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# PBCE

## Subjectcode/ Name: ME2251 / HEAT & MASS TRANSFER

UNIT I CONDUCTION PART A

Year/Sem:II / IV

1. What is Fourier's Law of heat conduction? 2. What is temperature gradient? 3. What is coefficient of Thermal conductivity? 4. Give some examples of heat transfer in engineering. 6. Define Temperature field. 7. Define heat flux. 8. Define thermal Diffusivity. 9. What is Lap lace equation for heat flow? 10. What is Poisson's equation for heat flow? 11. What critical radius of insulation; 12. Give examples for initial'&; boundary conditions. 13. What is a Fin? 14. Define efficiency of the fin .. 15. Define effectiveness of the fin. 16. Give examples of use of fins in various engineering applications. 17. What is meant by Transient heat conduction? 18. Give governing differential equation for the one dimensional transient heat flow. 19. What is Biot number? 20. What is Newtonian heating or cooling process? 21. Give examples for Transient heat transfer. 22. What is meant by thermal resistance? 23. What is meant by periodic heat transfer? 24. What are Heisler chart? 25. What is the function of insulating materials?

PART B
01. A pipe consists of 100 mm internal diameter and 8 mm thickness carries steam at 170C. The convective heat transfer coefficient on the inner surface of pipe is 75 W/m2C. The pipe is insulated by two layers of insulation. The first layer of insulation is 46 mm in thickness having thermal conductivity of 0.14 W/mC. The second layer of insulation is also 46 mm in thickness having thermal conductivity of 0.46 W/mC. Ambient air temperature = 33C. The convective heat transfer coefficient from the outer surface of pipe = 12 W/m2C. Thermal conductivity of steam pipe = 46 W/mC. Calculate the heat loss per unit length of pipe and determine the interface temperatures. Suggest the materials used for insulation. 02. A long rod is exposed to air at 298C. It is heated at one end. At steady state conditions, the temperature at two points along the rod separated by 120 mm are found to be 130C and 110C respectively. The diameter of the rod is25mmOD and its thermal conductivity is 116

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W/mC. Calculate the heat transfer coefficient at the surface of the rod and also the heat transfer rate.

03. (i) A furnace wall consists of three layers. The inner layer of 10 cm thickness is made of firebrick (k =1.04 W/mK). The intermediate layer of 25 cm thickness is made of masonry brick (k = 0.69 W/mK) followed by a 5 cm thick concrete wall (k = 1.37 W/mK). When the furnace is in continuous operation the inner surface of the furnace is at 800C while the outer concrete surface is at 50C. Calculate the rate of heat loss per unit area of the wall, the temperature at the interface of the firebrick and masonry brick and the temperature at the interface of the masonry brick and concrete. (8) (ii) An electrical wire of 10 m length and 1 mm diameter dissipates 200 W in air at 25C. The convection heat transfer coefficient between the wire surface and air is 15 W/m2K. Calculate the critical radius of insulation and also determine the temperature of the wire if it is insulated to the critical thickness of insulation. (8) 04. (i) An aluminium rod (k =204 W/mK) 2 cm in diameter and 20 cm long protrudes from a wall which is maintained at 300C. The end of the rod is insulated and the surface of the rod is exposed to air at 30C. The heat transfer coefficient between the rod's surface and air is 10 Vl/m2K. Calculate the heat lost by the rod and the temperature of the rod at a distance of 10 cm from the wall. (7) (ii) A large iron plate of 10 cm thickness and originally at 800C is suddenly exposed to an environment at OC where the convection coefficient is 50 W/m2K. Calculate the temperature at a depth of 4 em from one of the faces 100 seconds after the plate is exposed to the environment. How much energy has been lost per unit area of the plate during this time? (9) 05. (i) ) Explain the different modes of heat transfer with appropriate expressions. (6) (ii) A composite wall consists. of 10 cm thick layer of building brick, k = 0.7 W/mK and 3 cm thick plaster, k = 0.5 W/mK. An insulating material of k = 0.08 W/mK is to be added to reduce the heat transfer through the wall by 40%. Find its thickness. (10)

06. Circumferential aluminium fins of rectangular profile (1.5cmwide and 1mm thick) are fitted on to a 90 mm engine cylinder with a pitch of 10 mm. The height of the cylinder is 120 mm. The cylinder base temperature before and after fitting the fins are 200C and 150C respectively. Take ambient at 30C and h(average) =100 W/m2K. Estimate the heat dissipated from the finned and the unfinned surface areas of cylinder body. (16)
07. (i) Derive the heat conduction equation in cylindrical co-ordinates using an elemental volume for a stationary isotropic solid. (8) (ii) A 3 cm OD steam pipe is to be covered with two layers of insulation each having a thickness of 2.5 cm. The average thermal conductivity of one insulation is 5 times that of the other. Determine the percentage decrease in heat transfer if better insulating material is next to pipe than it is the outer layer. Assume that the outside and inside temperatures of composite insulation are fixed. (8) 08. (i) Explain briefly the concept of critical thickness of insulation and state any two applications of the same. (8) (ii) A 6 em long copper rod (k = 300 W/mK) 6mm in diameter is exposed to an environment at 20C. The base temperature of the rod is maintained at 160C. The heat transfer co-efficient is 20 W/m2K. Calculate the heat given by the rod and efficiency and effectiveness of the rod. (8)

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09. (i) Define the Biot and Fourier numbers. (4) (ii) What is meant lumped capacity? What are the physical assumptions necessary for a lumped capacity unsteady state analysis to apply? (4) (iii)A slab of Aluminum 5 cm thick initially at 200C is suddenly immersed in a liquid at 70C for which the convection heat transfer co-efficient is 525 W/m2K. Determine the temperature at a depth of 12.5 mm from one of the faces 1 minute after the immersion. Also calculate the energy removed per unit area from the plate during 1 minute of immersion. Take P = 2700 bar, Cp = 0.9 kJlkg. OK, k=215W/mK, = 8.4X 10-5 m2/s.(8) 10. A composite wall is formed of a 2.5 cm copper plate (k = 355 W/m.K), a 3.2 mm layer of asbestos (k = 0.110 W/m.K) and a 5 cm layer of fiber plate (k = 0.049 W/m.K). The wall is subjected to an overall temperature difference of 560C (560C on the Cu plate side and OC on the fiber plate side). Estimate the heat flux through this composite ~all and the interface temperature between asbestos and fiber plate. (16) 11. A steel tube k=43.26 W/mK of 5.08 cm 10 and 7.62 cm 00 is covered with 2.54 cm of asbestos Insulation k=0.208 W/mK The inside surface of the tube receives heat by convection from a hot gas at a -temperature of 316C with heat transfer coefficient ha=284 W/m2K while the outer

surface of Insulation is exposed to atmosphere air at 38C with heat transfer coefficient of 17 W/m2K Calculate heat loss to atmosphere for 3 m length of the tube and temperature drop across each layer. (16)
12. (i) A plane wall 20 cm thickness generates heat at the rate of 5 x 104 W/m3 when an electric

