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By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES "i AUTHOR OF INDIAN BASKETRY. THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO RIVER ETC.. IN ARIZONA. THE INDIANS OF THE PAINTED DESERT REGION. New York. ' "1903 HENRY MALKAN. (L . ETC. 1 William Street.How TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

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Well do I remember. bent over for a few minutes my childish back seemed to be and when I asked Lige how ihe could endure it for hours at a broken. the worker bending down almost double over the work. I wish to do my share in helping it along by making a book of helpful instructions and hints that will be worthy the dignity of the subject. After I came to the United States the work of the Paiuti Indians soon arrested my attention." or he never could do it." Now that the work of Basket Making is being taken up in earnest. throwing its grateful heat into the cold room and cheering all who came within its influence. as a child. The earlier lessons." and throw it up on the top of the fire and well back into the throat of the chimney. other fads it will have its day and then die. the son of my father. of course. Like Just now the making of Indian and other baskets is a fad." and into my youthful ears he used to pour his tales of of woe at the hardships of a basket-maker's life. always a man of originality. oldest brother. rose at once to meet the occasion. too. after being started. The earliest remembrances of my life are connected with that art. The young man was "Lige. as my father was a basket maker. but it will do I When . In the making some of the larger and coarser baskets the bottoms. learned the art and was a good workman. from the simplest to the most complex. INTRODUCTION. and made a mixture of coal dust and the thick ends or "nubbins" cut from the ends of new splints or "weavers" introduced into the coarse kinds of all My baskets. are for children. but personally a skilled workman himself. Two of his workmen were father and son. and. HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. But unlike many fads there is something in the making of baskets that will keep the art alive. should write a treatise on basket making. as during the recent Eastern coal strike. treading on the work itself the weavers were woven in. and after a fire of coals was well alight my father would take a coal scuttle full of this mixture which he called "backing. named Fields. a season when coal was dear and scarce. We used the old-fashioned English grates. when those who practised it merely as a fad have forgotten that they ever were interested in it. It has been my purpose in arranging the following pages to introduce all the stitches. and I began the studies which culminated two years ago in the publication of my "Indian Basketry. My father.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. In half an hour or less it would be a bed of fire. not simply a trader in baskets. time his solemn asseveration was that "he'd had his backbone taken out. were pinned through the center with a large steel bodkin to a heavy flat board. It is singularly appropriate that I. practically usable.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. .

as far as I can learn. true and false. Let me at the outset say that the divisions of the subject are purely It does not necessarily follow that the coil weave is harder than the mat weave because the latter comes first in the book. Stimulate his and inventiveness in the use of materials. walked and plighted their troth. Let him know that while he is doing this experimenting he is following exactly the plan of Edison. peopled by lords and ladies. while what we read or are told may be inaccurate or positively false. but tell that same child that this pile was once a who castle. Where possible.. telegraphs. and that knowledge gained by experience is sure and certain. Ga. Indian felt let them select as the Indian did. If I have failed to do so I gladly apologize and in later editions the necessary acknowledgements or corrections if will call my attention to them. director of the Industrial School of Columbus. . For material for these pages I have ransacked everything I could find. and. teacher of basketry in the schools of the will make some kind reader . Teach them the value of That failure means endeavor. In this work I have tried to suggest to the teacher how to make Put human interest into the subject more interesting to her pupils. at least. . and the lifeless pile is transformed into a palpable living entity. into an object from which imagination may conjure countless fascinatnecessary to for the . Especially do I wish to thank Mr. let him make his own selections. water gas. That the Indian had to learn everything in that way. but individual thought and expression are to adults to erity thus gained will secured. any subject and it enlivens it. The skill and dextbe exceedingly useful in the later work. where all the events that go to make up life transpired. design. John Sheridan Neligh. make some divisions. and others of our great inventors who have given us telephones. and their preparation in the shape. and dyes. educated. and returned flushed with victory or sad and despondent through defeat that it was a place where children were born. married and died. and endeavor persisted in is failure. and not only may valuable dismaterial. She had no other teacher than experience. Let the child experiment in the drying. if not the first. dyeing. never failure. let him determine what is best adapted for this basket and for that. and Gray. ing and interesting pictures. indeed. coveries be the result. It was arbitrary. It is this thought that should animate every teacher and worker in In going out to choose materials let the children feel as the basketry. one of the first. Show him that all progress comes that way. to show what may be done and to 'Stimulate to personal investigation and experiment. who lived in stirring times achieved things who went forth to war with all pomp and ceremony. or. and weave of his baskets.HOW no harm TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. A variety of materials has been introduced purposely. 7 do the work here outlined. . and these were thought the best purpose in view. electric cars. Teachers should encourage their pupils to try every possible Thus invention is stimulated. and the thousand and one things that mean our progressive civilization. A pile of rocks means little to an unimaginative child. and Lowe. where lovers. I have given full credit for everything borrowed. and general preparation of the material. and Bell.

Firth. My grateful acknowledgements are also tendered to Miss Annie United FIG. helpful wife. WHITING.8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Columbia University. I assure her she is most heartily welcome. hope in return Miss Firth much in If suggestions that she can avail herself of for English readers. for original suggestions. of Teachers' College. she can. and And these thanks also include his help given in a variety of ways. States. has been most generous in her helpfulness. DESIGNED AND MADE BY MARGARET C. MASS. B. For all the photographs of my . DEERPIELD. baskets to photograph. 3. Miss Mary White's "How to Make Baskets'' has also been drawn from. from whose "Cane Basket I Work" I have bodily taken much will find as valuable material. CORN HUSK POPPY BASKET. Hyde. Miss M.

The net. PIG. The coil. There stand. The \veb. SPOKES TURNED UP FOR SIDES. The two chapters respectively on The Choice and the Preparation are five of Materials may be skipped or not as the reader desires. III. I have deemed it best to discuss each one separately. simple methods of work. V. all of which it is well to underThese are distinguished by the following names: I. The plait. and the practical character of chapter her work will prove a boon to all my readers. IV. II. 143. The purpose is to give to the solitary student every advantage for self training and to every teacher suggestions which will aid in her work with children. In these lessons' I have begun with the simplest materials and work. To any person the exercises will be helpful. the students at the college and the major part of the on dyes I am indebted to her.HOW work made by TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . The mat. While in some regards these five methods overlap each other.

New York. FANCY SPLINT BASKET. 4. . Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.PIG.

impossible deSimplicity signs. poetry. which hope. in which it is approached and done. as removed from that of mere commercialism. de. or indifference. her colors are natural her weaves are ral her designs are natural natural with all the perfection added of conscientious art. The true imitator of Indian work or. Nature herself. And in NaThe Indian's forms are natuture the true inspiration will be found." There is more in life than the mere outward expressions of it we call "work. From this the natural process will be a reference of the Indian work to their original source. It was a perfect exemplification I of the idea suggested by the good of the sublimity of the poet Herbert. THE SPIRIT IN WHICH BASKET MAKING SHOULD BE APPROACHED. at least feel as/ much ? If she sought to present the highest she saw in Nature in the most perfect fashion. I I CHAPTER II. There are no fanciful forms. their preparation. sign.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. If the poor uncivilized Indian thus basket-maker clearly should be felt when she approached her work." or "because it is quite But to the the rage. and weave. perhaps. carelessness. This at once eliminates the hideous and grotesque in shape." and in the work of basket-making much will depend upon : the motive. Browning well wrote "Not on the vulgar mass called work Must judgement pass.. for them. inharmonious colors. it would be better to say. desire. inadequate weaves. viz. the weave. that made basket-making to the old Indians almost an act of religion." and such people had better read no further. aspimythology. who said out of a room. and then in the shape. There was an earnestness of purpose. were Hence the work was approached in a of art. their liarmoniousness. glaring. passing whim it was from that of levity. designs. color . the spirit. to the all uncontaminated Indian meant a work less ration. . right the veriest nonsense to the person who is merely money there is in it. the must approach it in true worker desirous of emulating Indian work the true Indian spirit and this I have endeavored to describe in my Suffice it to say here that the basket larger book on Indian Basketry. the tout ensemble. is something Xow all this making baskets for "the : higher civilization. . colors and weaves. a conscientiousness of endeavor in the gathering of the materials. love. in spirit as far or fancy. poetic of my readers the ideas given will clearly The attitude of mind and heart in the illuminate what follows. national pride. religion. should not I also seek to do the same ? An affirmative answer then compels a study of Indian Basketry This will produce a growing love form?. more or interwoven. . should not I. emotion-full. the product of a sweeping believe. the design. sentient.

your pupils. the unnaturally complex from your line of observation. is the keynote. the grotesque.12 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER this BASKETS. variety illimitable. 1 Banish the hideous. simple things. effects incalculable. . and upon the triad and gamut naturally are Diversity without end. yet all based upon natural simplicity. FIG. the power that come from purity and simplicity. 5. and your work will gradually take upon itself the character. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. your children. SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS FAN. New York. Begin then by training yourself. the grace. design and color the built. to love the simple in nature. the dignity. Learn to imitate in form.

6. and the moral uplift as desire and endeavor are crystalized into actuality. as well as a useful aid in training towards manual dexterity and skill. the colors will all mean something more to you than what merely shows on the outside. your cathedral. its own. New York. but can be learned only from the In your work endeavor to follow this Indian idea.HOW Elsewhere. who can estimate? Thus the basket becomes a factor in moral and spiritual development. Thus work and worker are both ennobled and there are given to the world more things of beauty to be "joys forever. color all How that each one has a significance in shape. as the Indian own Make your basket in hieroglyphics. too. You can thus make the basket your poem. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. from elements as TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. your sculpture. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. FIG. lips. . design and This personality cannot be deciphered by reading weaver's the exponent of something within yourself. 13 I have shown the marvellous personality of the basket." and whose "loveliness will increase and never pas* into nothingness. has done. then the shape. the design. your painting." The pleasure of such achievements as this who can tell.

forth to seek for splints. some of the chief benefits that should accrue from basket-making are lost if they do not largely do so. senses alert. knowledge of local materials gained. she set of the is if Here. raffia or willow ready dyed and done up in bundles to her hand. the squaw-grass. FIG. 6. and. sweet gras-s. CHOICE OF MATERIALS. where the art is stimuused . The Haida found the cedar bark and spruce root the Poma slough Thus each locality yielded root. Though trade and barter were common with the primitive Indians. as elsewhere. The powers of observation are lated. 7. So with eyes a-down. Now while it is not essential that white weavers of baskets should closely confine themselves to material they personally gather. the method one would get the real value out Indian of basket making. She had no store to which she could go and purchase cane. CHAPTER III. The Hopi found the willow. She must find the materials in her own environment. the root of the tule. The Mono found the willow. BASE OF BASKETS SHOWN IN FIG. filling and dye. the yucca and a desert grass called wu-u-shi.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York. maiden hair fern stem. the martynia. the red bud. to its weavers the materials' required for the exercise of their art . it was not to trade that the weaver looked for her basket-making materials. the best to follow. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

MASS. . and the (history of commercial growth is largely the detailing of how the useless was converted into the useful by invention. hitherto useless material is converted into a financial benefit. SWALE GRASS TRAY. tain lives camp because civilized races habitat is largely determined locates i>n the desert. 15 to help the poor commercially. We know that by commercialism. In some instances there can be but little question that the location all of materials for the pursuit of the art of basket weaving has deter- FIG. . DEERP1ELD. 8. imagination and skill. have a tradition which clearly points in a measure in that direction. . There are few really useless things under the sun. for instance. This principle should be applied to this art. canyon or mounthere he finds the precious metal. mined the settlement of a tribe of people.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. DESIGNED AND MADE BY GERTRUDE ASHLEY. The Chemehuevis. The cattleman among The miner near the range where his cattle roam the foundryman near the foundry which employs him the clerk near the store in which he is engaged. which is a new and direct gain to the community.

MASS. FIG 9. a zest and purpose to a ramble to "On this trip let us imagine ourselves Indian women and Indian children going out to hunt grasses or other material for basketwill do this for several weeks. in stimuIt can also be used to excellent lating the imagination of the child. DEERFIELD. So the Indian woman's voice was naturally raised in favor of a location where her basket-making material was easiest obtained. as Indians. our explorations we will decide where we. MADE BY MADELINE T. WYNNE. This hint can be made interesting by teachers of the art. and then as the result of making. RED BIRD BASKET. It gives an object in view." . AND advantage feel there is in field trips. should pitch our We permanent camp.i6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

10 AND 11. blood. and thus both senses and brain. come from such trips should not be This. Breathe in it drink it in absorb it in. the highest faculty in true education. He is a benefactor in the highest. There is His chemical labratory where Get out into the health. \J Put such a thought as this into the mind gives added pleasure to outdoor rambling. throw physics to the dogs. FIGS. are healthfully exercised and stimulated. scious of strength and power to do what you will. Selection of the best next follows. defy the demon of dyspepsia and come back into the world of men and women con! ! . fullest sense who trains another to habits of observation. sunlight and odors. when one thinks that he has found a material that is suitable either for weaver. send melancholia and depression to the devil. filling or dye. New York. vigor. of child or adult and it Then the incalculable benefit in the necessary stimulation of the will powers of observation that overlooked. For. . Many a nervous. nerves and brain with pure life and health. it must be tested. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. fullness of it. CHETEMACHE MATS. should ever be kept in exercise. broken-down adult would find new life and health in doing what Out of doors Into God's Out of doors I have here suggested. And this is not merely good for a child. power are hourly being manufactured. pure air. dyspeptic. Experimentation follows observation in this field. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. Fill up lungs.

H W 02 <H PQ w H T PH P H I I Q C3 il d .

viz. wealth means added cojnfort and happiness. "I will know for myself! 1 will experiment and test and find out everything that can be found out as to the resources of my neighborhood that can be utilized in this work. quantity. Care should be taken. One may be cut sevtan. 72 to 85. perfectly beautiful. appropriate and harmonious. and a caution given to children. how prepared and any further particulars that may be of interest. For her selection is the result. Personal experimentation should be the keynote in the mind of every adult who seeks to gain the greatest good from basket-making. To teach others how a useless weed may be converted into a commercial commodity is to create wealth. it is equally true that he is a benefactor who finds a use for that which has hitherto been deemed useless. its habitat. that wherever an Indian has been over the ground. In that chapter the student will find many suggestions that may aid her in utilizing the material df her own section. perhaps. One who has learned how to use willows cannot immediately work in reed or rat- and yucca strands need very different handling from squaw grass or pine needles. to avoid the grasses with saw-toothed or other sharp edges.it can be made. The Indian's judgment may be relied upon. I gathered together much information as to materials used by the Indians. and methods of preparation. she -may be sure of. in the work of that Indian will be found the very best basket-making material of thai region. to Pasadena. It is merely suggestive. what they if you have any Indian workers have been in the habit of using in their basketry work." pages material as perfect as. and among the poor and needy. One thing. possibly. The overcoming of difficulties exercises the faculty of invention. not named here. and to she can use from her own stimulate the weaver to find out what \Yhen any new material. It must not be supposed that familiarity with and skill in the use of one material can be transferred at will to some other material!. as most of us firmly believe. In this diversity the true student will find pleasure. that he is a benefactor who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew before. except. their In "Indian Basketry. of centuries of practical experience and therefore. 19 CHAPTER IV. with its local and Indian name. is found I shall locality. in the matter of speed. By to see. at the outset it will be well their colors in your locality. even though her methods may be bettered. following the suggestions given in this chapter every teacher may enThe following list large the sphere and scope of her benefactions. If it be true. however. . Each material demands personal study and use. be obliged if a sample be sent to me. makes no pretention to completeness." With all our scientific knowledge we cannot improve upon the methods and results of the Indians. Their dyes are unfading.. THE PREPARATION OF MATERIALS.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. California. habit or growth.

Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. . SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. 13. FIG.20 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York.

have gathered them they can be shown in one lesson how that. itself is very brittle. Prepared for commerce rattan is stripped of its leaves and bark. and again ascending. a^ type of the sub-tribe Raphieae. Its long strands are from one and a half to two feet in length. for tying up fruit trees and other gardening purWith their native economy the French. Nos. and then the Germans. i. though the BamIt busa. It grows erect in dense tufts.HOW erely TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. flexible and fissile. by Then it is well to sticking them together. and is known as ground-rattan. 50 and even 120 making . especially as they afford so much greater opportunity for the exercise of skill and artistic effort. to use it in connection with cane and reed in the manufacture began of sma'll baskets. and was originally shipped to France and England to be used mainly as florists' twine. The recent awakening to the importance of basketry has brought rattan into marked prominence. 3. falling in festoons. being the finest. The material purchased from the seed The leaf stores is the epidermis of the leaf stripped on both sides. Sometimes it attains the astounding length of 500 feet. It is a palm of the genus Calamus. majnly found in the East Indies. light. It grows in all warm countries. is found only in Southern and Eastern Asia. the chief type. and thus the tree is often from 60 to 70 feet high to the tips of the leaves. and would be useless for this work. and 15. but the fibre It is tied in long hanks. to the a compajratively easy task to see that each pupil has her needlefull of raffia. RATTAN climbing the tallest trees. and there are plenty of in handling if careless other materials without using these that may do injury. allowing them to create any &hape they RAFFIA may is desire. 4 are common sizes. 2. COCKLE-BUR. is one of the most popular of basket-making materials because it is long. leave them to their own imagination. over 50 feet in length. Raffia is the native name given to a Madagascar palm of the tribe Lepidocaryeae. is the most expensive. 5 and 6 being used for the coarser work. who has a large number of children to direct. Nos. and seldom exceeding an inch in thickness. whereais in the use of the shorter splints of the Indian much time would be occupied and patience exhausted in rethreading or reinserting these thus teacher much preferable to the shorter splints of the Indian. and is put up into bundles of round cane or flat strips. 21 such grasses. It has a long leaf. it is short and soon used up lengths. The rattan of China and Japan is of the genus Raphis. and it is For. a form can be created. tough. poses. growing to the height of 20. and when the revival of the art of basketry reached England. As strength and digital dexterity increase stronger easily handled. and when the children his work. is an arborescent grass. ideal weaving material for the untrained fingers of be- It is soft and flexible and ginners or the weak fingers of children. The much-despised and hated cockle-bur may be used as a stimulant of the child's imagination in the beginning of These burs can be found anywhere. stripped from its outside is tough and pliable. numbered from i to No. 'holds an important place in the list of basketThe BAMBOO materials. the workers there at once perceived its adaptability and seized upon it as an excellent and ideal weaving material for beginners. materials can be used.

.22 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

MOSS. several wood being white. one species alone. A chapter is devoted to sweet grass weaving. From Virginia to Texas there grows along the coast a pine which has spiculae or needles from ten to twelve well The>se needles dry easily and are inches in length. but this rs a slow and laborious task. also makes excellent filling better than the moss. the knives being set by gauge and screw. are peeled and make excellent material for wrapping splints. The PALAI family affords much material for basketry. in the larger speeies. The special kind (S. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. pools and rivers. The broad strip is placed inside the grooves of the "sheer. whose tall. a type of a tribe of aquatic plants which grow immersed in shallow bogs and other waters. can be expected from such perishable material. Where mo cutter is to be had the strips may be made with scissors. the BUCK-EYE kinds of which are well adapted to this purpose. giving the raffia now so largely used. Pine needles. PINE NEEDLES. the (Aesculus). properly Zostera. though. of this has a cuticle of a rich. and stems are used in basketry work. CORN SWEET LONG for the inner coil. and of the dwarf palmetto (S. as has already been shown. longer or shorter. elsewhere pictured. the Bamboo-palm. and the root purposes. are found throughout the whole country and children should be encouraged to do the best they can with such as they can find. wide strips. dries well and is excellent for many In California the Scirpus Tatora is called tule. round stems are seen projecting above the water in lakes. smooth. adapted either for material for the inner coil of coiled baskets. adansoni). and even for weavers. 23 Both with a diameter. bluish-green. The leaves of the palmetto (Sabal palmetto). This moss is largely used for the 'stuffing of mattresses. In the South there grows in va'st quantities the (Tillandsia usneoides) whose dense pendulous tufts drape the trees. To prepare these for basket work two cutting implements are used. it is cut into The wood splints of the desired width. though rattan is more common in America for general purposes. As the splint is drawn through the cutter. leaves Good soft. The Southern variety referred to above . The ingenious teacher will find many ways of using even as the Indians do. lacustris). of from 4 to 8 inches. Raffia vinifera. brown color. a tree growing from 20 to 35 feet high. splints are made from worked. The (Scirpus) of different species may be largely BULLRUSH basketry.HOW feet. and can be used for filling for the inner coil of baskets. used in A grass that can be used is SENECA-GRASS. nothing durable HUSKS. which is used by the Cahuilla Indians as wrapping splint for their coiled ware. and also for splints for the mat weave work herein described. or as unwrapped BROOM CORN LONG and is (Sorghum Vulgare) much cleainer and coils sewed together as illustrated elsewhere. ponds. sometimes also known as holy-grass and vanilla-grass. of course." which has three or more tiny but sharp knives protruding from its base. GRASS is largely used in some parts of the United It is States and Canada for the making of simple and pretty baskets. spongy and easily commerce are purchased in long.

SPLINT BASKETS. New York. MASS. . FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 16. FIG. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. REED BASKETS MADE AT DEERFIELD. 15.

WEAVER FIG. and generally known as the Georgia pine. a slender branching shrub with tough. could be so prepared as to make a fairly good wrapping splint for coiled work. Gathered too soon it is greenish. It must be gathered when the pod is at its blackest. When FIG. Pseudo known as bull-brier. All lovers of the fine basketry of Northern California know the rich black wrapping splint of the twined basketry. stringy bark. the long-leafed pine (pinus palustris). This is* the stem FERN. In Australia and New Zealand grows the pimelea. Apache and Havasupai baskets are worked out with it. The MARTY NT A is a plant capable of cultivation in any part of A small package of seeds can be purchased for twentythe country. the black is rusty and poor. though the name pita is given indiscriminately to the fibre obtained from the MAIDEN HAIR SMILAX GRASS . called COIR. too late. Arrangements have been made for the gathering of abundant quanthese long pine needles and a sample bunch will be sent by mail free on receipt of twenty-five cents. which are used in basket-making. which is the same as The SILK the pita of Central America. is a valuable fiber produced principally from' the Bromelia Sylvestris. whiclh will grow enough for a small class. the There are some pliant species of China). picked at the right time the black is perfect. 17. a kind of wild pineapple. SPLINT CUTTER. This bark is prepared and the fibre used for textile purposes.HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. The fibre of the cocoanut. (S. 18. An effort is five cents. of the Adiantum pedatum. and all the designs of the Pima. of British Honduras. tities of being made by The Basket Fraternity to secure these seeds for sale. FOUNDATION SPLINT CUTTER.

FIG. . RAFFIA BOUND PICTURE FRAMES. Work of Students. New York.26 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 25. Teachers' College.

