turned down. I (the spoke first used. one have been brought down. The shortest of each pair in turn is left to be cut off at the front when the work is finished. CLOSED BORDER NO. 4 (which is still upright). 3 and the spoke in I. 4 (Fig.HOW right) bringing TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. bringing it out to the front under spoke No. FIG. 3. BORDER DETAIL OF NO. Take the longest of the first pair. Take the longest end of the last pair. 122.

spokes as easily as with two or five. 3 No. 125. 3 behind . FOR ROUND BASE. Pro. or four. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. 124. until familiar with its No. 2. No. or more. SPLIT SPOKE FOR ROUND BASE. 4. 7. i. 120). till Take the longest spoke of the first of the five pairs left. / (which is still upright) down beside it. i behind No. 2 is the simplest of this principles.82 HOW it. all the spokes are down but one. . 2 behind No. the worker will do well to work out No. "Before attempting this border. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. lay it down behind right) down bes de it (Fig. down. PIG. but the same kind of border may be worked with three. to the front immediately needed 8 inches. FIG. the last upright spoke being brought down beside it. always remembering that the number of single spokes turned down at the first determines the number of pairs. bringing No. 3 as large as would be needed for any ordinary basket front of Each spoke must be brought Length of spokes ." CLOSED BORDER NO. 5. 4 behind No. 3. I and lay it behind No. FIG. 121). SPIRT'S THREADED No. class No. bringing No. 2. which are much the same. 2 No. . Pick up No. above the weaving. 3 five spokes are at first turned right spoke is left. "Lay spoke No. and after the pairs are started there will always be five to work from till the end is reached. 123. bringing it behind and under spoke No. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. 5 behind No. and that these must never vary till not one upIn Border No. FIG. 6 (which is still upPick up No. ceed thus . 8. No. No. 6 (Fig. 1?6.

HOW
Five pairs are

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

Take the longest of the first pair, bringing still left. Take beside and in front of spoke No. I and under spoke No. 2. the longest of the first of the four pairs left, bringing it beside and in In threading through front of spoke No. 2 and under spoke No. 3. these ends, it must be remembered that the short spokes come out immediately above the weaving and under the roll of spokes which forms the edge. Take the longest of the first of the three pairs left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 3, and under spoke No.
it

FIG.

WEAVING OP 127. ROUND BASE WITH

FIG.

128.

TWO WEAVERS.
Take

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES IN PAIRS.

the longest of the first of the two pairs left, bringing it beand in front of spoke No. 4 and under spoke No. 5. Take the long spoke still left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 5 and under spoke No. 6. If the two spokes which lie together have been kept lying flat on the edge of the weaving, the border will look even and handsome (Fig. 122). Length of spokes required 10
4.

side

inches.

84

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

CHAPTER

XIV.

MORE ABOUT

BASES.

In her books Miss Firth gives several methods of making bases. BASE. A simple oval base may be made as follows. Take 4 lengths, No. 4 rattan, 24 inches long, 6 lengths, No. 4, 6 inches long and one length, 3 inches long. Place the six short pieces for the width and the long pieces as shown in Fig. 123. The two lower spokes must be placed on the table, and the short ones placed across them in The lower of these two spokes must be pairs, at intervals of an inch. the center pair, and the pair at each end. The upper spoke must be the reverse of the lower, the short piece being placed above that in the same order as the lower spoke. When the base is finished it will be seen that this short piece forms a middle around which the four spokes are woven. The other two long spokes must be placed in a position exactly reverse to the two first, as in Fig. 124. They must then be pressed closely together, the left hand holding them firmly in their place, while the right weaves with the inside spoke of the two which first used, passing it over the two short ends of the second pair of long spokes, and under and over and under the three short The outside spoke must follow, but in reverse order. The secpairs. ond pair of long spokes must be treated in exactly the same way as the

OVAL

UNDER

OVER

first.

ROUND BASE WITH DOUBLE WEAVERS.
spokes
of

Take
of

12

No. 4

rattan, six inches long,

and a long weaver

rattan. In six of the twelve spokes, make a split in inch long as shown Fig. 125. Then thread the six unsplit

No. I the center about an
spokes
in

through the
center.

split

ones.

(Fig.
it,

126).

Keep

flat

and cross exactly

leaving one end several inches longer than the other. Slip loop of weaver over six of the split spokes, bringing under part of weaver over, and top part under the next six spokes (Fig. 127). Repeat this as described with Fig. 95 until Be sure that the under weaver is always three rounds are made. brought to the top before the top one is taken underneath, to prevent the weavers getting twisted. Now separate spokes into sets of two, (Fig. 128), pulling the spokes well apart to allow room for the weavers Then pair around the double spokes for to be well pushed down. three rounds, after which separate each 'spoke and pair as in Fig. 129. round base SINGLE BASE with a single instead of a double weaver may be made by the insertion of an extra spoke after the dividing of the spokes begins.

Take weaver, double

ROUND

WITH

WEAVER. A

BASE, take 13 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 5 inches long, and 5 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 12 inches long. Split the 13 in center as before described, and thread them on the 5 spokes spokes Put the odd spoke in center of the five. Then as shown in Fig. 130. half an inch between the spokes, place them as shown in Fig. allowing

OBLONG OVAL

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

130, but with two spokes together at each end. Double the weaver and Take the underneath part place the loop over the double side spokes. of the weaver and weave down the side, then go back and take upper part of weaver and weave beside it, counting double spokes at end as

one spoke.
base flat on the table, and always from left to take up the base in the left hand, grasping the weavers where they pass the double side spokes. Take the weaver from underneath and bring tightly across the five long spokes, place behind the double side spokes, then put the base flat on the table and weave down the side. Go back, taking up the base again, and take the top weaver behind the five spokes, lay down the base, then weave down the side. Repeat this until you have two
right.

Weave holding the To do the end

weavers crossing the five spokes top and bottom and on either side. Pair around these, Divide the five spokes into 2-1-2. (See Fig. 131). but still weave down the side. When both ends have been divided in this way, take each spoke singly, beginning with the double side spokes,

FIG.

130. COMMENCING OBLONG OVAL BASE.

FIG.

129.

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES
SEPARATED.
of the nine spokes at either end, but
still

and pair around each weave down the sides.

only

both ends are done, continue weaving straight round with one we'aver and then the other, but not pairing. While doing the base, draw the weaver firmly towards the right, and when doing the ends bring the weaver firmly clown between the spokes, which must be drawn as far apart as possible to admit of this In a well-made base the weaving is always being done efficiently. drawn down so firmly that the spokes cannot be seen in between. To get the oval bases of the size required, first take the measurement across the basket. If this is 4 1-2 inches, and the length is to be 8 inches, the spokes across would have to be placed within a distance of 6 inches, measuring from each lot of double spokes at the end. The reason of this is, that enough space must be left at either end to allow 2 inches of weaving, as in a base 41-2 inches across there would be 2 inches of weaving on either side, allowing one-half inch for the five spokes down the center.
first

When

86

HOW
If this rule is

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

in the lids of oval baskets

followed, the right size can always be counted on, and it is particularly necessary that the size should

be assured before starting.

BASE. Another method of making an oval base is to take six 5-inch spokes, four 7-inch spokes and one 4-inch spoke, all of No. 4 rattan, with three weavers of No. 2 rattan. Split the six five inch spokes as described in Fig. 125. Thread them on the four seven-inch and the one four-inch spokes, the short one in the center, leaving about half an inch between each of the six. The six spokes are held horiand the five are vertical. Start a weaver, back of the vertical spokes and lying along the uppermost horizonal spoke, with the end toward the right. Bring it around in front of the vertical spokes (above the upper horizontal one), the>n back and down diagonally to the left, coming out below the upper horizontal spoke. Here it is
zontally,

OVAL

FIG.

131.

OBLONG

OVAL BASE.

brought around in front of the vertical group, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical spokes and above the first horizontal one. It is then brought diagonally down in front of the vertical spokes, to the Next it right of them and just above the second horizontal spoke.
crosses diagonally down and back of the vertical spokes, to the left of them and below the second horizontal spoke, where it is brought over the vertical ones, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical

spokes, and just above the second horizontal one as shown in Fig. 132. The same process binds the other four horizontal spokes making an ornamental cross effect over each one, on the inside of the basket as seen in Fig. 133. After all six horizontal spokes have been bound, the spokes are separated and the weaving begins, and is continued until
;

the size desired

is

attained.

BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INSERTED CORraffia twined basket, having a pespokes at each of the four corners, is shown in Fig. 134. The rubber bands holding three groups of spokes make it more convenient for the maker to manipulate the numerous spokes, When a as each time around a spoke is inserted at its proper place. group is twined with two strands of raffia the rubber band is slipped off the next group and snapped around the set of spokes just finished and so on. Any number of spokes may be inserted according to the size of the base desired. Take 12 spokes No. i rattan 10 inches long, 4 short strands raffia

NERS. A
culiar

base of fine rattan or

way

of inserting the

letting the raffia continue for a stitch or two beyond a corner before changing to a differently colored strand. r'attan and weavers of Before beginning the work see that the rattan is well soaked in warm In fact this basket should be frequently placed under water water. CENTER OF OVAL BASE. begin to twine with both colored and uncolored until a corner is reached now drop and clip the raffia not needed and twine in the corner spoke with the colored raffia. and these are cut the length of the angle where they are to be placed. 133. It thus makes two new Twine the raffia over each of the two new spokes and snap spokes. DETAIL FIG. If the work is be made practically water tight. When the As . under one. Twine around as many times as this . colored raffia lasts. raffia pass underneath and the other across the top spokes to the opposite corner diagonally twisting again. Fig. OF CENTER OF OVAL BASE. carefully impacking each stitch as the twist is made. DETAIL OF toward the center. This group is now securely held with another rubber band and thus continue with the remaining spokes. natural and green. This gives a cross of raffia over the grouped spokes. over one. at right angles to five other spokes and placing a raffia strand across the laid spokes. When the twining crosses to the next angle another spoke is bent in half and again fastened to its place. diagonally bring the strand under neath to the beginning of the diagonal crossing where it is securely Now cross over to another angle and let one of the halves of twisted. Looping the colored raffia over a spoke and separating each end. work increases extra spokes must be inserted. Weave around three or four times with uncolored raffia and then bending one of the extra spokes of rattan in half lay it snugly at the bend in the angle of the crossed spokes. Now begin to twine the two strands of raffia from the outside in tightly done it may Cross five spokes FIG. 87 in red. Care must be exercised so that the crossed spokes always lie flat until the base is well started. raffia as desired. a rubber band over the first group of six. and the twinings pushed closely toward the center. 135 Page 126 of "Indian Basketry" shows method of this twined effect. 132.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER and add spokes of BASKETS.

This basket is closely allied to the Alaskan baskets. in its method of enlarging. 134. . Finish off by folding down the ends of the spokes and add a coil of three or four rattans the length of the circumference of the open- FIG. of the Industrial School.88 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. all the way around. ing and with the raffia sew over and over edge. Columbus. but is unique For these directions I am indebted to Mrs. securely fastening the ends by hiding them under three or four of the twined stitches. Neligh. the base is the desired diameter stop adding spokes and gather three of the grouped spokes into one and then shape the basket as desired. Ga. John P. Any shaped basket may be formed from this base. BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INS ERTED CORNERS. S. four sided. round or flat.

Make base as deWhen woven up to the end of spokes take scribed in Figs. Finish taking care that the angle of the sides is evenly preserved. loop through lid and border of basket. leaving open space where these border. 96 or Fig. Begin the base as already described. Then thread WE WOVEN I'. then twist. for sides. 115. Make the lid in like fashion. spokes. weave as high as desired and finish off with closed border No. The two baskets on the right of Fig. Start the base as described in either Fig. The handle is of three long strands of rattan. turn up. half high cut short two of the spokes and turn in as for a closed Then continue to weave. and a When the side is about an inch the sides close in towards the top. 135 is of -more simple web weave baskets made by the students at Teachers College. then turn up the foundation 125. Make the base the size desired. finishing the border with the rope twist. For the upper one take eight spokes of No. The lid is made in exactly the same way as the base. 106 are now to be described. about two and a half inches long. i as described in Fig. and thrust into base by the side of the spokes. 96 or 125. as soon as base is as large as required. turning the weaver back around the spoke on each side of the open space. Then proceed to make closed border No. Turn np foundation spokes for the sides. Weave up in this way for about an inch and a quarter. The one to the left and the upper one are both made of No. 4 rattan 14 inches long. The bottom basket to the right is made in the same manner. weave the sides and finish off with one of the closed borders. Begin as before described. 2 rattan for foundation. Take 24 spokes of No.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 2 rattan. 15 pieces of finer rattan. turn up foundation spokes for sides. The covered basket with the handle is equally easy to -make. Make base. so that bottom is convex. drawing weavers tightly. 136. Fig. 2 rattan. The lid is made in same way as base or using both splint and plait and basket together take piece of finest making an one end of handle splint through basket and lid one way and the other way. 2 rattan for both spokes and weaver. 8g CHAPTER XV. We now return to the making of baskets by the web weave. WEB WEAVING CONTINUED. spokes were. drawing weavers tight so that for weavers. BIRD NEST. When pliable bend up as possible. and weavers of No. with simple closed border. inserting the extra ones so as to have all the spokes as near equidistant Now soak for a few minutes. open loop for handle about an inch across. and proceed to weave as before. For the base take six spokes of No. doubled and twisted while pliable. 2. weave plait of straw or any other material either made or purchased until the sides are as high as desired. Where they meet tuck in ends and basket is complete. To fasten lid rattan. A pretty basket is shown in Fig. When about 6 inches across. then bridge the space by bending the two end spokes .