current is passed through it. The convective heat transfer coefficient between each face of the wall and the ambient air is 60 W/m2K. Determine. The surface temperature (4) The maximum temperature in the wall. Assume ambient air temperature to be 25C and the thermal conductivity of the wall material to be 16 W/mK. (4) (ii) A steel ball 100 mm diameter was initially at 50~C and is placed in air which is at35C. Calculate time required to attain 400C and 300C. (8) k steel = 35 W/mK c = 0.46 kJI kgK p = 7800 kglm3 h = 10 W/m2K UNIT II CONVECTION PART A 1. What is Convective heat transfer?
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Sketch formation of boundary layer and show laminar, transition & turbulent flow. Write down differential equation for Continuity of fluid flow. State Newton's law of cooling. Differentiate between Natural & Forced convection. State Buckingham's 1t'theorem. What is meant by Dimensional analysis?" , Sketch boundary layer development in a circular pipe. What is Reynolds analogy? What is Colburn analogy? Define the Bulk temperature. Define velocity boundary layer thickness. Define thermal boundary layer thickness. Distinguish between laminar & turbulent flow.

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15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

What is meant by critical Reynolds number? Define skin friction coefficient. Give examples for free convection. Define Grashof number. Sketch, temperature and velocity profiles in free convection on a vertical wall. Define momentum thickness. Define Displacement thickness. List the dimensionless numbers. What are the uses of dimensional analysis? Explain the term Dimensional homogeneity.

## 25. What are the limitations of Dimensional analysis? PART B

01. Air at 200 kPa and 200C is heated as it flows through a tube with a diameter of 25 mm at a velocity of 10 m./sec. The wall temperature is maintained constant and is 20C above the air temperature all along the length of tube. Calculate: (i) The rate of heat transfer per unit length of the tube. (ii) Increase in the bulk temperature of air over a 3 m length of the tube. (16)

02. (i) Write down the momentum equation for a steady, two dimensional flow of an
incompressible, constant property newtonian fluid in the rectangular coordinate system and mention the physical significance of each term. (6) (ii) A large vertical plate 5 m high is maintained at 100C and exposed to air at 30C Calculate the convection heat transfer coefficient. (10)

03. Sketch the boundary layer development of a flow over a flat plate and explain the significance of the boundary layer. (6) (ii) Atmospheric air at 275 K and a free stream velocity of 20 m/s flows over a flat plate 1.5 m long that is maintained at a uniform temperature of 325 K. Calculate the average heat transfer coefficient over the region where the boundary layer is laminar, the average heat transfer coefficient over the entire length of the plate and the total heat transfer rate from the plate to the air over the length 1.5 m and width 1 m. Assume transition occurs at Ree = 2xl05 (10)
04.(i) What is Reynold's analogy? Describe the relation between fluid friction and heat transfer? (4) (ii) Air at 25C flows over 1 m x 3 m (3 m long) horizontal plate maintained at 200C at 10 mls. Calculate the average heat transfer coefficients for both laminar and turbulent regions. Take Re (critical) = 3.5 x 105 (12) 05. (i) Define Reynolds, Nusselt and Prandtl numbers. (6) (ii) A steam pipe 10 cm outside diameter runs horizontally in a room at 23C. Take the outside surface temperature of pipe as 165C. Determine the heat loss per unit length of the pipe. (10)

## 06. (i) Explain for fluid flow along a flat plate:

(1) Velocity distribution in hydrodynamic boundary layer (2) Temperature distribution in thermal boundary layer (3) Variation of local heat transfer co-efficient along the flow. (8)

## (ii) The water is heated in a tank by dipping a plate of 20 cm X 40 cm in size. The

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temperature of the plate surface is maintained at 100C. Assuming the temperature of the surrounding water is at 30 C, Find the heat loss from the plate 20 cm side is in vertical plane. (8) 07. Air at 400 K and 1 atm pressure flows at a speed of 1.5 m/s over a flat plate of 2 m long.
The plate is maintained at a uniform temperature of 300 K. If the plate has a width of 0.5 m, estimate the heat transfer coefficient and the rate of heat transfer from the air stream to the plate. Also estimate the drag force acting on the plate. (16) 08. Cylindrical cans of 150 mm length and 65 mm diameter are to be cooled from an initial temperature of 20C by placing them in a cooler containing air at a temperature of 1C and a pressure of 1 bar. Determine the cooling rates when the cans are kept in horizontal and vertical positions. (16) 09.

A circular disc heater 0.2m in diameter is exposed to ambient air at 25C. One surface of the disc is insulated at 130C. Calculate the amount of heat transferred from the disc when it is. (i) Horizontal with hot surface facing up (5) (ii) Horizontal with hot surface facing down (5) (iii) Vertical (6)

10. (i) Distinguish between free and forced convection giving examples. (4)
(ii) A steam pipe 10 cm OD runs horizontally in a room at 23 C. Take outside temperature of pipe as 165 C. Determine the heat loss per unit length of the pipe. Pipe surface temperature reduces to 80 C with 1.5 cm insulation. What is the reduction in heat loss?(12)

UNIT III PHASE CHANGE HEAT TRANSFER & HEAT EXCHANGERS PART A
1. What is a Heat Exchanger1 2. How heat exchangers are classified? 3. Give examples of non mixing type heat exchangers. 4. Sketch temperature distribution graph for condensers & evaporators. 5. What is overall heat transfer coefficient in a heat exchanger? 6. What is LMTD? 7. What is effectiveness of a heat exchanger? 8. Discuss the advantage of NTU method over the LMTD method. 9. What are the assumptions made during LMTD analysis? 10. What are the factors are involved in designing a heat exchangers? . . ~; 11. , In what way Boiling & Condensation differs from other types of heat exchange? 12. What is Excess temperature in boiling? 13. What is meant by sub cooled or local boiling? 14. What is Nucleate boiling? 15. Give expression for heat transfer coefficient in Nucleate boiling. 16. What is flow boiling? . 17. What is meant by condensation? 18. Draw heat flux curve for various regions of flow boiling. 19. Define Film wise condensation. 20. Define Drop wise condensation. 21. How is the Reynolds number in condensation defined?

