Fatigue (material



Fatigue (material)
In materials science, fatigue is the progressive and localized structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic loading. The nominal maximum stress values are less than the ultimate tensile stress limit, and may be below the yield stress limit of the material. Fatigue occurs when a material is subjected to repeated loading and unloading. If the loads are above a certain threshold, microscopic cracks will begin to form at the stress concentrators such as the surface, persistent slip bands (PSBs), and grain interfaces.[1] Eventually a crack will reach a critical size, and the structure will suddenly fracture. The shape of the structure will significantly affect the fatigue life; square holes or sharp corners will lead to elevated local stresses where fatigue cracks can initiate. Round holes and smooth transitions or fillets are therefore important to increase the fatigue strength of the structure.

Fatigue life
ASTM defines fatigue life, Nf, as the number of stress cycles of a specified character that a specimen sustains before failure of a specified nature occurs.[2] One method to predict fatigue life of materials is the Uniform Material Law (UML).[3] UML was developed for fatigue life prediction of aluminum and titanium alloys by the end of 20th century and extended to high-strength steels[4] and cast iron.[5] For some materials, there is a theoretical value for stress amplitude below which the material will not fail for any number of cycles, called a fatigue limit, endurance limit, or fatigue strength.[6]

Characteristics of fatigue
• In metals and alloys, the process starts with dislocation movements, eventually forming persistent slip bands that nucleate short cracks. • Fatigue is a stochastic process, often showing considerable scatter even in controlled environments. • • • • The greater the applied stress range, the shorter the life. Fatigue life scatter tends to increase for longer fatigue lives. Damage is cumulative. Materials do not recover when rested. Fatigue life is influenced by a variety of factors, such as temperature, surface finish, microstructure, presence of oxidizing or inert chemicals, residual stresses, contact (fretting), etc.
Fracture of an aluminium crank arm. Dark area of striations: slow crack growth. Bright granular area: sudden fracture.

• Some materials (e.g., some steel and titanium alloys) exhibit a theoretical fatigue limit below which continued loading does not lead to structural failure.

• In recent years, researchers (see, for example, the work of Bathias, Murakami, and Stanzl-Tschegg) have found that failures occur below the theoretical fatigue limit at very high fatigue lives (109 to 1010 cycles). An ultrasonic resonance technique is used in these experiments with frequencies around 10–20 kHz. • High cycle fatigue strength (about 103 to 108 cycles) can be described by stress-based parameters. A load-controlled servo-hydraulic test rig is commonly used in these tests, with frequencies of around 20–50 Hz. Other sorts of machines—like resonant magnetic machines—can also be used, achieving frequencies up to 250 Hz. • Low cycle fatigue (typically less than 103 cycles) is associated with widespread plasticity in metals; thus, a strain-based parameter should be used for fatigue life prediction in metals and alloys. Testing is conducted with

materials performance is commonly characterized by an S-N curve.[7] • 1903: Sir James Alfred Ewing demonstrates the origin of fatigue failure in microscopic cracks. probably from a rivet hole in tread of railway carriage wheel. Basquin proposes a log-log relationship for SN curves. the effects of continued changes of load upon iron structures and to what extent they could be loaded without danger to their ultimate security. Manson explain fatigue crack-growth in terms of plastic strain in the tip of cracks. • 1954: L. Matsuishi devise the rainflow-counting algorithm and enable the reliable application of Miner's rule to random loadings. He identifies the keyway as the crack origin. • 1854: Braithwaite reports on common service fatigue failures and coins the term fatigue. This is a graph of the magnitude of a cyclic stress (S) against the logarithmic scale of cycles to failure (N). He concludes that cyclic stress range is more important than peak stress and introduces the concept of endurance limit. also known as a Wöhler curve . Paris proposes methods for predicting the rate of growth of individual fatigue cracks in the face of initial scepticism and popular defence of Miner's phenomenological approach. C. Miner popularises A. Elber elucidates the mechanisms and importance of crack closure in slowing the growth of a fatigue crack due to the wedging effect of plastic deformation left behind the tip of the crack. M. The Versailles train crash was caused by axle fatigue.[7] • 1839: Jean-Victor Poncelet describes metals as being tired in his lectures at the military school at Metz. Palmgren's (1924) linear damage hypothesis as a practical design tool. He devised a test machine for conveyor chains used in the Clausthal mines. • 1945: A. • 1849: Eaton Hodgkinson is granted a small sum of money to report to the UK Parliament on his work in ascertaining by direct experiment. H. • 1842: William John Macquorn Rankine recognises the importance of stress concentrations in his investigation of railroad axle failures.[10] • 1970: W.[9] • 1860: Systematic fatigue testing undertaken by Sir William Fairbairn and August Wöhler. The S-N curve In high-cycle fatigue situations. • 1910: O. • 1968: Tatsuo Endo and M. S. • 1848: Railway Inspectorate report one of the first tyre failures. F.[8] • 1843: Joseph Glynn reports on fatigue of axle on locomotive tender. Coffin and S. Micrographs showing how surface fatigue cracks grow as material is further cycled. • 1961: P.01–5 Hz. most attention has focused on situations that require more than 104 cycles to failure where stress is low and deformation is primarily elastic.Fatigue (material) constant strain amplitudes typically at 0. From Ewing & Humfrey (1903) High-cycle fatigue Historically. . 2 Timeline of early fatigue research history • 1837: Wilhelm Albert publishes the first article on fatigue. using Wöhler's test data. It was likely a fatigue failure. • 1870: Wöhler summarises his work on railroad axles.