There are two or three species of that are largely culIn Europe the Almond-leafed willow tivated for basket-making. especially when made of palmetto or similar material. 27 Agave. Most of the coarse basketry Vitellina) are used for this purpose. also known as henequen.HOW various species O'f TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER This is BASKETS. and kept turned over every day. are made more pliable by slight soaking and then running between the thumb and dull edge of shears. (Salix Amygdalkia) and especially the Golden Willow or osier (S. and the finer work is made by splitting the willow into splints and using them for wrapping. of England is made from this latter species. WILLOW FIG. but can find no reference to Sisal Willow. as resists damp- ness better than the simple hemp. as do the California and other Indians. In their preparation most of the common grasses will dry if put in little exa warm but shady place." A . Somehow the words "Sisal Willow" have come into use in I am free to confess I do not know what the Sisal Willow basketry. and is largely used for making ship's cajbles. DEERFIELD STRAW BASKETS. which is the fibre of the agave ixtli or I henequen. or sisal it hemp. and Sisal hemp. Other materials will be found referred to in later pages showing the infinite variety the ingenious teacher may utilize. and Sisal grass The Century Dictionary gives shall be glad to be enlightened. is 160. Mat splints. perience will soon demonstrate the best method of "curing.

and. however. cheaply. so may you. CHAPTER V. third and every other place. In the first place. So begin with determination and courage. The faded flowers are full of the purple liquid. tender. Discourage their use in others. Miss White tells of "one basket-maker who found in the purple iris a dye almost as deep as its own blossoms. The loud trumpet notes of aniline color do not -suit such soft and flexible work as basNever until the white man of no artistic taste perverted and ketry. To learn to dye well is a liberal education in many things. experiment in every way. Explicit directions in so subtle and elusive a matter as dyeing is not to be expected in a book of this character. mix in a little of it. As a general principle. If you are preparing a red. if you have in some long forgotten closet a copy of your great-grandmother's old recipe book. know 'somewhat of their methods. fix firmly and forever in your minds that aniline dyes are " anathema " to ajll " " true basketry lovers. get it out. Do not touch them. and happen to 'have some other dye at hand. DYES At : HOW TO MAKE AND it USE THEM. In "Indian Basketry" I tell of some Indian mordants. They are the accursed things which bring sorrow into the camp of the faithful.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. ten to one you will find wonderfully suggestive helps there. color it a beautiful shade which is We quite as fast as most dyes. anywhere. and. restful harmonies in these masterpieces' nay mistresspieces of ancient the outset let anything more than a . chemistry teaches that where you have an acid dye it is well to have an alkali mordant. when they are rubbed on rattan. second. and the chapter on colors is well worth another reading in connection with these hints. Alum is a good ordinary mordant and can be had. work ? In this chapter I desire to stimulate each thoughtful and earnest student to the endeavor to reach what these wild weavers reached. Thus a valuable and interesting discovery may be made. delicate. be understood fully that this is not presented as chapter of suggestion and hints. and when an alkali dye an acid mordant. Experiment will soon teach the value of this. reminding you of the days when your ancestors spent many hours over the dye pot or tub. exquisite melodies of soft. As a rule all materials and dyes need a mordant. more harmonious. and test the result. more permanent. And who that has done this has not felt the charm and delight of sweet. Hence to get rhe true conception of color one has but to study the old baskets. Just as an artist experiments in color on his palette board and thus finds what he wants. This is to "fix" the dye. Vegetable dyes are softer in tone." Hence. led astray the Indian with aniline dyes did he make mistakes in color. and better in accord with basketry work. and they cannot be improved upon. Also. . In "Indian Basketry" I have said something about them. Remember that experience will widen your horizon and enlarge your capacities.

John's wort (hypiricum perforatum). TAN. but it GREEN. and the dye can be used with safety. Dragon's blood gives a pleasing orange. Logwood extract gives a fine brown. but the acid will rot the material to be dyed. is suggested for a dark. in used. But this dye is never strong even though a large quantity of the leaves The powder of BROXVN Blood Root gives a deep yellow. and alcohol must be used for the purpose. Indigo. The powder can be bought from any druggist. Butternut bark. . There is nothing to fear. and stems give a good tan. Cranberries give a dull red. Madder gives a dull red. You will not care satisfactory. leaves and flowers. . The sulphuric acid is poured on the indigo. 2Q Miss \Yhite suggests the use of a solution of three ounces of alum dissolved in a quart of water. preferably about fo-ur ounces to two gallons of water. gives the color must be confessed it is difficult to handle without exMiss Hyde found Chase's Recipe Book give her help. though animal. Cochineal. Miss Hyde prefers much less. When the alum is well dissolved place the liquid in a small tub and soak the material to be dyed in it for fully two hours. This allows the soda to completely neutralize the sulphuric acid. Learners will find that indigo will not dissolve in water. So before the materials are immersed. This allows the fibre of the raffia or rattan to take up the mordant. and are used. Inj the making of dye here are a few hints as to material. add water and put in soda until it stops foaming. the acid must be neutralized by the addition of soda.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. can also be used with good results. as water will not readily dissolve the stick. and one will find great pleasure in experimenting with bark from different trees. Saffron can be bought from the druggists. YELGather St. with ammonia a good purple. This gives a bright yellow. The powder is easier to handle. and is easy to handle. Sumac leaves. which can be found growing everywhere on the roadside. to handle the poke berries as they stain the hands. Use a stick to stir it with. This can be bought from the druggists powder form in the South it can be found growing in the fields. which keep stirring often. ORANGE. for blue. Do not buy it in stick form. Sulphuric acid will dissolve it. causing the liquid to foam in an alarming manner. to be purchased of any druggist. drop by drop. and the root is the part to use. LOW. This gives a light yellow that is very pleasing. and combined PURPLE. and thus prepares for the permanent fixing of the dye a thing much to be desired. RED. however. the stems. perience. diluting with water when red. and beets a color similar but more The poke berry gives a purple red. while the fruit gives a reddish or what might better be termed a light or pink tan. Be sure to keep your hands out of this mixture. As> soon as the indigo is dissolved fully. and stirred vigorously. The bark of the maple and pine both give nice shades of brown. though not as strong as logwood gives satisfactory Walnut and hickory nut shells results if an extra quantity is used. It is well to make plenty of this mixture. Onion skins give a dull yellow that is> very satisfactory. deep Combined with cream of tartar it gives a bright red.

For instance. or of becoming an capable It is fortunate that many individual basket offence to the eye. and if found not strong enough can either be boiled down or more material used. put in about five or six large beets to a gallon of water. walnut shucks. DYES. and went and gathered more walnut shucks. put in more. Experience has demonstrated that the best time to collect these materials is in October or November. when the seeds and fruit are ripe and the sap is well down in the trunks of the trees.. who work in raffia. In u sing beets. Mass. and they secured a delicious shade of green.. It can be diluted. enough (as experience will soon demonstrate). that can be held in both hands. is of taking on soft and harmonious colors. In an early bulletin 'of the Basket Fraternity I hope to publish a full and detailed account of Deerfield and its work. let it remain longer. The following is from the pen of Miss Margaret C. If this is not Let it remain in the liquid from 15 to 20 minutes. fustic. By . Keep turning the material over and over. realize the necessity of natural dyes in order to and lasting color combinations in their designs. general proportion to be observed is two ounces to one gallon of water. stumble upon many interesting facts. Three or four weeks later they again wished some green dye. In every case the dye must be boiling when the material is immersed. one teacher had her scholars gather walnut shucks for dyeing purposes. skill and time to do madder and copperas. always using a wooden stick for the purpose. . "Basket workers. This time their green dye came out "brown. have only lately begun to produce good and is a fundamental it need. poke berries. TO MAKE THE A Butternut bark. use about one pound to a gallon of water." and the disappointed children were unable at first to comprehend the reason for the change. so that the color evenly reaches: all the parts.30 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. sumac. All the materials are to be boiled. onion skins. For a dye pot a good enamel kettle is as serviceable as anything. First mordant as before described. On the other hand. a society whose work in fine basketry other pages of this book will well testify to. All of the above will generally give their color with a half hour's good boiling. This gives a fairly strong dye. or groups of workers. a little more will do no harm. MATERIAL. if necessary. as if there is any sediment it is liable to etc. Cranberries. it for them. all > DYE THE arrest the work of the dye and give irregular color effects. If these do not produce the desired color. It does not need much suggesting to show how that to an intelligent teacher this practically prepared the hearts and minds of her pupils for a valuable lesson in natural history. Even in this work one is liable to . cochineal needs fully two hours to C* C? produce good results-. Thus observation and interest are stimulated the first elements of all true education. The green coloring matter had gone new matter or changed matter was in its place. TIME TO COLLECT MATERIALS. TO Be sure and strain the dye. makers. are following the exampe of Deerfield. of the Pocumtuck Basket Society of Deerfield. and no craftsman will continue long to rest satisfied with seeing his design developed in the loud and vulgar colors that raffia dyed In itself raffia is a material that in chemical or aniline dyes produce. in either doing their or employing someone own dyeing who has in indigo. \Yhiting.

greens and blues done in small vats prepared by old rules of tried permanence. yellows. of baskets made by a group of amateur but skillful basket-makers in a surburban town belonging to Greater New York. how their mere possession gives suggestion of patterns and combinations to the eye of a skillful basket-maker. The much lamented decay of good design and of excellence in ornamental work has been largely helped by the manufactured dyes how great an influence toward the tasteless and tawdry has been wrought by the invention of aniline colors. for a charity. Miller's colors proved the charm possible to FIG. obtain from the color harmonies of vegetable dyes. another that bore trees. New York. The basket with a holly design. of Students. whose maker whimsically proclaimed to grow in "the vale of cedars. which her own desire to produce turns to admirable account. Teachers' RATTAN. 3! means the dld-fashioned processes of hand-dyeing are being revived. from Mrs. Miller. who can say?" . browns. that which was decorated with a stiff row of tulips." and still another developed in orange and black with a barbaric design in white beads. and far-reaching effects may quite reasonably be hoped for from the individual dyers who are thus being encouraged. whose "Colonial Dyes" of over a dozen shades and tones of reds. Quite recently a modest sale. 135. tried by the garish modern colors that it is impossible to be'lieve the future will consent to accept.HOW these TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. all show the inspiration harmonious colors give to the designer. . Such an one is Mrs. of Brooklyn. Work SIMPLE WEB BASKETS OF College. are so pleasing to the eye.

and then rapidly pulled. A . 17 consists of a number of knives set apart for the 'making of splints for weavers. indeed an old rasp file Rubber thimble and finger caps will answer the purpose very well. are useful. . DOUBLE WEAVING. 19 tapestry needle is good to begin with) strong scissors. are cut to the required length. Miss Marie Toxuse. kindly permitted me accompanying engravings made from her two cutters. Cutters for preparing wood splints are used by the Eastern Indians. an awl about four inches long. FIG. New York. employed by the Hyde Exploring Expe: . a yard measure and foot rude a sharp knife a pair of small. 19. is adjustable. In both these cutters the broad . the 26 West 23rd street. and can be set by means of the thumb screw brass fillers to cut the splints from an eighth of an inch to dition. pressed upon With a pair of scissors the the knives. 21. in width. The student should be provided with the follotwing tools needle (about a No.splint is inserted.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. flat pliers or pincers a narrow piece of heavy. CHAPTER VI. . when these members are tender. FJG. or strand A . FIG. or weaver. 22. SINGLE WEAVING. PAIRING. to have Fig. FIG 20. A SPLINT. 18 and the an inch at the proper distance Fig. flat iron or steel that can be used as a hammer between the spokes of a basket. This should be about five or six inches long and two inches broad. TOOLS AND TERMS USED. resulting splints is the name given to the strip or splint. a small hamimer.

upon which the basket is built up. This. SINGLE WEAVING. the framework. ROPE TWIST. 33 piece of material used for wrapping. TRIPLE TWIST. and before the next. (This is before. The weaver is placed behind one spoke or foundation rod. PAIRING. 24. or worked in various ways in and out of the warp splints. 19 hold a The warp the foundation splints are the ribs. though four or more weavers may be used. then each weaver is brought in succession before two spokes and behind one. and if one or more weavers have already been used. weavers are taken on to the next spoke twist them so that the lower weaver takes the place of the upper. ROPE TWIST. The woof splints are the weavers which are wrapped. The fingers in Fig. thus alternating. 22. either for beauty or strength. the bones. four weavers are placed behind four consecutive spokes. the other behind the where two weavers are used. see Fig. Each in its transit to the back of the fourth spoke must be laid on the top of the other three weaver?. 20. Then as the FIG. This weave is used where a break or dividing line in a basket is desired. 23. see Fig. splint. 21. 23. but one is placed same spoke.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as in Fig. . being laid at the same time on the top of the weavers that preceded it. WEAVING. they must be included in the four to make up this twist. Three weavers are placed behind three consecutive spokes.is where two weavers are used DOUBLE instead of one. the spokes. TRIPLE WEAVE. This is a variation of the triple weave. For starting. It is also used as a border finishing weave. 24. It is to pack tightly together this kind of weaving that the flat piece of iron referred to in the list of tools is so useful. This is clearly shown in Fig. FIG. This is shown in Fig. or twined.

raffia to advantage in teaching little children illustrating the use of two materials of different degrees of flexibility. HOW TO BEGIN. RAFFIA WRAPPED ARTICLES. this cut a circle. Teachers' College. CHAPTER VII. the more readily does one see the possibilities and limitations of each . New York." In all the following exercises it is well to PICTURE FRAMES. here given. Work of Students. bristol Cut a 6-inch square from being three inches. the radius board Cut an inner . 26. The greater the variety of materials used. and from dampen the raffia several hours before using. Miss Hyde suggests: "One may combine bristol board with FIG.34 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. One of the first and most important results to be attained is the familiarizing the student (be he child or adult) with the materials to Hence the wisdom of following out alii the suggestions be used. even though the immediate results are not the ones you individually are seeking.

FIG. or made fingers are engaged in the work. 26. 28." possibilities in this use of materials are suggested made of Here are a book mark. Thus the heart of the child. "artistic. Then wrap the board with raffia in its native color. opening allows A In the making of these picture frames cultivate a senise of proporThe frame must not be too large for the picture it is to hold nor too small. MAGAZINE HOLDER OF WRAPPED RAFFIA. For the book-mark any kind of splint may . and a toy umbrella. This for a small picture. or dyed. simple loop may be made of the raffia with which to hang up the frame. merely "a frame anyhow. It is not simply a frame for any kind tion. or some beloved friend or scene. This is the prime element in all work we designate Other interesting in Fig." but it is a frame especially for a picture of papa or mamma. all wrapped raffia. a napkin-ring. 35 1-4 inches. Then. . let the child feel that this frame is to enshrine a picture that means something to him.HOW circle with radius i TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. as well as its mind and of a picture. giving a diameter of 2 1-2 inches. too. or the baby. as preferred.

Q El k CU <! tf fo o tf o ^ o H R d tf H J O ffi H N <J O 9 p H 8 O .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Then shown in the Work \ PIG. 30. as. and the stitches should not be noticed. Take a sufficient number of strands of raffia to make 1-4 inch coil and wrap with a strand of colored raffia Coil and sew back and leaving distances of 1-2 inch between wraps. as clearly engraving. Teachers' College. 37 raffia is wrapped from one spoke to another. Into this piece of No. New York. shown in Indian Basketry. make small holes and glue therein seven lengths of No.HOW be used. For the umbrella take a Glue a piece of cork upon one end. and then edged with plaited raffia. . page 160. i or No. 4 rattan. sewed on. SIMPLE COILED BASKETS. Then begin to wrap with raffia. The napkin-ring is made by wrapping the raffia around a splint or card-board base. This mode of wrapped weaving was long ago used by the Mohave Indians in the making of their carrying baskets. circled into ring form. The coiling of natural colored raffia and wrapping with a strand of dyed material is an easy method for children. giving one twist around each spoke and going on to the next one. and later in the chapter on Indian Stitches. 2 rattan. A SIMPLE BASKET FOR CHILDREN. of Students. forth holding the coil to the left. To finish let the coil gradually diminish.

36 . number of splints of equal MATERIALS REQUIRED. 31. 34. While mat weaving uses the warp and woof in exactly the same manner as they are used in what I have termed the web weaving. Take a number of splints of equal length Place ten or a dozen side by side. FIG. OPKX. all kindergarten teachers are more or less familiar with. This makes the warp. accuracy and speed in the manipulation of mat and good exercise will be had by imitating Figs.. CLOSED. that it is deemed wise to differentiate and give two separate sets The earliest stages of this form of weaving of lessons in their use. knife. 32. This simple checkenvork is the basis for good work later on.nJ f>- ' r| \a.) palmetto. the material is so different in character. It will be seen that the splints are fine. THE MAT WEAVE. and needs such different handl- ing. 35. Figs. etc. etc. et or bowl of water. size desired. let the pupil undertake the making of a table mat of any suitable material similar When it is the to Fig. and then unravel or split the splints as It is well to gain shown in the illustration. sew the edges tight with white thread. oak. wood (such as ash.'. 31 and 32 clearly show the simplest forms of this kind of work. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. over and under the warp at right angles. A width of paper. splints. 33. one at a time. A buck- CHECKERBOARD. After a little practice in this with coarse splints>. CHAPTER VIII. Then take same number and weave them. ^ ft J-i . and width. scissors.\' ii-L FIG. awl or piercer.

11. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. Take the two long FIG 33. with ends reversed. 38. thrusting splints through the long Pull tight. from left to right. (See C) in the fallowing order: down.The accordeon fold. So on alternating.) Take a short splint. Fig. holding them with ends at right angles. with result is the accordeon fold (B. or fold one long splint as shown in A. 39 with weavers of two colors. place them side by side. 39 and 40 are seen four beautiful specimens of . splint to right. many splints as desired. The . 37. 10. can be utilized in the Fold all the splints lengthwise. These weaves making of many beautiful baskets later on.) In Figs. from right to left and so on. Fig. 38. ones. SIMPLE MAT WEAVE. Take two weavers of equal width. Pull tight. The next short splint fold around long splint to the left. open it and fold around long splint to the right. Fold the perpendicular splint up over the horizontal one. splint to left and through long as FOLDING EXERCISE. taking care that each fold is absolutely even.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. (See Fig. TABLE MAT. then the horizontal over the perpendicular. up. Back and forth the folds then go retaining them at right angles. right and left. .

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. ACCORDEON PLAIT. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. FIGS. . New York. !!<. CHETEMACHE MATS. 38. 39 AND 40. ETC.

The colors are a dull Indian red PATTERN PRODUCED PATTERN PRODUCED BY INTERLACING BY INTERLACING STRANDS OF STRANDS OF DIFFERENT COLORS. This tribe of Indians lives on Avery Island. La. DIAGONAL MAT WEAVE. horizontally and weaver Take four long splints. as seen in the illustration. and black. . A flat splint is laid lengthwise FIG. 34. MAT FOUNDATION WORK. PIG. The binding is simple. with the natural greenish-gray of the palmetto. and then sewed on with a fine on the upper edge of the mat. fold backwards. Their dyes are evidently vegetable and the exquisite color effects produced are worthy of imitation. FIG 36. under and over as if going to make ordinary square mat weave. oblique or diagonal. using splints of palmetto. bringing edge parallel with the right edge of the perpendicular splint. DIFFERENT COLORS. Lay two two vertically.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and later on. Change \vork to right hand. Take top splint. In these mats. holding in left hand.. and makes beautiful baskets of a variety of shapes. ISOLATED FIGURES PRODUCED BY MODIFYING ORDER OF INTERSECTION. conjure up designs from her own imagination. The design is easily followed and the learner will find it excellent practice to endeavor to imitate. 37. 4! Chetemache weave. the designs are worked out with different colors.

SPLINT MAT WEAVE BASKETS. 42. SPLINT PICTURE FRAME FOUNDATION. . FRAME. SPLINT PICTURE FIG. FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 41. FIG. 43.

one set to the right. 2. boxes. instead of obliquely folding and creasing the splint. There are now two perpendicular sets of splints. Fig. Here. These even widths can best be made with the cutter shown in Fig. Pass under first folded splint. Prepare foundation as described for Fig. obliquely and press edges towards center to keep the work evenly. It should never be forgotten that good work of any kind can be done only with splints of perfectly even width. bringing them together and then proceeding to unite them with the ordinary flat mat weave. fold upper horizontal downwards as before. 38. viz.) be made by leaving a little longer ends to the diagonally woven strip. tucking in the edges as per the illustration. bottom. or easel. Work held in left hand.) NAPKIN RING. 3. 38. Then insert small splints and fill up the vacant spaces marked I. there are practically five sides. then wrapping one of the folds with the other in an oblique wrap. 38. Material required: eight long splints of one or various colors necessary number of short splints. two ends. These sizes determined it is easy to cut splints the required length. When the corners are turned up. is A D . Where the splints meet they can be tucked in. 38. 41. tucking (G. 4 on Fig.its upper edge lie parallel with the bottom horizontal splint. 18. as long as required. Fig. 43. Cornucopias. the upright or warp splints are turned over and deep enough is tucked in. may be made upon these principles. folding it around the fourth warp easily splint from either end. Fig-. one of which is illustrated Another form napkin ring may PICTURE FRAME. Fig. When the It is made same as A. however. in great variety of shapes and sizes. Then study. 37. the lid for D. Open up as Fig. making. Fig. it is merely twisted in a curve back to the place it would have had if folded and creased. Trim off loose edges and the result is Fig. one set to the left. 41. A little practice will make the weaver perfectly conversant with this pretty variation.) A beautiful variation of the lower edge of the weaving of a diagonal band is shown in H. 43 is shown how this square mat weave may be utilized. The bottom of A is of mat foundation (simple checkerboard). this strip of diagonal weaving. covers. C. and binding it to the fourth warp splint from the other end. two sides. taking care. and two horizontal.. In Fig. Then Hold now left perpendicular folded horizontally as before.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to allow two inches or so for turning in (tucking in) at the edges. thus strengthening the A little practice soon enables one to do this "tucking in" or parts. 42. Fig. in B. is "doubling" cover skilfully. folding as directed. A of napkin ring can be made from in the edges. fastener for the cover to the handle of the basket made by taking a long splint. with ring . 43.. which can have cardboard or leather back glued or sewed upon it. the woof splints of the sides can be continued around the corners and used as the woof splints of the ends. (See D. The question of basket size can always be determined with a little In mat weaving the width of splint must be considered. This crosses right perpendicular splint. (F. 43 fold left splint obliquely. and proceed. etc. hanger.

of Students. 44 and 45 show a variety of small models of baskets made by Excite the interest of children in the students at Teachers' College. foundation canes in thumb and forefinger of left hand with weavers under one and over the other. cane. and then urge them to imitate or reproduce in minature. The result will be an interesting collection. cotton . forms of baskets in actual use. and so on. Hold required to be. New York. or palmetto. grocers baskets. it is in the same way as its cover C. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS.44 HOW The basket deeper. A little practice will soon teach how to affix to basket. except that the narrowing together towards the top the warp splints should be made to taper a little. The handle is made as follows willow. over and around right foundation splint back between the two. Then wrap around left foundation is D made To produce : FIG. the thickness desired and the length the handle is For weavers use long mat splints well soaked. Teachers' College. Take two pieces of rattan. up between the two. down and around left splint. alternating over and under. clothes baskets. Figs. Work splint. showing market baskets. 44. taking care always to overwrap or tuck in all ends.

It must be soaked in water before using. . Buy or make pegs to fit these holes. P'jii peg into both of these holes to keep cane in place. leaving an end two and one-half inchee long. . yet Work FIG. 45. purchase from a kindergarten suppy house a small. Cane is coarse. keeping is practically useful. and down through center top hole. Hold the frame on the Count the holes. two persona. etc. top and bottom. The children will readily structions further than those already given. Show how environment influences everything and that the use of different baskets in different localities for the same purpose is the result of different growths. etc.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. medium. hampers. Teachers' College. at bottom row. and fine fine. CAXING CHAIRS. New York. in which holes an inch apart are bored. overcome the problems involved. of fine cane up through the center bottom hole. Here adaptability to purpose. To cane chairs is not a difficult art. and pull a piece lap top uppermost. of Students. square frame. to use. such as is used how carried what it is to carry whether carried by one or : How . It of splints. MARKET AND OTHER BASKETS. fine. and has a decided value in teaching the handling legitimately comes under the head of mat weaving. Now bring long end of cane. . which will each basket readily suggest themselves to the teacher. can well be exemplified and important lessons given. To practice. different methods of work. locality used. up through next hole on the right. etc. 45 All these are simple and need no detailed inbaskets.

48. process until right side of frame is reached. inserting one end down splint of fine cane is now brought through the hole at one corner. WEAVE OF CHAIR CANE. continue taking care not to and lace as on the the frame will be horizontal splints right and center to to corresponding hole on top row. 49. but towards the left side of frame. 47. wide enough to cover the holes of the edge. and from the lower right to the upper left. CANING A CHAIR. working from center to left. then to the left. FIG. This diagonal weaving must be done in the two ways. (See Fig. from lower left-hand corner. Now start to the left of the center This done. 46). over a single splint. CANING A CHAIR. working first to the right. over single. For a binding stitch over the holes. right. actual weaving must beThe splint must be taken under a cross. At the fourth row from the center. starting n PIG. gin. however.46 it flat. under a cross. 46. The frame is now a network of squares. run a splint to the up- Now. Now put in the in exactly the same way. pull the cane tight. HOW Peg it. CANE TIE. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Take cane now this lacing Peg. per right-hand corner and continue these diagonal lines exactly the same as the vertical ones. filled with lines of vertical splints. FIG. take a splint of binding cane.. from the lower left corner to the upper right. FIG. viz. A .