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PART B 01. A tube of 2 m length and 25 mm outer diameter is to be used to condense saturated steam at 100C while the tube surface is maintained at 92C. Estimate the average heat transfer coefficient and the rate of condensation of steam if the tube is kept horizontal. The steam condenses on the outside of the tube. (16)
02. Steam condenses at atmospheric pressure on the external surface of the tubes of a steam condenser. The tubes are 12 in number and each is 30 mm in diameter and 10 m long. The inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling water flowing inside the tubes are 25C and 60C respectively. If the flow rate is 1.1 kg/s, calculate (i) The rate of condensation of steam (ii) The number of transfer units (iii) The effectiveness of the condenser. (16)

03. (i) It is desired to boil water at atmospheric pressure on a copper surface which electrically heated. Estimate the heat flux from the surface to the water, if the surface is maintained at noc and also the peak heat flux. (8) (ii) A tube of 2 m length and 25 mm OD is to be used to condense saturated steam at 100C while the tube surface is maintained at 92C. Estimate the average heat transfer coefficient and the rate of condensation of steam if the tube is kept horizontal. The steam condenses on the outside ofthe tube. (8) 04. (i) Give the classification of heat exchangers. (4) (ii) It is desired to use a double pipe counter flow heat exchanger to cool 3 kg/s of oil (Cp = 2.1 kJ/kgK) from 120C. Cooling water at 20C enters the heat exchanger at a rate of 10 kg/so The overall heat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is 600 W/m2Kand the heat transfer area is 6 m2 Calculate the exit temperatures of oil and water. (12) 05. (i) Discuss the general arrangement of parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow heat exchangers. (6) (ii) In a Double pipe counter flow heat exchanger 10000 kg/h of an oil having a specific heat of 2095 J/kgK is cooled from 80C to 50C by 8000 kg/h of water entering at 25C. Determine the heat exchanger area for an overall heat transfer coefficient of 300 W/m2K. Take Cp for water as 4180 J/kgK (10) 06. (i) Discuss the various regimes of pool boiling heat transfer. (8) (ii) Dry saturated steam at a pressure of 2.45 bar condenses on the surface of a vertical tube of height 1 m. The tube surface temperature is kept at 117C. Estimate the thickness of the condensate film and the local heat transfer coefficient at a distance of 0.2m from the upper end of the tube. (8) 07. (i) With a neat and labeled sketch explain the various regimes in boiling heat transfer. (8) (ii) A vertical plate 0.5 m2 in area at temperature of 92C is exposed to steam at

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atmospheric pressure. If the steam is dry and saturated estimate the heat transfer rate and condensate mass per hour. The vertical length of the plate is 0.5 m. Properties of water at film temperatures of 96C can be obtained from tables. (8)

08. (i) Compare LMTD and NTU method of heat exchanger analysis. (6) (ii) Hot exhaust gases which enters a finned tube cross flow heat exchanger at 300C and leave at 100c, are used to heat pressurized water at a flow rate of 1 kg/s from 35 to 125C. The exhaust gas specific heat is approximately 1000 J/kg.K, and the overall heat transfer co-efficient based on the gas side surface area is Uh = 100W/m2K. Determine the required gas side surface area Ah using the NTU method. Take Cp,c at Tc = 80C is 4197 J/kg.K and Cp,h = 1000 J/kg.K . (10) 09. Water is to be boiled at atmospheric pressure in a mechanically polished stainless steel pan placed on top of a heating unit. The inner surface of the bottom of the pan is maintained at lO8C. The diameter of the bottom of the pan is 30 cm. Assuming Csf = 0.0130. calculate (i) the rate of heat transfer to the water and ii) the rate of evaporation of water. (16) 10. Define effectiveness of a heat exchanger. Derive an expression for the effectiveness of a double pipe parallel flow heat exchanger. State the assumptions made. (16) 11. Water enters a cross flow Heat exchanger (both fluids unmixed) at 5C and flows at the rate of 4600 kg/h to cool 4000 kg/h of air that is initially at 40C. Assume the over all heat transfer coefficient value to be 150 W/m2K For an exchanger surface area of 25m2, Calculate the exit temperature of air and water. (16) 12. (i) Describe the principle of parallel flow and counter flow heat exchangers showing the axial temperature distribution. (8) (ii) A parallel flow heat exchanger has hot and cold water stream running through it, the flow rates are 10 and 25 kg/min respectively. Inlet temperatures are 75 C and 25 C on hot and cold sides. The exit temperature on the hot side should not exceed 50 C. Assume hi = ho = 600W/m2K. Calculate the area of heat exchanger using E -NTU approach.

(8) UNIT IV RADIATION PART A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Define Radiation heat transfer. What is Stefan's Bolts Mann law? What is Intensity of radiation? Define Shape factor. What is Radiation Shield? Define Quantum theory. Define Emissive power of a black surface. Defme concept of Black body. Define Planck's distribution law. Define Wien's distribution law. Define Emissivity of a surface. What is meant by Kirchhoff's law? Define Irradiation. Define Radiosity.

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## 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Distinguish between Absorptivity & Transmittivity of radiation. What are the gases, which radiate heat? What is mean beam length in Gas Radiation? What is the equation for radiation between two gray bodies? Distinguish between Reflectivity & Transmittivity. Differentiate Opaque body & perfectly transparent surface. Write down the Wien's formula. Write down the heat transfer equation for Radiant exchange between infinite 23. parallel gray planes.

PART B
01. Liquid Helium at 4.2 K is stored in a dewar flask of inner diameter = 0.48 m and outer diameter = 0.5 m. The dewar flask can be treated as a spherical vessel. The outer surface of the inner vessel and the inner surface of the outer vessel are well polished and the emissivity of these surfaces is 0.05. The space between the two vessels is thoroughly evacuated. The inner surface of the dewar flask is at 4.2 K while the outer surface is at 300 K. Estimate the rate of heat transfer between the surfaces. (16) 02. A thin aluminium sheet with an emissivity of 0.1 on both sides is placed between two very large parallel plates that are maintained at uniform temperatures Tl = 800 K and T2 = 500 K and have emissivities "1 = 0.2 and "2 = 0.7 respectively. Determine the net rate of

radiation heat transfer between the two plates per unit surface area of the plates and compare the result to that without shield. (16)
03.(i) Discuss how the radiation from gases differ from that of solids. (6) (ii) Two very large parallel plates with emissivities 0.5 exchange heat. Determine the percentage reduction in the heat transfer rate if a polished aluminium radiation shield of c = 0.04 is placed in between the plates. (10) 04. (i) Define emissivity, absorptivity and reflectivity

(ii) Describe the phenomenon of radiation from real surfaces. 05. (i) What are the radiation view factors and why they are used? (ii) determine the view factor (F1-4) for the figure shown below.

(06) (10)

(04) (12)

06. (i) State and prove the following laws: (1) Kirchoffs law of radiation
(2) Stefan - Boltzmann law (8)

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(ii} Show-from energy-balance consideration that the radiation heat transfer from a plane composite surface area A4 and made up of plane surface areas A2 and A3 to a plane surface area Al is given by: A4F41=A3F31+A2F21 & F14=F12+F13 (8)

07.