W" ' " .-*" . .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . .. :: jj ii))li o t t fa .

The handle is : . 'BASKET BASE. If an place. The foundation spokes may be of palmetto. with a wide splint above it. Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. gi over the space. the spokes. working in two of the spokes instead of one. Leave the ends of the spokes irregular so as to let the top of the nest appear like a bundle of twigs. formed by thrusting a piece of rattan the size desired. 139 s-hows the arrangement of the base. us ng a weaver long enough to wrap both handle and top. and twelve. Some prefer to make the handle before binding the top. inserting new spokes shape. Then wrap with broader splint. \Vhen 'the basket all is as high as desired turn down and tuck on a the inside of basket like overcasting. First lay the spokes star shape as shown. taking care to do it evenly. Fig. and do not be surprised if the following nesting time a pair of birds takes possession. the weaving must proceed as described with Fig. through the weaving. Now rapidly draw the top together. In making the photograph I failed to notice that it was somewhat out of The base is made as any ordinary mat.bottom is convex. say five inches. much sold wood splints or rattan. Now use fancy plaited straw as a weaver for the sides and weave as high as desired. If an extra odd spoke is introduced a single weaver will do. 138 shows an unfinished basket from which. Place in a tree. or as desired. even number of spokes is kept. down to the base. however. (taking care to tuck the ends in as far as possible. Now insert double spokes for fancy base and weave about an inch and a quarter finishing it by any form of closed border desired. Fig. thus making a secure binding. the student may gain a few ideas. 95. until it is impossible to weave higher. and then wrapping as described for the binding. until it is about 8 inches in diameter. Then sew around edges with a piece of thread to hold them in Bend spokes up for sides. 139 shows two small wood splint baskets of a type Europe. fourteen or sixteen in number. Finish with a simple border as WITH FANCY shown in to the left. A. woven so tightly that the . as desired. This adds strength and gives fewer ends to care for.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

to take the weaver over two spokes as shown in Fig. bend into the ring form. 26 West 23rd Street. weave the three splints together. except the Fig. hence it is deemed appropriate to give full particulars as ito the methods of weaving. taking care that Ithey are equisplints distant and regular at the edges. pulling it as tightly as possible. Cut the broad splints the book mark. of splints. For the napkin ring take one wood splint 7-8-inch wide. and. These are most popular baskets. twined and web weave utilized. and thread on the . over which it went in the first round). tuck in the edges of the foundation splints and complete the weaving. twining the weaver around the edges and returning from side to side. in order as shown in Fig. small spokes are cut so as to be very narrow in the center and widen out towards the edge. As soon as the weaver has been . where Miss Marie Toxuse. thrusting the end In these descriptions are all will be seen that the mat. and seven others about 21-2 inches long. while with the right the weaver is worked in and out of the 141). In starting the base of a splint basket place a small board. place the lap. and bound with three or four rows of simple web weavThen using twined weaving the spokes are covered as much as ing. They are placed across each other in a circle. 140. Now take a 7-8-inch wide colored splint. 93 CHAPTER SPLINT XVI. when it will appear as Fig. New York. ends of the spokes may be cut as desired. and. held firmly. take each spoke and bend it up to form the foundation for the sides.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. on the Then. as the weaving continues. on which the work is to be done. each time round. one by one.-taken around once it will be necessary (in order to have the weaver go under the spokes in the second round. SPLINT BASKETS. All the ten inches long. an Abenaki Indian. The required. or they will be keeping pulled out of place. is en- gaged as weaver and teacher. and is now ready for the weaving of the between two sides. This must be done. plait. pointed or shaped. hold it firmly with the left hand (see Fig. take the weaver in the right hand. The stitch is finished off by tying the sweet grass. V length required. the spokes firmly pressed upon the board. Exercise great care in spokes. 143. Most of the spokes. When as many rounds are woven as necessary. 15 contains five articles made solely This is composed of one spoke. sortment of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. either rounded.a variety of those The photographs were all made from the asgenerally preferred. it of the baskets are easy to make and any ordinary student can make them from the descriptions given. AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. Now. and two Then take a narrow wood splint weaver and web 3-8-inch wide. 142.

INSERTING WEAVER IN SPLINT BASE. . 141.FIG.

The handles are of splints i -8-inch wide twisted with narrower splint and tied to the edge of the basket. F. Then another belt of narrow white spl nts. strengthen the rim inside with stout splint." New York It is 2 feet 9 inches in height. The next belt is of one splint. Barnes. When the upper weaver of the lower row comes from under the spoke.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Canada. is left looped. missing a weaver. (I am not commending the color scheme. turn up for sides and web weave with splints any size smaller than When within three and a half inches of the top. and presented to Mr. and the side splints are also extra strong. curl it back and up under the next spoke in the row above. the edges being strengthened by turning in the foundation spokes. weavers put in two for the bottom row and follow with one in the row above. thus particularizing the colors.) three splints are used instead of two. For the hand basket take one splint 5-8-inch wide and two 1-2Then 15 splints about 26 inches inch wide. 4. making a bow by The spiral ornamentlacing back and forth and tucking in the end. twisting again. thrusting it under one of the weavers. 4 is a large fancy basket of splints. CLOTHES HAMPER OF belt of six splints of three colors. and twisting again over the next and so on. arranged as Fig. in In each of these three pairs of rows. Now curl it down and under the next spoke in the bot- . missing one weaver. instead of being pulled tight. colored. nearly an inch and a half wide. Them finish with one row of narrow splint. in taking the "over" stitch. web weave i-S-inch. two double rows). sewed with strong thread to the sides. then wrapping around the spiral shape. 3-4 of an inch wide. The under of these two splints is woven under one and over one of the side spokes as in all ordinary weaving. long and i -2-inch wide. Curl a third splint into each double row as described immediately for Fig. the splints to be 6-8 of an inch wide. T. two red. editor "The Papoose. drawing under the next. and outside with sweet grass and bind with a narrow splint. under two and over two. The square basket for the sides is weave and SPLINTS. ation for the edges is made by taking a 3-8-inch wide splint. the top and four or five inches less at the bottom. 140. simple mat weave for the bottom. with four rows of splints (or rather. colored. The diagonal mat weave basket in the left corner is made as is the one described elsewhere. then binding strong splints around the rims. Make of these a mat foundation. Fig. Following this set of nine rows of looped stitches is a belt of weave made with ordinary white splints. Two colors of splints are used and the handles are of plaited sweet grass. and about 3 feet long. which is simply hideous. i foot 8 inches in diameter at City. two purple. Thus the loops alternate in the rows. but the upper splint. The base is of extra strong wood splints. under three and over two. Q5 outside of the ring. putting Now the three splints lengthwise and the 15 across ait right angles. The arrangement of the loops is such that the loops of the second row come over the spokes of the row beneath. and web top. made by Abenaki Indians of Pierreville. two of green. Now a . so that it alternates with the lower one over the foundation spokes. The first nine rows of weaving on the sides are of doubled splints. about i -8-inch wide. The use of the extra third In inserting the splint is to get the "curl" shown in the design.

JUMPING TWO SPOKES. 142. 140. P. . New York. FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.G. BEGINNING BASE OF SPLINT BASKET.96 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

fastening it to the last row of splint weave. and outside with a row of sweet grass. ing two. take a stout wooden splint. after which it is finished off with three strong splinits inside and one colored one outside. the grass composes the woof. and the edges bound as is the rim of the basket. 5. Two rows of loop weave and then the spokes are curved down. Now by tightly wrapping and tucking ' in. For a handle. The lid is> composed (as is the base') of splints that broaden as they reach the periphery. as shown by the design. and. as the simple splints of Fig. by looking at the fan in Fig. the foundation spokes as shown in Fig. 6 four basIn the bottom one to the kets of splints and sweet grass are shown. each splint thus formtaken. This belt of ''curled" weave is followed by weaving belts above it. both of which are bound on with a narrow splint as is clearly seen in the engraving. which thus forms a kind of shelf or rim.HOW torn row. rows of plain simple weaving gives firmness. Each pair manner. The former is affixed to the latter by lacing the binding of the basket to that of the lid. trim {weave two or three rows with plain white narrow splint. taking narrow splint weavers loop the border. wrapped around and bound on with small white splints. 5 is a The splints are cut so as to be very center and widen rapidly towards the edge.- Fig. which has been well anchored by fastening it below. In Fig. tion splints are now turned upright again and a row of the "loop" weave with inch-wide splints made. and the spokes are turned under. Then the rim is strengthened inside with a colored splint. small wrapped loop is affixed to both basket and lid. These are turned up for the sides and twined weaving of sweet When the desired height is attained. when the handle is wrapped on the top. and tuck well under the sweet grass down one of the foundation spokes. One single row of plain weave with a wide splint and five of loop weave. The finishing border is of these same splints wound under and over and looped as will clearly be seen in the design. and. The only difference between the basket at the bottom to the SPLINT AXD SWEET GRASS BASKETS. and use the "twined"" weave or pairing. left the base is composed of simple mat foundation. FAN. the latter at the sides. complete. Two or three rows of narrow weavers fix the spokes in position. The lid is made of five broad and two narrow splints. 22 and and splint narrow in the This can readily be seen sweet grass Now The sweet grass must be dampened and pressed closely into 134. 140. four similar to those below it. of rows is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER until the BASKETS. 5. Place the splints crossed for the Then with a single strand center. When within an inch of the edge position as each row is woven. 97 complete round is made. At the top. fastening off the end grass. take two strands weave under and over for five or six rows. loop. and eleven or twelve rows of narrow splint weave Then the splints are bent out and split. five splints each way. followed with three narrow splint weave. Upon this place lengths of sweet Then wrap tightly as shown in Fig. 5. A . On these are woven twined rows of sweet grass. as described in Figs. Then the spoke splints are bent at right angles and six or seven rows of weaving taken upon The foundathis portion. and so on woven in like 7 the lid is SWEET GRASS foundation fan. spokes are turned down and tucked in.

. New York. 144. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.FIG.

They are then turned up for the sides and described. is made quite differently. or a trifle larger. New York. however. The handle is fastened to a loop which is held secure by being taken under the sweet grass of the under side of the lid in several places. 6 is composed of even splints about halfan-inch wide and laid as shown in Fig. and the twining continued until the flange of the cover is as deep as required. and a study The of them will make the foregoing instructions much more clear. 6. The method of making the handkerchief basket in Fig. 7 shows the bases and lids of the baskets of Fig. 6 will be described in a later Bulletin of the Basket Fraternity. . 99 right and the one just described is that after a few rows of sweet grass are twined into the sides one wide and two narrow splints are introduced. The wide splint is woven. Then the spokes are turned in. as in all ordinary web weaving. The lid The round basket is FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Fig. 145. formThen more ing a little nipple or elevation between the spokes. The carrying basket of Fig. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. twined sweet grass completes the sides. one over. one under. But the two small splints which together are about 1-8 of an inch wider than the broad splint on which they rest are crossed from bottom to top under every other spoke. which are bound as before made in like manner. They are then woven with twined sweet grass until the lid is the size of the basket. 144 is of mat weave and web weave. the edge strengthened by a suitable splint and bound as before. Three or four rows of simple web weave at the outer edge of the base tighten the spokes. and the rim strengthened with other splints and bound with a narrow splint. of Fig. sweet grass twined in up to the top. For this the spokes must be very narrow in the center and broaden towards the edges. The spokes are now turned down. 140. lid. The spokes are then turned in.

Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. FIG. . New York. 146.100 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

under the upper part of the next foundation splint. Then strengthen and bind the edge as before described. Then three i-4-inch splints are \voven. This is followed with a splint 5-8-inch wide. First hold splints. fastened to the sides with an ordinary wood splint. web woven. The work basket of Fig. Turn down and tuck in the foundation spokes. Then two i i -4-inch wide splints. and the rim strengthened and bound with simple wood splints. . Then twine weave sweet grass for an inch and a quarter. The lid requires the splints narrow in the center and widening out . however.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. They are first \voven in web weave with narrow wood splint for about ten rows. using thickly plaited sweet grass for weaver. Now continue the weaving of the sides with six rows of plain web weave and six rows of double plaited sweet grass as before. IOI using plaited sweet grass. Then take together with two plaits of thickly plaited sweet grass and proceed to web weave. in the center widening towards the edge. The handle is composed of a heavy triple plait of sweet grass. web weave. Cross these in simple mat weave with twelve similar Turn these up for ends and sides. the thick plaited sweet grass and the curl as on the Then complete the top of the lid with six or eight rows of sides. with the third for the curling and wrapping around the plait of sweet grass as described in the carrying basket. splint web weave. plain splints. turn the spokes down. 144 is made essentially in the same manner. under a foundation splint. is formed as shown in Fig. the edge of the lid being turned down. and the curl weave to give ornamentation. the ends being looped as to the edges. strengthen the edges or rim with a stout splint inside and sweet grass outside. of ordinary web weave with two of these wide splints. 140. then completed with plaited sweet grass. after the turning up of the sides. Loop the plait and bind to the side by twisting or curling the third wood splint around the plait. one row of simple 'splint weave. and 3-8 of an inch wide. the weaving for about an inch is composed of plaited sweet grass. fasten by six or eight rows of ordinary web weaving with sweet grass. In the basket itself. Weave five rows of finely plaited sweet grass two of narrow splint. The edges of the base are made tight with four or five rows of simple The spokes are then turned up for the sides. The base. 18 inches long. 13 the top basket is a very pretty creation in plaited sweet In both top and bottom the foundation spokes are narrow grass. and so on alternating the wrapping of the curled splint around the foundation splints exposed by the upper and lower of the two broad weavers. web weave. shown in the figure. strengthened and bound as before described. the rim being strengthened and bound with wood splints. and then bind with narrow splint. Now we take three weavers an inch wide and a long plait of extra thick Make two rows plaited grass. and complete the weave with the plaited sweet grass until the flange is the size desired. When the lid is the right size to fit the basket. When the spokes are in place. In Fig. after which introduce the broad splints. woven with plaited sweet grass. over the plait. Take four splints about 23 inches long.

the edges being woven with nine or ten rows of splint web weave. until the lid is right size. PAIRING FOR PLAIT. 148. 147. 146 the square basket is made of mat foundation. 145 shows the top and bottom or a basket and lid of a. 140 six or seven rows of simple web weaving with narrow wood splint holding it firmly Turn up sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. then strengthen and bind rim as elsewhere described. For the lid the splints must be narrow in the center and widening towards the edge. Strengthen the edge and bind as elsewhere described. splint and plaited sweet grass basket. The lid is made as the round lid of Fig. Strengthen the rim with stout splint inside and and sweet grass outside and bind with narrow splint. MADEIRA BORDER NO. 6. The lid is made as the one in Fig. so the til may be grass. In Fig. The diagonal handkerchief basket is composed of diagonal mat weave. 2. The lid is of simple twined plaited sweet made as the lid described in Fig. The handle is of heavy plaited sweet grass. then strengthen edge and finish off. finish the weave unis the flange of the desired size. 6. the corners being turned over and doubled and then twined with plaited sweet grass. using plaited sweet grass for weaver. using 1-2inch wide splints. turn down the foundation spokes. When within an inch of top web weave with 3-4-inch wide wood splint. The base is formed as shown in Fig. together. simple web woven with narrow splints or plain sweet Then twine weave with plaited sweet grass.IO2 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. Turn up for the sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. Fig. The round basket has a base as described in Fig. MADEIRA BORDER NO. and the weaving done with twined weave. . The foundation spokes are then turned up for the sides. FIG. 140. 6 and laced on as there described. After laying out the spokes the first inch or grass. 2.

" MADEIRA BORDER NO. 147). as it has a much prettier effect when they are so. is threaded over the next spoke which is turned down. rest. and leave the ends on the outside of the basket. which may be worked in the ordinary way with single spokes. room of for inserting the last spokes. they one in the descriptions. No. although many spokes may be used. behind one. "It is necessary to keep this plait very close to the basket. and leave the end on the outside of the basket (Fig. MADEIRA BORDER It is NO. "Take one spoke behind one. Be careful not to draw the first spokes down close to begin with they must be left open. ''Treat all the double spokes as one. the first swoke. Take one spoke in a close curve behind the next and bring the end down against the border (Fig. in front of the next. so that when you come to the finish you have be treated . Allow spokes of eight inches for and use double spokes of No. "When this first part is done. which must be left a little loose. and the hold should be shifted round as each . It is not necessary. in front of one. FANCY BORDERS. the further side of the spoke against which they this border. the spokes should all be double. inserting beside each spoke an extra one of six inches. when the weaving is finished. on the same principle as for the preceeding border only in this there will be more to thread through. For the sake will of brevity. the extra length being pushed into the basket. however.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. "To make it. and suitable for violet baskets and small candy-bas- kets of various kinds. "When the last two lots of double spokes are reached. as the last spokes are threaded through to complete the border. Do not draw the spokes down too closely. i Allow four inches for this border. turn the basket upside down to do the plait around the edge. 2. To finish. drawing all the spokes closely down except the first. in front one. to have the spokes double throughout the basket. so as each spoke is brought round the next it should be held firmly in its place by the left hand. very simple. and the last is inserted first -behind and then in front of the next two spokes already turned down. after being taken behind one. the ends are all cut off neatly. i. in front of one only. 103 CHAPTER XVII. "Repeat this round. . threading the last spokes through the spokes already turned down. as the border should be about one inch in depth. 148). allowing the four inches for the border. 4 rattan or triple ones of as. and now take one lot of double spokes behind the next lot. and then. "Repeat this round. proceed in the same way behind one.

Repeat this round. principally those which have lids. in front of two. If the edge of the border. If uneven the effect of the basket is quite spoilt. 4. "Take one spoke behind three spokes. to pass . behind two. and the ends must be cut off neatly." BORDER. When the last spoke has been threaded through the loop of the first. 3. when only five upright spokes are left. behind one. "The first of MADEIRA BORDER in the usual way. Depth of border withas for same way NO. three inches." Allow spokes of 14 inches. Repeat this round until only seven upright spokes remain. in and behind one. This is a very light and graceful border. i 1-2 inches. leaving the end outside. out plait. after going behind and in front of the next six will be the first to be taken behind the first spoke the others following in their course. the plait in the "Madeira Border No. 4 rattan. these. and then. Care should be taken in doing this that the ends of the spokes are left long enough to go over the next spoke. in front of one.IO4 HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER last BASKETS. curving one spoke beneath the next in the same way. the first of these will be taken in front of two. as it is flat outside and the ends are all cut off neatly inside. in front of two. in front of two. "Now go round again. behind two. i rattan. Allow spokes of six inches. . in front of one. and use three spokes of No." NO. This border is worked on the inside. Materials required "Allow 8 inches for this border. Finish off on the same principle as for the preceeding borders. behind one. 2. "Take one spoke in front of two spokes." as it is ivsed on the cycle baskets very useful on many other kinds. Finish by threading the spoke through the loop of the first. leaving the end outside for the plait. This is finished on the same principle as the "Madeira Borders. in front of two. Thus." of MADEIRA BORDER NO. leaving the end outside the basket. and then to bend them to interlace with other spokes. the basket. measuring occasionally to keep the border as described for the preceeding borders of of the correct depth. CYCLE . in front of three. turned down. front of two Take one spoke behind three spokes. and plait the ends. Allow spokes 16 inches and use No. only now the spokes curve round to make the other side of plait. Great care is needed to keep a nice straight edge round the top of the border. behind one. Finish off with the plait This border is worked on the outside 5. "Do MADEIRA BORDER use No." the last spokes being threaded through the turned-down spokes in their order. therefore it is necessary to keep the spokes straight to the top. Depth of border without plait. the plait is finished. behind three. two spokes together. 2 rattan together. and Use three spokes together. and push the end well down inside. spoke used. Take one spoke behind two. It must not be spread out. This border but it is is called the "Cycle. behind three and in front of three if kept close together it has the effect of a double ridge or twist.

will BORDER SECOND 150. COMMENCING FIG. Use for this No. the fir sit spoke must not be drawn close down to the weaving. : . FLAT PLAIT BORDER. 105 and the again. When the double spokes arc reached they must be used together . then draw the first upright spoke down beside it. FINISHED BORDER. FLAT PLAIT IN PROGRESS. 6 or 7 rattan. place between the next two upright spokes. and with the right WITH PORTION OF FIG." is efficient in this border six inches for spokes FLAT PLAIT BORDER. be threaded through. Take the first from inside. two first . 149. Hold the three spokes sharply to the outside of the basket (Fig. from the outside. '''Turn down 149). but they must not be more than 1-2 inch apart. In starting this border. second and third in the left hand. Repeat this with the second and third spokes then there will be three spokes inside and two spokes outside. FLAT PLAIT draw the border down as firmly as possible. the spokes finished. 151. 152. and place ic between the first two upright spokes bring down the first upright spoke beside it. . it will be takem in front of the last upright spoke one turned down. BORDER FINISHED. I spoke in a curve over the other two. and bring it down beside the third spoke outside Be careful in doing this not to draw the spoke too tightly (Fig. and through the loop of this it must be threaded to the inside all the other spokes will then be threaded through in their places. Now proceed to plait as follows Take the first spoke from outside. POSITION OF SPOKES. but room should be left for the end spokes to After the first two spokes have been used. 150). Allow spokes 13 inches long. bring the first spoke from inside between the same upright spokes to outside. FLAT PLAIT hand bring No.HOW in front of TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. FJG. as the closer come together the handsomer the border will look when When a pupil be sufficient.

To do this the longer one of each of the double spokes inside the basket is used to follow out their course. Then take the longer one of these. 3 and then to the follow the course of the where it . one spoke both inside and outside the basket and when the triple spokes are reached the two longer ones must be used together as one. FIG. Now take the longer of these and thread one up through the single spoke." Take three twos out of the three threes. 151). In finishing this border the principle is to make all the single spokes used in starting double to agree with the rest of the border. Teachers' College. and these must all be treated in the same way as the first double spoke. 153. right spoke has been turned down there will be two lots of double as . 151. first threading it just through the first single spoke. New York. thus making it double like the others. and pass them under the three that were first turned down. so that it may lie flat beside that then follow its course under single spoke No. outside. to . spokes inside and three lots of triple spokes outside. This brings five lots of double spokes to the inside of the basket Take first two lots and thread through as shown (see Fig. Work of Students. 151. first single spoke under the black spoke to passes through to the outside of the basket. in Fig. Take the first double spokes from the inside and thread through the place shown in Fig. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS.io6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. There are four other double spoke s>. that it may lie flat beside that. finish the The other four double spokes must be used in the same way border (which is shown complete in Fig. When the last upleaving the short spoke to be cut off afterwards. 152). and.

Take a twining weaver and about an inch from the center proceed to twine over six or seven until a fiat circle is formed by bringing the twining around to the place of beginning. Fig. This is made of rush or tule. Bend up spokes and proceed with the twined weaving. Then line with fancy silk or other material. and six bunches of tule or rush 14 or 15 inches in length and 21 single lengths to the bunch. in which additional spokes are added for base and sides when needed. 153 are two made baskets. Now having secured a firm base it is desired to shape the side of basket. Then begin the knot stitch. neatly In Fig. Tie these securely at the middle and then tie together flat radiating from a center. raffia is good. Fig. A FEW BASKETS. Now taking care to twine around three only. The short ends of the rays are finished bending a first group of And so on in three over a group to the left under the next group. the ket take a length of No. succession until the edge is finished. silk-lined.. Procure six yards of double twining material. Examples of this twined weave are shown in Figs. Indian Basketry. This gives a fancy effect and affords a place for decorating with ribbon as seen in the plate. twine around the groups of three all the way round to the last place of beginning.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and to the left. inch above this. Fig. An COLLAR . under. 133. CHAPTER XVIII. 154 and 155 are shown a rush. 137. twine around three rays until you come around to the pdace of beginning. 1546. To make this knotted stitch basForm a loop. at one end. make a larger circle an inch from the first twined circle. 7 flat rattan. a raffia collar box and a splint basket. outward from edge of base. 154. and that the wall slants THE KENSINGTON In Figs. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. lar BASKET. 140. Continue to twine a second time round to make the base firm and flat. 155. spirally coiling the flat ratof raffia. A. Bind the top with natural or colored raffia as shown. See A. BOX. then insert new spokes and continue the twined weaving until base is size desired. An extra twining or three strand twisting over a coil gives additional strength to the edge. introducing bands of color according to taste. Kensington colbasket. first letting a group cross over another group. See that this twining is equidistant from the base. Start the base as described in Fig. Tie together with weaver desired diameter or oval of the basket. Above this about the same spaced width a final twining is made. 156 and 157 herewith. About an inch from the outside circle. though the long leaved pine may be used. Pair or twine weave with raffia six or eight rounds. and in Figs. 136.