DOLL'S HAT AND TRAY OF PLAITED RAFFIA.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. under lower vertical. Now follow these by putting in another set vertiThe fourth cally on top of the first ones and through the same holes. (See Fig. draw tight. : : portion. Now begin the diagonal weaving from lower left corner to upper right corner. and going over or under as the case may require. 49. Sit on a small stool or hassock and tilt the chair forward upon your Find the center as before described. across the binding and back again through the same hole. The one thing of importance to remember is that the first row of splints must be put on loosely. without any attempt tO' tie. While doing the work endeavor to have one The explanations that follow will then be perfectly simple. This will be found to hold securely. . 52. is completed.) Everyone is familiar with the octagonal meshed weave of the ordinary cane-seated chair. 48. FIG 53. row is horizontally put in and must be woven as follows over one upper vertical. and horizontally. which should always be on the under side of tlhe frame. thus couching it. HOOP AND SCHOOL BAG OF PLAITED RAFFIA. These go under and over the horizontal pairs and vertical pairs as shown in Fig. finish off with the bind- FIG. then once again. When the diagonal weaving ing as before described. 47. Pass it underneath the loop. Put in the splints vertically lap. In finishing off the ends. In many chairs there are little problems in the corners that the good sense of the weaver will easily solve if he is careful to have a due regard for proof these as a pattern close at hand. for there are six rows of splints and the later woven rows tighten up to the others. at the same time pulling the upper vertical to the right. as shown in Fig. creasing firmly. 47 up through every other hole. bring the loose end to the nearest loop.

Above it are two wall pockets. sewed with the edges outermost. a handle. 51 is composed entirely of plaited belts. Both boys and girls can be much interested in this plaiting if the articles made are converted into playthings. A little These laces can be dyed so as to give design in the plait. In these three the plaits are flat and sewed edge to edge with a large darning needle. 50. To the right and below is a band made by sewing the plaits together. In this the plaits are coiled flat. Under the direction of the teacher this can easily be converted into a harness. thus avoiding knots. doll's hat. let the child practice on simple plaiting with strands of raffia. and below is a school-bag. The saddle girth above is of braided sisal hemp expressly for that purpose. another shape. one Below it to the left is one of with. To give purpose to the work. Columbia University. to plait the entire length needed before beginning to use the plait. The rings are ordinary brass rings. To gain digital dexterity it is well to introduce it into a Course of Basketry. made of corset lacings. In the center of Fig. Sew on one side only. Belts. 50 is the beginning of a small mat. Neligh's school in Columbus. 52 shows a hoop of plaited raffia. Fig. used by boys and girls in one of their out-door games. They are all of braided raffia. CHAPTER IX. stimulate interest by showing how these plaits can be utilized. and the other without. experimentation will soon show that the design depends entirely upon how the colored lace is placed at the beginning of the plait. Figs. for the boy's own use in playing horses. covered with the lace. etc. First of all. for their own personal use. Fig. used for car- rying books. Fig. To facilitate this place a screw hook in the wainscoting or on the under side of the work table. THE PLAIT OR BRAID. not by tying. and a tray. using for thread a fine strand of raffia. on which the A little practical experience will raffia can be placed while plaiting. Every schoolboy and girl is more or less familiar with the simple forms of plaiting. with the edges outer- most and sewed as the coil grows. bag-handles. lengthen It is not necessary it by splicing. and the bottom belt shows that tttie ends are utilized for tying. both made of plaited All the articles of Figs. toy harness and the like are easily made from this plaited work. 52 and 53 were made by small children at Mr. In the making of these hats seek to draw out the individuality of . beginning first with coarse and later using finer material. or something useful. and see that it is closely and evenly done. soon demonstrate >how much raffia must be used to obtain a plait of any given size. When a length of raffia is about to give out. Alternate plaiting and sewing give variety. New York.53 sihows a small raffia.48 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 54 and 55 are composed of model hats made by the students at Teachers' College. Ga.

Let one make a continental hat. etc. To add interest to the work the child know something of the wearer of these different kinds of hats. the outing hat. Others will try the Panama.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 49 each child or student. ETC. let of excellent suggestions may be found. the poke In army hat>s< of different nations are a score of suggestbonnet. ARTICLES OF PLAITED RAFFIA. the reasons that used to exist for the different kinds of headgear used in the various regiments of the ^ame army. etc. sombrero. another a A Southern girl will naturally try a colonial. social and domestic customs. the policeman's helmet. ive shapes. still another a Puritan. . Here come in opportunities for fascinating little chats on history. 50. whilst a girl from the Dutch regions of Pennsylvania will make a Dutch farmer's hat. geography. the Chinese. the Coolie. while in the hats of the peasantry of the world a host more FIG.

51. too. and the effects manner of making is clearly shown in Fig. solidity of the basket as a whole. native in the may be exercised and called into existence modern outing hat. neatness in sewing the plaits together. PLAITED BELTS. choice of a able to produce a hat that will harmonize with the individuality of the wearer. Five-stranded plaits of raffia often come in very useful. individuality. 56 and 57 are various baskets of plaited raffia made by the Various colors are used and pretty students of Teachers' College. Firmness of weave. Remember that a good milliner in choosing a hat studies. harmony of color wihere it is used. produced. Work of Students." This demands personality. the shape of the face and Thus she is head. FIG. .50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER taste BASKETS. Then try to make a hat that would suit some friend. 58. of the wearer. New York.. the conscious exercise of choice. and good shape are all sought after. Figs. make such an one as you would personally like to wear. Then. the form. etc. the color of the hair. "If you make a modern hat. Teachers' College.

BOTTOM OF DEERFIELD BASKET. 51 FIG. .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 50a.

. Work of Students. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. FIG. New York. Teachers' College. 54.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

secure twelve strands raffia of two colors and a stick about a yard long and one and one-half inches wide. Hold the stick in any easy position so that a strand of raffia may be doubled and tied around the . used. of Students. For a netted work or handkerchief-bag. as shown in A. PLAITED RAFFIA HATS. From page 158. It should be slightly dampened for several hours before using. Various materials can be used in this work. braided raffia. Work PIG. New York. Teachers' College. Twisted hemp. yucca fibre. etc. 61. 55." it will be seen that carrying The nets were and are made by the Mission Indians of California. "Indian Basketry.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Fig. THE NET. Even unbraided raffia may be rushes. 53 CHAPTER X. Pimas have a carrying basket in which the net is used.

of two bot- . The ends are then cut evenly. a length of plaited raffia put through the upper mesh and tied. bag is A pretty effect of complete.54 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and proceed to close up the bag by knotting the loose sides together. At the bottom the whole of the strands are gathered together and tied with a single or braided strand. 59. and the towards the bottom. 56. the strands in like manner. tom rows is caused by loosely braiding the strands meshes before knotting them. then knot each strand at about the distance of an inch with the nearest strand of the next pair. Continue this all the way down for five or six rows. of Students'. narrowing the meshes Work FIG. Separate to about an inch apart. Draw the knot tight. New York. Put on the rest of stick. as shown in Fig-. Make even meshes all the way across. Teachers' College. Then slip the knots from the stick. BASKETS OF PLAITED RAFFIA.

then joining the FIG. style of bag made by keeping all the to the bottom. way by matching t)he knots and meshes together and then knitting two strands from the front and two from the back together for the finishing row. If tassels Work on. 61. The ends can then be cut and thie bag is complete. at the bottom. Fig. are the bag is lined with silk or turkey red cotton it is a pretty and serviceable article. A . 55 the meshes of equal size two sides. and the number of strands When BASKETS OP PLAITED RAFFIA. except that the meshes must be much smaller. Teachers' College.HOW Another TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER is BASKETS. of raffia and sewed desired they may be made 57. New York. twine bag may be made in the same manner as A. of Students.

and tied tightly on the top. 61. STITCH AND 59. 62. In netting with raffia or other materials! an infinite variety of articles may be made. With a tassel on the bottom. 58. 60. NET MESH. FIG. FIG. D is a pretty little basket made of a fibre brought from Puerto . and all different. using the single net stitch of Fig. FIG.50 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the twine allowed to come through one of the meshes. 60. limited to the size of the ball of twine. FIG. 61. as suggested in B. STRAND DETAIL OF FIVE PLAIT. KNOT OF RAFFIA. it can be suspended wherever needed. Fig. FIG. B is a small netted purse of raffia of fine mesh. C is netting the same as described in the work-bag A. ETC. C and D. SNIGLE NET MESH. NETTED BAGS OF RAFFIA. but has a bottom and top of coiled and sewed plaited raffia.

FIG. stitch shown in Figs.HOW Rico. NET MESH. 62 to 66. etc. NET MESH. FIG. It is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Book for 1903. 64. knotted or fastened These fancy stitches give wonderful variety to basket work and can be introduced here and there as taste and skill dictate. 69. A pretty napkin-ring can be made by taking ten curtain rings about an inch in diameter and covering them with the buttonhole Raffia or any fibre may be used. The size of rings may be varied to suit the size of napkin. When all the rings are covered. 66. and then join by passing a ribbon or five-strand plait of raffia (see Fig. NET MESH. for which I am indebted to the "Priscilla Needlework as required. yucca fiber." Any of these may be imitated in raffia. as slhown in Fig. 63. similar to Figs. FIG. These may be imitated from any book of fancy needlework. NET MESH. . FIG. then under and over. overlap them. through. 65. 58) an inch wide. 57 composed entirely of fancy stitches. 67 and 68.

<! H H a fe .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

the Indians of the simple and yet capable of artist. The zig-zag introduced and the mat then completed with three rounds of coil. This gives the even and beautiful spiral effect. is basket makers in American West and Southwest. D is an oval mat. as in the Pima granaries. straw. There are specimens delicately made that will pass through a lady's finger ring. raffia. is The first grass coil is sewed to its outer edge. Dye the hemp and take an amount equivalent to three-eight inch coil wrap for a distance of three-fourths of an inch. the stitches being is needed for the sewing. taken just past the proceeding one. and others as large as a flour barrel some specimens have . Fig. Of these Miss Hyde writes and thus instructs how to make They are made of hemp. raffia. Taking a length of the coil material.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. split willows. etc. strong tapestry needle The coil is then begun. The center may be birch bark (ornamented. 36. except that an oval center was first made by bending a strong and thick needle to the . it is tightly wrapped with thread. perfectly flat. : etc. THE COIL WEAVE. They are pretty and useful. rushes. the fancy one is of sweet grass." The simplest form of coiled work is shown in Fig. as the work progresses. and in o-thers. viz. made exactly as the mat in Fig. with a center of cedar-bark. Colis of coiled trays made by the students of Teachers' Fig. coil to diminish gradually and make a secure fastening. shredded The plain mat of Fig. and made with comparative ease. or of A leather. sweet grass. as this is. Great care should be exercised in putting in new material to reUpon this depends the evenness of the work. Let the children go out and gather their own material for these 'simple trays. 70.. corn husks. the coiled ware may be are made within an inch of space. the root material is shredded so fine that nearly 100 stitches In form. combined with grasses. As Professor Mason has well written: "Coiled basketry in point of size presents the greatest extremes. It large variation. or built up into the most exquisite jar shape. The material of the coil may be almost anything capable of being coiled. thus giving a radiaTo finish allow the tion from the center as the work progresses. 59 CHAPTER XI. lege. when performed by an exquisitely beautiful. The variation of B. The is coil is one of the favorite weaves. sedges. . . the upright stitches lend themiselves to the greatest variety of intricate patterns. allowing spaces of one inch between wraps then fasten and sew. while cat-tail. with colored quills). in design.. of the best the world. each time inserting the needle with point toward you between every wrap. plenish the coil. 70 is of raffia. and. such as grass. Fig. 71 gathered in the immediate neighborhood of New York. broom corn. 70. will be easily mastered. twine. stitching material one-half inch wide. as in a table mat. 72 is of a group of mats and baskets made of long pine needles. or whatever is to be used for sewing.

SIMPLE COILED TRAYS. . 71. Work of Students. 72. Teachers' College.FIG. New York. FIG. PINE NEEDLE COILED BASKETS.

first outward. 74) being firmly fastened as it progressed to the one already made by passing the splint wrapping of the wisp each time it was wound around the latter through some strands of the conThe bottom (Fig. which are good exand firmness. 6l This was then filled up with darned work. three and one-eighth inches. limber splint of tough wood. Each 'has a base of two coils. This wrapped portion was then wound upon itself. No "wobblety" bottom. amples was made of the helix or spirally coiled type of basket. Here are two important things to be attained. decked off with a piece of ribbon. 74.boiling baskets. A basket must sit firmly on the table and be tightly woven. F is C is smaller and the two upper coils are made oval so as to afford two B is a dainty little basket. and sewed to the sides-. the diameter of bottom. Fig. to which A tom and 1 the lid is. The top is an inch and a half in diameter. with the aid of a bodkin. for the It TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. manufacture of the Havasupai. and used makes an excellent tray for the toilet table. MANUFACTURE OF SPIRALLY COILED WEAVES.HOW shape required. It is two and a quarter inches across at the botis the lid. 73.) tiguous inner coil. A grass stems or osiers softened in water was first spirally wrapped a little at one end with a flat. the width of brim three-quarters of an inch. 75 clearly show the Indian method of making the "In the I quote Lieut. flanged and fits snug. or a mat dinner table. 73. to produce the bulge of the vessel. was rounded upward and the sides were made by coiling the wisp higher and higher. then inward. as the basis. the beginning small wisp of fine flexible at the center of the bottom. 74." This su'bject will be found more fully discussed in the chapter on . E and G. to form the tapering upper part and neck.) er coil thus formed (Fig. sewed on after the basket was elsewhere finished. 73. slight protuberances which act as handles. are dissimilar in shape. Figs. a "cute little hat. 72. yet made in the same way. Cushings description: simple coiled weave. two and a half inches in diameter. including brim." circular in shape. and no slovenly work in the sides will be tolerated. the out(Fig. When FIGS. these long pine needles baskets are known they will become wonderfully popular in a short time. In the making of all these baskets stimulate the student to stability . usually willow. into which the two little twigs or splint-loops were firmly woven. 75. 75. the height two and a quarter inches. The handles of G are each of two circular coils.

G. (5) three stems in tria bundle of splints or small stems (7) a bundle of grass or small shreds. two stems laid side . C. two rod foundation. (2) a stem with . . Simple interlocking coils. The stitches pass around the foundation in progress (i) interlocking. Indian Stitches. K. ill A iJ) B & // \] C -> FIG. Splint foundation. Scores of exquisite baskets made by this stitch are pictured. two rod and splint foundation. E. however many there may be (3) under a welt of the coil beneath (4) through splints or other foundation. . CROSS SECTIONS OF VARIETIES IN COILED BASKETRY.ide. two or more stems over one another . of the coil beneath. in some cases systematically splitting the sewing material underneath. or bagging: A. 76. B. I. angular position (6) by '=. F.62 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. With these explanations it is possible to make the following nine varieties of coiled basketry. Grass-coil foundation. H. These will now be taken up systematically and illustrated (fig. D. and in book on Indian Basketry. there are nine different varieties of coiled basketry which he analyzes and describes as my follows : "The foundation may be a thin welt laid on top of (4) it . 76). Fuegian coiled basketry. three-rod foundation. Coiled work without foundation. rod and welt foundation. One rod inclosed. Single-rod foundation. Packing inclosed. with a welt. but not inclosing the foundation underneath (2) under one rod . matting. As Professor Mason has shown in his bulletin. Double-stem coil. . Packing inclosed. (i) a single (3) stem or rod.

HOW
A.

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

COILED
of this class

WORK WITHOUT FOUNDATION.

Speci-

have been already mentioned. The sewing material is babiche or fine rawhide thong in the cold north, or string of some In the Mackenzie Basin will be found the former, sort farther south. and in the tropical and subtropical areas the latter. If a plain, spiral spring be coiled or hooked into one underneath, the simplest form of An improvement of this is effected the open coiled work will result.

mens

FJG. 77. DETAIL OF INTERLOCKING STITCHES.

FIG.

ROD COIL

78.

DETAIL OF SINGLEIN BASKETRY.

FIG.

TWO

79.

RODS, VERTICAL.

FOUNDATION OF

FIG.

SO.

COILED WORK.

ROD AND WELT

when the moving thread in passing upward after interlocking is twined one or more times about its standing part (Fig. 76 A.) B. Simple interlocking coils. Coiled work in which there may be any sort of foundation, but the stitches merely interlock without catching under the rods or splints or grass beneath. This form easily passes into those in which the stitch takes one or more elements of the foundation, but in a thorough ethnological study small differences can not be overlooked (fig. 76 B). Fig. 77 represents this style of workmanship on a coiled basket in grass stems from Alaska, collected by Lucien M. Turner. The straws for sewing merely interlock without gathering the grass roll.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

C. In rattan basketry and Pacific coast Single-rod foundation. ware, called by Dr. J. W. Hudson Tsai in the Poma language, the foundation is a single stem, uniform in diameter. The stitch passes around the stem in progress and is caught under the one of the preceding coil, In a collection of Siamese basketry in the U. S. Naas in fig. 76 C. tional Museum the specimens are all made after this fashion the foundation is the stem of the plant in its natural state, and the sewing is with splints of the same material, having the glistening surface outward. As
;

FIG.

SI.

FOUNDATION OF THREE RODS.

FIG.

82.

OF SPLINTS.

FOUNDATION

FIG. COILS,

S3.

STRAW FOUNDATION.

INTERLOCKING

FIG.

84. OPEN COIL, INCLOSING PART OF FOUNDATION.

this is

somewhlat unyielding, it is difficult to crowd the stitches together, and so the foundation is visible between. In America single-rod basketry is widely spread. Along the Pacific coast it is found in northern Alaska and as far south as the borders of Mexico. The Poma Indians use it in some of their finest work. The roots of plants and soft stems of willow, rhus, and the like are used for the sewing, and being soaked thoroughly can be crowded together so
as to entirely conceal the foundation
(fig. 78).

rod in this style lies on top of the other the stitches pass over two rods in progress and under the upper

D.

Two-rod foundation.

One

;

HOW
one
of the pair

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

65

cal series.

below, so that each stitch incloses three stems in a vertiattention to fig. 76 D will demonstrate that the alternate rod or the upper rod in each pair will be inclosed in two series of stitches, while the other or lower rod will pass along freely in the middle of one series of stitches and show on the outer side. Exbe seen among the Athaamples of this two-rod foundation are to tribes of Alaska, among the Poma Indians of the Pacific coast, pascan and among the Apache of Arizona. An interesting or specialized variseen among the Mescaleros of New Mexico, who ety of this type is us'e the two-rod foundation, but instead of passing the stitch around the interlock the stitches so that neither upper rod of the coil below, simply

A

little

FIG.

INTERLOCKING COILS, 85. SHRED FOUNDATION.

FIGS.

86,

87

AND

88.

FUEGIAN COILED BASKET AND DETAILS.

one of the two rods is closed twice. This Apache ware is sewed with yucca fiber and the brown sterns of other plants, producing a brilliant
effect,

and the

result of the special technic

is

a flat surface like that of

pottery

(fig. 79).

of precisely the

The U. S. National Museum possesses a single piece same technic from the kindred of the Apache on the

lower Yukon. E. Rod and welt foundation. In this kind of basketry the singlerod foundation is overlaid by a strip or splint of tough fiber, sometimes the same as that with which the sewing is done at others a The stitches pass over the rod and strip which strip of leaf or bast. are on top down under the welt only of the coil below, the stitches inThe strip of tough fiber between the two rods which terlocking.
;

o ^ g 02 Oc 0) i-H - 5J5 ^5 o .w 55 pq 4 r^ g O o I-H O t ( fe a .

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. On the surface of the barn-tsu-wu basketry the Poma weaver adds pretty bits of bird feathers and delicate pieces The basket represents the wealth of the maker. or. of one of these to a friend is considered to be the highest compliment. Splint-foundation. and when the stitches are pressed closely together the foundation does not appear. rush stems. 76) C. Surfaces are beautifully corrugated. where the has no standing in that tribe. and the like. as in the case of the Mission baskets in southern California. under In some the upper one of the bundle below. So). Three-rod foundation. of the stems of rushes (Juncus acutus). 67 serves for a welt has a double purpose strengthening the fabric and This style the space between the rods (fig. or shredded yucca. fig. Hudson calls them the ''jewels of of basketry are in this style. The sewing may be done with split stems of hard wood. (See In the larger granary in fig. of small midribs The foundation is a bunch of grass or from palm: leaves. chinking of coil work is seen on old Zuni basket-jars and on California examples. 76 H). The interior parts Such in such examples are made up into the foundation (fig. In the Great Interior Basin. Tribes practicing this style of coiling generally have fine material and some of the best ware is so made up. examples this upper rod is replaced by a thin strip of material serving fora welt (see fig. tat basketry the pieces of spruce or cedar root not used for sewing material are also I. This is the type of foundation called Dr. J. Grass'-coil basketry. for the reason that the maker has perExcellent examples of this kind are to fect control of her material. black or white carex root. worked into the foundation. H. or cercis stem. and in northern Africa. only the outer and : . 81 also in cross section in fig." The technic the most elaborate character can be wrought on them. younger portion of the stem will do for sewing. 76 G. The sewing. but it coil beneath (fig. passes around the three stems constituting the coil. In this style the foundation is made thicker and stronger by laying two rods side by side and a splint The surface will be or welt on top to make the joint perfectly tight. In the California area the materials for basketry are of the finest quality. F. Three or four small uniform willow stems serve for the is as follows foundation. among the pueblos and missions. be seen in the southwestern portions of the United States. 76 F). The willow stems and carex root are Sewing done with these susceptible of division into delicate filaments. 83 and the cross section given baskets of the Pima a bundle of straws furnishes the foundation. and patterns of coiled basketry. 76 I). 76 E and fig. G. which may be in splints of willow. W. The effect in all such ware is good. Two rod and splint foundation. is most compact. 82). D. as shown in fig. Hudson bam-tsu-wu. and F. In basketry of this type the foundation consists of a number of longer or shorter splints massed together and sewed. and the gift of shell. the stitches passing under one or more of the splints in the In the Poma language it is called chilo. rhus. in others the splitting is designed and beautiful. ware is rude when the sewing passes carelessly through the stitches In the Klikibelow. corrugated. willow. . The type of foundation passes easily into forms (fig. or stiff grass (Epicampes rigidum). pliant material of the California tribes is wanting. Among the Poma and other by tribes in the western part of the United States the most delicate pieces Dr. the stitches interlocking.

FIG. COILED RAFFIA BASKTES.68 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . 90.

90 is another specimen. of course. Mass. fig. of DeerI have pleasure field. It is so-called by him because each stitch is not bound to* the preced- work made by a ten year old boy. herewith in presenting a description of the baiskets illustrated and the work of this Society by Miss Margaret C. In fig. these stitches. 90 is the next step in coiled basketry. show the fundamental traits of sound workmanship and an intelligent use of material. inasmuch as this type of basketry is confined in America to the Hopi pueblos. of which a figure is given. when time permits. has some beautiful specimens of the weaver's art done in this. the new part of the coil is wrapped for a certain number of stitches. after the center has been begun. though. 89. the patterns. the color of the sewing material. Here. Among the basketry belonging to the grass-coil foundation type are the Hopi plaques. with rush stems interlocking. 84. and. as in fig. the sewing is done with rushes. as in A. wihich will be read with interest and profit. 86). B. then it is sewed to the preceding coil. 89. Though made of raffia. A. might easily mistake this for a genuine Indian basket. and the stitches. The bottom is two and a half inches in diameter.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. which coiled lazy stitch. consisting of one or more rushes the sewing is in buttonhole stitch or . found in Egypt and in northern Africa as far as the Barbary states. the same method is followed. of the a work-basket of the same stitch.. many people looking at the photograph. 86). Whiting. E. Asiatic types on the Pacific is most striking (fig. and their example has to the production of the good work . built upon a thick bundle of the woody stems of the yuccas. but instead of being in the ordinary over-and-over stitch it consists of a series of half hitches or buttonhole stitches (fig. and my friend. it is well to experiment in the various styles with the home materials." The student can utilize almost all of these methods in one kind of or another. fig. and is then decreased until it is 3 1-2 inches at the top. K. Fuegian coiled basketry. The suggestion is here made that this particular form of workmanship may be due to acculturation. reached. In this ware the foundation is slight. ing coil as in all their finer work. The diameter increases up to five inches. what he calls. 69 while the sewing is done with broad strips of tough bark. no one but the merest tyro could be deceived if he held the basket in his hands. two different methods of coiled basketry are shown. great similarity will be noticed in the size of the coil. We have now C.. McLeod. In the Fuegian coiled basketry. which were brought very early in contact with Spaniards and African slaves. the pure coiled work of the Indian. Most of the celebrated baskets of the Pocumtuck Society. "The baskets produced at Deerfield. lazy stitch. Mr. which furnish also the sewing material from the split leaf If this be examined in comparison with a style of basketry (fig. 85). Mass. is the other crafts of that little been a source of encouragement village display. what we might term. The resemblance of this to half-hitches. are made in the stitch shown in Fig. L. In B. with the addition of a cross stitch over the stitch which binds the two coils toThe Indians of Kern County occassionally use the former of gether.