(i) Using the definition of radiosity and irradiation prove that the radiation heat exchange between two grey bodies is given by the relation: (8)

Q net

## (T - T24 ) = ------------------------------------------------------1-1 1 1- 2 ----------- + ------------- + ------------A11 A1 F12 A2 2

(ii) A surface at lOOK with emissivity of 0.10 is protected from a radiation flux of 1250 W/m2 by a shield with emissivity of 0.05. Determine the percentage cut off and the shield temperature. Assume shape factor as 1. (8) 08. Explain briefly the following: (i) Specular and diffuse reflection (ii) reflectivity and transmissivity (iii) reciprocity rule and summation rule 09. (5) (5) (6)

(i) Two parallel, infinite grey surface are maintained at temperature of 127C and 227C respectively. If the temperature of the hot surface is increased to 327C, by what factor is the net radiation exchange per unit area increased? Assume the emissivities of cold and hot surface to be 0.9 and 0.7 respectively. (8) (ii) Two equal and parallel discs of diameter 25 cm are separated by a distance of 50 cm. If the discs are maintained at 600C and 250C. Calculate the radiation heat exchange between them. (8)

10. Two large parallel planes with emissivities 0.35 and 0.85 exchange heat by radiation. The

planes are respectively 1073K and 773K . A radiation shield having the emissivity of 0.04 is placed between them. Find the percentage reduction in radiation heat exchange and temperature of the shield. (16)

UNIT V MASS TRANSFER PART A 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. What is meant by mass transfer? What is Diffusion mass transfer? What is Convective mass transfer? Give some examples of Diffusion mass transfer. What is the governing equation for Diffusion mass transfer? What is mass diffusion velocity? What is the Molar Diffusion velocity? Define the following: Ii) Mass concentration b) Molar concentration ) What is Counter diffusion? Define mass transfer fluxes. What is the governing equation for Transient Diffusion?

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12. Give equation for Counter diffusion. 13. Define Fourier number & Biot number for mass transfer. 14. What are the factors considered in evaporation of water into air?

PART B 01. A steel sphere of radius 60 mm which is initially at a uniform temperature of 325C is suddenly exposed to an environment at 25C; with convection heat transfer coefficient 500 W/m2K. Calculate the temperature at a radius 36 mm and the heat transferred 100 seconds after the sphere is exposed to the environment. (16) 02. The tire tube of a vehicle has a surface area 0.62 m2 and wall thickness 12 mm. The tube has air filled in it at a pressure 2.4 x 105 N/m2 The air pressure drops to 2.3 x 105 N/m2 in 10 days. The volume of air in the tube is 0.034 m3 Calculate the diffusion coefficient of air in rubber at the temperature of 315K. Gas constant value = 287. Solubility of air in rubber tube = 0.075m3 of air/m3 of rubber tube at one atmosphere (16) 03. (i) Define mass concentration, molar concentration, mass fraction and mole fraction.(4) (ii) The diffusivity of CCl4 in air is determined by observing the steady state evaporation of CCl4 in a tube of 1 cm diameter exposed to air. The CCl4 liquid level is 10 cm below the top level of the tube. The system is held at 25C and 1 bar pressure. The saturation pressure of CCl4 at 25C is 14.76 kPa. If it is observed that the rate of evaporation of CCl4 is 0.1 kg/hour determine the diffusivity of CC14 into air. (12) 3 2 2 04. (i) Dry air at 20C (p = 1.2 kg/m , v = 15 x lQ-6 m /s, D = 4.2 x lQ-5 m /s) flows over a flat plate of length 50 cm which is covered with a thin layer of water at a velocity of 1 m/s. Estimate the local mass transfer coefficient at a distance of 10 cm from the leading edge and the average mass transfer coefficient. (8) (ii) Discuss the analogy between heat and mass transfer. (8)
05. (i) A mixture of 02 and N2 with their partial pressures in the ratio 0.21 to 0.79 is in a container at 25C. Calculate the molar concentration, the mass density, the mole fraction and the mass fraction of each species for a total pressure of 1 bar. What would be the average molecular weight of the mixture? (8) (ii) Discuss the analogy between heat and mass transfer. (8) 06. (i) Explain Fick's first and second laws of diffusion. (8) (ii) Explain the phenomenon of equimolar counter diffusion. Derive an expression for equimolar counter diffusion between two gases or liquids. (8)
07. (i) Define the Schmidt ,Sherwood and Lewis numbers. What is the physical significance of each? (8) (ii) Dry air at 27C and 1 atm flows over a wet flat plate 50 cm long at a velocity of 50 mls. Calculate the mass transfer co-efficient of water vapour in air at the end of the plate. Take the diffusion coefficient of water vapour in air is DAB = 0.26 X 10-4 m2/s. (8) 08. Discuss briefly the following

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(i) Ficks law of diffusion (ii) Equimolar counter diffusion (iii) Evaporation process in the atmosphere

## (4) (6) (6)

09. (i) What are the assumptions made in the I-D transient mass diffusion problems? (4) (ii) An open pan, 20 cm diameter and 8 cm deep contains water at 25C and is exposed to dry atmospheric air. Estimate the diffusion coefficient of water in air, if the rate of diffusion of water is 8.54X 10-4kg/h (12)

10. C02 and air experience equimolar counter diffusion in a circular tube whose length and diameter are 1m and 50mm respectively. The system is at a total pressure of 1 atm and a temperature of 25C. The ends of the tube are connected to large chambers in which the species concentration are maintained at fixed values. The partial pressure of CO2 at one end is 190mm of Hg while at other end is 95mm of Hg. Estimate the mass transfer rate of C02 and air through the tube. The diffusion coefficient for C02 - air combination is 0.16 x 10 --4 m/s. (16)

11. (i) Define the non dimensional numbers in mass transfer (6) (ii) Dry air at 27C and 1 atm flows over a wet flat plate 50cm long at a velocity of 50m/sec. Calculate the mass transfer co-efficient of water vapour in air at the end of the plate. Take D=O.26x10-4 m2/sec.

= 1.1614 kglm3

= 184.6 10-

Nslm2

Pr = 0.707

(10)

12. Atmospheric air at 40 C flows over a wet bulb thermometer and it shows 25 C. Calculate
the concentration of water vapour in the free stream and also its relative humidity. Take D (air-water) = 0.256 x 1O-4m2 Is. If temperatures of dry and wet bulb are 30 C and 25 C respectively. What would be the corresponding values? (16)

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Sub Code/Name: ME2253-Engineering Materials &Metallurgy Year/Sem: II / IV UNIT-I (Constitution of alloys and phase diagrams)

PART-A 1. Define Peritectic and Eutectoid reactions. 2. State the conditions under which two metallic elements will exhibit unlimited solid solubility. 3. Define the terms "ferrite" and "austenite" in iron-carbon alloy system. 4. Define solute and solvent. 5. What are the different types of solid solutions? 6. What is phase diagram? and its importance. 7. Define ferrite and austenite. 8. Define cementite, pearlite. 9. What is meant by hypo eutectoid, hypereutectoid steel? 10. What are cooling curves? UNIT-I (Constitution of alloys and phase diagrams) PART-B 1. Discuss the similarities and differences between substitutional and interstitial solid solution? (16) 2. What is cooling curve? How does the time temperature cooling curve of an alloy of eutectic composition different from that of a pure metal? (16) 3. Explain: 1. Eutectic reaction (4) 2. Eutectoid reaction (4) 3. Peritectic reaction (4) 4. Peritectoid reaction (4) 4. Draw Iron -Carbide equilibrium diagram and mark on it all salient temperature and composition fields. (16)