O hH fa fa O M H 02 d i i fa fa fa <) tf 72 P a o 02 fa M 01 <JJ M O u fa .i ' / />O' ' <* .

then the button-hole loop again. four yards I -4-inch green splint. Continue sewing until all of cane is used and finish with double button-hole stitch. over two again. 20 inches long and two yards 3-8-inch white splint. under one. THE ASH SPLINT BASKET. fastening spokes in place with raffia or fine splint. Fold over the outer s pokes and tuck under twinings on the inside Cut off the alternate rays even with top of to keep them in place. A very common and useful DIAGONAL" MAT BASKETRY. of The edgeing rim around around the edge the bottom is an over and over weaving the bate two times round. Twine the two together with a stout strip of ash Then make another base same first. The cover to the box is a button-holed band of flat rattan with a wove>n< top made by stringing web strands of raffia one way and weaving closely across the web with raffia. 18 3-8-inch wide splints. knotting carefully and tightly. with a fourth inch strap of darker splint. Use three broad bands in this way and then finish off with six rows of two colored twining. . green and white. 154. lining of silk may add to its value. and weave in more of the narrow splint for about one and a half inches. 109 taiv as the weaving progresses. Bend all the spokes upward from the salver-like rim. When once round see that the next stitch goes between the stitches already on the first part of the work. The ornamental banding is made by slipping the colored ray back of and over weave and slipping the end again in place along its un- derlying spoke.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. of ash the same width as spoke and weave in over one under one for the beginning of final wall. Overcast the two woof strands together to hold them taut. The final weaver to be a broad length of splint. Now carefully secure the ends of the Take up the basket and place it before you right side up. i5 4 C. basket. Then make a "button-hole" stitch and. See Fig. Take the raffia over two bands of the rattan. narrow splint. The two-toned effect shown in the plate was made by running green spokes on the upper base before twining. In an earlier chapter this branch of weaving was fully presented. Bring the edges of the rattan as close together as possible. Spread the spokes of the basket on a flat surface. filling a wall one inch high. weavers. weave over owe. After cutting away the holding bands of raffia or cord and modelBut if used for sewing a ing the basket may be considered finished. and a white). securing the ends. the Now take two of the I -8-inch weavers (a green and. Ornament with narrower bands of colored splint by overlaying the broad bands. 140. bottom up. Make base as shoAvn in Fig. The bottom is made by stringing web strands from end to end and holding them in place by woof strands placed an inch apart. (The splints should always be moist when bending is done). Take eight yards Fig. Take a wide length splint very narrow. size as the first and place it above letting the rays of the lower mat come between the rays of the upper mat.

is made as follows i. fold. 2 2. It should not be forgotten that in making the rings the joints should be spliced perfectly. SURFACE EFFECTS OF TWINED OPEN WORK. 60 is a Hopi Yucca Basket made on this diagonal mat weave. a toy chair is pic- TOY FIG. These may be made of tule. 2 pieces. soaked and bent into desired shape. one piece." Fig. 20 inches long. Detail of Magazine Holder 2. Now wrap the two rings with raffia (Fig. Bottom brace for main and center frames. weaving. 4. Bottom brace for side frame. is 157. 158. one 2. the other 2 inches. The bottom is made of a ring.y inches long. On to page 120 "Indian Basketry. which easily be Materials are. 104. 3. 6$/ inches long. Insertion for back is piece of No. Fig. Wooden base. Make two rings. 156. two pieces. and nail the two rings together. CHAIR. two lengths of No. TWINED WEAVING. Main frame 22 inches long. The top border is made with a double page 65 "Indian Basketry. about 13 inches long. as shown in Fig. can patience. Tack legs and back to the rings. These are home woven as bought are pic- WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. 124. to a toilet table as a ring holder. Using make one this as a pattern a little care will enable the student similar to it. made from s also a useful adjunct made with a little 4 rattan for front legs. 27). 6^4 inches long. Rear legs and back are made from one piece. Proceed as in ordinary diagonal weave.no HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Center frame. 2^4 inches long. page 108. 5. two pieces. as is also the large basket to the left on page 83. pair of objects which may as well be tured in Fig. CROSSED WARP tured. Figs. l 2 inches in diameter. completes the mat. shows a Hopi weaver at work on this On weave. / THE MAGAZINE : . the outer edge being bound. and then tacked or sewed in. cross-wrapped with raffia so as to fit perfectly. 28 and 29." Fig. FIG. is shown a Pueblo In- dian mat. 107. of palmetto or any flat and reasonably firm material. 27). The main portion is of simple mat con- Then about twenty rows of web struction over two and under two. HOLDER. On an earlier page (Fig. This dainty and pretty little toy. Cut four pieces of rattan. I rattan. same size.

5 rattan. To put together. Tack 10 to points where they cross 2. WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. With the fourteen pieces No. 2. I. 56 of No. 10. 2 green rattan. 2 pieces No. split thick cane or rattan. 9. Thoroughly soak Nos. I. two pieces.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 19 inches. 2 green rattan. 2. also 4 to i. Bottom brace for center frame. No. 7 inches long. . Ill old box lid. . Tack shown. Ornamented 7. Tack 6 to 5 tack the ends of 10 to 6 put 2 into end holes of 5. tying them in the center. four pieces 8. This latter method. as 158. Nos. The wire scrolls may now be sewed in with raffia. Wire scroll. . 8 rattan. Tack 8 to I. Tack 3 to I and 2. In the middle of each end saw out a hole large enough to allow center frame to rest snugly within. 6 inches long. 56 of No. Then wrap them with strands of raffia. 2 green rattan. Tack 9 to 5. 112 of FLUTED FLOWER No. Brace for ends. one piece. one piece. 16 inches. 16. 4. BASKET Get 14 pieces of No. 14 inches long. 32 of No. It is better sewed. however. both sides. 9 and 10. with twisted raffia. then \vrap with raffia. 48 inches. 8 rattan make an ordinary round base with an even number of spokes measuring 5 inches across. 3 inches broad. or tacked through the raffia to the rattan or wood of the frame. 6-Hs inches long. : 6% FIG. 6. as the tack soon pulls out from the raffia. Tack 4 to 5. made as follows Take two pieces of rattan long and two pieces i% inches long. 15 inches. binding 3 at both ends to i. with ends below wood an inch and a quarter. for at holes to 5. 2 green rattan. Then wrap with wide raffia. is not wise. Bend into shape required. 3*4 inches long. Tack the long pieces to make two of the ends of the short pieces and thus make a frame these. Handle. . wrapped frame for main frame. 21 inches long.

164.112 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. dividing all the spokes into twos. j> orci er Insert the thirty-two spokes of 16 inches. 159. Take the center spoke of each group of seven in the base. TURNING DOWN SPOKES. 165). so that each curve has four lots of . and you will get the right spokes at the side. placing two beside the next lots of two spokes on either side of the four undivided double spokes added to it. weaving. placing two beside each two. BASKETS FROM THE PHILIPPINES. Then twenty-nine rows of plain triple twist with No. spokes. four lots of four spokes. but the twelve FIG. Pair round once. The four spokes must be four spokes there will be twelve left upright. These four spokes are at equal distances round the basket. which remain undivided. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. ing them down most sharply in the center of each When this has been done do nine rows of plain weaving. spoke in base. and pushing them right down to the base of the basket (Fig. FIG. excepting 164). Between each of these lots of double spokes. Now Now insert the fifty-six spokes of 19 inches. Cut off the ends of the spokes and insert the fifty-six spokes of No. presstwelve (Fig. placing one spoke on either side of the one do three rows of Turn the spokes upright. 2 white cane. 2 green rattan. 21 inches. must be bent down to the outside of the basket to form the curve.

165. still keeping the central side spokes undivided. dividing all the spokes into two. the depth of which is 3}^ inches. round once. WORK BASKET.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and for the sake of brevity will be spoken of as . Pair round once to divide into twos. Insert the 112 spokes PIG. Pair of green rattan. in readiness for the FIG. STARTING SQUARE (All the pairs of spokes are border. FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. 167. 166. placing two beside each two round the basket. TURNING WEAVER ROUND CORNER SPOKES. used together as one. Do eight rows of weaving. FIG. CURVE PARTLY WORKED.

behind one. twenty-nine spokes. 13 rattan. two pieces of No. 13 inches. 16 rattan and _ Take one piece in front of three spokes. and keeping the row of pairing even with the edge of the weaving. and then continue the work round. spokes of No. "169. one piece of No. 7 inches. 4 inches. Take two pieces of No. four spokes of No. 166). Forty-four FIG AROUND LAST SPOKE. nineteen spokes of No.114 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 6 rattan. 13 rattan. for the lid." using four spokes together to plait with. Do the border in front of one. start the border when about six spokes have been inserted. STARTING LID OF SQUARE BASKET. DETAIL OF 171. SQUARE WORK WOOD FIG. 168. 16 inches. leaving 2^2 inches below. 6 rattan. in front of one. 7^/2 inches across. behind one. rials SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE MateRequired A square wooden base. When this is done plait round as described for "Madeira Borders. in front of one. 12 inches. leaving end inside. TURNING WEAVER FIG. BASKET. BASE. Handle Sharpen the ends of the two pieces of No. 170. 16 inches.) of two. thread both ends from inside round the handle cane just below the border. Insert the forty-four spokes through the holes in the wooden base. . 2 rattan. cross these. This border is worked on top of the basket. Repeat this round. and push basket. In doing this. 13 rattan. FIG. . behind two. the ends into the basket at the opposite side. in front one. TWISTED HANDLE. and weave a short way round the basket (Fig. Now turn the basket upside down and pair round once. the spokes being curved from left to right. push two ends down beside one lot of four spokes on the inside of the Twist the two pieces of rattan round each other. and leave behind. taking two lots of double spokes together each time. All this must be worked underneath the wooden base. draw the four ends to equal lengths and twist round the handle to the opposite side thread through to the outside two pieces on either side of the handle cane. putting in a few spokes at a time.

weaving. behind one. Do one row of flat colored rattan. leaving one weave out (leave an end of about i inch). thread the ends through to the inside. therefore. Do four rows of single weaving. 2 cane. and four rows of single Do - ." same way as explained for "Made- To make this basket of a good shape it is necessary to keep an equal distance between each spoke the corner spokes should be pulled outwards. The two pieces of No. resting on the plaited border there (it is shown in Fig. If correctly worked this basket should measure 8 inches across. and then do another row of pairing. and. . with 2 spaces of about y inch between each twist. 25). (This cannot be twisted round Do two rows of plain weaving. Take the two weaves round the double spokes at the end. and then twist the ends of the No. this is not necessary (Figs. thread round the handle cane just below the triple twist. for handles. When the other end is reached turn it over as before.) six rows of flat colored rattan one row of triple twist two rows of plain weaving. one going under and the other over. in front of one. Continue to place the spokes and pair them.HOW Turn TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The piece of No. 168). the lid. as it fits inside the basket. Lid Twenty-nine spokes. one row of triple twist. corners. the base up. When the round weave goes behind the double corner spokes it must be taken round them again but when the weave comes on the outside. 13 The two rattan (4 inches). Border "Cycle" Border. . 24). To finish. keeping it in a straight line. keeping them l in their places with the left hand. turn it over and . this brings measurement of the center square of lid to 6 l 2 inches. in each corner. the last spokes being double (Fig. 2 cane and put the loop over the spokes 4^/2 inches from the nearest ends (Fig. must be used together as one. and weave across the spokes. three rows of triple twist. so that when flat on the table the weaving will continue from the left hand side. one row of flat colored. 13 rattan (12 inches) can now be inserted . 13 rattan at each corner must be cut evenly with the weaving before the border is done. and then place a piece of No. and the shorter end of the spokes will still point towards the work. 167 and 168). Turn this over from right to left. place a piece of flat colored cane over the top of the handle. 16 inches. while those on either side are pushed in. leaving end inside. beside the corner spoke. Take a piece of No. 2 cane round it. bring the other back. and place the long spokes into position. With the ends do the plait in the ira Borders. will be inches. and weave a few inches on either spokes side. Take two spokes of 16 inches and place flat on the table together. fold a strand of No. until a piece is clone measuring 6 / 2 the / inches (fifteen spokes). Place another spoke flat on the table about y> inch further on and pair round. Sharpen the ends and push them into the basket beside the fourth (counting from either end) and at the second row of triple twist. 7^ Allowing y? inch on either side for the border round it. cross them. In front of two spokes.

The edge is then bound off and finished with the simple border described this in the directions for a basket with a twisted handle in the first part of the chapter. one securely. A bottom is woven 2^4 inches in diameter. front just in the center and directly under the border of the basket. to slip . Handle (on top) One piece of No. behind one. 2 rattan round it in the same way as the side handles sew the lid on with flat cane at the back. . repeat. . Bend the rattan in a half-circle. Insert one spoke by weaving it in in the ordinary way. cross them. 7 inches. will fasten it BASKET WITH TWISTED HANDLE HAVING INTERLACED ENDS Miss White thus describes the method of making basket. 4 rattan which has been soaked until These cut into four pieces and then separated into pairs. and with a piece of wire secure one end of the rattan against the third and fourth spokes. and when two more have been woven in this way. one spoke. four weaving. one spoke two weaving. l . make another loop to catch over the first bind this also with fine flat cane. 4 n-inch of No. pliable length of No. and a short piece of No. one spoke. . one four plain weaving. which are then thoroughly wet and bent upward with a slight flare. six weavers of No. one flat.Il6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Materials for Basket Eight 2O-inch spokes of No. Now weave in a spoke at either side next to the pairing. one flat two weaving. ing. two pairing. . For handle. When two outside rows of plain weaving have been done (counting in the ordinary way the number of times one weaver crosses the same spoke). then do two rows of pairing round the lid. and in . four weaving. This pairing must be kept as close as possible to the weaving. 2 rattan. one spoke. leaving an end of 4^4 inches. weave back again. weave down in place of the weaver then take the weaver over or under the spoke and weave down the side. counting from the side. Do two rows of single weaving with one piece of flat cane. one spoke. through the under loop. 4 rattan. two weaving. 13 rattan tied to the side of the basket. two rows weaving. piece flat green. and weave each end a short way round the basket. one spoke. are bent into loops at about ten inches from one end of each and Handle is A . form a loop by threading a weaver around a few rows of the weaving take the ends inside the basket. one length No. Place a piece of colored rattan over the top of it. 4 rattan. the first side spoke must be woven in. or the lid will have a very untidy appearance. on eight and a half 20-inch spokes. and dividing the double spokes at each corner. Every second row of weaving must be taken twice round the double spokes at the ends. Get the center of the lid. leaving about /2 inch over at either end. one flat two weav. one spoke four weaving. and secure the other end in the same manner on the opposite side. two weaving. Take a spoke of 16 inches and. one spoke four weaving. the spokes are flared more decidedly. in front of one. . and twist the strand of No. 13 rattan. one spoke. one spoke. Bind the loop with flat cane. the spokes are drawn in while using the remaining two weavers. When two weavers have been used. Border In front of two. four rows of weaving. catching in the ends of the flat cane with the spokes to which they are nearest. rattan.