Teachers' College. Work of Students. 92. . New York. New York. Work of Students.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. FIG. Teachers' College. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. FIG. COILED RAFFIA BASKETS. 93.

One . . the seeds being divided on the black surface by dull green lines while the cover with its brown stem for a handle rising from the green calyx. slyly prepared for the observant. 8). beauty that lies in the natural corn husk when laid smooth in large . the flower is worked out in red and black upon a white background with a conventional border in the same colors upon the side of the basket (Fig. have wisely recognized that the Indian. as the raffia workers have named themselves. She combines their varying lines with colored raffia in large card trays and plaques. worked with a much finer stitch. with much thought given to the perfection of form. Turn up the basket and one will find.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. serves a useful purpose. A different temperament has chosen a blackberry for a motive of form and decoration. been of chief public service. Or another weaver produces her effects from the use of color and exquisite stitches in a basket all done The in greens. . and . and with the varying shades and tones their old-fashioned dves offer they produce harmonies the public is quick to value. With indigo. and have frankly refused to use designs or color combinaIn their designs they pretions that belong to the red man's choice. about its circumference (see Fig. copperas and logwood these craftswomen hiave uttered their convincing protest against the crude and vicious color discords of the chemical dyes. an animal or even a landscape may serve for suggestion. after the longgone earliest inhabitants of their valley. . the house in black and and the upper edge of the roof and trees just touched with the pink reflections from a big pink moon that rises in the pale sky it is almost needless to say this is named "Night and Day. madder. like all masters in art. is all black with a row of large dull black beads pointing the edge of the lid. a fer to work out the themes and harmonies of Nature flower. raffia have. 2) another chooses the piccotee pink for chief decoration upon the cover of her shallow bowl. a house in red with windows a<nd doors in black and a lighter green foreground on the opposite occurs exactly the same landscape all dark in blues and greens. Jl now being done by different localities. 14). for it lightens the dark interior of the basket. The Pocumtuck Basket Society. problem large basket woven of the natural colored raffia for a ground color bears two landscape designs for its decoration on one swelling side is seen a group of trees in dull rioh greens against a blue sky. fustic." Only a bold designer could carry out with success so simple Another covered basket by the same workyet complicated a scheme. may not be imitated by those whose taste is sophisticated and minds trained to other and different standards of beauty. for from the first have owed a good part of their reputation to the natural dyes they employ. 9). er is made with a useful handle that holds fast the lid on double braided cords it is developed in blues with a row of red birds solemnly hopping for the individual craftswoman to solve for . One craftswoman decorates her carefully shaped basket with a nice drawing of white mice on a dull olive background (Fig. An individual preference is shown in one worker's use of the swale grasses grown in the meadows about Deerfield (see Fig. This charming surprise. a beautifully drawn black-berry flower in white raffia in the black bottom. the way it is translated into the medium of raffia furnishes the herself. other groups of village workers in basketry in In the matter of color the Deerfield workers in their baskets probably. a butterfly.

" Figs. employed is that which has been dubbed "lazy stitch. SPLINT AND 94. 6 FIG. WEAVING ON EVEN SPOKES. 93 are all of coiled raffia baskets made by the students at Teachers' College.HOW surfaces TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. is shown in still another basket of a large cylindrical form shaded indigo blues for background to four poppy stalks. FIG. BOOK MARK OF WEB WEAVE. each rising from two spreading gray-green leaves. The stitch chiefly .3)In choice of shapes the Pocumtuck basket makers cling to the strictly useful and simple forms a bowl must stand firm on a bottom sufficiently large to sustain it. Wrapped spaces of . each weaver seeking to produce the best possible effect. and bearing big blossoms worked from the many4iued pinks of the crepe-like husks (see done in Fig. are introduced but are not allowed to interfere with structural strength. 91. . a cover must fit. and sometimes varied from large to small in the development of a single basket." and consists one smooth turn about the coil and a stitch down into the space on the row beneath the coil is formed of split or whole reeds. 92. Here variety in shape and design were worked out. a handle must be strong or the jury of society will not give its approval. different sizes being chosen to fit the desired effect. 95.

Indeed the division into miat and web weaving is purely arbitrary. the web. SPOKES. It must never be forgotten that proper web weaving can never be clone with an even number of spokes and a single weaver.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. We iniow woof is come to the most common of all of the basket weaving of the the pliable material. under 4. or can be inserted later. little care at first will soon render one expert in thus using two weavers. Weave over 5. One long and three short flat Place these as shown in Fig. one before and the other behind the same spoke. Where. uniformly. over two AND STARTING WEAVER. there must be an odd number of spokes. it ODD AND EVEN NUMBER OF is essential to vise an even number of spokes for the warp. under 6. until five or six rounds have been woven. A wooden splints. palmetto. FIG. both starting together. throughout. over 7. HOLDING SPOKES FIG. To have the woof of one over and one under. 23 and 24 show the simple stitches. THE WEB WEAVE. Figs. 96. one ahead of the first round. and with a long weaver splints are required. 97. as shown in Fig. 21. DIVIDING INTO SINGLE SPOKES. and so Tuck the end of the on. etc. Tuck the end i. 22. of the raffia weaver pretty little book-mark may be made with rattan or other material for the foundation of raffia. 73 CHAPTER XII. for use. 95. however. the effect of a single weaver can be obtained by using two weavers. 94. 20. over under between 8 and i. then under 8 and under 2. and when tips of spokes are cut into points a book mark is ready The following exercises will all be useful for later work. Take eight . weaver into the part woven so as to hide and firmly fasten it. weaving only in the fact that the warp elements are rigid and mat BOOK MARKS. Next round pass under two. The odd spoke may be used in starting. Yet this differs from the checkerwork of the civilization. over 3. i. A little practice will soon teach the better way to the student. The result is a series of ridges on the surface. A MAT OR BOTTOM FOR ROUND BASKET.

Then weave under flie four to the right. 101 and 102. Another simple border is made. PIG. In making these borders remember always to soak. the further the better. 2. RIGHT SIDE OF CENTER WITH ODD SPOKE. and so on until the whole edge is bound. it is passed under the last row of weaving Then pass it around that spoke. underneath. Soak ends for a few minutes. just before it reaches the next spoke. so as to readily evenness. under the four at left. If it is OPEN BORDER NO. for ten or fifteen minutes. 97 and begin to weave behind and before each spoke separately. shown in Fig. Then be absolutely accurate in even. making two complete rounds. 14 to 16 inches long. 99 until the mat or base is the size redesired to make a mat of this. i down beside No. as the beauty of every edge depends upon its making everything It is well to soak a border after it is made. cording to taste. separate the spokes as shown in Fig. allow its being bent into perfect shape. Weave one row. It will then dry as left. Sharpen one end and thrust it into the center. shown in Figs. This separation must be done with great care and evenness. the splints to be bent. as strength is thus added. leaving an open curve as shown in Fig.74 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. ac2. Then turn over and continue FIG. 2 rattan. Then push spoke No. as a STARTING NEW WEAVER. under the last row of weaving before next spoke. 99. and so on. 8 or 9 inches Hold the eight long spokes as long. as allowing from i 1-2 inches to 5 or 6. in Fig. for the loop. finish the last row by binding it as overcasting is done. Now cut spokes to a point and of even length. spokes of No. 96. When the weaver has been placed across each side of the top set of spokes. 98. 4 rattan. and the appearance of the basket improved. 98. one spoke. so the odd spoke is >now inserted as shown in Fig. in front of the next. to weave as shown quired. over the four at bottom. After placing the weaver under one side and over another. INSERTING ODD SPOKE. 100. . This would spoil the looks of the basket. and a weaver of No. and it will be found that the weaver comes behind the same spoke with which we begun in the first row. Run the spoke down as far as possible. as strength and beauty both depend upon the way this is done. It will often be necessary.

Cross this with an equal length of the new weaver. proceed. OPEN BORDER NO. the shape the object is to be. 104. One may use a needle or not as he de- shown some specimens FIG. FIG. SIMPLE OPEN BORDER. In Fig. 103). 105 are may be cut off. SPLICING WEAVERS. NEW WEAVER. DETAIL. to start a new one. 102. 2. The student is now ready to make simple . 101. the two may be spliced as shown in Fig. with about three-quarters of an inch to spare. Neligh informs me that he has found it to be excellent practice to have hi's pupils make the web weave with raffia. SPLICING. behind a spoke. (See Fig. 75 Leave the end of the last weaver [weaver runs out. OF NO. Pins are firmly fastened into a board.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. sires. 103. STARTING of the work of his pupils. 2. When the basket is completed and dry the unnecessary ends If it is desired to hide the point of new with old weaver. 100. OPEN BORDER PIG. 104. is done the edges are sown together to make SIMPLE BASKETS. Mr. When the weaving the object desired. and the woof strands then woven as in other work. Then FIG. The warp strands of raffia are then tightly tied around these pins. FIG.

106 as an example. but after about an inch of the mat is woven draw the weaver tighter. closed border No. i.76 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Use the mat in Fig. and 99. finishing off with border as desired. which will be described in the . Begin the mat as described in Figs. baskets of the web weave. 98. slightly curves up the spokes and gives the soon as the basket is as large as required it bowl shape desired. WEB WEAVING WITH RAFFIA. The basket below the mat is begun in exactly the same way. 105. 96. 97. This FIG. As must be finished off with next chapter.

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS,

77

CHAPTER

XIII.

INSERTION AND BORDERS.
Before proceeding further with the chapter on Web-Weaving well to gain a full knowledge of insertion and borders. These "In descriptions are taken from Miss Firth's "Cane Basket Work." making open borders where it is necessary to run one spoke down
it is

FIG.

106.

Work

SIMPLE RATTAN BASKETS,
of Students, Teachers' College,

WEB WEAVE.
New
York.

beside another, the awl must be first inserted to open a passage for the extra spoke, and care must be taken to have a smooth end, or the weaving will be pulled out of place. It is al'so important to have each spoke double the length of the height of the basket, allowing the extra length necess'ary for the loop at the top. For convenience

7

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

spoke may be cut half an inch beyond the length required for the sides, and extra spokes, a little more than double that length, inserted when the weaving is finished. This will give the appearance of three spokes, and if well varnished will not be likely to get out of place.

The extra

half-inch

must not be

cut off the

first

spoke

till

the others

have been inserted.

"As the extra length necessary for each border is given with the directions for working it, one can be easily substituted for another according to taste."

FIG.

107.

DETAIL OF INSERTION.

PIG.

108.

INSERTION.

Pretty effects are caused by insertion, the details of which will The spokes of readily be comprehended from Figs. 107 and 108. the trellis work of the insertion are finer than the foundation. "This can be used with any border but looks well with open border, Fig. 102. The fine starting on the right hand side of a coarse spoke, crossing the open space to the next on the right, following it inside

FIG.

109.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

3.

FIG.

110.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

4.

the bend till the open space is again reached, where it crosses to the left-hand side of the same 'spoke from which it started." NO. 3. "This is only another variation of the same prinicple, the spokes being cut about 3 inches longer than double the height needed for the sides of the basket. At about 2 inches from the top weave one row of pairing and fasten off ends. An

OPEN BORDER

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

79

inch farther up start another row of pairing, add three rows of single Proceed as for Open weaving, and finish with another row of pairing. Border No. 2 as far as to the insertion, but instead of inserting the spoke in hand beside the same spoke as in the upper part, miss one, and slip it down beside the next. This border needs careful manipu-

FIG.

111.

DETAIL, OF PLAIT.

FIG.

112.

PLAIT.

lation to
size of

OPEN BORDER
ple as

keep the spokes in place. It can be varied according to basket and taste of worker." NO. 4. "This border necessitates double

spokes, on which two rows of pairing are worked at any desired distance. See Fig. no. The upper part is done on the same princiis brought up behind the next, the last being gathered under the first, as shown in Fig. in. For the next row this movement is reversed, each spoke being passed down behind the next, the last threaded under the first. When the

SINGLE PLAIT.

Open Border No.

5."

Each spoke

FIG.

113.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

FIG.

4321
114.

DETAIL, OF LAST

THREE SPOKEa

work

thoroughly dry, the protruding ends must be cut off as closeSee Fig. 112. PLAIT. Insert an extra short spoke beside each of those already in use, and proceed with the two spokes together as
is

ly as practicable.

DOUBLE

in single plait.

OPEN BORDER

NO.

5.

"Take spoke No.

i,

and

at

about 11-2

beyond the edge of the basket bend it downwards, passing it behind No. 2, before No. 3 and behind No. 4, leaving the end at the front
inches

One upright spoke is still left. 2. and behind No. as spoke No. See Figs. 4. 2. of the basket to form the plait. . this must now be threaded from behind under the spoke first used. in and 112. again leaving the end at the front of the basket. before No. Length of spokes needed for borthe der 10 inches. of these. Take spoke No. CLOSED BORDER NO. and working on the same principle bring it down behind No. and spoken of FIG. it Take the first before and behind two spokes first used. "This is the same border and worked FiG. FIG. 1. 2. it Two upright spokes are still behind the second and thread left. BORDER 116. which must be threaded behind and before and behind the three spokes first Finish with plait already deused. 3. i. 117. 113).8o HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 5. DETAIL OF NO. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. In order to keep the pattern. bring it down behind the second (Fig. CLOSED BORDER NO. and will complete the pattern. scribed. as just described. bring i. 115. Proceed in this way till all the spokes are down but three Take the first of these. and before the third.

but never more than two. FIG. 3. passing it under No. there will and behind No. 6 (Fig. Take the longest of the first pair. FIG. The shortest of each pair in turn is left to be cut off at the front when the work is finished. 4 and behind is down. and passed under the same spoke. Two pairs of ends will still be left. or to be threaded through to the inside and cut off there. 2 FIG. lay it in front of and beside spoke No. 119. 5. I (the spoke first used. 120. 5 being brought down beside it as before. and if correctly worked. 3 and the spoke in I. 2. bringing it out to the front under spoke No. always be two pairs of ends after the first pair is started. Take the longest end of the last pair. and bring it beside No. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. and slip it behind and under spoke No. 2. 118). 3. it down beside No. DETAIL OF CLOSED BORDER NO. CLOSED BORDER NO. and which may be marked by a piece of cotton till the worker becomes familiar with the border). bring it before No. CLOSED This will make a second "pair of ends. 4 (which is still upright). 2. one have been brought down. 8l I and behind No. 5 (which is still upright) and behind No. the last upright spoke still left being brought way. FIG. Take No. making one "pair" of ends turned down. bring it in front of and beside spoke No.'' The 5. 2. 117). 122. 121. 3. longest of the first pair must now be brought before No. making the edge still more Proceed on this principle till all the upright spokes but substantial. No.HOW right) bringing TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. BORDER DETAIL OF NO. "pair" No. The canes forming these side (the longer of the two "pairs" must each in turn be kept side by till the next being to the right) and held perfectly flat under the thumb Pick up No. Take the longer of the first pair. down beside it in the usual . 4 (Fig.

7. "Before attempting this border. bringing No. and after the pairs are started there will always be five to work from till the end is reached. 5. 121). No. down. No. 5 behind No. or four. SPLIT SPOKE FOR ROUND BASE." CLOSED BORDER NO. always remembering that the number of single spokes turned down at the first determines the number of pairs. . 3 as large as would be needed for any ordinary basket front of Each spoke must be brought Length of spokes . 3 No. SPIRT'S THREADED No.82 HOW it. 2 behind No. / (which is still upright) down beside it. No. 6 (which is still upPick up No. 125. but the same kind of border may be worked with three. lay it down behind right) down bes de it (Fig. 2. the last upright spoke being brought down beside it. and that these must never vary till not one upIn Border No. 123. Pro. all the spokes are down but one. 2. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. bringing it behind and under spoke No. 6 (Fig. 3. 124. FIG. the worker will do well to work out No. bringing No. above the weaving. 2 No. . 3 behind . 4 behind No. PIG. which are much the same. Pick up No. I and lay it behind No. "Lay spoke No. i behind No. 2 is the simplest of this principles. spokes as easily as with two or five. 120). class No. i. or more. FIG. 8. till Take the longest spoke of the first of the five pairs left. 3 five spokes are at first turned right spoke is left. to the front immediately needed 8 inches. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. until familiar with its No. DETAIL OF OVAL BASE. ceed thus . 4. 1?6. FOR ROUND BASE. FIG.

HOW
Five pairs are

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

Take the longest of the first pair, bringing still left. Take beside and in front of spoke No. I and under spoke No. 2. the longest of the first of the four pairs left, bringing it beside and in In threading through front of spoke No. 2 and under spoke No. 3. these ends, it must be remembered that the short spokes come out immediately above the weaving and under the roll of spokes which forms the edge. Take the longest of the first of the three pairs left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 3, and under spoke No.
it

FIG.

WEAVING OP 127. ROUND BASE WITH

FIG.

128.

TWO WEAVERS.
Take

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES IN PAIRS.

the longest of the first of the two pairs left, bringing it beand in front of spoke No. 4 and under spoke No. 5. Take the long spoke still left, bringing it beside and in front of spoke No. 5 and under spoke No. 6. If the two spokes which lie together have been kept lying flat on the edge of the weaving, the border will look even and handsome (Fig. 122). Length of spokes required 10
4.

side

inches.

84

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

CHAPTER

XIV.

MORE ABOUT

BASES.

In her books Miss Firth gives several methods of making bases. BASE. A simple oval base may be made as follows. Take 4 lengths, No. 4 rattan, 24 inches long, 6 lengths, No. 4, 6 inches long and one length, 3 inches long. Place the six short pieces for the width and the long pieces as shown in Fig. 123. The two lower spokes must be placed on the table, and the short ones placed across them in The lower of these two spokes must be pairs, at intervals of an inch. the center pair, and the pair at each end. The upper spoke must be the reverse of the lower, the short piece being placed above that in the same order as the lower spoke. When the base is finished it will be seen that this short piece forms a middle around which the four spokes are woven. The other two long spokes must be placed in a position exactly reverse to the two first, as in Fig. 124. They must then be pressed closely together, the left hand holding them firmly in their place, while the right weaves with the inside spoke of the two which first used, passing it over the two short ends of the second pair of long spokes, and under and over and under the three short The outside spoke must follow, but in reverse order. The secpairs. ond pair of long spokes must be treated in exactly the same way as the

OVAL

UNDER

OVER

first.

ROUND BASE WITH DOUBLE WEAVERS.
spokes
of

Take
of

12

No. 4

rattan, six inches long,

and a long weaver

rattan. In six of the twelve spokes, make a split in inch long as shown Fig. 125. Then thread the six unsplit

No. I the center about an
spokes
in

through the
center.

split

ones.

(Fig.
it,

126).

Keep

flat

and cross exactly

leaving one end several inches longer than the other. Slip loop of weaver over six of the split spokes, bringing under part of weaver over, and top part under the next six spokes (Fig. 127). Repeat this as described with Fig. 95 until Be sure that the under weaver is always three rounds are made. brought to the top before the top one is taken underneath, to prevent the weavers getting twisted. Now separate spokes into sets of two, (Fig. 128), pulling the spokes well apart to allow room for the weavers Then pair around the double spokes for to be well pushed down. three rounds, after which separate each 'spoke and pair as in Fig. 129. round base SINGLE BASE with a single instead of a double weaver may be made by the insertion of an extra spoke after the dividing of the spokes begins.

Take weaver, double

ROUND

WITH

WEAVER. A

BASE, take 13 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 5 inches long, and 5 spokes of No. 4 rattan, 12 inches long. Split the 13 in center as before described, and thread them on the 5 spokes spokes Put the odd spoke in center of the five. Then as shown in Fig. 130. half an inch between the spokes, place them as shown in Fig. allowing

OBLONG OVAL

HOW

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

130, but with two spokes together at each end. Double the weaver and Take the underneath part place the loop over the double side spokes. of the weaver and weave down the side, then go back and take upper part of weaver and weave beside it, counting double spokes at end as

one spoke.
base flat on the table, and always from left to take up the base in the left hand, grasping the weavers where they pass the double side spokes. Take the weaver from underneath and bring tightly across the five long spokes, place behind the double side spokes, then put the base flat on the table and weave down the side. Go back, taking up the base again, and take the top weaver behind the five spokes, lay down the base, then weave down the side. Repeat this until you have two
right.

Weave holding the To do the end

weavers crossing the five spokes top and bottom and on either side. Pair around these, Divide the five spokes into 2-1-2. (See Fig. 131). but still weave down the side. When both ends have been divided in this way, take each spoke singly, beginning with the double side spokes,

FIG.

130. COMMENCING OBLONG OVAL BASE.

FIG.

129.

ROUND BASE WITH SPOKES
SEPARATED.
of the nine spokes at either end, but
still

and pair around each weave down the sides.

only

both ends are done, continue weaving straight round with one we'aver and then the other, but not pairing. While doing the base, draw the weaver firmly towards the right, and when doing the ends bring the weaver firmly clown between the spokes, which must be drawn as far apart as possible to admit of this In a well-made base the weaving is always being done efficiently. drawn down so firmly that the spokes cannot be seen in between. To get the oval bases of the size required, first take the measurement across the basket. If this is 4 1-2 inches, and the length is to be 8 inches, the spokes across would have to be placed within a distance of 6 inches, measuring from each lot of double spokes at the end. The reason of this is, that enough space must be left at either end to allow 2 inches of weaving, as in a base 41-2 inches across there would be 2 inches of weaving on either side, allowing one-half inch for the five spokes down the center.
first

When

86

HOW
If this rule is

TO

MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER

BASKETS.

in the lids of oval baskets

followed, the right size can always be counted on, and it is particularly necessary that the size should

be assured before starting.

BASE. Another method of making an oval base is to take six 5-inch spokes, four 7-inch spokes and one 4-inch spoke, all of No. 4 rattan, with three weavers of No. 2 rattan. Split the six five inch spokes as described in Fig. 125. Thread them on the four seven-inch and the one four-inch spokes, the short one in the center, leaving about half an inch between each of the six. The six spokes are held horiand the five are vertical. Start a weaver, back of the vertical spokes and lying along the uppermost horizonal spoke, with the end toward the right. Bring it around in front of the vertical spokes (above the upper horizontal one), the>n back and down diagonally to the left, coming out below the upper horizontal spoke. Here it is
zontally,

OVAL

FIG.

131.

OBLONG

OVAL BASE.

brought around in front of the vertical group, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical spokes and above the first horizontal one. It is then brought diagonally down in front of the vertical spokes, to the Next it right of them and just above the second horizontal spoke.
crosses diagonally down and back of the vertical spokes, to the left of them and below the second horizontal spoke, where it is brought over the vertical ones, back and up diagonally to the left of the vertical

spokes, and just above the second horizontal one as shown in Fig. 132. The same process binds the other four horizontal spokes making an ornamental cross effect over each one, on the inside of the basket as seen in Fig. 133. After all six horizontal spokes have been bound, the spokes are separated and the weaving begins, and is continued until
;

the size desired

is

attained.

BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INSERTED CORraffia twined basket, having a pespokes at each of the four corners, is shown in Fig. 134. The rubber bands holding three groups of spokes make it more convenient for the maker to manipulate the numerous spokes, When a as each time around a spoke is inserted at its proper place. group is twined with two strands of raffia the rubber band is slipped off the next group and snapped around the set of spokes just finished and so on. Any number of spokes may be inserted according to the size of the base desired. Take 12 spokes No. i rattan 10 inches long, 4 short strands raffia

NERS. A
culiar

base of fine rattan or

way

of inserting the

over one. 87 in red. carefully impacking each stitch as the twist is made. OF CENTER OF OVAL BASE. This gives a cross of raffia over the grouped spokes. Weave around three or four times with uncolored raffia and then bending one of the extra spokes of rattan in half lay it snugly at the bend in the angle of the crossed spokes. raffia pass underneath and the other across the top spokes to the opposite corner diagonally twisting again. CENTER OF OVAL BASE. under one. Now begin to twine the two strands of raffia from the outside in tightly done it may Cross five spokes FIG. When the As . raffia as desired. colored raffia lasts. diagonally bring the strand under neath to the beginning of the diagonal crossing where it is securely Now cross over to another angle and let one of the halves of twisted. DETAIL FIG. DETAIL OF toward the center. Looping the colored raffia over a spoke and separating each end. and these are cut the length of the angle where they are to be placed. Care must be exercised so that the crossed spokes always lie flat until the base is well started. natural and green. Twine around as many times as this . When the twining crosses to the next angle another spoke is bent in half and again fastened to its place. This group is now securely held with another rubber band and thus continue with the remaining spokes. 133. 135 Page 126 of "Indian Basketry" shows method of this twined effect. at right angles to five other spokes and placing a raffia strand across the laid spokes. r'attan and weavers of Before beginning the work see that the rattan is well soaked in warm In fact this basket should be frequently placed under water water. Fig. letting the raffia continue for a stitch or two beyond a corner before changing to a differently colored strand. work increases extra spokes must be inserted. It thus makes two new Twine the raffia over each of the two new spokes and snap spokes. a rubber band over the first group of six. 132. and the twinings pushed closely toward the center. begin to twine with both colored and uncolored until a corner is reached now drop and clip the raffia not needed and twine in the corner spoke with the colored raffia. If the work is be made practically water tight.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER and add spokes of BASKETS.

but is unique For these directions I am indebted to Mrs. Finish off by folding down the ends of the spokes and add a coil of three or four rattans the length of the circumference of the open- FIG. John P. all the way around. Ga. Columbus. securely fastening the ends by hiding them under three or four of the twined stitches. Neligh. of the Industrial School. . the base is the desired diameter stop adding spokes and gather three of the grouped spokes into one and then shape the basket as desired. 134. round or flat. Any shaped basket may be formed from this base.88 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. ing and with the raffia sew over and over edge. BASE OF TWINED WEAVING WITH INS ERTED CORNERS. in its method of enlarging. This basket is closely allied to the Alaskan baskets. four sided. S.

Fig. and thrust into base by the side of the spokes. When pliable bend up as possible. A pretty basket is shown in Fig. with simple closed border. The lid is made in exactly the same way as the base. Weave up in this way for about an inch and a quarter. i as described in Fig. and a When the side is about an inch the sides close in towards the top. weave as high as desired and finish off with closed border No. loop through lid and border of basket. weave the sides and finish off with one of the closed borders. We now return to the making of baskets by the web weave. 2. leaving open space where these border. Turn np foundation spokes for the sides. 2 rattan. Take 24 spokes of No. The covered basket with the handle is equally easy to -make. inserting the extra ones so as to have all the spokes as near equidistant Now soak for a few minutes. Then proceed to make closed border No. Begin as before described. then bridge the space by bending the two end spokes . 2 rattan. doubled and twisted while pliable. then twist. 106 are now to be described. The two baskets on the right of Fig. turn up foundation spokes for sides. 136. open loop for handle about an inch across. drawing weavers tightly. about two and a half inches long. The bottom basket to the right is made in the same manner. 96 or Fig. weave plait of straw or any other material either made or purchased until the sides are as high as desired. so that bottom is convex. The handle is of three long strands of rattan. 96 or 125. spokes were. turning the weaver back around the spoke on each side of the open space. Where they meet tuck in ends and basket is complete. 135 is of -more simple web weave baskets made by the students at Teachers College. drawing weavers tight so that for weavers. The lid is made in same way as base or using both splint and plait and basket together take piece of finest making an one end of handle splint through basket and lid one way and the other way. half high cut short two of the spokes and turn in as for a closed Then continue to weave. For the upper one take eight spokes of No. 115. Finish taking care that the angle of the sides is evenly preserved. Start the base as described in either Fig. Make the base the size desired. When about 6 inches across. WEB WEAVING CONTINUED. for sides. Then thread WE WOVEN I'. Make the lid in like fashion. turn up. spokes. and proceed to weave as before. 15 pieces of finer rattan. 4 rattan 14 inches long. BIRD NEST. then turn up the foundation 125. Make base. and weavers of No.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. To fasten lid rattan. 2 rattan for foundation. Begin the base as already described. finishing the border with the rope twist. as soon as base is as large as required. The one to the left and the upper one are both made of No. Make base as deWhen woven up to the end of spokes take scribed in Figs. For the base take six spokes of No. 2 rattan for both spokes and weaver. 8g CHAPTER XV.

HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.. :: jj ii))li o t t fa . .-*" . W" ' " . . .

Leave the ends of the spokes irregular so as to let the top of the nest appear like a bundle of twigs. Then wrap with broader splint. however. until it is impossible to weave higher. or as desired. woven so tightly that the . If an place. say five inches. formed by thrusting a piece of rattan the size desired. even number of spokes is kept. The foundation spokes may be of palmetto. Now rapidly draw the top together. the student may gain a few ideas. 139 shows two small wood splint baskets of a type Europe. Fig. Finish with a simple border as WITH FANCY shown in to the left. thus making a secure binding. gi over the space. and do not be surprised if the following nesting time a pair of birds takes possession. down to the base. with a wide splint above it. This adds strength and gives fewer ends to care for. much sold wood splints or rattan. through the weaving. the weaving must proceed as described with Fig. The handle is : . until it is about 8 inches in diameter. us ng a weaver long enough to wrap both handle and top. (taking care to tuck the ends in as far as possible. 139 s-hows the arrangement of the base. 'BASKET BASE. Some prefer to make the handle before binding the top. and then wrapping as described for the binding. A. \Vhen 'the basket all is as high as desired turn down and tuck on a the inside of basket like overcasting. taking care to do it evenly. 95. fourteen or sixteen in number. If an extra odd spoke is introduced a single weaver will do.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.bottom is convex. Fig. Fig. 138 shows an unfinished basket from which. working in two of the spokes instead of one. Then sew around edges with a piece of thread to hold them in Bend spokes up for sides. and twelve. the spokes. Now insert double spokes for fancy base and weave about an inch and a quarter finishing it by any form of closed border desired. as desired. First lay the spokes star shape as shown. In making the photograph I failed to notice that it was somewhat out of The base is made as any ordinary mat. Now use fancy plaited straw as a weaver for the sides and weave as high as desired. inserting new spokes shape. Place in a tree.

.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

ends of the spokes may be cut as desired. of splints. when it will appear as Fig. 140. on which the work is to be done. 15 contains five articles made solely This is composed of one spoke. sortment of the Hyde Exploring Expedition. except the Fig. hold it firmly with the left hand (see Fig. V length required. 26 West 23rd Street. 93 CHAPTER SPLINT XVI. For the napkin ring take one wood splint 7-8-inch wide. place the lap. and seven others about 21-2 inches long. to take the weaver over two spokes as shown in Fig. Most of the spokes. it of the baskets are easy to make and any ordinary student can make them from the descriptions given. weave the three splints together. They are placed across each other in a circle. All the ten inches long. plait. either rounded. while with the right the weaver is worked in and out of the 141). Now take a 7-8-inch wide colored splint. pulling it as tightly as possible. over which it went in the first round). and two Then take a narrow wood splint weaver and web 3-8-inch wide. twining the weaver around the edges and returning from side to side. and bound with three or four rows of simple web weavThen using twined weaving the spokes are covered as much as ing. 143. Cut the broad splints the book mark. tuck in the edges of the foundation splints and complete the weaving. In starting the base of a splint basket place a small board.-taken around once it will be necessary (in order to have the weaver go under the spokes in the second round. Exercise great care in spokes. held firmly. where Miss Marie Toxuse. one by one. These are most popular baskets. taking care that Ithey are equisplints distant and regular at the edges. as the weaving continues.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. and thread on the . SPLINT BASKETS. The stitch is finished off by tying the sweet grass. This must be done. AND SWEET GRASS BASKETS. and. the spokes firmly pressed upon the board. on the Then. small spokes are cut so as to be very narrow in the center and widen out towards the edge. or they will be keeping pulled out of place. each time round. an Abenaki Indian. and. 142. Now. New York. The required. When as many rounds are woven as necessary. pointed or shaped. is en- gaged as weaver and teacher. thrusting the end In these descriptions are all will be seen that the mat. As soon as the weaver has been . and is now ready for the weaving of the between two sides. take each spoke and bend it up to form the foundation for the sides. twined and web weave utilized. in order as shown in Fig.a variety of those The photographs were all made from the asgenerally preferred. bend into the ring form. hence it is deemed appropriate to give full particulars as ito the methods of weaving. take the weaver in the right hand.

INSERTING WEAVER IN SPLINT BASE.FIG. . 141.

) three splints are used instead of two. two double rows). Canada. (I am not commending the color scheme. When the upper weaver of the lower row comes from under the spoke. the top and four or five inches less at the bottom. The base is of extra strong wood splints. the edges being strengthened by turning in the foundation spokes. sewed with strong thread to the sides. in taking the "over" stitch. colored. i foot 8 inches in diameter at City. twisting again. Fig. Following this set of nine rows of looped stitches is a belt of weave made with ordinary white splints. CLOTHES HAMPER OF belt of six splints of three colors." New York It is 2 feet 9 inches in height. about i -8-inch wide. 140. turn up for sides and web weave with splints any size smaller than When within three and a half inches of the top. editor "The Papoose. drawing under the next. two purple. The diagonal mat weave basket in the left corner is made as is the one described elsewhere. then binding strong splints around the rims. Now a . 4. long and i -2-inch wide. Curl a third splint into each double row as described immediately for Fig. web weave i-S-inch. but the upper splint. The square basket for the sides is weave and SPLINTS. missing one weaver. Them finish with one row of narrow splint. colored. two of green. arranged as Fig. T. curl it back and up under the next spoke in the row above. and twisting again over the next and so on. For the hand basket take one splint 5-8-inch wide and two 1-2Then 15 splints about 26 inches inch wide. Thus the loops alternate in the rows. and about 3 feet long. Now curl it down and under the next spoke in the bot- . F. and outside with sweet grass and bind with a narrow splint. with four rows of splints (or rather. 4 is a large fancy basket of splints. ation for the edges is made by taking a 3-8-inch wide splint. is left looped. making a bow by The spiral ornamentlacing back and forth and tucking in the end. weavers put in two for the bottom row and follow with one in the row above. then wrapping around the spiral shape. putting Now the three splints lengthwise and the 15 across ait right angles. The under of these two splints is woven under one and over one of the side spokes as in all ordinary weaving. strengthen the rim inside with stout splint. thrusting it under one of the weavers. made by Abenaki Indians of Pierreville. so that it alternates with the lower one over the foundation spokes. Then another belt of narrow white spl nts.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. missing a weaver. thus particularizing the colors. Q5 outside of the ring. Two colors of splints are used and the handles are of plaited sweet grass. The handles are of splints i -8-inch wide twisted with narrower splint and tied to the edge of the basket. Make of these a mat foundation. The next belt is of one splint. The use of the extra third In inserting the splint is to get the "curl" shown in the design. simple mat weave for the bottom. and presented to Mr. Barnes. 3-4 of an inch wide. The first nine rows of weaving on the sides are of doubled splints. two red. and web top. nearly an inch and a half wide. under three and over two. and the side splints are also extra strong. in In each of these three pairs of rows. under two and over two. the splints to be 6-8 of an inch wide. instead of being pulled tight. The arrangement of the loops is such that the loops of the second row come over the spokes of the row beneath. which is simply hideous.

. FIG. P.96 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. New York.G. BEGINNING BASE OF SPLINT BASKET. JUMPING TWO SPOKES. 140. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 142.

take two strands weave under and over for five or six rows. wrapped around and bound on with small white splints. fastening off the end grass. Two or three rows of narrow weavers fix the spokes in position. which has been well anchored by fastening it below. and eleven or twelve rows of narrow splint weave Then the splints are bent out and split. This belt of ''curled" weave is followed by weaving belts above it. and so on woven in like 7 the lid is SWEET GRASS foundation fan. followed with three narrow splint weave. the grass composes the woof. each splint thus formtaken. 97 complete round is made. In Fig. Upon this place lengths of sweet Then wrap tightly as shown in Fig. ing two. 5 is a The splints are cut so as to be very center and widen rapidly towards the edge. and. four similar to those below it. take a stout wooden splint. 22 and and splint narrow in the This can readily be seen sweet grass Now The sweet grass must be dampened and pressed closely into 134. the foundation spokes as shown in Fig. of rows is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER until the BASKETS. taking narrow splint weavers loop the border. as described in Figs. The finishing border is of these same splints wound under and over and looped as will clearly be seen in the design. complete. spokes are turned down and tucked in. as the simple splints of Fig. rows of plain simple weaving gives firmness. which thus forms a kind of shelf or rim. and use the "twined"" weave or pairing. five splints each way. the latter at the sides. The lid is made of five broad and two narrow splints. On these are woven twined rows of sweet grass. One single row of plain weave with a wide splint and five of loop weave. and outside with a row of sweet grass. The only difference between the basket at the bottom to the SPLINT AXD SWEET GRASS BASKETS. Each pair manner. 6 four basIn the bottom one to the kets of splints and sweet grass are shown. tion splints are now turned upright again and a row of the "loop" weave with inch-wide splints made. The former is affixed to the latter by lacing the binding of the basket to that of the lid. both of which are bound on with a narrow splint as is clearly seen in the engraving. small wrapped loop is affixed to both basket and lid. after which it is finished off with three strong splinits inside and one colored one outside. and the spokes are turned under. When within an inch of the edge position as each row is woven. and tuck well under the sweet grass down one of the foundation spokes.- Fig. For a handle. trim {weave two or three rows with plain white narrow splint. by looking at the fan in Fig. Place the splints crossed for the Then with a single strand center. These are turned up for the sides and twined weaving of sweet When the desired height is attained. as shown by the design. and. and the edges bound as is the rim of the basket. FAN. left the base is composed of simple mat foundation. A . 5. At the top. Two rows of loop weave and then the spokes are curved down. 5. The lid is> composed (as is the base') of splints that broaden as they reach the periphery. when the handle is wrapped on the top. Now by tightly wrapping and tucking ' in.HOW torn row. loop. 140. Then the spoke splints are bent at right angles and six or seven rows of weaving taken upon The foundathis portion. Then the rim is strengthened inside with a colored splint. 5. fastening it to the last row of splint weave.

144. .FIG. New York. BASKETS OF SPLINT AND SWEET GRASS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition.

They are then turned up for the sides and described. 99 right and the one just described is that after a few rows of sweet grass are twined into the sides one wide and two narrow splints are introduced.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. which are bound as before made in like manner. They are then woven with twined sweet grass until the lid is the size of the basket. 145. is made quite differently. New York. . The carrying basket of Fig. 6 is composed of even splints about halfan-inch wide and laid as shown in Fig. twined sweet grass completes the sides. 6 will be described in a later Bulletin of the Basket Fraternity. one under. The lid The round basket is FIG. The method of making the handkerchief basket in Fig. But the two small splints which together are about 1-8 of an inch wider than the broad splint on which they rest are crossed from bottom to top under every other spoke. Then the spokes are turned in. the edge strengthened by a suitable splint and bound as before. 6. sweet grass twined in up to the top. formThen more ing a little nipple or elevation between the spokes. The wide splint is woven. Fig. of Fig. For this the spokes must be very narrow in the center and broaden towards the edges. one over. and the twining continued until the flange of the cover is as deep as required. lid. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 140. SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. Three or four rows of simple web weave at the outer edge of the base tighten the spokes. 7 shows the bases and lids of the baskets of Fig. The spokes are then turned in. The spokes are now turned down. 144 is of mat weave and web weave. however. and the rim strengthened with other splints and bound with a narrow splint. The handle is fastened to a loop which is held secure by being taken under the sweet grass of the under side of the lid in several places. or a trifle larger. as in all ordinary web weaving. and a study The of them will make the foregoing instructions much more clear.

New York. FIG.100 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. . SPLINT AND PLAITED SWEET GRASS B ASKETS. Courtesy Hyde Exploring Expedition. 146.

the weaving for about an inch is composed of plaited sweet grass. after the turning up of the sides. turn the spokes down. 13 the top basket is a very pretty creation in plaited sweet In both top and bottom the foundation spokes are narrow grass. fastened to the sides with an ordinary wood splint. web weave. and then bind with narrow splint. web weave. the ends being looped as to the edges. The edges of the base are made tight with four or five rows of simple The spokes are then turned up for the sides. shown in the figure. Weave five rows of finely plaited sweet grass two of narrow splint. Then take together with two plaits of thickly plaited sweet grass and proceed to web weave. In Fig. First hold splints. Cross these in simple mat weave with twelve similar Turn these up for ends and sides. The work basket of Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Now we take three weavers an inch wide and a long plait of extra thick Make two rows plaited grass. using thickly plaited sweet grass for weaver. the rim being strengthened and bound with wood splints. . over the plait. plain splints. and 3-8 of an inch wide. with the third for the curling and wrapping around the plait of sweet grass as described in the carrying basket. and so on alternating the wrapping of the curled splint around the foundation splints exposed by the upper and lower of the two broad weavers. When the spokes are in place. splint web weave. Take four splints about 23 inches long. 144 is made essentially in the same manner. The lid requires the splints narrow in the center and widening out . They are first \voven in web weave with narrow wood splint for about ten rows. In the basket itself. Then twine weave sweet grass for an inch and a quarter. Then two i i -4-inch wide splints. woven with plaited sweet grass. and complete the weave with the plaited sweet grass until the flange is the size desired. strengthen the edges or rim with a stout splint inside and sweet grass outside. the thick plaited sweet grass and the curl as on the Then complete the top of the lid with six or eight rows of sides. Loop the plait and bind to the side by twisting or curling the third wood splint around the plait. after which introduce the broad splints. Then strengthen and bind the edge as before described. and the rim strengthened and bound with simple wood splints. Turn down and tuck in the foundation spokes. Then three i-4-inch splints are \voven. in the center widening towards the edge. When the lid is the right size to fit the basket. under the upper part of the next foundation splint. web woven. fasten by six or eight rows of ordinary web weaving with sweet grass. The handle is composed of a heavy triple plait of sweet grass. 18 inches long. 140. of ordinary web weave with two of these wide splints. and the curl weave to give ornamentation. then completed with plaited sweet grass. is formed as shown in Fig. the edge of the lid being turned down. Now continue the weaving of the sides with six rows of plain web weave and six rows of double plaited sweet grass as before. This is followed with a splint 5-8-inch wide. one row of simple 'splint weave. however. IOI using plaited sweet grass. The base. strengthened and bound as before described. under a foundation splint.

The handle is of heavy plaited sweet grass. splint and plaited sweet grass basket.IO2 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. until the lid is right size. 6 and laced on as there described. the corners being turned over and doubled and then twined with plaited sweet grass. When within an inch of top web weave with 3-4-inch wide wood splint. PAIRING FOR PLAIT. 140. Strengthen the rim with stout splint inside and and sweet grass outside and bind with narrow splint. the edges being woven with nine or ten rows of splint web weave. MADEIRA BORDER NO. The base is formed as shown in Fig. then strengthen edge and finish off. turn down the foundation spokes. Strengthen the edge and bind as elsewhere described. . 6. and the weaving done with twined weave. Fig. 2. 147. using 1-2inch wide splints. 145 shows the top and bottom or a basket and lid of a. The round basket has a base as described in Fig. so the til may be grass. FIG. together. The lid is of simple twined plaited sweet made as the lid described in Fig. simple web woven with narrow splints or plain sweet Then twine weave with plaited sweet grass. 140 six or seven rows of simple web weaving with narrow wood splint holding it firmly Turn up sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. After laying out the spokes the first inch or grass. using plaited sweet grass for weaver. 146 the square basket is made of mat foundation. The foundation spokes are then turned up for the sides. Turn up for the sides and twine weave with plaited sweet grass. FIG. 2. For the lid the splints must be narrow in the center and widening towards the edge. The lid is made as the round lid of Fig. 148. The lid is made as the one in Fig. finish the weave unis the flange of the desired size. In Fig. MADEIRA BORDER NO. then strengthen and bind rim as elsewhere described. 6. The diagonal handkerchief basket is composed of diagonal mat weave.

No. which may be worked in the ordinary way with single spokes. Take one spoke in a close curve behind the next and bring the end down against the border (Fig. and the last is inserted first -behind and then in front of the next two spokes already turned down. in front of one only. as it has a much prettier effect when they are so. very simple. they one in the descriptions. It is not necessary. and suitable for violet baskets and small candy-bas- kets of various kinds. which must be left a little loose. so as each spoke is brought round the next it should be held firmly in its place by the left hand. to have the spokes double throughout the basket. and leave the ends on the outside of the basket. so that when you come to the finish you have be treated . . "Repeat this round. the ends are all cut off neatly. as the border should be about one inch in depth. rest. the extra length being pushed into the basket. proceed in the same way behind one. the spokes should all be double.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. To finish. turn the basket upside down to do the plait around the edge. the first swoke. is threaded over the next spoke which is turned down. "When the last two lots of double spokes are reached. "When this first part is done. behind one. in front of one." MADEIRA BORDER NO. 103 CHAPTER XVII. For the sake will of brevity. threading the last spokes through the spokes already turned down. MADEIRA BORDER It is NO. Allow spokes of eight inches for and use double spokes of No. in front of the next. on the same principle as for the preceeding border only in this there will be more to thread through. Do not draw the spokes down too closely. and the hold should be shifted round as each . "It is necessary to keep this plait very close to the basket. "Repeat this round. FANCY BORDERS. when the weaving is finished. allowing the four inches for the border. although many spokes may be used. and then. i. ''Treat all the double spokes as one. drawing all the spokes closely down except the first. as the last spokes are threaded through to complete the border. 147). the further side of the spoke against which they this border. 2. 148). Be careful not to draw the first spokes down close to begin with they must be left open. in front one. however. "To make it. inserting beside each spoke an extra one of six inches. and leave the end on the outside of the basket (Fig. room of for inserting the last spokes. "Take one spoke behind one. after being taken behind one. i Allow four inches for this border. 4 rattan or triple ones of as. and now take one lot of double spokes behind the next lot.

behind one. Allow spokes of six inches. Finish off on the same principle as for the preceeding borders." Allow spokes of 14 inches." NO. and push the end well down inside. i 1-2 inches. to pass . and Use three spokes together. Take one spoke behind two. Depth of border withas for same way NO. Depth of border without plait. front of two Take one spoke behind three spokes. 2 rattan together.IO4 HOW is TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER last BASKETS. leaving the end outside the basket. Great care is needed to keep a nice straight edge round the top of the border. in front of one." as it is ivsed on the cycle baskets very useful on many other kinds. in front of one. and the ends must be cut off neatly. If uneven the effect of the basket is quite spoilt. in and behind one. principally those which have lids." BORDER. and plait the ends. measuring occasionally to keep the border as described for the preceeding borders of of the correct depth. three inches. the basket. turned down. in front of two. therefore it is necessary to keep the spokes straight to the top. these. "Do MADEIRA BORDER use No. behind three. in front of three. behind one. when only five upright spokes are left. behind one. This border but it is is called the "Cycle. i rattan. Finish by threading the spoke through the loop of the first. It must not be spread out. in front of two. If the edge of the border. This border is worked on the inside. This is a very light and graceful border. and then to bend them to interlace with other spokes. in front of two. the first of these will be taken in front of two. leaving the end outside for the plait. "Take one spoke in front of two spokes. "Take one spoke behind three spokes. two spokes together. 4 rattan. behind two. behind two. the plait in the "Madeira Border No. 2." the last spokes being threaded through the turned-down spokes in their order. "The first of MADEIRA BORDER in the usual way. Finish off with the plait This border is worked on the outside 5. Materials required "Allow 8 inches for this border. behind three and in front of three if kept close together it has the effect of a double ridge or twist. and use three spokes of No. "Now go round again. and then. out plait. the plait is finished. as it is flat outside and the ends are all cut off neatly inside. Thus. after going behind and in front of the next six will be the first to be taken behind the first spoke the others following in their course. . This is finished on the same principle as the "Madeira Borders. Repeat this round until only seven upright spokes remain. Allow spokes 16 inches and use No. When the last spoke has been threaded through the loop of the first. curving one spoke beneath the next in the same way." of MADEIRA BORDER NO. CYCLE . spoke used. Care should be taken in doing this that the ends of the spokes are left long enough to go over the next spoke. in front of two. 3. leaving the end outside. only now the spokes curve round to make the other side of plait. 4. Repeat this round.