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5. (1) Elements A & B melt at 7000 C and 10000 C respectively. Draw a typical isomorphous phase diagram between the elements A & B. (2) Elements A & B melt at 7000 C & 10000 C respectively. They form a eutectic at 35%A at temperature 5000 C. Draw a typical phase diagram between A & B. (16) 6. Metal A has melting point at 10000 C . Metal B has melting point of 5000 C. Draw one phase diagram (between the elements A & B) for each of the following conditions. (i)The two elements exhibit unlimited solid solubility. (ii)The alloy systems show formation of two terminal solid solution and a eutectic point at 50%A and at7000 C. (16) 7. (i)Give the classification of steel. (2) (ii)Desirable properties and application of low, medium and high carbon steel. (6) (iii)What is an alloy steel? How are alloy steel classified? Explain them. (8) 8. (i) Explain the classification of steel. (4) (ii)Desirable properties and application of GrayC.I, NodularC.I, WhiteC.I, MalleableC.I.
UNIT-II (Heat treatment methods) PART- A 1. A low carbon steel in tile normalised condition is stronger than tile same steel ill tile annealed condition. Why? 2. Case carburizing heat treatment is not generally carried out for medium carbon steels. Why? (12)

3. What is "critical cooling rate" in hardening of steels? 4. What is meant by "heat treatment"? and its purpose. 5. What are the factors affecting the CCR? 6. What is meant by normalizing? and its purpose. 7. What is quenching? List some of the quenching medium. 8. What are the factors affecting the hardness? 9. What is meant by hardnability? What are the factors affecting it? 10. What is induction hardening?

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PART-B 1. Define hardenability of steel .Explain the jominy end quench test used to determine hardenability of steel. How will you draw hardenability curves this sheet? 2 Explain: 1. Annealing 2. Spheroidising 3. Normalizing 4. Hardening

(16)

## (4) (4) (4) (4) (8)

3. (i) What are austempering and martempering ?What are their purpose? (ii)Explain the steps in Case carburizing of steel. (8) 4. Write short notes on: 1. Carburizing (4) 2.Nitriding (4) 3.Cyaniding (4) 4.Carbonitriding.(4)

5. Write short notes on (a) Flame hardening (b) Induction hardening. 6. (i)Draw the schematic isothermal transformation diagram corresponding to 0.8% of carbon steel. (ii)Explain hardening and tempering process. UNIT-III (Ferrous and Non-ferrous metals) PART-A 1. Compare the martensite that is formed in maraging steels with the martensite that is formed in carbon steels. 2. What is the main strength mechanism in high strength aluminum alloys? 3. What are the effect of chromium and molybdenum in low alloy steels? 4. What is the purpose of magnesium treatment in producing S.G. iron? 6.What is stainless steel? 7.What are the typesof stainless steel? 8.What are HSLA steel? 9.What are the types of cast irion? 10.What are the important copper alloys?

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PART-B 1. Write short notes on: (i) Austinitic stainless steel (5) (ii) Ferritic stainless steel (5) (iii) Martensitic stainless steel(6) 2. Write short notes on: (i) High speed steel (4) (ii) HSLA steel c (4) (iii) Marageing steel (4) (iv) Tool steel (4) 3. (i) What are ALPHA brass and ALPHA/BETA brass? (8) (ii)Discuss step involved in precipitation hardening treatment anyone aluminum alloy as example. (8) 4. How will you classify brasses based on the composition of zinc Explain the properties & application

## of the main type of brasses.

5. Write short notes on: (i) Gray C.I (4) (ii) White C.I (4) (iii) Malleable C.I (4) (iv) Spheroidal graphite CI(4) 6. Discuss the composition, properties & typical application of any four copper alloys. 7. Discuss the composition, properties & typical application of some aluminum alloys.

(16)

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UNIT-IV (Non-Metallic materials) PART-A 1. Name four ethenic polymers (polymers that have the basic monomer structure of ethylene). 2. What are the important of alumina and silicon nitride? 3. Give one example each for metal-matrix composites and ceramic-matrix composites.

4. What is polymerization? 5. Distinguish between thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics. 6. What are engineering ceramics? 7. What are the types of engineering ceramics? 8. What is composites? 9. List the advantage and limitations of composites materials.

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## 10. List the applications composites materials.

PART-B 1. Describe the molecular structure, properties and application of the following polymers. (i)Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (4) (ii)Polystyrene (PS) (4) (iii)Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (4) (iv )Poly carbonate (4)

2. Describe the molecular structure, properties and application of the following polymeric materials. (i)Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) (4) (ii)Poly tetra f1uoro ethylene (PTFE) (4) (iii)Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) (4) (iv)Acryl nitride butadiene styrene. (4) 3. Describe the molecular structure, properties and application of the following polymers. (i)Polypropylene (PP) (ii) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (iii) Poly tetra f1uoro ethylene (PTFE) (iv)Poly ethylene perethalate. 4. Describe the properties and application of the following ceramics materials (i)Alumina (4) (ii)Silicon carbide (4) (iii)Silicon nitride (4) (iv)Sialon. (4) 5. Write short notes about the different types of matrix materials and reinforced materials used to make polymers matrix composites. (16)
UNIT-V (Mechanical properties and testing) PART-A 1. Define endurance limit in fatigue test. 2. What properties are determined from tension testing of metallic products? 3. In general, HCP metals are hard and brittle while FCC metals are soft and ductile. Why? 4. Define slip. 5. Define twinning. 6. What is a fracture? 7. Write types of fractures.

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8. What is the use of S-N curve? 9. Define creep 10.Write down the various mechanical test.

PART-B 1. (a)What are slip and twinning? What are their characteristics? (8) (b )Discuss characteristics of ductile fracture and brittle fracture. (8) 2. Explain the testing procedure for determining the following properties.

(i)Brinell hardness number (8) (ii) Creep strength (8) 3. Explain the testing procedure of (i)Vickers hardness test (8) (ii) lzod impact test (8) 4. Explain the testing procedure of (i) Rockwell hardness test (8) (ii) Charpy impact test (8) 5. (a) Explain the mechanism of plastic deformation of metals by slip and twinning.(8) (b )Explain testing procedure for Fatigue test.(8) 6. Explain the testing procedure of (i) Tensile test (8) (ii) Creep test (8)

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Subject Name: ME2252-MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY-II UNIT-I THEORY OF METAL CUTTING PART-A (2 MARKS)

Year/Sem: II / IV

1. What is tool signature? 2. What is side rake angle? And mention its effects? 3. What is clearance angle? And mention its types? 4. Explain the nose radius. 5. What is function of chip breakers? 6. Name the factors that contributes to poor surface finish in cutting. 7. What is orthogonal cutting? 8. What are the functions of cutting fluids? 9. Give two examples for orthogonal cutting. 10. What are the four important characteristics of materials used for cutting tools? 11. List the characteristics of cutting fluid. 12. Name the various cutting tool materials. PART-B (16 MARKS ) 1. Explain orthogonal cutting and oblique cutting with its neat sketches and compare. (16) 2. What is orthogonal rake system? Show the ORS of tool analysis with the help of a sketch. (16) 3. what is the use of a chip breaker? Discuss the various types of chips produced during metal machining process. (16) 4. Explain the condition that promote the formation of the following types of chip. i) Continuous chips without built up edge. (5) ii) Continuous chips with built up edge. (5) iii) Discontinuous chips. (6)