HANDLE OF KEY BASKET. for. The Materials required five of No. 173. TWISTED HANDLE. Insert the fifty side spokes. knotted in this way. PIG. bringing the ends of the loop through which it passed over it. 171. fifty spokes of No. 18 inches. The loops are held firmly where the short end of each comes against the long end (making sure that the short ends are on the same sides of the loops). who passes one loop through the other. putting by one on either side of the five long spokes at each end. 172. and are then made into another knot copied from the first one. short ends are finished off by weaving one to the right over and under several spokes and the other to the left. 18^ inches. which makes the loop uppermost on one end of the knot and on the other the ends. This knot is placed about half way between the top and bottom of the basket. with the long ends turning up. DETAIL. 8 rattan. see Fig. 2 rattan. FIG. one in each hand of the worker. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET. BINDING HANDLE 175. The long ends are twisted together for about twelve inches. 8 rattan. measuring 16 6 inches. nineteen spokes of No. weave with Nos. it is so simple that one can easily follow its coils. Use No. 171). I. 7 spokes inches. COMMENCING 174. The long ends are also brought together making a knot like Fig. although the process cannot be the same. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET an ordinary base.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The short ends are now crossed one under a long end and one over (as shown in Fig. and brought together. This knot is placed on the opposite side of the basket from the first one and attached in the same way. OF 172. Make . FIG. FIG. OF KEY BASKET COMMENCING. 8 rattan. 3 and 40 flat. nineteen spokes across five.

102. sticking . and tie the longer ends together. SHALLOW OVAL BASKET. KEY BASKET colored and white. 13 rattan. FIG. carried on top of the handle to the opposite side and 4 inches over. 3 rattan. 3 rattan thirteen rows of plain weaving. Put the . one piece on either side of the center spoke in the side (as shown in Fig. 174). See Fig. Round the foot do four rows of plain weaving and border. and the spokes are drawn together in some parts. 16 inches. Get a long strand of No. colored. 175). eight rows of flat rattan (colored) and round rattan alternately twelve rows of plain weaving one row of pairing. Thirty-six spokes of No. . If this is not done. 176. In order to d6 this keep the corner spoke pulled outward and press the one on either side well in." the result being shown in Fig. turn the basket up and do two rows of triple twist and twentywith No. and the shape will be spoilt. Materials u I inches. Now with the long end of rattan bind neatly round the handle and flat rattan together. keeping one round of rattan just meeting the next. and repeat the cross on the outside leave the end . 3 Weave pieces of No. Put on in the same way as described for the "Key Basket. rattan. the basket will become uneven. leaving 3 inches below for the foot. rattan. OP KEY BASKET FINISHING. Handle Length of handle according to taste. Now FIG. carry over the basket. thirty-six spokes through the holes in the wooden base. behind one. Also be careful to keep an even distance between each spoke. or allowed to get wider in others. Border "Loop.u8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 40 flat rattan. required base. 13 rattan. up against the handle cane. 177." 2 inches high. using one white and one colored weaver nately. Cross it on the outside (as in Fig. Two Oblong wooden Spokes of No. and winding tightly. and begin by threading one end from the inside to the outside beside the handle cane and just bePull the end out until it is long enough to be neath the border. and forty flat. . and insert in the same way on the opposite side. in front of one leave the end inside to be cut off afterwards. alter- In making this basket great care*is necessary to get it a nice shape with a sharp angle at each corner. Turn up and do three rows of twist No. . take it over the handles to the opposite side. Handle Insert the two pieces of No. BINDING HANDLE two rows of weaving.

it SHALLOW OVAL BASKET then cut off neatly. 119 it When the handle has been bound round as close to the border as can be. 40 flat round the center handle rattan from the inside just below the border. leaving an end of 3 inches. 16 rattan down beside the center side spoke and one piece beside the first spoke on either side repeat on the opposite side. and six rows of weaving. 178. Leave one end several inches long. 16 and 40 flat rattan. 3 rattan have been done. OF OVAL BASKET. Then ninety. Split the thirteen willows in the center and thread onto the five of 19 inches. seven at either end. When loose enough for about six rings up. three of No. 4 and continue weaving until the base measures 18 by 12 inches. 7. STARTING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. until quite tight . 176). one on either side of each spoke. . Cut off the ends of the spokes. Rattan may required Willow be substituted. 19 inches. and with the other weave to rattan. Weave like an ordinary oval base until twenty rows of weaving with No. .it round way to that in which it was wound. FIG. 180. Of FIG. 181. (straight round) of flat rattan. OUTSIDE VIEW. Do seven rows of single weaving three rows each spoke singly. 149 to 152. 4. except the center one Turn up sharply and do two rows of triple twist.rattan. placing one beside each of the five long spokes and the first of the double side spokes.four of No. 6. 16 rattan. Handle Place one piece of No. INSIDE VIEW. Border "Flat Plait. 30 inches. BINDING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. 179. 7 rattan. Weave with 3. and insert the ninety-four spokes of No. taking at each side. these take five of 19 inches. cut the flat rattan. FIG. FINISHING HANDLE do two rows of triple twist to divide the spokes with No. Thread a piece of No. thirteen of 13 inches and fourteen of inches long. in the opposite Without unwinding any of the rattan. Now . and pull the end of rings (Fig. FIG. loosen it by twisting.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. push the end up and pull out between the Twist the rattan back again. Materials spokes the thickness of a slate pencil." See Figs. Add the fourteen spokes.

SECTION SQUARE BASKET WITH threaded round the center handle rattan just beneath it. SQUARE BASKET. When the border is reached. 176 shows how the handle ought to look when finished. Now continue to bind over the top of the handle (Fig. and fro between the three spokes until eighteen rows cross the center one (Figs. FINISHING FIG. 184. and the end pushed up against one of the canes and then cut off (Fig. FIG. all 183. 182). Fig. taking OFF THE FLAT RATTAN IN BINDING A HANDLE. 182.120 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. WASTE PAPER BASKET when the weaving three canes together until within 6 inches of the border. 185. LEAVING SIDES. the end of the flat rattan must be FIG. 178 and 179). PAPER BASKET Materials required Twelve spokes WASTE . 180). STRAIGHT CORNER. 181. In doing this the short end must be caught in beside one of the handle canes. FIG. is continued as in Fig.

until it Then insert the forty-eight spokes as usual. The two longest are carried on for a row of pairing. 13 rattan. for half an inch. 6 inches. 27 inches. turn the basket right side up. 6. i and 2 rattan. Weave with Nos. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING SIDES. Insert a short spoke close beside handle to be used in its stead for down and Finish with Closed Border No. leaving 6 inches below the wood. 20) with two weavers. 7. Now do your check pattern again ten rounds of triple twist. Now . sloping the foot to taste. Weave the base in the ordinary way (see Figs. Start the weavers on a side of the base which has not a handle through it. 2 spokes of No. 6 inches square 38 spokes of No. FIG. 125 to 129). PLAITED HANDLE. Bend spokes outward and continue weaving for eight more double rows. and at FIG. weave singly. then another half inch or inch in natural color. 22 inches No. counting the handles as spokes. 183). Work until you have three checks one row of triple twist twenty-two rows of plain weaving one round of triple twist. Ma- Required One board for base. SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE . 2 spokes No. : . (Fig. For handle. insert new weaver of dyed raffia or rattan and weave one Put a ten-inch inch. Insert spokes for sides wooden base. 6. the number of spokes being The even. inches from each end make a sharp bend. . see Fig 184. turn them up after so doing weave ten rows of triple twist and six rounds of two colors to make the check pattern (Fig. Finish with plaited border . weaving the border. 183). BASKETS. two of 36 inches (to be cut off when the twist is finished) and two longer. o. Above the wooden base weave one row of rope twist. 18fi. For this 4 lengths of No. Insert the handle in holes made for it in the wooden base.HOW TO MARK INDIAN AND OTHER . after which turn the base upside 1 1/2 in Weave finish the foot before proceeding with the sides. i rattan. will be needed. singly (see Fig. 10 inches. The handles can be put on terials at discretion. 6 rattan. taking each weaver three times around. handle must be still counted as a spoke. six times in all. IJI of No. and is 9 inches across. 187. 12 inches forty-eight spokes No. 2. 16 rattan. 16 inches.

if preferred. 186. 187 clearly shows the base finished. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING all up and Fig. line with silk to taste. making a three-plait with two spokes instead of one. A handle that is very easy to make is shown in Fig. place the basket on smooth board. PLAITED HANDLE. If for a workbasket. When the sides of the basket are woven insert two other spokes. plenty of rattan being left for this purpose. the spokes twined ready for the sides. Now progresses. 2 or Open Border No. to be used in its stead in weaving border. and plait as shown. thrust a small awl through the base into the board. spoke. FIG. spoke close to each side of the handle. KLIKITAT BASKET IN FROHMAX COLLECTION. 187a. and finish with Closed Border No. Where this handle is desired one of the spokes must be left long enough to form the handle. 2 according to taste. On finishing the plait the ends must all be pointed and thrust as far down to the base on the other side of the basket as possible. The awl thus acts as a pivot on which the basket may be moved while the side weaving SIDES.122 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. one on each side of this long These may all be doubled. .

is madeDyeing. one should correct all irregularities. If so. While the work is damp it can easily be twisted into shape. 188. follow the methods it may be as well to dye the completed work. yet upon them often lid to fit. should always be done before the basket while the materials are still unformed. 123 CHAPTER XIX. however. See if the shape is as it should be especially examine the loops of the border . and these can be either In singeing be careful singed off or rubbed off with fine sandpaper. willow and other ware small fibers will split off from the work.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In rattan. before it is allowed to dry. FIG. suggested make the bottom 1 in Those who desire to varnish or polish " Miss White's "How to Make Baskets their baskets may find recipes . I think. Only in this way can designs the weaver desires baskets of one color. YAKTTAT GOOD LUCK RATTLE BASKETS. TN FROHMAN COLLECTION. in the chapter on dyes. of the saire size. splint. FINISHING OFF A BASKET. Things depends the difference between a poor and a good basket. flat and the and see that they are all of this nature seem small. In all raffia work care should be taken to cut off loose ends as the weaver progresses with her work. hence. be worked out. f. not to scorch the basket.

189. 190. JR. FIG. E. JR. SARGENT. OLD COILED BASKETRY IN THE COLLECTION OF H.FIG. IN . WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE BASKETS THE COLLECTION OF H. SARGENT. E.

125 CHAPTER XX. how the Indian has well for all students of basketry to learn produced the wonderful results that make her basket work so famous. 191. At the very outset we are confronted by the magnitude of the subject. intelligently cannot do better than "read. Of the poetry and religion woven I into Indian baskets I larger book have fully discussed this can here say nothing. Mason. Professor Otis T. and the warp is the same as the weft. In my phase of the subject. 191). Curator of the Division of Ethnology of the United States National Museum. which. 192 and 193- American Basketry. The fundamental technic of this work is in passing each strand of the woof over two or more warp strands. however. mark and inwardly digest" what is there written. thus producing a twilled effect as seen in Figs. Indeed it is practically impossible to tell the one from the other (see Fig. has written in his "Directions for Collectors of CHECKERWORK BASKETRY. HOW TO MAKE It is INDIAN BASKETS. and he who WORK OR MAT WEAVE. would work FIG. A variation of the mat weave is that which Professor Mason calls by this name. TWILLED BASKETRY. hence in this chapter nothing but practical hints can be given. This is practically the mat weave of the preceding pages. COARSE CHECKER- PIG." . 192. Even in the mechanical work the Indian showed a fertility of invention and a skill in execution little short of marvellous. Many North Pacific Coast as well as Atlantic Coast and Canadian Indians use this weave. will suffice to start the earnest student upon the true pathway. TWILLED WEAVING.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Splints of every imaginable kind of material are used for this work. In what follows I have done little more than quote what that distinguished savant and sweet-spirited gentleman.