149. FINISHED BORDER. 105 and the again. FLAT PLAIT IN PROGRESS. FLAT PLAIT BORDER. FJG. 6 or 7 rattan. Repeat this with the second and third spokes then there will be three spokes inside and two spokes outside. and with the right WITH PORTION OF FIG. and place ic between the first two upright spokes bring down the first upright spoke beside it. '''Turn down 149). then draw the first upright spoke down beside it. it will be takem in front of the last upright spoke one turned down. will BORDER SECOND 150. from the outside. as the closer come together the handsomer the border will look when When a pupil be sufficient. FIG. In starting this border. but they must not be more than 1-2 inch apart. and through the loop of this it must be threaded to the inside all the other spokes will then be threaded through in their places. FLAT PLAIT hand bring No. place between the next two upright spokes. be threaded through. 152. I spoke in a curve over the other two.HOW in front of TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. POSITION OF SPOKES. Use for this No. : . 150). Take the first from inside. bring the first spoke from inside between the same upright spokes to outside. When the double spokes arc reached they must be used together . FLAT PLAIT draw the border down as firmly as possible. but room should be left for the end spokes to After the first two spokes have been used. the spokes finished. . BORDER FINISHED. two first . COMMENCING FIG. Now proceed to plait as follows Take the first spoke from outside. Allow spokes 13 inches long." is efficient in this border six inches for spokes FLAT PLAIT BORDER. and bring it down beside the third spoke outside Be careful in doing this not to draw the spoke too tightly (Fig. Hold the three spokes sharply to the outside of the basket (Fig. the fir sit spoke must not be drawn close down to the weaving. second and third in the left hand. 151.

" Take three twos out of the three threes. and these must all be treated in the same way as the first double spoke. spokes inside and three lots of triple spokes outside. 152). New York. Take the first double spokes from the inside and thread through the place shown in Fig. to . right spoke has been turned down there will be two lots of double as . There are four other double spoke s>. 3 and then to the follow the course of the where it . This brings five lots of double spokes to the inside of the basket Take first two lots and thread through as shown (see Fig. In finishing this border the principle is to make all the single spokes used in starting double to agree with the rest of the border. 151. and.io6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. one spoke both inside and outside the basket and when the triple spokes are reached the two longer ones must be used together as one. so that it may lie flat beside that then follow its course under single spoke No. first threading it just through the first single spoke. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. 153. that it may lie flat beside that. thus making it double like the others. 151. Teachers' College. FIG. 151). outside. Then take the longer one of these. and pass them under the three that were first turned down. Now take the longer of these and thread one up through the single spoke. in Fig. first single spoke under the black spoke to passes through to the outside of the basket. Work of Students. When the last upleaving the short spoke to be cut off afterwards. To do this the longer one of each of the double spokes inside the basket is used to follow out their course. finish the The other four double spokes must be used in the same way border (which is shown complete in Fig.

The short ends of the rays are finished bending a first group of And so on in three over a group to the left under the next group. outward from edge of base. See that this twining is equidistant from the base. 1546. spirally coiling the flat ratof raffia. though the long leaved pine may be used. twine around the groups of three all the way round to the last place of beginning. 133. Then line with fancy silk or other material. succession until the edge is finished. Bend up spokes and proceed with the twined weaving. Then begin the knot stitch. 137. Procure six yards of double twining material. 7 flat rattan. Above this about the same spaced width a final twining is made. and in Figs. 154 and 155 are shown a rush. CHAPTER XVIII. Examples of this twined weave are shown in Figs. Fig.. Take a twining weaver and about an inch from the center proceed to twine over six or seven until a fiat circle is formed by bringing the twining around to the place of beginning. 136. neatly In Fig. Pair or twine weave with raffia six or eight rounds. in which additional spokes are added for base and sides when needed. and to the left. Bind the top with natural or colored raffia as shown. See A. An extra twining or three strand twisting over a coil gives additional strength to the edge. 155. introducing bands of color according to taste. inch above this. and six bunches of tule or rush 14 or 15 inches in length and 21 single lengths to the bunch. silk-lined. lar BASKET. 156 and 157 herewith. About an inch from the outside circle. SPLINT AND TWINED BASKETS. at one end. 154. An COLLAR . Start the base as described in Fig. 140. raffia is good. A FEW BASKETS. To make this knotted stitch basForm a loop. and that the wall slants THE KENSINGTON In Figs. Continue to twine a second time round to make the base firm and flat. BOX. Tie together with weaver desired diameter or oval of the basket. A. under. a raffia collar box and a splint basket. Tie these securely at the middle and then tie together flat radiating from a center. Indian Basketry. 153 are two made baskets. This is made of rush or tule. Now having secured a firm base it is desired to shape the side of basket. Fig. Now taking care to twine around three only. the ket take a length of No. This gives a fancy effect and affords a place for decorating with ribbon as seen in the plate. twine around three rays until you come around to the pdace of beginning. Kensington colbasket. Fig.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. first letting a group cross over another group. make a larger circle an inch from the first twined circle. then insert new spokes and continue the twined weaving until base is size desired.

i ' / />O' ' <* . O hH fa fa O M H 02 d i i fa fa fa <) tf 72 P a o 02 fa M 01 <JJ M O u fa .

of ash the same width as spoke and weave in over one under one for the beginning of final wall. Then make a "button-hole" stitch and. See Fig. Twine the two together with a stout strip of ash Then make another base same first. . fastening spokes in place with raffia or fine splint. 18 3-8-inch wide splints. A very common and useful DIAGONAL" MAT BASKETRY. lining of silk may add to its value. of The edgeing rim around around the edge the bottom is an over and over weaving the bate two times round. The final weaver to be a broad length of splint. securing the ends. After cutting away the holding bands of raffia or cord and modelBut if used for sewing a ing the basket may be considered finished. Take eight yards Fig. Make base as shoAvn in Fig. and a white). the Now take two of the I -8-inch weavers (a green and. i5 4 C. (The splints should always be moist when bending is done).HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 109 taiv as the weaving progresses. The two-toned effect shown in the plate was made by running green spokes on the upper base before twining. The cover to the box is a button-holed band of flat rattan with a wove>n< top made by stringing web strands of raffia one way and weaving closely across the web with raffia. basket. Fold over the outer s pokes and tuck under twinings on the inside Cut off the alternate rays even with top of to keep them in place. and weave in more of the narrow splint for about one and a half inches. Spread the spokes of the basket on a flat surface. The ornamental banding is made by slipping the colored ray back of and over weave and slipping the end again in place along its un- derlying spoke. 140. Take a wide length splint very narrow. Continue sewing until all of cane is used and finish with double button-hole stitch. Now carefully secure the ends of the Take up the basket and place it before you right side up. Overcast the two woof strands together to hold them taut. size as the first and place it above letting the rays of the lower mat come between the rays of the upper mat. filling a wall one inch high. four yards I -4-inch green splint. Use three broad bands in this way and then finish off with six rows of two colored twining. green and white. bottom up. Bring the edges of the rattan as close together as possible. In an earlier chapter this branch of weaving was fully presented. then the button-hole loop again. weave over owe. weavers. The bottom is made by stringing web strands from end to end and holding them in place by woof strands placed an inch apart. THE ASH SPLINT BASKET. under one. narrow splint. Take the raffia over two bands of the rattan. knotting carefully and tightly. Ornament with narrower bands of colored splint by overlaying the broad bands. Bend all the spokes upward from the salver-like rim. with a fourth inch strap of darker splint. 20 inches long and two yards 3-8-inch white splint. When once round see that the next stitch goes between the stitches already on the first part of the work. over two again. 154.

shows a Hopi weaver at work on this On weave. 28 and 29. l 2 inches in diameter. two pieces. CHAIR. Main frame 22 inches long. 2^4 inches long. two pieces. of palmetto or any flat and reasonably firm material. 2 2. to a toilet table as a ring holder. which easily be Materials are. the outer edge being bound. one 2. Cut four pieces of rattan. HOLDER. Bottom brace for side frame. Rear legs and back are made from one piece." Fig. On to page 120 "Indian Basketry. 27). 5. cross-wrapped with raffia so as to fit perfectly. 60 is a Hopi Yucca Basket made on this diagonal mat weave. weaving. Figs. as shown in Fig. I rattan. Wooden base." Fig. same size. 4. This dainty and pretty little toy. 104. Tack legs and back to the rings. Center frame. Proceed as in ordinary diagonal weave. made from s also a useful adjunct made with a little 4 rattan for front legs.no HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. two lengths of No. CROSSED WARP tured. The top border is made with a double page 65 "Indian Basketry. 3. fold. The main portion is of simple mat con- Then about twenty rows of web struction over two and under two. is shown a Pueblo In- dian mat. / THE MAGAZINE : . is made as follows i. and nail the two rings together. 6$/ inches long. 27). TWINED WEAVING. and then tacked or sewed in. Make two rings. 158. can patience. one piece. pair of objects which may as well be tured in Fig. SURFACE EFFECTS OF TWINED OPEN WORK. 6^4 inches long. 124. It should not be forgotten that in making the rings the joints should be spliced perfectly. Detail of Magazine Holder 2. a toy chair is pic- TOY FIG. Fig. the other 2 inches. 156. These are home woven as bought are pic- WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. On an earlier page (Fig. Using make one this as a pattern a little care will enable the student similar to it. about 13 inches long. Bottom brace for main and center frames. is 157. These may be made of tule. soaked and bent into desired shape. Now wrap the two rings with raffia (Fig. as is also the large basket to the left on page 83.y inches long. Insertion for back is piece of No. 20 inches long. FIG. page 108. completes the mat. 107. The bottom is made of a ring. 2 pieces.

2 green rattan. Tack the long pieces to make two of the ends of the short pieces and thus make a frame these. 2. 2. 9. Bottom brace for center frame. 56 of No. Tack 9 to 5. . . 5 rattan. 2 pieces No. Tack 3 to I and 2. Tack 10 to points where they cross 2. 21 inches long. however. two pieces. for at holes to 5. split thick cane or rattan. with ends below wood an inch and a quarter. : 6% FIG. This latter method. made as follows Take two pieces of rattan long and two pieces i% inches long. 6 inches long. binding 3 at both ends to i. I. as the tack soon pulls out from the raffia. 15 inches. With the fourteen pieces No. Bend into shape required. 3*4 inches long. Then wrap with wide raffia. 6-Hs inches long. 2 green rattan. both sides. is not wise. 48 inches. Ornamented 7. Brace for ends. then \vrap with raffia. . 4. Wire scroll. I. No. 16. 19 inches. BASKET Get 14 pieces of No. Handle. Then wrap them with strands of raffia. 16 inches. also 4 to i. Tack shown. WRISTLETS OR CUFF PROTECTORS. 14 inches long. 9 and 10. 3 inches broad. 10. or tacked through the raffia to the rattan or wood of the frame. one piece. Nos. 112 of FLUTED FLOWER No. 6. 56 of No. 8 rattan. Thoroughly soak Nos. 32 of No. Tack 6 to 5 tack the ends of 10 to 6 put 2 into end holes of 5. with twisted raffia. Tack 4 to 5. four pieces 8. Ill old box lid. 8 rattan make an ordinary round base with an even number of spokes measuring 5 inches across. . To put together. wrapped frame for main frame. 2 green rattan. tying them in the center. as 158. 2 green rattan. Tack 8 to I. It is better sewed. In the middle of each end saw out a hole large enough to allow center frame to rest snugly within. 7 inches long. one piece.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The wire scrolls may now be sewed in with raffia.

dividing all the spokes into twos. TURNING DOWN SPOKES. 2 green rattan. spokes. Pair round once. j> orci er Insert the thirty-two spokes of 16 inches. but the twelve FIG. excepting 164). which remain undivided. 164. 165). 2 white cane. Then twenty-nine rows of plain triple twist with No. Now Now insert the fifty-six spokes of 19 inches. and you will get the right spokes at the side. The four spokes must be four spokes there will be twelve left upright. four lots of four spokes. FIG. 159. BASKETS FROM THE PHILIPPINES.112 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. placing one spoke on either side of the one do three rows of Turn the spokes upright. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. ing them down most sharply in the center of each When this has been done do nine rows of plain weaving. weaving. and pushing them right down to the base of the basket (Fig. Between each of these lots of double spokes. 21 inches. spoke in base. placing two beside the next lots of two spokes on either side of the four undivided double spokes added to it. Take the center spoke of each group of seven in the base. placing two beside each two. presstwelve (Fig. so that each curve has four lots of . Cut off the ends of the spokes and insert the fifty-six spokes of No. must be bent down to the outside of the basket to form the curve. These four spokes are at equal distances round the basket.

CURVE PARTLY WORKED. and for the sake of brevity will be spoken of as . the depth of which is 3}^ inches. SECTION OF FLUTED FLOWER BASKET.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 165. WORK BASKET. 167. FLUTED FLOWER BASKET. Insert the 112 spokes PIG. in readiness for the FIG. Do eight rows of weaving. TURNING WEAVER ROUND CORNER SPOKES. placing two beside each two round the basket. 166. Pair of green rattan. used together as one. FIG. still keeping the central side spokes undivided. dividing all the spokes into two. Pair round once to divide into twos. round once. STARTING SQUARE (All the pairs of spokes are border.

In doing this. . two pieces of No. DETAIL OF 171. taking two lots of double spokes together each time. SQUARE WORK WOOD FIG. leaving 2^2 inches below. 12 inches. This border is worked on top of the basket. 16 inches. "169.) of two. 16 rattan and _ Take one piece in front of three spokes. 13 rattan. cross these. in front of one. the ends into the basket at the opposite side. 13 rattan. Take two pieces of No. 166). BASKET. push two ends down beside one lot of four spokes on the inside of the Twist the two pieces of rattan round each other. Now turn the basket upside down and pair round once. in front of one. 13 rattan. All this must be worked underneath the wooden base. and leave behind. rials SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE MateRequired A square wooden base. behind one. 4 inches. . and keeping the row of pairing even with the edge of the weaving. STARTING LID OF SQUARE BASKET. Handle Sharpen the ends of the two pieces of No. spokes of No. leaving end inside. 13 inches. twenty-nine spokes." using four spokes together to plait with. start the border when about six spokes have been inserted. for the lid. 2 rattan. 6 rattan. nineteen spokes of No. and then continue the work round. TURNING WEAVER FIG. and weave a short way round the basket (Fig. 16 inches. putting in a few spokes at a time. 170. and push basket. four spokes of No. draw the four ends to equal lengths and twist round the handle to the opposite side thread through to the outside two pieces on either side of the handle cane. Insert the forty-four spokes through the holes in the wooden base. the spokes being curved from left to right. TWISTED HANDLE. one piece of No. When this is done plait round as described for "Madeira Borders. Forty-four FIG AROUND LAST SPOKE. behind one. in front one. 168. thread both ends from inside round the handle cane just below the border. Repeat this round. 7 inches. 7^/2 inches across. behind two. BASE. FIG. Do the border in front of one.114 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 6 rattan.

the lid. 7^ Allowing y? inch on either side for the border round it. The two pieces of No. If correctly worked this basket should measure 8 inches across. thread the ends through to the inside. 2 cane and put the loop over the spokes 4^/2 inches from the nearest ends (Fig. and place the long spokes into position. 13 rattan (12 inches) can now be inserted . 13 rattan at each corner must be cut evenly with the weaving before the border is done. three rows of triple twist. Border "Cycle" Border. beside the corner spoke. Place another spoke flat on the table about y> inch further on and pair round. therefore. in each corner. (This cannot be twisted round Do two rows of plain weaving. so that when flat on the table the weaving will continue from the left hand side. until a piece is clone measuring 6 / 2 the / inches (fifteen spokes). bring the other back. . corners. When the other end is reached turn it over as before.HOW Turn TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." same way as explained for "Made- To make this basket of a good shape it is necessary to keep an equal distance between each spoke the corner spokes should be pulled outwards. and weave a few inches on either spokes side. To finish. the last spokes being double (Fig. as it fits inside the basket. thread round the handle cane just below the triple twist. and then place a piece of No. Take a piece of No. must be used together as one. the base up. keeping it in a straight line. one row of flat colored. Do one row of flat colored rattan. 168). Take the two weaves round the double spokes at the end. and then do another row of pairing. place a piece of flat colored cane over the top of the handle. 2 cane. resting on the plaited border there (it is shown in Fig. one row of triple twist. The piece of No. leaving one weave out (leave an end of about i inch). weaving. and weave across the spokes. and then twist the ends of the No. with 2 spaces of about y inch between each twist. Do four rows of single weaving. 24). Continue to place the spokes and pair them. With the ends do the plait in the ira Borders. leaving end inside. 167 and 168). Sharpen the ends and push them into the basket beside the fourth (counting from either end) and at the second row of triple twist. for handles. and the shorter end of the spokes will still point towards the work. while those on either side are pushed in. 2 cane round it. When the round weave goes behind the double corner spokes it must be taken round them again but when the weave comes on the outside. this is not necessary (Figs. In front of two spokes. Take two spokes of 16 inches and place flat on the table together. Lid Twenty-nine spokes. keeping them l in their places with the left hand. cross them. and four rows of single Do - . 13 The two rattan (4 inches). turn it over and . fold a strand of No. and. one going under and the other over.) six rows of flat colored rattan one row of triple twist two rows of plain weaving. in front of one. 16 inches. 25). will be inches. behind one. this brings measurement of the center square of lid to 6 l 2 inches. Turn this over from right to left. .

four rows of weaving. Materials for Basket Eight 2O-inch spokes of No. leaving an end of 4^4 inches. through the under loop. the first side spoke must be woven in. catching in the ends of the flat cane with the spokes to which they are nearest. rattan. one spoke four weaving. two rows weaving. Handle (on top) One piece of No. and in . one flat. weave down in place of the weaver then take the weaver over or under the spoke and weave down the side. and twist the strand of No. or the lid will have a very untidy appearance. Get the center of the lid. 4 rattan. and weave each end a short way round the basket. weave back again. one spoke two weaving. counting from the side. Take a spoke of 16 inches and. then do two rows of pairing round the lid. and dividing the double spokes at each corner. 13 rattan. This pairing must be kept as close as possible to the weaving. two weaving. repeat. Bind the loop with flat cane. cross them. 2 rattan round it in the same way as the side handles sew the lid on with flat cane at the back. make another loop to catch over the first bind this also with fine flat cane. The edge is then bound off and finished with the simple border described this in the directions for a basket with a twisted handle in the first part of the chapter. When two weavers have been used. four weaving. one flat two weav. are bent into loops at about ten inches from one end of each and Handle is A . .Il6 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. leaving about /2 inch over at either end. one spoke. ing. and when two more have been woven in this way. one spoke four weaving. . two pairing. one flat two weaving. Insert one spoke by weaving it in in the ordinary way. one securely. and secure the other end in the same manner on the opposite side. 4 rattan. behind one. 2 rattan. one spoke. one spoke. 13 rattan tied to the side of the basket. Border In front of two. Every second row of weaving must be taken twice round the double spokes at the ends. and with a piece of wire secure one end of the rattan against the third and fourth spokes. A bottom is woven 2^4 inches in diameter. front just in the center and directly under the border of the basket. the spokes are flared more decidedly. the spokes are drawn in while using the remaining two weavers. in front of one. one spoke. and a short piece of No. one spoke. Place a piece of colored rattan over the top of it. 4 n-inch of No. on eight and a half 20-inch spokes. which are then thoroughly wet and bent upward with a slight flare. For handle. piece flat green. to slip . Bend the rattan in a half-circle. 7 inches. one length No. 4 rattan which has been soaked until These cut into four pieces and then separated into pairs. two weaving. will fasten it BASKET WITH TWISTED HANDLE HAVING INTERLACED ENDS Miss White thus describes the method of making basket. one spoke. four weaving. . . one spoke. form a loop by threading a weaver around a few rows of the weaving take the ends inside the basket. one four plain weaving. pliable length of No. . Now weave in a spoke at either side next to the pairing. When two outside rows of plain weaving have been done (counting in the ordinary way the number of times one weaver crosses the same spoke). six weavers of No. Do two rows of single weaving with one piece of flat cane. l .

171. The short ends are now crossed one under a long end and one over (as shown in Fig. nineteen spokes of No. 8 rattan.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. This knot is placed about half way between the top and bottom of the basket. I. 2 rattan. measuring 16 6 inches. DETAIL. for. although the process cannot be the same. which makes the loop uppermost on one end of the knot and on the other the ends. it is so simple that one can easily follow its coils. who passes one loop through the other. The long ends are twisted together for about twelve inches. 171). one in each hand of the worker. bringing the ends of the loop through which it passed over it. FIG. and are then made into another knot copied from the first one. The Materials required five of No. see Fig. TWISTED HANDLE. 8 rattan. short ends are finished off by weaving one to the right over and under several spokes and the other to the left. 8 rattan. 7 spokes inches. nineteen spokes across five. weave with Nos. Make . 172. COMMENCING 174. The loops are held firmly where the short end of each comes against the long end (making sure that the short ends are on the same sides of the loops). 173. PIG. 3 and 40 flat. fifty spokes of No. HANDLE OF KEY BASKET. Insert the fifty side spokes. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET. The long ends are also brought together making a knot like Fig. putting by one on either side of the five long spokes at each end. FIG. with the long ends turning up. BINDING HANDLE 175. and brought together. FIG. knotted in this way. OF KEY BASKET COMMENCING. This knot is placed on the opposite side of the basket from the first one and attached in the same way. 18 inches. OBLONG CARRYING BASKET an ordinary base. 18^ inches. OF 172. Use No.

rattan. 177. 16 inches. Border "Loop. OP KEY BASKET FINISHING. eight rows of flat rattan (colored) and round rattan alternately twelve rows of plain weaving one row of pairing. thirty-six spokes through the holes in the wooden base. . . keeping one round of rattan just meeting the next. rattan. Handle Insert the two pieces of No. and repeat the cross on the outside leave the end . the basket will become uneven. 13 rattan. If this is not done. and insert in the same way on the opposite side. and the spokes are drawn together in some parts. alter- In making this basket great care*is necessary to get it a nice shape with a sharp angle at each corner. SHALLOW OVAL BASKET. carried on top of the handle to the opposite side and 4 inches over. Turn up and do three rows of twist No. take it over the handles to the opposite side. BINDING HANDLE two rows of weaving. In order to d6 this keep the corner spoke pulled outward and press the one on either side well in. Materials u I inches. Now with the long end of rattan bind neatly round the handle and flat rattan together. KEY BASKET colored and white. leaving 3 inches below for the foot. Thirty-six spokes of No. and tie the longer ends together.u8 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 13 rattan. Two Oblong wooden Spokes of No. carry over the basket. Cross it on the outside (as in Fig. 3 rattan. sticking . and winding tightly. and forty flat. up against the handle cane. 175). Now FIG. . Put on in the same way as described for the "Key Basket. colored." the result being shown in Fig. in front of one leave the end inside to be cut off afterwards. turn the basket up and do two rows of triple twist and twentywith No." 2 inches high. 3 Weave pieces of No. FIG. 174). 40 flat rattan. behind one. 3 rattan thirteen rows of plain weaving. using one white and one colored weaver nately. Handle Length of handle according to taste. required base. 102. Round the foot do four rows of plain weaving and border. Get a long strand of No. or allowed to get wider in others. 176. and begin by threading one end from the inside to the outside beside the handle cane and just bePull the end out until it is long enough to be neath the border. See Fig. Also be careful to keep an even distance between each spoke. Put the . and the shape will be spoilt. one piece on either side of the center spoke in the side (as shown in Fig.

STARTING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. Add the fourteen spokes. leaving an end of 3 inches. Rattan may required Willow be substituted. except the center one Turn up sharply and do two rows of triple twist. 149 to 152. three of No. OUTSIDE VIEW. Then ninety. one on either side of each spoke.rattan. 7 rattan. placing one beside each of the five long spokes and the first of the double side spokes. 4 and continue weaving until the base measures 18 by 12 inches. Weave with 3. (straight round) of flat rattan.four of No. Of FIG. and with the other weave to rattan. 176). 30 inches. and insert the ninety-four spokes of No. until quite tight . Weave like an ordinary oval base until twenty rows of weaving with No. cut the flat rattan. push the end up and pull out between the Twist the rattan back again. When loose enough for about six rings up. 178. FIG. 16 and 40 flat rattan. Thread a piece of No. it SHALLOW OVAL BASKET then cut off neatly. these take five of 19 inches. and six rows of weaving. 40 flat round the center handle rattan from the inside just below the border. 16 rattan. FINISHING HANDLE do two rows of triple twist to divide the spokes with No. thirteen of 13 inches and fourteen of inches long. FIG. Border "Flat Plait. 6. Do seven rows of single weaving three rows each spoke singly. 119 it When the handle has been bound round as close to the border as can be. in the opposite Without unwinding any of the rattan. . Handle Place one piece of No. loosen it by twisting. and pull the end of rings (Fig. FIG. Now . . seven at either end. taking at each side. BINDING HANDLE OF OVAL BASKET. 3 rattan have been done.it round way to that in which it was wound. 16 rattan down beside the center side spoke and one piece beside the first spoke on either side repeat on the opposite side. Cut off the ends of the spokes.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 179. 7. Materials spokes the thickness of a slate pencil. Leave one end several inches long. 4. 180. Split the thirteen willows in the center and thread onto the five of 19 inches. OF OVAL BASKET. 181. 19 inches. INSIDE VIEW." See Figs.