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5. i) Define the various tool parts of a single point cutting tool with a neat sketch. (6) ii) What are the standard angles of cutting tool? Illustrate with an example. (10) 6. Explain the expected properties and purposes of cutting fluids. Also mention the various types of cutting fluids. (16) 7. i) What are the various forms of wear found in cutting tools? Show with a neat sketch. (6) ii) How do the cutting process parameters affect the cutting tool wear in single point tools? (10) 8. i) Derive the expression for shear angle in orthogonal cutting in terms of rake angle and chip thickness ratio. (6) ii) How do you define tool life? Explain the parameters that control the tool life of a single point cutting tool. (10) 9. What is the tool life equation and state the factor affecting the tool life. 10. i) What is machinability? And explain. ii) Explain the various tool materials. (16) (8) (8)

11. i) Write short notes on surface finish. (5) ii) What are the different type of cutting fluids used in machining process. (5) iii) Write short notes tool wear. (6)

UNIT-II CENTRE LATHE & SPECIAL PURPOSE LATHES PART-A (2 MARKS) 1. What is swing diameter? 2. Write the specification of a typical lathe. 3. Write down the names of any four lathe accessories. 4. What is the application of air operated chuck? 5. Define the term Conicity. 6. Write down the formula for calculating taper turning angle by compound rest method. 7. Define the term Thread cutting. 8. Define automatic machine. 9. State the principal of multi spindle automats. 10. What are the advantages of automatic lathes?

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`PART-B (16 MARKS ) 1. What are the various methods available for taper turning in a lathe? Explain their specific advantages and limitations. (16) 2. Give a sketch illustrating the principle of operation of the Swiss-type automatic. (16) 3. i) write down the differences between a capstan and a turret lathe. (8) ii) Explain with a neat sketch the working of a Swiss type automatic lathe. (8) 4. i) Describe some of the methods and equipments for holding work on a lathe. (8) ii) Explain any four commonly used attachments on lathe. (8) 5. i) Briefly explain the principle of working of the sliding head type single spindle automatic machine. (8) ii) Describe with a neat sketch a turret automatic screw machine. (8) 6. Sketch and explain the function apron mechanism available in lathe. (16)

7. Explain the principal parts of a capstan lathe with a neat sketch and list out the differences between a capstan and a turret lathe. (16) 8. List various type of feed mechanisms and explain briefly about tumbler gear reversing mechanism with a sketch. (16) 9. Explain the tooling layout for the production of a Hexagonal bolt in a capstan lathe. (16) 10. Discuss the tooling layout for the production of a Hexagonal nut in Turret lathe. (16) 11. i) Describe a typical single spindle automatic chucking machine. ii) Describe a typical single spindle automatic bar machine. (8) (8)

12. Differentiate between parallel action and progressive action multi-spindle automatics. (16) UNIT-III OTHER MACHINE TOOLS PART-A (2 MARKS) 1. Write down any four operations performed by a shaper. 2. Define feed and depth of cut. 3. What is the function of clapper block in a planner? 4. What is meant by up milling and down milling? 5. Define Face milling .

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6. Write down the rule for gear ratio in differential indexing. 7. How do you specify radial drilling machine. 8. Write down any four operations performed by a drilling machine. 9. What is meant by Sensitive hand feed? 10. Calculate the tap drill size to cut an internal thread for bolt of outside diameter 10mm,pitch 1.5mm and depth of the thread 0.61 pitch ? PART-B (16 MARKS ) 1. i) Compare a shaper and planer in terms of their operation and type of work pieces. (6) ii) Write a small note on slotting machines. (10) 2. What are the differences between compound indexing and differential indexing? Explain the relative merits. (16) 3. i) State the advantages of Ward-Leonard drive. ii) Explain with a sketch "Fast and Loose pulleys" quick return of a planer table. (6) mechanism (10)

4. i) Explain the methods of holding milling cutters. (4) ii) Explain Simple indexing, Compound indexing and differential indexing with suitable example. (12) 5. With a simple sketch, explain the working of the crank and slotted link quick return motion mechanism used in shaper. (16) 6. With neat sketches, explain any two of the work holding devices commonly used for holding the work in a drilling machine. (16) 7. Explain the hydraulic drive of a horizondal shaper with neat sketches. 8. i) sketch a twist drill. Write down its main parts and their functions. ii) Write short notes on reaming and boring operations. 9. i) Write down any four differences between shaper and planer. ii) Explain the Working principle of planer with a neat sketch. (16) (10) (6) (6) (10)

10. Describe the working mechanism of a universal dividing head, with neat diagram. (16) 11. With a simple sketch, explain the principal parts and angles of a plain milling cutter .Explain them . (16) 12. Explain the twist drill nomenclature and define various elements of twist drill. (16) 13. With a simple sketch, explain the working of a vertical boring machine. (16) 14. Explain the Working principle of a Jig boring machine with a neat sketch.(16)

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UNIT-IV ABRASIVE PROCESSES & GEAR CUTTING PART-A (2 MARKS) 1. What is the process of self-sharpening of the grinding wheel? 2. What are the four movements in a cylindrical centre type grinding? 3. What is meant by centreless grinding? 4. Define the terms abrasive grains. 5. What is meant by grit or grains size? 6. Define the term grade used in grinding wheel. 7. What do you mean by loading of grinding wheels? 8. What is meant by dressing and truing? 9. What is meant by honing? 10. What is super finishing? PART-B (16 MARKS ) 1. i) With a simple sketch explain the way of dressing a grinding wheel and mention its necessity. (8) ii) Sketch and explain the cylindrical grinding operation. (8) 2. i) Explain the honing process with a sketch. ii) Sketch and explain a gear shaping machine. (6) (10)

3. Explain the external cylindrical grinding process and surface grinding process. (16) 4. Explain with neat sketches the following operations: Honing, Lapping, Superfinishing and buffering. (16) 5. With the help of neat sketch, discuss the working of continuous surface broaching machine and write its advantages and limititions. (16) 6. i) Compare gear hobbing with gear shaping. ii) State the advantages and limitations of broaching. 7. i) Explain self-sharpening characteristics of grinding wheel. ii) Describe the use of cutting fluids in grinding. iii)Explain wheel truing and dressing. (8) (8) (5) (5) (6)

8. Describe a grinding wheel structure with the help of a neat sketch and state different bonding and abrasive materials used in it. What would you like as an abrasive for grinding steel? (16) 9. Compare gear shaping and gear hobbing, giving the process and product requirements. (16)

