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ARBITRATION AND

CONCILIATION LAW
AFTERSCHO☺OL
– DEVELOPING CHANGE MAKERS
CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
PGPSE PROGRAMME –
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entrepreneurship & spiritual entrepreneurship
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02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL
MATERIAL 1
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ARBITRATION AND
CONCILIATION LAW
Dr. T.K. Jain.
AFTERSCHO☺OL
Centre for social entrepreneurship
Bikaner M: 9414430763
tkjainbkn@yahoo.co.in
www.afterschool.tk, www.afterschoool.tk
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02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's
AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL
MATERIAL 2
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WHAT IS ARBITRATION?
• Halsbury’s Law of England (vol ii, 4th ed.)
• It is the reference of dispute or differences
between not less than 2 parties for
determining after hearing both sides in
judicial manner by a person or persons
other than a court of competent
jurisdiction.

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 3


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Present law
• It was enacted in 1996 (arbitration and
conciliation act 1996) after repealing
arbitration act 1940
• The act is divided in 4 parts.

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 4


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Parts of arbitration law
• (a) Part I - Domestic arbitration. (b) Part II -
Enforcement of foreign awards. (c) Part III -
Conciliation procedures. (d) Part IV -
Supplementary provisions. (e) First Schedule -
Convention on recognition and enforcement of
foreign arbitral award as per New York
convention (f) Second Schedule - Protocol on
Arbitration clauses (g) Third Schedule -
Convention on the execution of foreign arbitral
awards as per Geneva Convention
02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 5
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Objectives of the law…
• To comprehensively cover domestic and
international arbitration and conciliation
• To ensure that arbitral award is enforced in
similar manner as decree of the court
• To ensure that settlement agreements of parties
will have the same status as that of awards or
decrees.
• To ensure that supervisory and intervensionary
rules of the courts are minimised

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 6


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Arbitral tribunal
• He is the sole arbitrator or a panel of
arbitrators (sec. 2 (1) d)

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 7


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The matters that cannot be
arbitrated…
• Suits for divorce or restitution of conjugal
rights
• Taxation
• Non-payment of admitted liability
• Criminal matters.

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 8


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Arbitration agreement
• Arbitration provision has be inserted at the
time of making any agreement. Arbitration
agreement may be in the form of an
arbitration clause in a contract or in the
form of a separate agreement. The
agreement must be in writing and must be
signed by both parties. The arbitration
agreement can be by exchange of letters,
document, telex, telegram etc.
02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 9
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Court to refer the matter to the
arbitrator
• If inspite of arbitration agreement, one party
approaches court, the other party may raise
objection and the court shall refer the matter to the
arbitrator. However, such objection must be raised
before submitting his first statement on the
substance of dispute. Such objection must be
accompanied by the original arbitration agreement
or its certified copy. On such application the judicial
authority shall refer the parties to arbitration. Since
the word used is “shall”, it is mandatory for judicial
authority to refer the matter to arbitration. However,
once first statement to court is already made by the
opposite party, the matter has to continue in the
court. [section 8].

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 10


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Appointment of arbitrator
• The parties can agree on a procedure for
appointing the arbitrator or arbitrators. If
they are unable to agree, each party will
appoint one arbitrator and the two
appointed arbitrators will appoint the third
arbitrator who will act as a presiding
arbitrator. [section 11(3)].
• (arbitrator can be of any nationality (11(1))

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 11


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Appointment by chief justice
• If one of the party does not appoint an
arbitrator within 30 days, or if two
appointed arbitrators do not appoint third
arbitrator within 30 days, the party can
request Chief Justice to appoint an
arbitrator. [section 11(4) ]

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 12


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Appointment by chief justice
• The Chief Justice can authorise any person or
institution to appoint an arbitrator. [Some High
Courts have authorised District Judge to appoint
an arbitrator]. In case of international
commercial dispute, the application for
appointment of arbitrator has to be made to
Chief Justice of India. In case of other domestic
disputes, application has to be made to Chief
Justice of High Court within whose jurisdiction
the parties are situated. [section 11(12)]
02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 13
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Independence of arbitrator
• An arbitrator is expected to be
independent and impartial. If there are
some circumstances due to which his
independence or impartiality can be
challenged, he must disclose the
circumstances before his appointment.
[section 12(1)]

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Challenge to appointment of
arbitrator
• (a) Circumstances exist that give rise to
justifiable doubts as to his independence or
impartiality
• (b) He does not possess the qualifications
agreed to by the parties. [section 12(3)].
• In such case, application for setting aside arbitral
award can be made to Court. If the court agrees
to the challenge, the arbitral award can be set
aside. [section 13(6)]

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 15


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Tribunal to decide the procedure
• The Arbitral Tribunal should treat the
parties equally and each party should be
given full opportunity to present his case.
[section 18]. The Arbitral Tribunal is not
bound by Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 or
Indian Evidence Act, 1872. [section 19(1)].
The parties to arbitration are free to agree
on the procedure to be followed by the
Arbitral Tribunal / or the tribunal may
decide the course of action.
02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 16
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Procedure of arbitration….
• Arbitral Tribunal has full powers to decide the
procedure to be followed, unless parties agree
on the procedure to be followed. [section 19(3)].
The Tribunal also has powers to determine the
admissibility, relevance, materiality and weight of
any evidence. [section 19(4)]. Place of
arbitration will be decided by mutual agreement.
However if the parties do not agree to the place,
the same will be decided by tribunal. [section 20]

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 17


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Language …
• language to be used in arbitral
proceedings can be mutually agreed.
Otherwise, Arbitral Tribunal can decide.
[section 22].