When the border is reached. In doing this the short end must be caught in beside one of the handle canes. SQUARE BASKET.120 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 182. taking OFF THE FLAT RATTAN IN BINDING A HANDLE. Fig. and fro between the three spokes until eighteen rows cross the center one (Figs. STRAIGHT CORNER. PAPER BASKET Materials required Twelve spokes WASTE . 182). FINISHING FIG. the end of the flat rattan must be FIG. 178 and 179). WASTE PAPER BASKET when the weaving three canes together until within 6 inches of the border. 185. 184. all 183. 180). and the end pushed up against one of the canes and then cut off (Fig. 181. Now continue to bind over the top of the handle (Fig. LEAVING SIDES. is continued as in Fig. FIG. 176 shows how the handle ought to look when finished. SECTION SQUARE BASKET WITH threaded round the center handle rattan just beneath it. FIG.

six times in all. turn them up after so doing weave ten rows of triple twist and six rounds of two colors to make the check pattern (Fig. 2 spokes No. Now . Ma- Required One board for base. see Fig 184. singly (see Fig. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING SIDES. 183). 20) with two weavers. 6 inches. Bend spokes outward and continue weaving for eight more double rows. Work until you have three checks one row of triple twist twenty-two rows of plain weaving one round of triple twist. taking each weaver three times around. 13 rattan. the number of spokes being The even.HOW TO MARK INDIAN AND OTHER . Start the weavers on a side of the base which has not a handle through it. 7. weave singly. 2. 2 spokes of No. 187. weaving the border. 16 inches. 18fi. For handle. 6 inches square 38 spokes of No. 125 to 129). i and 2 rattan. will be needed. 22 inches No. . (Fig. FIG. and is 9 inches across. Insert a short spoke close beside handle to be used in its stead for down and Finish with Closed Border No. insert new weaver of dyed raffia or rattan and weave one Put a ten-inch inch. SQUARE WORK BASKET WITH WOODEN BASE . handle must be still counted as a spoke. i rattan. for half an inch. The two longest are carried on for a row of pairing. The handles can be put on terials at discretion. 12 inches forty-eight spokes No. o. turn the basket right side up. 6. 6. Finish with plaited border . leaving 6 inches below the wood. PLAITED HANDLE. until it Then insert the forty-eight spokes as usual. two of 36 inches (to be cut off when the twist is finished) and two longer. Now do your check pattern again ten rounds of triple twist. 16 rattan. 6 rattan. BASKETS. sloping the foot to taste. : . Insert spokes for sides wooden base. inches from each end make a sharp bend. after which turn the base upside 1 1/2 in Weave finish the foot before proceeding with the sides. then another half inch or inch in natural color. 27 inches. For this 4 lengths of No. Above the wooden base weave one row of rope twist. Insert the handle in holes made for it in the wooden base. counting the handles as spokes. 183). and at FIG. Weave the base in the ordinary way (see Figs. IJI of No. 10 inches. Weave with Nos.

187 clearly shows the base finished. if preferred. A handle that is very easy to make is shown in Fig. plenty of rattan being left for this purpose. spoke close to each side of the handle. spoke. one on each side of this long These may all be doubled. 2 according to taste. On finishing the plait the ends must all be pointed and thrust as far down to the base on the other side of the basket as possible. and finish with Closed Border No. 186. place the basket on smooth board. thrust a small awl through the base into the board. the spokes twined ready for the sides.122 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. to be used in its stead in weaving border. line with silk to taste. . PLAITED HANDLE. When the sides of the basket are woven insert two other spokes. making a three-plait with two spokes instead of one. Now progresses. and plait as shown. The awl thus acts as a pivot on which the basket may be moved while the side weaving SIDES. KLIKITAT BASKET IN FROHMAX COLLECTION. 2 or Open Border No. FIG. 187a. METHOD OF HOLDING BASKET WHEN WEAVING all up and Fig. Where this handle is desired one of the spokes must be left long enough to form the handle. If for a workbasket.

FINISHING OFF A BASKET. hence. I think. Things depends the difference between a poor and a good basket. In all raffia work care should be taken to cut off loose ends as the weaver progresses with her work. See if the shape is as it should be especially examine the loops of the border . splint. however. should always be done before the basket while the materials are still unformed. be worked out. is madeDyeing. In rattan. 188. willow and other ware small fibers will split off from the work. not to scorch the basket. of the saire size. before it is allowed to dry. in the chapter on dyes. flat and the and see that they are all of this nature seem small. yet upon them often lid to fit. FIG. If so. suggested make the bottom 1 in Those who desire to varnish or polish " Miss White's "How to Make Baskets their baskets may find recipes .HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Only in this way can designs the weaver desires baskets of one color. YAKTTAT GOOD LUCK RATTLE BASKETS. While the work is damp it can easily be twisted into shape. 123 CHAPTER XIX. follow the methods it may be as well to dye the completed work. and these can be either In singeing be careful singed off or rubbed off with fine sandpaper. f. one should correct all irregularities. TN FROHMAN COLLECTION.

189. OLD COILED BASKETRY IN THE COLLECTION OF H. WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE BASKETS THE COLLECTION OF H. SARGENT. JR. E. JR. SARGENT. 190. FIG. E. IN .FIG.

Curator of the Division of Ethnology of the United States National Museum. Of the poetry and religion woven I into Indian baskets I larger book have fully discussed this can here say nothing. and he who WORK OR MAT WEAVE. Even in the mechanical work the Indian showed a fertility of invention and a skill in execution little short of marvellous. A variation of the mat weave is that which Professor Mason calls by this name. This is practically the mat weave of the preceding pages. TWILLED BASKETRY. and the warp is the same as the weft. intelligently cannot do better than "read. how the Indian has well for all students of basketry to learn produced the wonderful results that make her basket work so famous. mark and inwardly digest" what is there written. In my phase of the subject." . which. COARSE CHECKER- PIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 125 CHAPTER XX. 192 and 193- American Basketry. would work FIG. 191. Professor Otis T. In what follows I have done little more than quote what that distinguished savant and sweet-spirited gentleman. Splints of every imaginable kind of material are used for this work. thus producing a twilled effect as seen in Figs. Indeed it is practically impossible to tell the one from the other (see Fig. will suffice to start the earnest student upon the true pathway. The fundamental technic of this work is in passing each strand of the woof over two or more warp strands. Many North Pacific Coast as well as Atlantic Coast and Canadian Indians use this weave. 191). TWILLED WEAVING. hence in this chapter nothing but practical hints can be given. 192. however. HOW TO MAKE It is INDIAN BASKETS. Mason. has written in his "Directions for Collectors of CHECKERWORK BASKETRY. At the very outset we are confronted by the magnitude of the subject.

vellous ingenuity in the working out of designs in this weave by varying the laying of the splints and the use of different colors. firmly fastened to the hoop at the top and the rigid members at the bottom. woven work. or the opposite. In passing from warp to warp these elements are twisted in half-turns on each other so as to form a two-ply or three-ply twine or braid. different structures result as follows I. rigid hoop is sustained by four uprights. TWILLED WEAVING. According to the relation of these weft elements to one another and to the warp. 193. all This is the most intricate and elegant of Professor Mason thus writes of the varieties of twined weaving as follows "Twined work has a set of warp rods or rigid elements. of twine or yucca fiber. Plain twined weaving. in its southern portions. 10. affixed at the bottom. From examples reproduced by W. The ordinary Indian work. is fastened to one of the rigid uprights and then wrapped once around each wrap element. ISC. and is still used by the Mohaves. The process is clearly shown WRAPPED A in Figs. though in three-ply twining and in braid twining three weft elements are employed. H. The weft. each time and each way." Figs. n. WEAVING made only at Oraibi. . Scores of designs may be made by the curious. continuing in a coil until the top is reached. FIG. TWINED WEAVING. (See Figs. Holmes it will be seen that in the ancient weaving of the Mississippi Valley. : . 194) the weft goes over one and under three.126 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 39 and 40). On the specimen shown (Fig. This type of weaving was employed by the Mound Builders of the Mississippi Valley. the weft would not pass over the same number of warp elements that it passed under. TU1. over single warps. the WICKER WORK finest web basketry of civilization is specimens being the plaques of the Hopis. WEFT." The Fijians make remarkable baskets by comIn this country the Chetamaches show marbinations of this weave. but it is doubtful if one can be invented that these Indians have not long known. and specimens of which are found in "Indian Basketry. "The North Americans of antiquity were very skillful in administering the twilled technic. as in wickerwork but the weft elements are commonly administered in pairs. : 195 and 196. all rigidly The warp extends from the top to the bottom. FIG. 165 and 167.NK1J IN TWO COLORS.

the Pomas 200 "shows how. 198 are made in this weave. DIAGONAL TWINED this style between cross the and the plain warp strands. i. twined work vertical warps crossed by horizontal weft element. but pass diagonally over the . therefore." This primitive mode of weavPLAIN "TWINED WEAVING FIG. "The is in the manner the woof weavers technic consists in passing over two or FIG. more warp elements there must be an odd number at each half turn for in the rest round the same pairs of warps are not inof warps. The ridges. Fig.HOW 2. on the outside. Latticed twined weaving. cluded in the half turns. around 5. ings. The only difference 2. surface. OF THE MOHAVES. 197. 127 Diagonal twined weaving or twill. TWILLED WEAVING PRESSED ON ANC IENT POTTERY OF ALABAMA. TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS." WEAVING. ing requires a set of warp elements arranged parallel to each other. in which one weft element remains rigid and the other is wrapped about the cross3. by varying the color of the weft splints and The esuwas. and many style. Two splints or weavers compose the woof and they are twisted with a The Aleut and Haida baskets in half turn around each warp stem. 4. are not vertical as in plain twined weaving. over two or more warps. or water bottles. Fig. tee or Hudson stitch. Other examples will be found illustrated in "Indian Basketry. . 222 Indian Basketry). 196. which is clearly shown in Fig. WRAPPED WEAVING FROM A MOUND IN OHIO. or bird-cage twine. 199)." (See Fig. WRAPPED WEAVING FIG. are also made in a similar manner. 195. Wrapped twined weaving. of the Havasupais are made in this of the fine baskets of (see Fig. 194. Three-ply twined weaving and braiding in several styles.

KLIKITAT. WORK VARIETY OF TWINED OUTSIDE. ment of the twine is passed horizontally along the upright warp stem. artist is trol absolutely the figure 3. DIAGONAL FIG. FIG. which is the . In this weave one ele- FIG. ALEUT AND HAIDA BASKETS IN THE FROHMAN COLLECTION. The variation of one row of stitches TWINED WEAVING." enabled to con- WRAPPED '"TWINED WEAVING. APACHE.128 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. 201. 19S. When the rows of these stitches are wrapping forced closely upon one another the effect is as in Fig. the on the surface. 202. generally on the inside. changing from diagonal to plain weaving. 199. while the other is wrapped around it and the upright warp. as seen in Fig. 200. inclining to the right and the other to the left is caused by the weaver's from above or below.

: . this drawing was made. TWINED WEAVING. 203 "shows a square inch of the inside of a basket. 20-2. form of weave is confined to the Pomas. (For example. 129 exact method followed by the Fig. Neah Bay weavers. the skillful has combined four styles of two-ply twined weaving. WRAPPED. On the from which FIG.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. with plain twined weaving in the two rows at the top plain twined weaving in which each turn passes over two warp rods in four rows just below." (See Fig. how the wrapped or Neah Bay twined work appears on the lower right-hand corner In the exquisite piece is and in the woman the inside view of diagonal twined weaving. OF THE POMAS. outside of the basket these various methods stand for delicate patterns in color. NEAH BAY WEAVING. INSIDE. 201. In the middle of the figure. . 255 Indian Basketry). at the right side. THE TI WEAVK FIG. It is believed that this LATTICE 4. it will be seen inside. TWINED WEAVING. FIG. TWINED WEAVING. It is described in "Indian 'The ti (proBasketry. TWINED. 203." page 99. see Fig. 200). 205. under the name of the Ti Weave. WRAPPED FIG.

" 5. false emb. On the outside there is the appearance of a two-ply string laid looks like plain along the warp stems. 206 and 207). FiG. a. is carried behind the warp a whole revolution the three w eft elements have in turn passed behind three warp elements. each one of the strands. d. OUTSIDE. Three-ply. and also water-tight jars are thus constructed. (a) the upright warp of rods. 207. Skokomish. Three-ply twine. since in every third T . and there are four ways of administering the weft. so that in passes inward. this fashion are very rigid and strong. (b) a horizontal warp crossing these at right angles. INSIDE. Frapped. and (c. DITTO. d) a regular plain twined weaving of two elements. In this technic (a)' THREE-PLY TWINE (Figs. INSIDE. After that the process is repeated. "Three-ply twined FIG. DITTO. as FIG. TIIKKK-PLY BRAID AXI> (H'TSIDE. nounced tee) twined weaving consists of four elements THREE-PLY TWINED WEAVING. the basket weaver holds in her hand three weft elements of any of the kinds mentioned. broidery. viz. c. The reason for this is apparent. TWINED WORK. (See Fig. 208. By referring to the lower halves of Figs. FIG. In twisting these three. it Tn REE-PLY BRAID. stem adjoining. and frequently the hoppers of mills for grinding acorns. 209. I'm. 206 and 207 the outside and the inside of this technic will be made plain. weaving is the use of three weft splints and other kinds of weft elements instead of two. Tlinkit. Three-ply braid. while on the inside the texture twined weaving.. 205). Baskets made in holding the warps firmly together.130 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS.

The lower ply twine. no matter how the rest is built up. FIG.is the body worked in . it is carried THREE-PLY FIG. when the work is driven home. of a revolution one element passes behind the front. PLAIN TWINED WORK. In three-ply braid the weft elements (b) are held in the hand in the same fashion. In the needlework of the civilized c) THREE-PLY. On the surface. TWINED WORK. warp and two remain in BRAID." '( part is in plain twined weaving the upper part is in three- "In Tlinkit basketry spruce root. The ornamentation in which mythological symbols are concealed consists of a species of false embroidery in which the figures appear on the outside of the basket but not on the inside. . but instead of being twined simply they are plaited or braided. the upper parts of Figs. the starting of all Poma twined baskets. FIG. it is impossible to discriminate between The three-ply braid is found at three-ply twine and three-ply braid. 206 and 207 and 208 and 209. 211. FRAPPED 212. FALSE EMBROIDERY. This process is better understood by examining inside a warp stem. 210 shows a square inch from the surface of a Hopi twined jar. Fig. which is exceedingly tough.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. OVERLAID TWINED WEAVING. THREE-PLY AND 210. and as each element passes under one and over the other of the remaining two elements.

and then the whole is pressed down close to the former rows of weaving. Skokomish type. IN 218. BASKETRY. 216. YOKUT BASKET wrapped around it once. Around this twine the third element is wrapped or served. An interesting (d) modification of this Tlinkit form of overlaying or false embroidery occurs occasionally among the Poma Indians under the name of bog or bag. POMO BAM TT'SH WEAVE FROHMAN COLLECTION. Two of them are spun from native hemp or milkweed. the laying of this third element would be called embroidery. 217. example the twine or weft element is three-ply. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. and it is fully explained and illustrated by James Teit in his Memoir on the Thompson River Indians. woman FIG. On . Straws of different colors are employed (Fig. the colored or overlaid element . IX is 215. IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. when each of the weft elements passes between two warp rods outward. and form the regular twined two-ply weaving. In this Thompson River FRAPPED FIG. 211). WASHOE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION. FIG. YOKl'T BASKET FIG.132 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. but the Indian woman twines it into the textile while the process of basket making is going on that is. passing about the other two and between the warp elements.

is 220.< . FROHMAN COLLECTION. who are Wakashan (Fig. FIG. Teit's figure. show that the bags and the motives on them are clearly Xez Perces or Shahaptian. 212). DECORATED YOKUT BOTTLE-NECK IN use of Mr. IN 219. FIG. This combination extremely interesting. but the wrapping of corn husk outside the twine are not done in Nez Perces fashion. The author says that it "seems to have been acquired recently through intercourse with the Shahaptins. KLIKITAT IMBRICATED WORK. I am indebted to Dr. The fastening off is coarsely done. YOKUT DANCE BASKET FROHMAN COLLECTION.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. the outside of this bag the wrapping is diagonal. but on the inside the turns are perpendicular. kS* . leaving the surface extremely rough. but after the style of the Makah Indians of Cape Flattery. 221. Franz Boas for the s ." little attention to the stitches will A FIG." .

with striking designs. A. weave and de- F1G IMBRICATED COINED 223. Ore.1^4 S HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. The whole five are most beautiful specimens. Coiled Basketry I have already quoted Professor Mason's clear The following pictures show a variety of specimens of coiled work. . 218 is a good specimen of the Bam Tush Poma weave. "Indian Basketry. and with quail plumes as an additional decoration on the rim. FIG. 219 and 220 are both fine Yokut baskets. and the design is similar to that of Maidu (Fig. 216 and 217 are Yokut baskets of good shape. IMBRICATED BASKETRY RIVER INDIANS. AFTER JAMES TE1T. sign.. WORK. largely from the Frohman collection. They are all Apache baskets. CALLED Iv^lKITAT. are seen two Klikitat basket weavers at work. E. Fig." Of analysis. bottle neck. The latter has a circle of dancers and of the rattlesnake dia- monds. KLIKITAT BASKETRY. As a frontispiece in "Indian Basketry" Their materials are. 222. Figs. pine cone design. in Arizona and New Mexico. Fig. Sargent." the latter being a Figs. WORK OF THOMPSON Mr. The weave is of the coiled variety. 322 Indian Basketry). 189 shows some beautiful specimens ered by Mr. fully explained on page 96. Jr. 190 is of new White Mountain Apache Basketry. the weave of which is described in "Indian baskets in Fig. Portland. 215 is a Washoe basket in the Frohman collection. with a circle of dancers on the flange. of old coiled work gathFig. Sargent's collection.

of the Klikitat. Mr. Twanas. is understood that here tian family. The Thompson River the art. and the ornamentation in strips of Elymus triticoides and Primus demissa (Fig. Eells says that some women in every tribe on Puget Sound could produce the stitch. James the strips not being over an eighth of an inch wide. cedar bast and grass stems." Indians. 221 the detail of this imbricated method of weave is shown. and he names the Puyallups. are added as ornament. Makah.HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. Nisqualli. Teit describes and illustrates this type of weaving among the Thompson River Indians of British Columbia. Imbrication is one of the most restricted of technical processes. Snohomish. doubled on itself so as to be underneath the next stitch. the entire surface is covered with work of this kind. FIG. The body of the basket is in the root of Thuja gigantea. collected . 224. and so with each one it is bent backward and forward so that the sewing is entirely concealed. Skagit. and Spokanes. '35 for the foundation. who are Salishan. all of whom are of the ShahapClallam. have long known RC . POMA SHU-SET WEAVE BOWL AND BURDEN BASKET IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. Chehalis." In some of the finer old baskets in the National Museum. Yakima. who are Salishan. Cowlitz. and Squaxon. In Fig. "The strip of colored bark or grass is laid down and caught under a passing stitch before another stitch is taken this one is bent forward to cover the last stitch. Strips of cherry bark. It It is the native art it is a modern acquirement. cedar or spruce root. while the sewing is done with the outer and tough portion of the root. 222). forming a sort of "knife plaiting. dyed with Oregon grape. sixty years ago.

Sanborn. Little. S. THE SUN BASKETS OF THE POMAS IN FROHMAN COLLECTION. Mich. Mass. A School Without Books. Bulletin of the U. Milton Bradley Co.. Review and Herald Pub. Raphia and Reed Weaving. New York. T. Cane Basket Work...i 36 HOW TO MAKE INDIAN AND OTHER BASKETS. SHI-BC. No. White. Purdy. Indian Basketry. The Indians of the Painted Desert Region.. First Series. Knapp.. Battle Creek. Directions for Collectors of American Basketry. 1902. Co. Springfield. Page & Co. L. London. 170 Strand. O. James. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Cane Basket Work. Part P. Los Angeles. CHAPTER Firth. XXI. Museum. Stearns. Porno Indian Baskets and Their Makers. Boston. Doubleday. Second Series. Upcott Gill. Eliz. Nat. New York. . Carl.. Mary. 39. Annie. Mass. Henry Malkan. DECOKATED Mason. 225. Brown & Co. How to Make Baskets. ftu- FIG. Calif. George Wharton. Martha Watrous.

. . a loan collection of fine Indian Baskets in your village ? Then join The Basket Fraternity and get nineteen others to do and the collection will be sent to you without charge. It has a large charter membership from roll will The charter in remain open until the end of 1903.r^-' a demand exists for a means of communication between."-T :r.:~~ . rc-. organized by George \Vharton James.". Its only conditions for Do you want town or so.:'. membership are that you are interested Indian or other baskets. and source of information THE among basket lovers that BASKET FRATERNITY has been its start. Do you want a lecture on Indian Basketry will see ? Read page 4 and you how it may be had. '^-.':"-.. and send your Fraternity fee of one dollar.v~-i'f> .THE BASKET FRATERNITY.- L.

To seek to influence the Indian department of the United States Government to earnestly endeavor to work to this end among all the agents. 8. 10. To organize a "traveling library" of veritable typical Indian baskets and send these as required to members of the fraternity for Such a collection of basketry is already made. To seek in every revive the art and prevent dying out prepared materials and artistic work. foster the use of aniline dyes. carefully : . To To To distribute among its members photographs or engravings of makes. with accompanying lecture. and especially for the pleasure and study of members of this fraternity. 14. 3. alien designs. 5. and is ready for its travels on call from those entitled to it. To discourage among photographs. HE BASKET FRATERNITY is a society of basket lovers. 13. a national collection of typical baskets of every weave to be found throughout the world. To prepare a set of stereopticon slides. when issued. and restore the use of native dyes. 6.T 1. organized for the purpose of bringing together those who have felt the charm and fascination of Indian basketry. 7. free to all members of the fraternity. 11. way to among the Indians. 4. secure the ends aimed at in Sections 12 and 13. and to require all young Indian girls to learn the art as part of their school training. to prepare. illustrated bulletin of general or specific interest to basketry lovers and collectors and to send this bulletin. which will be loaned on payment of a small fee to any member of the fraternity. hastily prepared materials and crude workmanship. To make and style 9. This collection to be placed in some suitable location where it will be accessible at all times to basket lovers. native shapes and designs. To photograph aboriginal weavers and make a collection of said its the Indians the modern commercial methods. but especially and primarily of baskets made by the aboriginal tribes of North America. ITS OBJECTS ARE a : To form To means of communication between basket lovers throughout the world. which encourage the making of baskets merely for sale. and of representative Indian fine and typical baskets of all weavers. disseminate information among its members relating to the art and the objects of the fraternity. To encourage the opposite of the spirit referred to above to seek to retain the love for good and artistic work to banish aniline dyes. superintendents and teachers in its service. collect reliable and accurate knowledge of Indian weavers' methods and work. study and exhibition. 2. To arrange rials for 12. and issue quarterly an . for the gathering and distribution of Indian matebasket weaving which shall be sold to members of the fraternity at as near cost as possible. To prepare such slides also for sale.