10. all rigidly The warp extends from the top to the bottom. WEFT. TWILLED WEAVING. in its southern portions. Scores of designs may be made by the curious. but it is doubtful if one can be invented that these Indians have not long known. : . TWINED WEAVING. ISC. The weft. is fastened to one of the rigid uprights and then wrapped once around each wrap element. or the opposite." The Fijians make remarkable baskets by comIn this country the Chetamaches show marbinations of this weave. the WICKER WORK finest web basketry of civilization is specimens being the plaques of the Hopis. 194) the weft goes over one and under three. Plain twined weaving. as in wickerwork but the weft elements are commonly administered in pairs. This type of weaving was employed by the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley. WEAVING made only at Oraibi. and specimens of which are found in "Indian Basketry.NK1J IN TWO COLORS. Holmes it will be seen that in the ancient weaving of the Mississippi Valley. different structures result as follows I. 39 and 40). TU1. The process is clearly shown WRAPPED A in Figs. rigid hoop is sustained by four uprights. n. FIG. According to the relation of these weft elements to one another and to the warp.126 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (See Figs. The ordinary Indian work. firmly fastened to the hoop at the top and the rigid members at the bottom. 193. over single warps. vellous ingenuity in the working out of designs in this weave by varying the laying of the splints and the use of different colors. continuing in a coil until the top is reached. of twine or yucca fiber. all This is the most intricate and elegant of Professor Mason thus writes of the varieties of twined weaving as follows "Twined work has a set of warp rods or rigid elements. In passing from warp to warp these elements are twisted in half-turns on each other so as to form a two-ply or three-ply twine or braid. the weft would not pass over the same number of warp elements that it passed under." Figs. woven work. . FIG. "The North Americans of antiquity were very skillful in administering the twilled technic. : 195 and 196. affixed at the bottom. H. On the specimen shown (Fig. each time and each way. and is still used by the Mohaves. though in three-ply twining and in braid twining three weft elements are employed. 165 and 167. From examples reproduced by W.

are also made in a similar manner. ings. Three-ply twined weaving and braiding in several styles. 197. The only difference 2. ing requires a set of warp elements arranged parallel to each other. i. 4.HOW 2. 199). over two or more warps. 196. or bird-cage twine. around 5. are not vertical as in plain twined weaving. 222 Indian Basketry). "The is in the manner the woof weavers technic consists in passing over two or FIG. Fig. of the Havasupais are made in this of the fine baskets of (see Fig." (See Fig. WRAPPED WEAVING FROM A MOUND IN OHIO. Other examples will be found illustrated in "Indian Basketry. Fig. 127 Diagonal twined weaving or twill. tee or Hudson stitch." This primitive mode of weavPLAIN "TWINED WEAVING FIG. OF THE MOHAVES." WEAVING. Wrapped twined weaving. Latticed twined weaving. TWILLED WEAVING PRESSED ON ANC IENT POTTERY OF ALABAMA. cluded in the half turns. 194. DIAGONAL TWINED this style between cross the and the plain warp strands. more warp elements there must be an odd number at each half turn for in the rest round the same pairs of warps are not inof warps. 198 are made in this weave. the Pomas 200 "shows how. by varying the color of the weft splints and The esuwas. WRAPPED WEAVING FIG. on the outside. which is clearly shown in Fig. but pass diagonally over the . TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. surface. . Two splints or weavers compose the woof and they are twisted with a The Aleut and Haida baskets in half turn around each warp stem. The ridges. and many style. therefore. twined work vertical warps crossed by horizontal weft element. or water bottles. 195. in which one weft element remains rigid and the other is wrapped about the cross3.

inclining to the right and the other to the left is caused by the weaver's from above or below. while the other is wrapped around it and the upright warp. changing from diagonal to plain weaving. 201. WORK VARIETY OF TWINED OUTSIDE. artist is trol absolutely the figure 3. as seen in Fig. ment of the twine is passed horizontally along the upright warp stem. generally on the inside. the on the surface. KLIKITAT. 200. In this weave one ele- FIG." enabled to con- WRAPPED '"TWINED WEAVING. ALEUT AND HAIDA BASKETS IN THE FROHMAN COLLECTION. FIG. which is the . When the rows of these stitches are wrapping forced closely upon one another the effect is as in Fig. APACHE. 202.128 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The variation of one row of stitches TWINED WEAVING. DIAGONAL FIG. 199. 19S.

under the name of the Ti Weave. It is described in "Indian 'The ti (proBasketry. TWINED. see Fig. it will be seen inside. On the from which FIG. 205. TWINED WEAVING. . 203. Neah Bay weavers. at the right side. WRAPPED. this drawing was made. TWINED WEAVING. In the middle of the figure. 200). the skillful has combined four styles of two-ply twined weaving. form of weave is confined to the Pomas. 203 "shows a square inch of the inside of a basket. outside of the basket these various methods stand for delicate patterns in color.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. INSIDE. FIG. TWINED WEAVING. : . NEAH BAY WEAVING." (See Fig. 255 Indian Basketry). OF THE POMAS. It is believed that this LATTICE 4. 201. how the wrapped or Neah Bay twined work appears on the lower right-hand corner In the exquisite piece is and in the woman the inside view of diagonal twined weaving. 129 exact method followed by the Fig. THE TI WEAVK FIG. WRAPPED FIG." page 99. 20-2. (For example. with plain twined weaving in the two rows at the top plain twined weaving in which each turn passes over two warp rods in four rows just below.

is carried behind the warp a whole revolution the three w eft elements have in turn passed behind three warp elements. d) a regular plain twined weaving of two elements." 5. this fashion are very rigid and strong. Tlinkit. FIG. broidery. 206 and 207). On the outside there is the appearance of a two-ply string laid looks like plain along the warp stems. Three-ply braid. TIIKKK-PLY BRAID AXI> (H'TSIDE. Baskets made in holding the warps firmly together. viz. Frapped. the basket weaver holds in her hand three weft elements of any of the kinds mentioned. Skokomish. so that in passes inward. weaving is the use of three weft splints and other kinds of weft elements instead of two.130 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. while on the inside the texture twined weaving. TWINED WORK. 208. 209. INSIDE. and there are four ways of administering the weft. OUTSIDE. DITTO. each one of the strands. Three-ply twine. (b) a horizontal warp crossing these at right angles. d. Three-ply. false emb. After that the process is repeated. a. "Three-ply twined FIG. and also water-tight jars are thus constructed. it Tn REE-PLY BRAID. The reason for this is apparent. FiG. INSIDE. c. and frequently the hoppers of mills for grinding acorns. (See Fig. (a) the upright warp of rods. 207. stem adjoining. I'm. since in every third T . as FIG. By referring to the lower halves of Figs. 205). and (c. nounced tee) twined weaving consists of four elements THREE-PLY TWINED WEAVING.. In this technic (a)' THREE-PLY TWINE (Figs. 206 and 207 the outside and the inside of this technic will be made plain. DITTO. In twisting these three.

FIG. 211.is the body worked in . On the surface. This process is better understood by examining inside a warp stem. The ornamentation in which mythological symbols are concealed consists of a species of false embroidery in which the figures appear on the outside of the basket but not on the inside. but instead of being twined simply they are plaited or braided. 210 shows a square inch from the surface of a Hopi twined jar. warp and two remain in BRAID. The lower ply twine. which is exceedingly tough. when the work is driven home. it is impossible to discriminate between The three-ply braid is found at three-ply twine and three-ply braid. FIG. PLAIN TWINED WORK. FALSE EMBROIDERY. the starting of all Poma twined baskets." '( part is in plain twined weaving the upper part is in three- "In Tlinkit basketry spruce root. THREE-PLY AND 210. . In three-ply braid the weft elements (b) are held in the hand in the same fashion. 206 and 207 and 208 and 209. no matter how the rest is built up. of a revolution one element passes behind the front. TWINED WORK. In the needlework of the civilized c) THREE-PLY. Fig. FRAPPED 212. OVERLAID TWINED WEAVING. the upper parts of Figs.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and as each element passes under one and over the other of the remaining two elements. it is carried THREE-PLY FIG.

IX is 215. YOKl'T BASKET FIG. but the Indian woman twines it into the textile while the process of basket making is going on that is. Around this twine the third element is wrapped or served. FIG. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. Two of them are spun from native hemp or milkweed. and form the regular twined two-ply weaving. 216. POMO BAM TT'SH WEAVE FROHMAN COLLECTION. when each of the weft elements passes between two warp rods outward. and it is fully explained and illustrated by James Teit in his Memoir on the Thompson River Indians. the colored or overlaid element . example the twine or weft element is three-ply. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. 211). the laying of this third element would be called embroidery. An interesting (d) modification of this Tlinkit form of overlaying or false embroidery occurs occasionally among the Poma Indians under the name of bog or bag. Straws of different colors are employed (Fig. Skokomish type.132 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and then the whole is pressed down close to the former rows of weaving. IN 218. BASKETRY. woman FIG. YOKUT BASKET wrapped around it once. WASHOE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. In this Thompson River FRAPPED FIG. passing about the other two and between the warp elements. 217. On .

Franz Boas for the s . The author says that it "seems to have been acquired recently through intercourse with the Shahaptins.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG." little attention to the stitches will A FIG. KLIKITAT IMBRICATED WORK. Teit's figure. the outside of this bag the wrapping is diagonal. IN 219. but the wrapping of corn husk outside the twine are not done in Nez Perces fashion." . 212). The fastening off is coarsely done. This combination extremely interesting. leaving the surface extremely rough. FROHMAN COLLECTION. but on the inside the turns are perpendicular. is 220. I am indebted to Dr. DECORATED YOKUT BOTTLE-NECK IN use of Mr. but after the style of the Makah Indians of Cape Flattery. kS* . YOKUT DANCE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. who are Wakashan (Fig. FIG.< . 221. show that the bags and the motives on them are clearly Xez Perces or Shahaptian.

322 Indian Basketry)." Of analysis. Coiled Basketry I have already quoted Professor Mason's clear The following pictures show a variety of specimens of coiled work. The weave is of the coiled variety. CALLED Iv^lKITAT. sign." the latter being a Figs. IMBRICATED BASKETRY RIVER INDIANS. 216 and 217 are Yokut baskets of good shape. 219 and 220 are both fine Yokut baskets. in Arizona and New Mexico. . WORK. Fig. They are all Apache baskets. bottle neck. with striking designs. the weave of which is described in "Indian baskets in Fig. KLIKITAT BASKETRY.. Sargent's collection. and the design is similar to that of Maidu (Fig. FIG. and with quail plumes as an additional decoration on the rim. "Indian Basketry. 215 is a Washoe basket in the Frohman collection. 190 is of new White Mountain Apache Basketry. As a frontispiece in "Indian Basketry" Their materials are. The whole five are most beautiful specimens. Jr. Ore. are seen two Klikitat basket weavers at work. WORK OF THOMPSON Mr. Fig. pine cone design. of old coiled work gathFig.1^4 S HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. A. Sargent. fully explained on page 96. largely from the Frohman collection. The latter has a circle of dancers and of the rattlesnake dia- monds. 189 shows some beautiful specimens ered by Mr. Portland. E. weave and de- F1G IMBRICATED COINED 223. AFTER JAMES TE1T. 222. Figs. 218 is a good specimen of the Bam Tush Poma weave. with a circle of dancers on the flange.

The body of the basket is in the root of Thuja gigantea. Eells says that some women in every tribe on Puget Sound could produce the stitch. 224. "The strip of colored bark or grass is laid down and caught under a passing stitch before another stitch is taken this one is bent forward to cover the last stitch. collected . In Fig. James the strips not being over an eighth of an inch wide. Yakima. 221 the detail of this imbricated method of weave is shown. the entire surface is covered with work of this kind. Chehalis. Teit describes and illustrates this type of weaving among the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia. who are Salishan. sixty years ago. and so with each one it is bent backward and forward so that the sewing is entirely concealed. FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The Thompson River the art. Strips of cherry bark." In some of the finer old baskets in the National Museum. Imbrication is one of the most restricted of technical processes. who are Salishan. and the ornamentation in strips of Elymus triticoides and Primus demissa (Fig. are added as ornament. dyed with Oregon grape. and he names the Puyallups. POMA SHU-SET WEAVE BOWL AND BURDEN BASKET IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. cedar bast and grass stems. forming a sort of "knife plaiting. of the Klikitat. Snohomish. Twanas. doubled on itself so as to be underneath the next stitch. Nisqualli. cedar or spruce root. Skagit. '35 for the foundation. all of whom are of the ShahapClallam." Indians. It It is the native art it is a modern acquirement. while the sewing is done with the outer and tough portion of the root. Cowlitz. is understood that here tian family. and Spokanes. Makah. have long known RC . Mr. and Squaxon. 222).

Upcott Gill. Purdy. Calif. O. A School Without Books. Review and Herald Pub.. Martha Watrous. Raphia and Reed Weaving. New York. Knapp. Springfield.. Boston. Henry Malkan. Doubleday. Mass. Cane Basket Work. Co.. Mich. Second Series. First Series. Indian Basketry. Los Angeles. How to Make Baskets. CHAPTER Firth. White. SHI-BC. Sanborn. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Bulletin of the U. The Indians of the Painted Desert Region. ftu- FIG. Little. Eliz. Cane Basket Work. Nat. Directions for Collectors of American Basketry. New York. 1902. XXI. 225. Carl. Battle Creek. T. Museum. Annie. Stearns. THE SUN BASKETS OF THE POMAS IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. George Wharton.. No. Mass. Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers. Mary. . Brown & Co. 39. L. Milton Bradley Co. James. DECOKATED Mason. London.. S. 170 Strand.i 36 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Part P.. Page & Co.

"-T :r. and source of information THE among basket lovers that BASKET FRATERNITY has been its start. membership are that you are interested Indian or other baskets.':"-. rc-.THE BASKET FRATERNITY. Its only conditions for Do you want town or so.:'.- L. Do you want a lecture on Indian Basketry will see ? Read page 4 and you how it may be had.. organized by George \Vharton James.v~-i'f> ..:~~ .r^-' a demand exists for a means of communication between. It has a large charter membership from roll will The charter in remain open until the end of 1903. .". and send your Fraternity fee of one dollar. '^-. a loan collection of fine Indian Baskets in your village ? Then join The Basket Fraternity and get nineteen others to do and the collection will be sent to you without charge.