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10.i) Explain the vitrified and resinoid bonding process. (6) ii) Explain the operations of horizontal broaching machine with neat sketch. (10) 11.i) Explain the gear cutting by a formed tool. (8) ii) Differentiate between gear forming and generating. (8) 12.What are the various methods of centerless grinding and explain each briefly? (16) UNIT-V CNC MACHINE TOOLS & PART PROGRAMMING PART-A (2 MARKS) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. State the advantages of NC machines. What is point-to point (PPT) system? Mention the main difference between CNC and DNC. What is the function of servo valve? Define absolute and incremental programming. What are the important steps to be followed while preparing part programming? What is meant by MACRO? Define subroutine. What do mean by canned cycle? What is meant by APT programme? PART-B (16 MARKS ) 1. i) State a few typical applications where the use of numerical control would be justified. (8) ii) Describe in brief the basic components of a tape-operated NC machine tool. (8) 2. i) Discuss the advantages of computer numerical control system. ii) What is the difference between positioning machines and contouring machines? (8) (8)

3. Describe the main features of CNC machines, which distinguish them from conventional machine tools. (16) 4. i) How is cutter compensation given in the case of a machining centre? Explain it with an example. (8) ii) Describe the functions of a post processor. (8) 5. Define CNC and DNC. With a help of a diagram explain the working of NC machine tool. (16) 6. i) How is manual programming of a NC machine done? (8)

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## ii) Write short notes on APT language.

(8)

7. i) Discuss in detail about the design considerations of CNC machines for improving machining accuracy. (8) ii) write a note on spindle drives and feed drives of CNC machines. (8) 8. Sketch and explain a turning centre and mention its superiority over the CNC lathe. (16) 9. Explain the part programming procedure with a good example. 10. List and explain G and M code for turning milling operations. (16) (16)

SUB CODE/NAME:

## ME2254 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

UNIT I
STRESS STRAIN DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS PART- A (2 Marks)

YEAR/SEM: II / IV

1. What is Hookes Law? 2. What are the Elastic Constants? 3. Define Poissons Ratio. 4. Define: Resilience, proof resilience and modulus of resilience. 5. Distinguish between rigid and deformable bodies. 6. Define stress and strain. 7. Define Shear stress and Shear strain. 8. Define elastic limit. 9. Define volumetric strain. 10. Define tensile stress and compressive stress. 11. Define youngs Modulus. 12. Define modulus of rigidity. 13. Define thermal stress. PART- B (16 Marks)

1. A rod of 150 cm long and diameter 2.0cm is subjected to an axial pull of 20 KN. If the modulus of elasticity of the material of the rod is 2x 105 N/mm2 Determine 1. Stress 2. Strain 3. the elongation of the rod (16)
2. The extension in a rectangular steel bar of length 400mm and thickness 10mm is found to 0.21mm .The bar tapers uniformly in width from 100mm to 50mm. If E for the bar is 2x 105 N/mm2 ,Determine the axial load on the bar (16)

3. A rod of 250 cm long and diameter 3.0cm is subjected to an axial pull of 30 KN. If the modulus of elasticity of the material of the rod is 2x 105 N/mm2 Determine 1. Stress 2. Strain 3. the elongation of the rod (16) 4. Find the youngs modulus of a rod of diameter 30mm and of length 300mm which is subjected to a tensile load of 60 KN and the extension of the rod is equal to 0.4 mm (16) 5. The extension in a rectangular steel bar of length 400mm and thickness 3mm is found be 0.21mm .The bar tapers uniformly in width from 20mm to 60mm E for the bar is 2x 105 N/mm2 Determine the axial load on the bar. (16) 6. The ultimate stress for a hollow steel column which carries an axial load of 2Mn is 500 N/mm2 .If the external diameter of the column is 250mm, determine the internal diameter Take the factor of safety as 4.0 (16) UNIT II
BEAMS LOADS AND STRESSES PART- A (2 Marks) 1. State the different types of supports. 2. What is cantilever beam? 3. Write the equation for the simple bending theory. 4. What do you mean by the point of contraflexure? 5. Define beam. 6. Define shear force and bending moment. 7. What is Shear stress diagram? 8. What is Bending moment diagram? 9. What are the types of load? 10. Write the assumption in the theory of simple bending. 11. What are the types of beams? 12. When will bending moment is maximum. PART- B (16 Marks) 1. Three planks of each 50 x200 mm timber are built up to a symmetrical I section for a beam. The maximum shear force over the beam is 4KN. Propose an alternate rectangular section of the same material so that the maximum shear stress developed is same in both sections. Assume then width of the section to be 2/3 of the depth. (16)

2. A beam of uniform section 10 m long carries a udl of KN/m for the entire length and a concentrated load of 10 KN at right end. The beam is freely supported at the left end. Find the position of the second support so that the maximum bending moment in the beam is as minimum as possible. Also compute the maximum bending moment (16) 3. A beam of size 150 mm wide, 250 mm deep carries a uniformly distributed load of w kN/m over entire span of 4 m. A concentrated load 1 kN is acting at a distance of 1.2 m from the left support. If the bending stress at a section 1.8 m from the left support is not to exceed 3.25 N/mm2 find the load w. (16) 4. A cantilever of 2m length carries a point load of 20 KN at 0.8 m from the fixed end and another point of 5 KN at the free end. In addition, a u.d.l. of 15 KN/m is spread over the entire length of the cantilever. Draw the S.F.D, and B.M.D. (16) 5. A Simply supported beam of effective span 6 m carries three point loads of 30 KN, 25 KN and 40 KN at 1m, 3m and 4.5m respectively from the left support. Draw the SFD and BMD. Indicating values at salient points. (16) 6. A Simply supported beam of length 6 metres carries a udl of 20KN/m throughout its length and a point of 30 KN at 2 metres from the right support. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram. Also find the position and magnitude of maximum Bending moment. (16) 7. A Simply supported beam 6 metre span carries udl of 20 KN/m for left half of span and two point loads of 25 KN end 35 KN at 4 m and 5 m from left support. Find maximum SF and BM and their location drawing SF and BM diagrams. (16) UNIT III TORSION PART-A (2 Marks)
1. Define torsional rigidity of the solid circular shaft. 2. Distinguish between closed coil helical spring and open coil helical spring 3. What is meant by composite shaft? 4. What is called Twisting moment? 5. What is Polar Modulus ? 6. Define: Torsional rigidity of a shaft. 7. What do mean by strength of a shaft? 8. Write down the equation for Wahl factor. 9. Define: Torsional stiffness. 10. What are springs? Name the two important types.