00 per year. the national collection and the traveling libraries of Indian baskets are located." and originator of The Basket fee the 1. first . living in one town or section. one will be sent. Forms of application for such a loan will be sent on request. Whenever twenty members of the fraternity. 1 6. in order to further the work of the fraternity. The first of these is a beautifully illustrated hand-book entitled "How to Make Indian and Other Baskets. author of "Indian Basketry. PASADENA. It will April The and third bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Basket Shapes. and to enlarge the circle of those who know and love good . issued quarterly.15. 3. unite in asking for the loan of an Indian basketry collection. referred to in Section 14. members of the fraternity are assured that they will receive The four bulletins. and Fraternity is Pasadena.iving Indian comprise fully twenty portraits of typical Indian It will be issued weavers. 2. It will be issued July i. insane asylums and other eleemosinary establishments in order that easy and simple employment may be found for the unfortunate which will help relieve the harmful monotony of their lives. CALIFORNIA. Forms STATION A. is in The second preparation and will be entitled ' ' Weavers. Orders payable to The headquarters " where the nucleus of of The Basket ' ' ^ THE BASKET: FRATERNITY. in order that their makers may derive as much financial benefit as possible from their labors. O." and will contain fully twenty illustrations of baskets of superior design. it will be sent to them on guarantee of its safety and the payment of freight charges both ways. either to members of the fraternity or to outsiders desirous to organize classes for the teaching of of knowing of its work basketry. L. : Fraternity. To set in motion all possible machinery for the creating of markets for baskets so made. To promote the organization of classes for the teaching of basketry in orphan asylums. will guarantee a small fee and necessary expenses. Address all communications and make all P. The fourth bulletin will be entitled "Typical Indian Designs. poor houses. Whenever fifty members of the fraternity petition for a lecturer." i. The membership will be sent on request. basketry work. The fraternity fee is $1. payable on application. 17. prisons. with descriptive accounts of their work. EnIn return for this trance may be made at any time during the year. California. as well as the baskets made by the Indians.To arrange for lectures on Indian basketry when and where possible. of application for bulletin will be forwarded as early as possible after receipt of the fraternity fee of one dollar. It will be issued October i." by George Wharton James." will contain not less than twenty plates of exquisitely shaped Indian baskets.

. upon appplication. The Preparation Dyes . XXI. Borders 77 XIV. More about Bases 84 89 93 103 107 123 125 XV. VIII. NEVADA. Finishing the Basket How to Make Indian Baskets Bibliography 136 If you desire Amerind Art in WASHOE.INDEX. loan 3-011 will for inspection. VII. CARSON CITY. XVII. PAIUTI OR SHOSHONE BASKETRY we can We interest you." . XVI. How to to Make and Use Them 28 32 34 37 Tools and Terms How Begin The Mat Weave The Plait or Braid X. Chap. Address THE EMPORIUM. VI. 18 V. Web Weaving Fancy Borders Continued Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets A Few Baskets XIX. of Materials . The Net Weave XI. THE HOME OF THE WASHOE INDIAN. The Spirit in which Basket-Making should be Approached. Insertion and 48 52 58 73 XIII. XX. 10 14 III. Choice of Material IV. I. our photo booklet of fine and beautiful baskets. Introduction 5 II. XVIII. The Coil Weave XII. The Web Weave IX.

20. 77. Round Base with Spokes Separated Commencing Oblong Oval Base Spoke for Round Base Spokes' Threaded for Round Base. 6. 3 Detail of Oval Base " 124. 2 Open Border No. 58. 34. 110. 102. Accordeon Plait. Deerfleld Weaver Splint Cutter Foundation Splint Cutter A Splint Single Weaving .. 91. Weavers Round Base with Spokes in Pairs. 85 85 . 5... 26. 79 79 SO 2. 111. with Spoke Simple Open Border No. 3. 73. 2 Starting Splicing Inserting Odd Spoke Right Side of Center Odd 75 75 75 75 42. 69. 4. 9. 63. 66. 71. Splint Picture Frame Foundation. 70. 65. 48. 104. Plaited Belts 50 Hoop and School Bag Raffia Doll's Hat and Tray Raffia Plaited Raffla Hats Detail of Last Three Spokes of Plaited of Plaited 55. 126. 129. 58 58 10 12 i: Covered Napkin Rings Simple Coiled Baskets with VariSimple Coiled Trays Pine Needle Coiled Baskets Wrapping Before Coiling Beginning the Coil Detail of Coil Cross Sections of Varieties' Coiled Basketry Detail of Interlocking Stitches Detail of Single-Rod Coil in 58 58 60 60 01 61 61 62 10. Deerfleld Deerfleld 14 15 16 1? 16. Splint Picture Frame Splint Mat Weave Baskets 105. Deerfleld Splint Baskets Reed Baskets. 44. Mat Foundation Work 39. 127. 108. 68. Detail of Ins< rtiun Insertion Open Border No. 15. 97.. 21. Web New Weaver Weavers Market and Other Baskets " Caning a Chair Cane Tie Caning a Chair "Weaving with Raffia Rattan Simple Baskets.. 31. 46. 2829. Oi. 109. 27. 12. 40. 57. 7. Magazine Holder 30. 72. 83. 61. 14. Book Mjark of Weave Splint and Web 95. Deerfleld Straw Baskets Splint and Sweet Grass Baskets Picotie Pink Basket. 17 18 20 22 2 63 63 63 78. Inclosing Part of Foundation Interlocking Coils. Double Pairing Triple Weaving 24 25 25 32 3 32 32 80. 53 120. 24. 112. 13. Open Border No. 106. 47 Closed Border No. 22. 74. 113. Chetemache Mat " Grass Tray. 99.. 5. 53. Deerfiekl. Xi-t etc. Five Strand Plait of Raffia. 25. Button Hole Stitch on Ring " " " ation Page. 115. IIU. Page. 130. Baskets of Plaited Raffla . 90. 2. 75 76 Weave Web 77 78 78 78 78 79 7J of Chair Cane 50. 101. 81. 1 Detail of Closed Border No. 82. 32. etc Chetemache Mat Diagonal Mat 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 45 46 46 46 46 49 51 100. 80 80 so Detail of Closed Border No. 84. 85. 96. Articles of Plaited Raffla. 56. 8. 49. Fig 1. 55 56 56 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 122 123'. Straw Foundation 63 64 64 64 64 Weave 33 33 26 Open Coil.. Stick and Knot of Raffia Single Net Mesh Netted Bags of Raffia. Mesh . Weave. Foundation of Two Rods Rod and Welt Coiled Work Foundation of Three Rods Foundation of Splints Interlocking Coils. 23. 52 119. etc 50a Bottom of Deerfleld Basket 51. 9S. 17. Closed Border No. Mouse Basket Corn Husk Poppy Basket Fancy Splint Basket Splint and Sweet Grass Fan Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass Base of Baskets shown in Fig. 92. 79. Weave 107. 4 6 S 67. 76. IT 118. 75. 117. 125. Detail Plait of Plait 3 4 Open Border No. 64. 54. 89.ILLUSTRATIONS. 62. 18. 47. 1 Detail of Open Border No. Fig. 103. 54 121. 6. 11 I.. Red Bird Basket. Weaving of Round Bnsc with Two Split 81 81 81 82 82 82 82 83 s:.wale Apple Green Basket. 128. 41. fc. Simple Coiled Baskets Simple Mat Weave Open " Closed Table Mat Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Interlacing Strands of Different Colors Isolated Figures Produced by Modifying Order of Intersection 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 39 41 41 41 41 Fugeian Coiled Basket Details Coiled Raffia Baskets and 65 66 68 66 70 70 93. 43. Shred Foundation Rope Twist Raffla Bound Picture Frames Raffla "Wrapped Articles' Toy Chair of Wrapped Raffia 65 86-87-XN. 45. 3. 11. 33. Weaving on Even Spokes Holding and Spokes' Starting Weaver Dividing into Single Spokes 72 72 73 73 74 74 36. 19. 94. 59. 52.

105 Flat Plait Border Second Position 105 of Spokes with Portion in progress. 160. . 181. 166. Commencing Flat Plait Border. Finished 106 Splint and Twined Baskets Collar Baskets of Rush. 175. 179. 135.. . 128 Wrapped Twined Weaving NV. Outside Overlaid Twined Weaving 209.131 Frapped Twined Work Washoe Basket Yokut Basket Ditto 168. . 149. 164. 217. Raffia 108 and Splint 108 Bases' of Fig.. 177.110 Ill Wristlets or Cuff Protectors 112 Baskets from the Philippines 27 Baskets Deerfleld Straw Section of Fluted Flower Basket. 174. Outside Ditto. 215. Jumping Two Spokes Weaver Ditto Outside Binding Handle of Oval Basket. 201. Twined Weaving. Pi . 138. 200. 127 Ditto Wrapped Weaving of the Mohaves' 127 127 Ditto. 155.114 216. 176. 134. 211.. 190. 140. 172. Curve Partly Worked 113 Fluted Flower Basket Starting Square Work Basket. 146. 169. 156. Baskets of Rattan. 218. 219. 114 221. Finishing Base of Twined Weaving with serted Corners In84 31 90 90 92 92 96 94 Shallow Oval Basket 118 Starting Handle of Oval BasketInside 136: 137.-I ii I 129 !. Base of Splint Basket 120 Binding a Handle Waste Paper Basket 120 120 Square Basket Weaving Sides Section ditto with Straignt Corner. 180. 130 130 130 130 131 131 132 132 132 132 133 133 133 Three Ply and Plain Twined Work. 148. 158. etc. 192. 154. 120 Finishing off the Flat Rattan in 90186. 193. Detail of Twisted Handle Ditto Turning Spokes Weaver Around Last Oblong Carrying Basket Commencing Handle of Key Basket 114 220. .. 178. Rattan Basket with Plaited Straw Simple as' Web Web Woven Bird Nest Basket with Fancy Base Splint Web Weave Inserting Weaver in Splint Base. 194.119 119 182. 159. 2 102 Madeira Pairing for Plait 189. 185. L'lis. Klikitat.. Twined Weaving. Turning Weaver Round Corner . 142. 205. Square 113 Spokes' Work Basket. Imbricated Imbricated Klikitat Poma Bam Tush Weave Yokut Dance Basket Yokut Bottle-Neck Basket Klikitat Imbricated Weaving Basketry Coiled Work of 134 Thompson River Indians Work. Ditto. 210. 207. 167. 144. 143. 152. 105 of Finished Border 105 Flat Plait Border. ing Inside Inside Three Ply Braid. 197. 187. 153. 131. Finishing ditto 119 119 . 117 118 132. 133. Work 110 203. from a Mound in Ohio Twined Weaving in Two Colors 126 128 Apache. Page. 147.Fig. 183. 124 on Mat Checkerwork Weave 125 150 151. 191.i \ \Yrappc-d T\\ ined Weav129 Crossed Warp. . Baskets 128 Diagonal Twined Weaving Variety of Twined Work. 154 Surface Effects of Twined Open Twilled Weaving 125 Ditto 126 Ditto. 112 Turning Down Spokes 113 Ditto. 199. Detail of Center of Oval Base " " 86 87 87 Commencing Ditto. 145. Outside.. 195. -in'.. 206. 98 and Plaited Sweet Grass Splint 99 Baskets Splint and Plaited Sweet Grass 100 Baskets 102 Madeira Border No. Called 117 134 CENTRA OHIL "C. 196.. Binding Handle of Oblong Oval Base " Key Basket. 9 Spokes Turned Up for Sides Baskets of Splint and Sweet Grass. Wood Base. 157. 117 223. 139. 141. 171. Pressed on Ancient Pottery. 170. Inside 129 The Ti Weave of the Pomas 129 Three Ply Braid and Twined Work. Plaited Handle Method of Holding Basket Weaving Sides Yakutat Rattle Baskets Old Coiled Basketry When 121 121 123 124 Coarse White Mountain Apache Baskets. 114 Starting Lid of Square Basket. 184. 165. INN. 173. 117 222. 198.

if si .-'.. FROHMAN TRADING Co ALASKA.. " ' ri''^^^Nit. CALIFORNIA AND NORTHERN INDIAN BASKETS T- i9O2 AND CURIOS. DETAIL - SEND TEN CENTS FOR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE. ji' ^ .(.. . .. QBE.'i. WHOLESALE: AND PORTLAND.'.. (.

HUNTING. New Orleans. M. M. TOURISTS WILL FIND THE MOST PICTURESQUE LANDS ALONG THE ROUTES OF THE SOUTHERN PACIFIC Through Texas. Steamer. and all information. NUTTING. HOUSTON. DRIVING. Excellent Cuisine. BOATING. Passenger Steamers Between Fast Time. SUNSET LIMITED PACIFIC (""TEL m WHEELS. CAN BE ENJOYED EVERY DAY IN THE YEAR. TENNIS. Baggage Checked. BATHING. s. . lowest Rates. RIDING. SAN FRANCISCO. J 349 Broadway or E. T. T. and Pullman Tickets. CAL. Railroad. Two NEW DAILY TRAINS NEW ORLEANS TO CALIFORNIA. Arizona. address L. WHERE GOLF. F. POLO. and Time Tables. New York and Superb Service. O. TEXAS. A. FISHING. New Mexico.. General Eastern Passenger Agent.. New York. H. B. P. Old Mexico. P. COAST EXPRESS. Maps. For Free Illustrated Pamphlets. to Peerless California. COACHING. McCORMICK.CALIFORNIA A REGION OF WONDERS. Battery Place. MORSE.

Raffia Basketry. Unusual Materials. PAGE & CO. net. 34 UNION SQUARE.00. DOUBLEDAY. IX. Baskets for Practical Use. unusual materials. Shapes and weaves of treats of greater beauty and intricacy are described. VIII. CONTENTS I. VI. Square Baskets. VII. the making of hats and and numberless other matters about many of which the readers of the initial volume have chair seats written for information. Palm Leaf Hats. A Few PRICE. EAST. How to Raffia and Rush Seat Chairs. Palm Leaf Basketry. Hanging Baskets. which more advanced basket-making. Centres and Weaves. V. XI. NEW YORK . III. with new appliances. X. II. IV. Flower Baskets.MORE BASKETS AND HOW TO MAKE THEM BY MARY WHITE nPHE success first of White's Miss volume has led to this companion work. Hints on Dyeing. $1.

00 DOUBLEDAY. . Preparation. but as a most attractive pastime and means of occupation among grown people as well. - net. the simpler forms. few necessary impledescribes in detail the ments and materials. and finally the complicated and beautiful work for which the Indians first is were once famous. the Simplest Baskets Borders Covers Handles Work Baskets Candy Birds' Nests Baskets Scrap Baskets the Finishing Touch Oval Baskets How to Cain Chairs Some Indian What the Basket Means to Stitches . . This little manual is Miss White the only guide to the work. . not only in schools and training classes. found immediate favor. Tools. and then tells how to weave. CONTENTS Material. but which now rapidly becoming a lost art. EAST. . next the more difficult patterns. the Indian. $1. NEWYORK . of its Uses . PRICE. . . PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. Weaving. Raffia and their Some . . .BASKETS BY MARY WHITE FIFTH EDI T I HOW TO MAKE O X THE new drawn great interest in Indian baskets has attention to the art of basketwith the result that basketry has making. Mats and . .

of PRINCIPLES HOME DECORATION net. drawn from the author's own experience in spreading this valuable home industry. Neighborhood Industries. HPHIS *- admirably clear little volume gives specific instructions for the weaving of rugs. Si. Dyeing. 20. EAST. Woolen . NEW YORK . Rug Weaving Woven Rag . the Pattern . Si. Portieres . It undoubtedly be a helpful book to decorators. Ingrain Carpet Rugs. Rugs. Cotton Rugs. A STUDY will DOUBLEDAY. Linsey Woolsey BY THE SAME AUTHOR. based upon principles of art. Wheeler has had a leading part. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. PRICE net. PRICE. CONTENTS. 80. and this bi^ok will be found exceedingly valuable and suggestive to all who are interested in such work. but its chief Held will lie among the thousands of home-seekers whose range of experiment has not been wide enough to warrant successful practice.HOW CANDACE WHEELER TO MAKE RUGS BY ILLUSTRATED. of beauty in house interiors. The healthy modern movement toward the hand-made things of daily use in the home is one in which Mrs.

EAST. of the Boston Cooking School.FIVE THOUSAND SOLD ON PUBLICATION AND SERVING BY JANET McKENZIE HILL "Cookery. preparation and serving of food. NEW YORK . There are 200 helpful photographic illusThe book trations. PAGE & COMPANY 34 UNION SQUARE. and tells everything a housekeeper needs to know about the selection. contains 730 pages and is strongly bound in aluminum cloth. S2. Hill. net." life like Alei." The first 5000 were sold on publication. "is gether should match. which ma\ be washed. in her new book. the Brillat-Savarin of China two matrimony t\vo things served to- And again: "Into no department of should indifference be allowed to creep into none less than cookery. in color and black and white." accumulated gastronomic knowledge of centuries and the best modern domestic science have alike been drawn upon by Mrs. because it is practical. Practical Cooking and Serving.oo DOUBLEDAY. ^HE many ' PRICE." said PRACTICAL COOKING Yuan hundred years ago.

THE INDIANS OF By THE PAINTED DESERT REGION GEORGE WHARTON JAMES of Author "In and Around the Grand Canyon of the in Colorado River Arizona.vr - . ^^^^p^^l . .00 net . . - ^ff ' ^JE-'A-r^L -'^^. -r- ' ' -~ ' -- A PEAK OF EROSION IN THE PETRIFIED FOREST With 1 6 full-page pictures and 50 half-page illustrations from photographs Crown 8vo Decorated cloth $2." "Indian Basketry." etc.

the homes and invite their husbands to marry them. giving a picture various Indian tribes and has own will agreeable and entertaining to every one. j they have Mr. Mr. and one especially beautiful is sung in accompanied by songs. which be quite new The first Indian tribe visited was the Hopis. who were placed reservation without water or fuel. a large portion is of the book domestic life devoted to this interesting tribe. James also writes of the ill-treatment which our upon the Navahoes.The Indians of the like its Painted Desert Region author's valuable book work on the 1 the Grand Canyon is the result of experience. and there much interesting information about Indian basketry and blanket weaving. and with no soil fit upon countrv has inflicted for cultivation. it Much " of their as the author describes is surely unique. A chapter is given to the religion significance : of the Hopis. one Indian divorcing wife because she declined to shampoo his head. James written about them in style. . Each act has a religious some beautiful religious ceremonies. The women instead of talking about "Women's Rights have for ages possessed and knit their men weave the women's clothing own stockings. chapter upon the legends of the Havasupais is is fascinat- ing and the book full of romantic and picturesque Indian is An entire is chapter devoted to the Hopi snake dance. of personal adventures and hardships desert. When the author first visited the " Navahoes. besides visited his of water. honor of the birth of every child. fraught Western with many journey ov-er dangers on account scarcity in a of sudden storms and absence of shelter. stranger's the chief ordered his daughter to head. to The love. his "shampoo the This is considered a great luxury. and the women build their own them . but the author had to do when he photographed these Indians. The Indian worst insult that is it is possible to offer to a Wallapais this throw her long hair away from her face.

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WALLAPAIS. HAVASUPAIS AND THEIR LEGENDS. THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF THE HOPI. XIV. the Indians generally objecting to the photographing of some of the ceremony. XIII. BROWN. XV." are unique. IV. and half-page plates. of photographs taken by the author or by his special consist of sixteen full-page Accurately portraying the country. VIII. FIRST GLIMPSES OF THE HOPI. XVI. NAVAHO AT HOME. & 254 Washington Street CO. XI.The Indians The series artist of the Painted Desert Region illustrations are faithful reproductions of the beautiful who accompanied him. Hopi. SOCIAL AND DOMESTIC LIFE OF THE HAVASUPAI. Massachusetts . cially several and Havasupai they are a most valuable addition to the text. A FEW HOPI CUSTOMS. PEOPLE OF THE BLUE WATER AND THEIR HOME. XII. T'HK HOPI SNAKE DANCE. and fifty industries. Some of the subjects. V. THE PAIN-TED DESERT REGION. BIBLIOGRAPHY LITTLE. religious rites. and personal appearance of the Indians. CONTENTS INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER I. VI. HAVASUPAIS' RELIGIOUS DANCES AND BELIEFS. PUBLISHERS Boston. DESERT RECOLLECTIONS. NAVAHO AS A BLANKET WEAVER. ADVENT OF THE WALLAPAIS. VII. THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE THE NAVAHO AND HIS HISTORY. X. AND THEIR HISTORY. THE HOPI VILLAGES. Navaho. espe- of those showing the famous "Snake Dance. III. IX. II..

Philadelphia Public Ledger. of Indians. volume.00 CROSSING THE COLORADO TO THE SHINUMO. and Mr. Dramatic narratives of hairbreadth stories escapes and thrilling adventures. their legends and customs. $3. beauties of the crowded with pictures of the marvels and Canyon.AN IMPORTANT NEW BOOK DESCRIBING THE MOST STUPENDOUS SCENE ON THE AMERICAN CONTINENT In and Around the Grand Canyon of the Colorado River in Arizona By GEORGE WHARTON JAMES Illustrated pictures in with thirty full-page plates and seventy the text 8vo Cloth Price. James's in these own perilous experiences. . give a wonderful personal interest wonder on pages of graphic description of the most stupendous natural the American Continent. is of absorbing interest.

TEMPLES AND BUTTES TO THE EAST FROM THE GRAND SCENIC DIVIDE. .

--Arizona Daily Journal-Miner. . . is probably no the writing the country in who is better for . and find explorers and discoverers.. Arizona. The Grand Canyon this one of the world's wonsatisfying and volume its is the most thorough and attractions thus presentation of many rugged man of in far offered. such a book than Professor his James. work. He feels has told his story so fascinating a manner that one almost within sight and sound of the great canyon. There York. Brooklyn Standard Union. Argonaut. San Francisco Chronicle. One of the typical books of the great West. a ring of actuality about this book. He own has not been content to describe the wonders in his words. in Literary World. . Legend and and local drawn upon in for the effect color. An ders. San Francisco Bulletin. he has quoted wherever he could matter of interest and value.IN A & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON veritable storehouse of wonders. illustrated work of which too much can is scarcely be said in praise. from the notes of Indian white hunters. and from the accounts of natives. . San Francisco.Outing. . to the main features - and scientific of the Great Canyon of the tradition are Colorado. is - Boston Advertiser. The most - thorough its the Colorado and Chicago of the Grand Canyon of surroundings to be found anywhere. but from historical records. miners. Prescott. freely - guides. New an The Grand Canyon exposition either with has never before received - such pen or camera. description Tribune. respects the book possesses a charm peculiarly own. scenic. . so that its many . There qualified . . dramatic . Too much cannot be said praise of Will be the standard with reference historic.

XXIII.IN & AROUND THE GRAND CANYON CHAPTER I. XX. XXII. LEE'S FERRY AND THE JOURNEY THITHER. XI. THE OLD HOPI TRAIL. W. VII. III. PHOTOGRAPHING THE GRAND CANYON. Two DAYS' HUNT FOR A BOAT IN A SIDE GORGE NEAR THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. AND A FEW PRACTICAL SUGGESTIONS TO THE TOURIST. AND THE DEAD VOLCANOES. MR. JOHN D. THE GEOLOGY OF THE GRAND CANYON. PEACE SPRINGS TRAIL. XXV. BASS AND HIS CANYON EXPERIENCES. AN ADVENTURE IN BEAVER CANYON. THE SAN FRANCISCO MOUNTAINS. VIII. LEE AND THE MOUNTAIN MEADOW MASSACRE. WHAT DOES ONE SEE? ON THE RIM. To THE CANYON BY RAILWAY. XXVIII. UP AND DOWN GLEN AND MARBLE CANYONS. II. W. XXXIII. XXX. THE BRIGHT ANGEL TRAIL. XII. VI. XVIII. THE RED CANYON AND OLD TRAILS. XIV. XXIV. XXXI. POWELL (1869). W. THE HAVASUPAI INDIANS AND THEIR CANYON HOME. XVI. 254 BROWN. POWELL (1869-72). XXXII. GRAND CANYON FOREST RESERVE. LATER EXPLORATIONS. IV. THE SHINUMO AND ITS ANCIENT INHABITANTS. THE TANNER-FRENCH TRAIL. XVII. XXIX.. FLAGSTAFF. W. LITTLE. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE GRAND CANYON REGION. & CO. Publishers WASHINGTON STREET. EXPLORATIONS BY MAJOR J. XIX. FIRST IMPRESSIONS. THE GRAND VIEW TRAIL. EXPLORATIONS FROM THE TIME OF THE SPANIARDS (1540) TO MAJOR J. BOTANY OF THE GRAND CANYON. WRONG COMPANION. RELIGIOUS AND OTHER IMPRESSIONS IN THE GRAND CANYON. THE TOPOCOBYA TRAIL AND HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON. XXI. CONTENTS THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS CANYONS. IX. THE CLIFF AND CAVE DWELLINGS. XIII. XXVII. THREE DAYS OF EXPLORING IN TRAIL CANYON WITH THE X. V. FROM THE SANTA FE RAILWAY TO THE CANYON BY STAGE. BOSTON . THE MYSTIC SPRING TRAIL. XXVI. HAVASU (CATARACT) CANYON AND ITS WATERFALLS AND LIMESTONE CAVES. XV.

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