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 18


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Procedure…
• Arbitral Tribunal can decide whether there
will be oral hearing or proceedings can be
conducted on the basis of documents and
other materials. However, if one of the
parties requests, the hearing shall be oral.
Sufficient advance notice of hearing
should be given to both the parties.
[section 24]

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 19


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Settlement during arbitration…
• It is permissible for parties to arrive at
mutual settlement even when arbitration is
proceeding. In fact, even the Tribunal can
make efforts to encourage mutual settlement.
If parties settle the dispute by mutual
agreement, the arbitration shall be
terminated. However, if both parties and the
Arbitral Tribunal agree, the settlement can be
recorded in the form of an arbitral award on
agreed terms. Such Arbitral Award shall have
the same force as any other Arbitral Award.
[section 30].

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 20


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Award..
• Decision of Arbitral Tribunal is termed as
'Arbitral Award'. Arbitrator can decide the
dispute ex aequo et bono (In justice and in
good faith) if both the parties expressly
authorise him to do so. [section 28(2)]

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 21


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Award…
• The decision of Arbitral Tribunal will be by
majority. The arbitral award shall be in writing
and signed by the members of the tribunal.
[section 29]. It must state the reasons for the
award unless the parties have agreed that no
reason for the award is to be given. [section
31(3)]. The award should be dated and place be
mentioned. Copy of award should be given to
each party. Tribunal can make interim award
also. [section 31(6)]
02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 22
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Cost of arbitrator
• The tribunal can decide the cost and share of
each party. [section 31(8)]. If the parties refuse
to pay the costs, the Arbitral Tribunal may refuse
to deliver its award. In such case, any party can
approach Court. The Court will ask for deposit
from the parties and on such deposit, the award
will be delivered by the Tribunal. Then Court will
decide the costs of arbitration and shall pay the
same to Arbitrators. Balance, if any, will be
refunded to the party. [section 39].
02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 23
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Appeal to court
• Appeal to court is now only on restricted
grounds. Of course, Tribunal cannot be
given unlimited and uncontrolled powers

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 24


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Conciliation ..
• The conciliator only brings parties together
and tries to solve the dispute using his
good offices. The conciliator has no
authority to give any award. He only helps
parties in arriving at a mutually accepted
settlement.

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 25


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Conciliation..
• The conciliation proceedings can start when one
of the parties makes a written request to other to
conciliate, briefly identifying the dispute. The
conciliation can start only if other party accepts
in writing the invitation to conciliate. Unless there
is written acceptance, conciliation cannot
commence. If the other party does not reply
within 30 days, the offer for conciliation can be
treated as rejected. [section 62]

02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 26


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International settlements…
• They are enforced as under:
• (a) New York convention award (made
after 11th October, 1960) (most popular)
• (b) Geneva convention award - made after
28th July, 1924, but before the concerned
Government signed the New York
convention

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About AFTERSCHO☺OL
• PGPSE - World’s most comprehensive
programme on social entrepreneurship –
after class 12th
• Flexible – fast changing to meet the
requirements
• Admission open throughout the year
• Complete support from beginning to the
end – from idea generation to making the
project viable.
02/03/09 AFTERSCHO☺OL's MATERIAL 28
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Branches of AFTERSCHO☺OL
• PGPSE programme is open all over the
world as free online programme.
• Those who complete PSPSE have the
freedom to start branches of
AFTERSCHO☺OL
• A few branches have already started -
one such branch is at KOTA (Rajasthan).

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Workshop on social
entrepreneurship
• We conduct workshop on social
entrepreneurship – all over India and out
of India also - in school, college, club,
association or any such place - just send
us a call and we will come to conduct the
workshop on social entrepreeurship.
• These workshops are great moments of
learning, sharing, and commitments.

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FREE ONLINE PROGRAMME
• AFTERSCHO☺OL is absolutely free
programme available online – any person can
join it. The programme has four components :
• 1. case studies – writing and analysing – using
latest tools of management
• 2. articles / reports writing & presentation of
them in conferences / seminars
• 3. Study material / books / ebooks / audio / audio
visual material to support the study
• 4. business plan preparation and presentations
of those plans in conferences / seminars

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100% placement / entrepreneurship
• AFTERSCHO☺OL has the record of
100% placement / entrepreneurship till
date
• Be assured of a bright career – if you join
AFTERSCHO☺OL

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Pursue professional courses along
with PGPSE
• AFTERSCHO☺OL permits you to pursue
distance education based professional /
vocational courses and gives you support
for that also. Many students are doing CA
/ CS/ ICWA / CMA / FRM / CFP / CFA and
other courses along with PGPSE.
• Come and join AFTERSCHO☺OL

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