To arrange rials for 12. native shapes and designs. To seek to influence the Indian department of the United States Government to earnestly endeavor to work to this end among all the agents. To discourage among photographs. disseminate information among its members relating to the art and the objects of the fraternity. superintendents and teachers in its service. which will be loaned on payment of a small fee to any member of the fraternity. To prepare a set of stereopticon slides. 2. ITS OBJECTS ARE a : To form To means of communication between basket lovers throughout the world. which encourage the making of baskets merely for sale. To seek in every revive the art and prevent dying out prepared materials and artistic work. 13. to prepare. with accompanying lecture. To organize a "traveling library" of veritable typical Indian baskets and send these as required to members of the fraternity for Such a collection of basketry is already made. 4. and of representative Indian fine and typical baskets of all weavers. 7. and restore the use of native dyes. and to require all young Indian girls to learn the art as part of their school training. 3. To To To distribute among its members photographs or engravings of makes. 14. hastily prepared materials and crude workmanship. To encourage the opposite of the spirit referred to above to seek to retain the love for good and artistic work to banish aniline dyes. when issued. collect reliable and accurate knowledge of Indian weavers' methods and work. illustrated bulletin of general or specific interest to basketry lovers and collectors and to send this bulletin. for the gathering and distribution of Indian matebasket weaving which shall be sold to members of the fraternity at as near cost as possible. study and exhibition. To make and style 9. This collection to be placed in some suitable location where it will be accessible at all times to basket lovers. free to all members of the fraternity. To photograph aboriginal weavers and make a collection of said its the Indians the modern commercial methods. 8. To prepare such slides also for sale. carefully : . foster the use of aniline dyes. way to among the Indians. but especially and primarily of baskets made by the aboriginal tribes of North America. a national collection of typical baskets of every weave to be found throughout the world. and is ready for its travels on call from those entitled to it. 6. 11. 10. HE BASKET FRATERNITY is a society of basket lovers. and issue quarterly an . 5.T 1. and especially for the pleasure and study of members of this fraternity. organized for the purpose of bringing together those who have felt the charm and fascination of Indian basketry. secure the ends aimed at in Sections 12 and 13. alien designs.

is in The second preparation and will be entitled ' ' Weavers. with descriptive accounts of their work." and will contain fully twenty illustrations of baskets of superior design. and Fraternity is Pasadena. in order that their makers may derive as much financial benefit as possible from their labors. 17. L. O.15. the national collection and the traveling libraries of Indian baskets are located. Address all communications and make all P. as well as the baskets made by the Indians. members of the fraternity are assured that they will receive The four bulletins. Whenever fifty members of the fraternity petition for a lecturer. To set in motion all possible machinery for the creating of markets for baskets so made. prisons. 1 6. Forms STATION A. CALIFORNIA. The first of these is a beautifully illustrated hand-book entitled "How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. either to members of the fraternity or to outsiders desirous to organize classes for the teaching of of knowing of its work basketry. To promote the organization of classes for the teaching of basketry in orphan asylums. Orders payable to The headquarters " where the nucleus of of The Basket ' ' ^ THE BASKET: FRATERNITY. The fraternity fee is $1. will guarantee a small fee and necessary expenses. first . 3. It will be issued October i. California. living in one town or section. It will be issued July i.00 per year. Whenever twenty members of the fraternity. The membership will be sent on request. of application for bulletin will be forwarded as early as possible after receipt of the fraternity fee of one dollar. in order to further the work of the fraternity. one will be sent. Forms of application for such a loan will be sent on request. issued quarterly. and to enlarge the circle of those who know and love good . payable on application." i. 2. insane asylums and other eleemosinary establishments in order that easy and simple employment may be found for the unfortunate which will help relieve the harmful monotony of their lives. EnIn return for this trance may be made at any time during the year. unite in asking for the loan of an Indian basketry collection." will contain not less than twenty plates of exquisitely shaped Indian baskets. poor houses. The fourth bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Designs.iving Indian comprise fully twenty portraits of typical Indian It will be issued weavers. PASADENA. it will be sent to them on guarantee of its safety and the payment of freight charges both ways. It will April The and third bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Basket Shapes. referred to in Section 14. author of "Indian Basketry." by George Wharton James." and originator of The Basket fee the 1. basketry work.To arrange for lectures on Indian basketry when and where possible. : Fraternity.

Insertion and 48 52 58 73 XIII. I. XVI. . XXI. The Net Weave XI. The Spirit in which Basket-Making should be Approached. NEVADA. CARSON CITY. The Coil Weave XII. Introduction 5 II.INDEX. Chap. VI. loan 3-011 will for inspection. VIII. XVII. Address THE EMPORIUM. our photo booklet of fine and beautiful baskets. Web Weaving Fancy Borders Continued Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets A Few Baskets XIX. 18 V. The Web Weave IX. Choice of Material IV. of Materials . 10 14 III. XX. The Preparation Dyes ." . More about Bases 84 89 93 103 107 123 125 XV. upon appplication. How to to Make and Use Them 28 32 34 37 Tools and Terms How Begin The Mat Weave The Plait or Braid X. VII. PAIUTI OR SHOSHONE BASKETRY we can We interest you. XVIII. THE HOME OF THE WASHOE INDIAN. Finishing the Basket How to Make Indian Baskets Bibliography 136 If you desire Amerind Art in WASHOE. Borders 77 XIV.

41. 54. 24. 47. 31. 79. 8. Magazine Holder 30. Mesh . 90.ILLUSTRATIONS. 11. 103.. 33. Accordeon Plait.. 6. 94. Weave. 40. Deerfleld Splint Baskets Reed Baskets.. 91. 59. Inclosing Part of Foundation Interlocking Coils. 69. Deerfleld Deerfleld 14 15 16 1? 16. 101. 68. Foundation of Two Rods Rod and Welt Coiled Work Foundation of Three Rods Foundation of Splints Interlocking Coils. 102. 4. 53. 19. 3. 2829. Book Mjark of Weave Splint and Web 95. 104. Button Hole Stitch on Ring " " " ation Page. 4 6 S 67. 47 Closed Border No. Simple Coiled Baskets Simple Mat Weave Open " Closed Table Mat Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Isolated Figures Produced by Modifying Order of Intersection 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 39 41 41 41 41 Fugeian Coiled Basket Details Coiled Raffia Baskets and 65 66 68 66 70 70 93. IIU. 20. 73. Splint Picture Frame Foundation. 125. 46. 64. 18. 127. Weaving on Even Spokes Holding and Spokes' Starting Weaver Dividing into Single Spokes 72 72 73 73 74 74 36. 1 Detail of Open Border No. 25. Web New Weaver Weavers Market and Other Baskets " Caning a Chair Cane Tie Caning a Chair "Weaving with Raffia Rattan Simple Baskets. 13. 12. 23. 72. Detail of Ins< rtiun Insertion Open Border No. 5. 65. 89. 48. 52 119. fc. 11 I. Splint Picture Frame Splint Mat Weave Baskets 105. 80 80 so Detail of Closed Border No. Five Strand Plait of Raffia. 62. Stick and Knot of Raffia Single Net Mesh Netted Bags of Raffia. 52. 22. 111. 43. 97. etc Chetemache Mat Diagonal Mat 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 45 46 46 46 46 49 51 100. 53 120. 61. 76. Weave 107. 82. 54 121. Mat Foundation Work 39. Double Pairing Triple Weaving 24 25 25 32 3 32 32 80. 99. Plaited Belts 50 Hoop and School Bag Raffia Doll's Hat and Tray Raffia Plaited Raffla Hats Detail of Last Three Spokes of Plaited of Plaited 55. 110. Chetemache Mat " Grass Tray. 128. Mouse Basket Corn Husk Poppy Basket Fancy Splint Basket Splint and Sweet Grass Fan Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass Base of Baskets shown in Fig. Oi. 85. 26. 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 122 123'. 96. 49. 17. 2. 44. 85 85 . 58 58 10 12 i: Covered Napkin Rings Simple Coiled Baskets with VariSimple Coiled Trays Pine Needle Coiled Baskets Wrapping Before Coiling Beginning the Coil Detail of Coil Cross Sections of Varieties' Coiled Basketry Detail of Interlocking Stitches Detail of Single-Rod Coil in 58 58 60 60 01 61 61 62 10. 84. Weavers Round Base with Spokes in Pairs. Deerfiekl... 83. 6. 106. 126. IT 118. Deerfleld Straw Baskets Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets Picotie Pink Basket. 45. 2 Starting Splicing Inserting Odd Spoke Right Side of Center Odd 75 75 75 75 42. 75 76 Weave Web 77 78 78 78 78 79 7J of Chair Cane 50. Shred Foundation Rope Twist Raffla Bound Picture Frames Raffla "Wrapped Articles' Toy Chair of Wrapped Raffia 65 86-87-XN. 27. 58. Round Base with Spokes Separated Commencing Oblong Oval Base Spoke for Round Base Spokes' Threaded for Round Base.. Page. 74. 3. 115. etc 50a Bottom of Deerfleld Basket 51. 32. 15. 108. 9. Baskets of Plaited Raffla . 129. 66. Weaving of Round Bnsc with Two Split 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 s:. Open Border No. 92. 9S. 112. Closed Border No. 71. 63. 17 18 20 22 2 63 63 63 78. 77. 117. 57. 21. 109. 79 79 SO 2. Fig 1. 3 Detail of Oval Base " 124. 2 Open Border No. 113. 56. Detail Plait of Plait 3 4 Open Border No. 14. with Spoke Simple Open Border No.. Straw Foundation 63 64 64 64 64 Weave 33 33 26 Open Coil. 1 Detail of Closed Border No. 130.wale Apple Green Basket. 7. Deerfleld Weaver Splint Cutter Foundation Splint Cutter A Splint Single Weaving .. 5. Fig. 81. Articles of Plaited Raffla. Xi-t etc. 34. Red Bird Basket. 75. 70.

112 Turning Down Spokes 113 Ditto. L'lis. Finishing Base of Twined Weaving with serted Corners In84 31 90 90 92 92 96 94 Shallow Oval Basket 118 Starting Handle of Oval BasketInside 136: 137. Pressed on Ancient Pottery. 145.110 Ill Wristlets or Cuff Protectors 112 Baskets from the Philippines 27 Baskets Deerfleld Straw Section of Fluted Flower Basket. 191. 169. 141. 198. 218.Fig. Jumping Two Spokes Weaver Ditto Outside Binding Handle of Oval Basket. . 178.114 216. 128 Wrapped Twined Weaving NV.-I ii I 129 !. 156. 200. 175. Ditto. 142. ing Inside Inside Three Ply Braid. Detail of Twisted Handle Ditto Turning Spokes Weaver Around Last Oblong Carrying Basket Commencing Handle of Key Basket 114 220. 219. Imbricated Imbricated Klikitat Poma Bam Tush Weave Yokut Dance Basket Yokut Bottle-Neck Basket Klikitat Imbricated Weaving Basketry Coiled Work of 134 Thompson River Indians Work. . 207. 147. Square 113 Spokes' Work Basket. . 98 and Plaited Sweet Grass Splint 99 Baskets Splint and Plaited Sweet Grass 100 Baskets 102 Madeira Border No. 120 Finishing off the Flat Rattan in 90186. Finishing ditto 119 119 .i \ \Yrappc-d T\\ ined Weav129 Crossed Warp. 152. 135. 164. 127 Ditto Wrapped Weaving of the Mohaves' 127 127 Ditto. 215. Called 117 134 CENTRA OHIL "C. Binding Handle of Oblong Oval Base " Key Basket.. 167. 196. 170. 197.131 Frapped Twined Work Washoe Basket Yokut Basket Ditto 168. 155. . 138. 185. 201. 195. 172. Pi . Outside Overlaid Twined Weaving 209. 171. 193. 210. 154 Surface Effects of Twined Open Twilled Weaving 125 Ditto 126 Ditto. Rattan Basket with Plaited Straw Simple as' Web Web Woven Bird Nest Basket with Fancy Base Splint Web Weave Inserting Weaver in Splint Base. 131. 130 130 130 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 Three Ply and Plain Twined Work. 176. -in'. 217. 143. Base of Splint Basket 120 Binding a Handle Waste Paper Basket 120 120 Square Basket Weaving Sides Section ditto with Straignt Corner. 187. 183.. Wood Base. 180. Curve Partly Worked 113 Fluted Flower Basket Starting Square Work Basket. 174. Page. 194.. Commencing Flat Plait Border. 199. 154. 157. .. 166. Inside 129 The Ti Weave of the Pomas 129 Three Ply Braid and Twined Work. 206. 134. Klikitat.. 159. 173. 133. Outside Ditto. 9 Spokes Turned Up for Sides Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass.. 177. 114 Starting Lid of Square Basket.105 Flat Plait Border Second Position 105 of Spokes with Portion in progress. etc. 158. 117 222. Work 110 203. Baskets 128 Diagonal Twined Weaving Variety of Twined Work. from a Mound in Ohio Twined Weaving in Two Colors 126 128 Apache. 181.119 119 182. Raffia 108 and Splint 108 Bases' of Fig. 117 118 132. 140. 2 102 Madeira Pairing for Plait 189. 144. 179. Turning Weaver Round Corner . Detail of Center of Oval Base " " 86 87 87 Commencing Ditto. 149. Baskets of Rattan. 117 223. Twined Weaving. 190. 192. 165. 153. 211. 148. 114 221. Outside. 205. Finished 106 Splint and Twined Baskets Collar Baskets of Rush. 124 on Mat Checkerwork Weave 125 150 151.. 105 of Finished Border 105 Flat Plait Border. Twined Weaving. 139. 146. INN. Plaited Handle Method of Holding Basket Weaving Sides Yakutat Rattle Baskets Old Coiled Basketry When 121 121 123 124 Coarse White Mountain Apache Baskets. 160. 184..