PART- B (16 Marks) 1. Determine the diameter of a solid shaft which will transmit 300 KN at 250 rpm. The maximum shear stress should not exceed 30 N/mm2 and twist should not be more than 10 in a shaft length 2m. Take modulus of rigidity = 1x 105N/mm2. (16) 2. The stiffness of the closed coil helical spring at mean diameter 20 cm is made of 3 cm diameter rod and has 16 turns. A weight of 3 KN is dropped on this spring. Find the height by which the weight should be dropped before striking the spring so that the spring may be compressed by 18 cm. Take C= 8x104 N/mm2. (16) 3. It is required to design a closed coiled helical spring which shall deflect 1mm under an axial load of 100 N at a shear stress of 90 Mpa. The spring is to be made of round wire having shear modulus of 0.8 x 105 Mpa. The mean diameter of the coil is 10 times that of the coil wire. Find the diameter and length of the wire. (16) 4. A steel shaft ABCD having a total length of 2400 mm is contributed by three different sections as follows. The portion AB is hollow having outside and inside diameters 80 mm and 50 mm respectively, BC is solid and 80 mm diameter. CD is also solid and 70 mm diameter. If the angle of twist is same for each section, determine the length of each portion and the total angle of twist. Maximum permissible shear stress is 50 Mpa and shear modulus 0.82 x 105 MPa (16) 5. The stiffness of close coiled helical spring is 1.5 N/mm of compression under a maximum load of 60 N. The maximum shear stress in the wire of the spring is 125 N/mm2. The solid length of the spring (when the coils are touching) is 50 mm. Find the diameter of coil, diameter of wire and number of coils. C = 4.5 (16) UNIT IV BEAM DEFLECTION PART-A (2 Marks) 1. What are the advantages of Macaulay method over the double integration method, for finding the slope and deflections of beams?
2. State the limitations of Eulers formula. 3. Define crippling load. 4. State Mohrs theorem. 5. State any three assumption made in Eulers column theory. 6. What are the different modes of failures of a column? 7. Write down the Rankine formula for columns. 8. What is effective or equivalent length of column? 9. Define Slenderness Ratio. 10. Define the terms column and strut.

PART- B (16 Marks) 1. A simply supported beam of 10 m span carries a uniformly distributed load of 1 kN/m over the entire span. Using Castiglianos theorem, find the slope at the ends. EI = 30,000 kN/m2. (16) 2. A 2m long cantilever made of steel tube of section 150 mm external diameter and10mm thick is loaded. If E=200 GN/m2 calculate (1) The value of W so that the maximum bending stress is 150 MN/m (2) The maximum deflection for the loading (16) 3. A beam of length of 10 m is simply supported at its ends and carries two point loads of 100 KN and 60 KN at a distance of 2 m and 5 m respectively from the left support. Calculate the deflections under each load. Find also the maximum deflection. Take I = 18 X 108 mm4 and E = 2 X 105. (16) 4. i) A column of solid circular section, 12 cm diameter, 3.6 m long is hinged at both ends. Rankines constant is 1 / 1600 and c = 54 KN/cm2. Find the buckling load. ii) If another column of the same length, end conditions and rankine constant but of 12 cm X 12 cm square cross-section, and different material, has the same buckling load, find the value of c of its material. (16) 5. A beam of length of 6 m is simply supported at its ends. It carries a uniformly distributed load of 10 KN/m as shown in figure. Determine the deflection of the beam at its mid-point and also the position and the maximum deflection. Take EI=4.5 X 108 N/mm2. (16)

6. An overhanging beam ABC is loaded as shown is figure. Determine the deflection of the beam at point C. Take I = 5 X 108 mm4 and E = 2 X 105 N/mm2. (16)

7. A cantilever of length 2 m carries a uniformly distributed load of 2.5 KN/m run for a length of 1.25 m from the fixed end and a point load of 1 KN at the free end. Find the deflection at the free end if the section is rectangular 12 cm wide and 24 cm deep and E=1 X 104 N/mm2 (16) 8. A cantilever of length 2m carries a uniformly distributed load 2 KN/m over a length of 1m from the free end, and a point load of 1 KN at the free end. Find the slope and deflection at the free end if E = 2.1 X 105 N/mm2 and I = 6.667 X 107 mm4 . (16) 9. Determine the section of a hollow C.I. cylindrical column 5 m long with ends firmly built in. The column has to carry an axial compressive load of 588.6 KN. The internal diameter of the column is 0.75 times the external diameter. Use Rankines constants. a = 1 / 1600, c = 57.58 KN/cm2 and F.O.S = 6. (16) UNIT V ANALYSIS OF STRESSES IN TWO DIMENSIONS PART-A (2 Marks)
1. Distinguish between thick and thin cylinders. 2. Define Principal planes and principal stress. 3. Define: Thin cylinders. Name the stresses set up in a thin cylinder subjected to internal fluid pressure. 4. What is Mohrs circle & name any the situations where it is used? 5. Define principal planes and principal stresses. 6. Draw Mohrs Circle for given shear stress q. 7. What is the necessary condition for maximum shear stress? 8. Define Obliquity. 9. Define Strain energy and resilience. 10. Define proof resilience and modulus of resilience. PART- B (16 Marks) 1. A Thin cylindrical shell 3 m long has 1m internal diameter and 15 mm metal thickness. Calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stresses induced and also the change in the dimensions of the shell, if it is subjected to an internal pressure of1.5 N/mm2 Take E = 2x105 N/mm2 and poisons ratio =0.3. Also calculate change in volume. (16) 2. A closed cylindrical vessel made of steel plates 4 mm thick with plane ends, carries fluid under pressure of 3 N/mm2 The diameter of the cylinder is 25cm and length is 75 cm. Calculate the longitudinal and hoop stresses in the cylinder wall and determine the change in diameter, length and Volume of the cylinder. Take E =2.1x105 N/mm2 and 1/m = 0.286. (16)

3. A rectangular block of material is subjected to a tensile stress of 110 N/mm2 on one plane and a tensile stress of 47 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former plane and a tensile stress of 47 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former. Each of the above stress is accompanied by a shear stress of 63 N/mm2 Find (i) The direction and magnitude of each of the principal stress (ii) Magnitude of greatest shear stress (16) 4. At a point in a strained material, the principal stresses are100 N/mm2 (T) and 40 N/mm2 (C). Determine the resultant stress in magnitude and direction in a plane inclined at 600 to the axis of major principal stress. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress in the material at the point? (16) 5. A rectangular block of material is subjected to a tensile stress of 210 N/mm2 on one plane and a tensile stress of 28 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former plane and a tensile stress of 28 N/mm2 on the plane at right angle to the former. Each of the above stress is accompanied by a shear stress of 53 N/mm2 Find (i) The direction and magnitude of each of the principal stress (ii) Magnitude of greatest shear stress (16) 6 A closed cylindrical vessel made of steel plates 5 mm thick with plane ends, carries fluid under pressure of 6 N/mm2 The diameter of the cylinder is 35cm and length is 85 cm. Calculate the longitudinal and hoop stresses in the cylinder wall and determine the change in diameter, length and Volume of the cylinder. Take E =2.1x105 N/mm2 and 1/m = 0.286. (16) 7. At a point in a strained material, the principal stresses are 200 N/mm2 (T) and 60 N/mm2 (C) Determine the direction and magnitude in a plane inclined at 600 to the axis of major principal stress. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress in the material at the point (16) 8. At a point in a strained material, the principal stresses are 100 N/mm2 (T) and 40 N/mm2 (C) Determine the direction and magnitude in a plane inclined at 600 to the axis of major principal stress. What is the maximum intensity of shear stress in the material at the point (16)