'.if si . WHOLESALE: AND PORTLAND. " ' ri''^^^Nit.. FROHMAN TRADING Co ALASKA. ji' ^ ..(.. .. . CALIFORNIA AND NORTHERN INDIAN BASKETS T- i9O2 AND CURIOS. QBE.. DETAIL - SEND TEN CENTS FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE.'i.-'. (.

TOURISTS WILL FIND THE MOST PICTURESQUE LANDS ALONG THE ROUTES OF THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC Through Texas. to Peerless California.. New Mexico. s. and Pullman Tickets. P. Arizona. B. Battery Place. H. FISHING. COACHING. General Eastern Passenger Agent. WHERE GOLF. . MORSE. New York. lowest Rates.. O. SUNSET LIMITED PACIFIC (""TEL m WHEELS. T.CALIFORNIA A REGION OF WONDERS. Steamer. CAL. T. HUNTING. address L. COAST EXPRESS. McCORMICK. TENNIS. Baggage Checked. Railroad. and Time Tables. Excellent Cuisine. New Orleans. A. POLO. and all information. SAN FRANCISCO. M. Old Mexico. BATHING. Maps. NUTTING. M. HOUSTON. TEXAS. F. BOATING. CAN BE ENJOYED EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR. J 349 Broadway or E. New York and Superb Service. Two NEW DAILY TRAINS NEW ORLEANS TO CALIFORNIA. P. DRIVING. For Free Illustrated Pamphlets. RIDING. Passenger Steamers Between Fast Time.

VI. How to Raffia and Rush Seat Chairs. unusual materials. X. VIII. PAGE & CO. DOUBLEDAY. Palm Leaf Basketry. 34 UNION SQUARE. XI. Flower Baskets. $1. NEW YORK . Unusual Materials.00. EAST. Shapes and weaves of treats of greater beauty and intricacy are described. Palm Leaf Hats. Raffia Basketry. which more advanced basket-making. II. VII. the making of hats and and numberless other matters about many of which the readers of the initial volume have chair seats written for information. CONTENTS I. Baskets for Practical Use. Centres and Weaves. Hanging Baskets. Square Baskets. V. IX. Hints on Dyeing. with new appliances. A Few PRICE. IV.MORE BASKETS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM BY MARY WHITE nPHE success first of White's Miss volume has led to this companion work. net. III.

but as a most attractive pastime and means of occupation among grown people as well. .BASKETS BY MARY WHITE FIFTH EDI T I HOW TO MAKE O X THE new drawn great interest in Indian baskets has attention to the art of basketwith the result that basketry has making. This little manual is Miss White the only guide to the work. . and then tells how to weave. - net. the simpler forms. $1. . not only in schools and training classes. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. found immediate favor. . .00 DOUBLEDAY. Mats and . Raffia and their Some . . next the more difficult patterns. Weaving. the Indian. of its Uses . . EAST. but which now rapidly becoming a lost art. few necessary impledescribes in detail the ments and materials. CONTENTS Material. and finally the complicated and beautiful work for which the Indians first is were once famous. PRICE. NEWYORK . . Preparation. the Simplest Baskets Borders Covers Handles Work Baskets Candy Birds' Nests Baskets Scrap Baskets the Finishing Touch Oval Baskets How to Cain Chairs Some Indian What the Basket Means to Stitches . Tools. .

80. Ingrain Carpet Rugs. Rugs. the Pattern . Si. Neighborhood Industries. EAST. Linsey Woolsey BY THE SAME AUTHOR. Dyeing. HPHIS *- admirably clear little volume gives specific instructions for the weaving of rugs. and this bi^ok will be found exceedingly valuable and suggestive to all who are interested in such work. PRICE. PRICE net. Wheeler has had a leading part. NEW YORK .HOW CANDACE WHEELER TO MAKE RUGS BY ILLUSTRATED. of beauty in house interiors. Rug Weaving Woven Rag . The healthy modern movement toward the hand-made things of daily use in the home is one in which Mrs. of PRINCIPLES HOME DECORATION net. CONTENTS. Portieres . 20. It undoubtedly be a helpful book to decorators. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. Cotton Rugs. but its chief Held will lie among the thousands of home-seekers whose range of experiment has not been wide enough to warrant successful practice. Woolen . drawn from the author's own experience in spreading this valuable home industry. based upon principles of art. Si. A STUDY will DOUBLEDAY.

^HE many ' PRICE. in her new book." life like Alei.oo DOUBLEDAY." said PRACTICAL COOKING Yuan hundred years ago. "is gether should match. Hill.FIVE THOUSAND SOLD ON PUBLICATION AND SERVING BY JANET McKENZIE HILL "Cookery. There are 200 helpful photographic illusThe book trations. and tells everything a housekeeper needs to know about the selection." accumulated gastronomic knowledge of centuries and the best modern domestic science have alike been drawn upon by Mrs. of the Boston Cooking School. net. which ma\ be washed. the Brillat-Savarin of China two matrimony t\vo things served to- And again: "Into no department of should indifference be allowed to creep into none less than cookery. contains 730 pages and is strongly bound in aluminum cloth. in color and black and white. NEW YORK . because it is practical. preparation and serving of food. S2. EAST." The first 5000 were sold on publication. Practical Cooking and Serving. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE.

- ^ff ' ^JE-'A-r^L -'^^. ." etc. -r- ' ' -~ ' -- A PEAK OF EROSION IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST With 1 6 full-page pictures and 50 half-page illustrations from photographs Crown 8vo Decorated cloth $2.00 net .THE INDIANS OF By THE PAINTED DESERT REGION GEORGE WHARTON JAMES of Author "In and Around the Grand Canyon of the in Colorado River Arizona." "Indian Basketry. .vr - . ^^^^p^^l .

of personal adventures and hardships desert. and with no soil fit upon countrv has inflicted for cultivation. the homes and invite their husbands to marry them. stranger's the chief ordered his daughter to head. who were placed reservation without water or fuel. but the author had to do when he photographed these Indians. one Indian divorcing wife because she declined to shampoo his head. to The love. James written about them in style. j they have Mr. When the author first visited the " Navahoes. giving a picture various Indian tribes and has own will agreeable and entertaining to every one. The women instead of talking about "Women's Rights have for ages possessed and knit their men weave the women's clothing own stockings. and the women build their own them . besides visited his of water. it Much " of their as the author describes is surely unique.The Indians of the like its Painted Desert Region author's valuable book work on the 1 the Grand Canyon is the result of experience. The Indian worst insult that is it is possible to offer to a Wallapais this throw her long hair away from her face. . Mr. which be quite new The first Indian tribe visited was the Hopis. Each act has a religious some beautiful religious ceremonies. a large portion is of the book domestic life devoted to this interesting tribe. James also writes of the ill-treatment which our upon the Navahoes. fraught Western with many journey ov-er dangers on account scarcity in a of sudden storms and absence of shelter. and one especially beautiful is sung in accompanied by songs. his "shampoo the This is considered a great luxury. honor of the birth of every child. A chapter is given to the religion significance : of the Hopis. and there much interesting information about Indian basketry and blanket weaving. chapter upon the legends of the Havasupais is is fascinat- ing and the book full of romantic and picturesque Indian is An entire is chapter devoted to the Hopi snake dance.

.

PUBLISHERS Boston. NAVAHO AT HOME. cially several and Havasupai they are a most valuable addition to the text. SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE HAVASUPAI. IV. XIV. BROWN. the Indians generally objecting to the photographing of some of the ceremony. religious rites." are unique. ADVENT OF THE WALLAPAIS. & 254 Washington Street CO. VI. XIII. VIII. Hopi. THE PAIN-TED DESERT REGION. Some of the subjects. NAVAHO AS A BLANKET WEAVER. of photographs taken by the author or by his special consist of sixteen full-page Accurately portraying the country. and fifty industries. and personal appearance of the Indians. THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE HOPI. BIBLIOGRAPHY LITTLE. XV. T'HK HOPI SNAKE DANCE. Navaho. V.The Indians The series artist of the Painted Desert Region illustrations are faithful reproductions of the beautiful who accompanied him. HAVASUPAIS AND THEIR LEGENDS. THE HOPI VILLAGES. PEOPLE OF THE BLUE WATER AND THEIR HOME. VII. Massachusetts . X. AND THEIR HISTORY. THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE NAVAHO AND HIS HISTORY. XI. XVI. A FEW HOPI CUSTOMS. DESERT RECOLLECTIONS. WALLAPAIS. II. FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE HOPI. XII. and half-page plates.. HAVASUPAIS' RELIGIOUS DANCES AND BELIEFS. espe- of those showing the famous "Snake Dance. III. IX. CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I.

and Mr.AN IMPORTANT NEW BOOK DESCRIBING THE MOST STUPENDOUS SCENE ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT In and Around the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES Illustrated pictures in with thirty full-page plates and seventy the text 8vo Cloth Price. of Indians.00 CROSSING THE COLORADO TO THE SHINUMO. James's in these own perilous experiences. $3. Dramatic narratives of hairbreadth stories escapes and thrilling adventures. beauties of the crowded with pictures of the marvels and Canyon. their legends and customs. Philadelphia Public Ledger. volume. is of absorbing interest. . give a wonderful personal interest wonder on pages of graphic description of the most stupendous natural the American Continent.

.TEMPLES AND BUTTES TO THE EAST FROM THE GRAND SCENIC DIVIDE.

He feels has told his story so fascinating a manner that one almost within sight and sound of the great canyon. and find explorers and discoverers. from the notes of Indian white hunters. and from the accounts of natives. respects the book possesses a charm peculiarly own. He own has not been content to describe the wonders in his words. but from historical records. There York. scenic. . One of the typical books of the great West. . he has quoted wherever he could matter of interest and value. a ring of actuality about this book.IN A & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON veritable storehouse of wonders. . Arizona. illustrated work of which too much can is scarcely be said in praise. Prescott. miners. The Grand Canyon this one of the world's wonsatisfying and volume its is the most thorough and attractions thus presentation of many rugged man of in far offered. work. There qualified . is - Boston Advertiser.. An ders. San Francisco Bulletin. Argonaut. New an The Grand Canyon exposition either with has never before received - such pen or camera. . --Arizona Daily Journal-Miner. . in Literary World. Legend and and local drawn upon in for the effect color. Too much cannot be said praise of Will be the standard with reference historic. . Brooklyn Standard Union. is probably no the writing the country in who is better for . freely - guides. description Tribune. so that its many . dramatic . San Francisco. . The most - thorough its the Colorado and Chicago of the Grand Canyon of surroundings to be found anywhere. San Francisco Chronicle. such a book than Professor his James. to the main features - and scientific of the Great Canyon of the tradition are Colorado.Outing.

CONTENTS THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS CANYONS. 254 BROWN. THE MYSTIC SPRING TRAIL. FIRST IMPRESSIONS. XXXII. XXVII. THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS. XII. JOHN D. POWELL (1869). THE CLIFF AND CAVE DWELLINGS. PHOTOGRAPHING THE GRAND CANYON. XXXIII. XXII. THE GEOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON. LITTLE. II. XXI. XXIX. THE TANNER-FRENCH TRAIL. THE HAVASUPAI INDIANS AND THEIR CANYON HOME. XXV. XVII. VII. BOSTON . AND A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE TOURIST. III. THE RED CANYON AND OLD TRAILS. V. RELIGIOUS AND OTHER IMPRESSIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON. XIII. LATER EXPLORATIONS. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GRAND CANYON REGION. AND THE DEAD VOLCANOES. IV. WHAT DOES ONE SEE? ON THE RIM. POWELL (1869-72). Publishers WASHINGTON STREET. XIV. AN ADVENTURE IN BEAVER CANYON. THE GRAND VIEW TRAIL. WRONG COMPANION. XXIV. EXPLORATIONS BY MAJOR J. THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. W. XXXI. THREE DAYS OF EXPLORING IN TRAIL CANYON WITH THE X. THE SHINUMO AND ITS ANCIENT INHABITANTS. VI. XXX. W. XIX. XXIII.IN & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON CHAPTER I. THE TOPOCOBYA TRAIL AND HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON. To THE CANYON BY RAILWAY. XI. EXPLORATIONS FROM THE TIME OF THE SPANIARDS (1540) TO MAJOR J. IX. BOTANY OF THE GRAND CANYON. MR. FROM THE SANTA FE RAILWAY TO THE CANYON BY STAGE. XVIII. W. XXVI. XXVIII. XX. LEE'S FERRY AND THE JOURNEY THITHER. HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON AND ITS WATERFALLS AND LIMESTONE CAVES. & CO. VIII. XV. GRAND CANYON FOREST RESERVE. THE OLD HOPI TRAIL. Two DAYS' HUNT FOR A BOAT IN A SIDE GORGE NEAR THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. PEACE SPRINGS TRAIL. BASS AND HIS CANYON EXPERIENCES.. LEE AND THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. UP AND DOWN GLEN AND MARBLE CANYONS. W. FLAGSTAFF. XVI.

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