Reduce the complex loading to a series of simple cyclic loadings using a technique such as rainflow analysis. This process is sometimes known as coupon testing. a mechanical part is exposed to a complex. especially survival analysis and linear regression. Probabilistic nature of fatigue As coupons sampled from a homogeneous frame will manifest variation in their number of cycles to failure. Analysis of fatigue data requires techniques from statistics. Create a histogram of cyclic stress from the rainflow analysis to form a fatigue damage spectrum. and 4. and Weibull distribution. often random. 2.Fatigue (material) 3 S-N curves are derived from tests on samples of the material to be characterized (often called coupons) where a regular sinusoidal stress is applied by a testing machine which also counts the number of cycles to failure. calculate the degree of cumulative damage incurred from the S-N curve. Combine the individual contributions using an algorithm such as Miner's rule. For each stress level. 3. extreme value distribution. Probability distributions that are common in data analysis and in design against fatigue include the lognormal distribution. the S-N curve should more properly be an S-N-P curve capturing the probability of failure after a given number of cycles of a certain stress. sequence of loads. large and small. Spectrum loading . Complex loadings In practice. Birnbaum–Saunders distribution. In order to assess the safe life of such a part: 1. Each coupon test generates a point on the plot though in some cases there is a runout where the time to failure exceeds that available for the test (see censoring).

High stress followed by low stress may have less damage due to the presence of compressive residual stress. It plots stress amplitude against mean stress with the fatigue limit and the ultimate tensile strength of the material as the two extremes. cycles of low stress followed by high stress cause more damage than would be predicted by the rule. C is assumed to be 1. It does not consider the effect of overload or high stress which may result in a compressive residual stress. the account in terms of stress is less useful and the strain in the material offers a simpler description. M. The rule. failure occurs when: C is experimentally found to be between 0.Fatigue (material) 4 Miner's rule In 1945. each contributing ni(Si) cycles. Typical fatigue crack growth rate graph. 1967[12]) to make better allowance for the mean stress. It fails to recognise the probabilistic nature of fatigue and there is no simple way to relate life predicted by the rule with the characteristics of a probability distribution. F. A. S. Though Miner's rule is a useful approximation in many circumstances. Gomez and Paris derived relationships for the stage II crack growth with cycles N. to calculate Ni(Si). variously called Miner's rule or the Palmgren-Miner linear damage hypothesis.[13] Low-cycle fatigue Where the stress is high enough for plastic deformation to occur. Alternative failure criteria include Soderberg and Gerber. This can be thought of as assessing what proportion of life is consumed by stress reversal at each magnitude then forming a linear combination of their aggregate. Low-cycle fatigue is usually characterised by the Coffin-Manson relation (published independently by L. the Goodman relation can be used to estimate a failure condition. This relationship was later modified (by Forman. There is sometimes an effect in the order in which the reversals occur. in the denominator. Palmgren in 1924.7 and 2. Usually for design purposes. 2.2. Si (1 ≤ i ≤ k). Goodman relation In the presence of stresses superimposed on the cyclic loading. then if Ni(Si) is the number of cycles to failure of a constant stress reversal Si. adjusted to account for scatter. Industry analysts often use design curves. Coffin in 1954 and S. states that where there are k different stress magnitudes in a spectrum. In some circumstances. Anderson. it has several major limitations: 1. Miner popularised a rule that had first been proposed by A. in terms of the cyclical component ΔK of the Stress Intensity Factor K[11] where a is the crack length and m is typically in the range 3 to 5 (for metals). Manson 1953): -where: . by introducing a factor depending on (1-R) where R = min stress/max stress. Paris' Relationship In Fracture mechanics.

and load sequence. and other manufacturing processes involving heat or deformation can produce high levels of tensile residual stress. varies widely for different materials. • Environment: Environmental conditions can cause erosion. e. as well as the behavior during cyclic loading. though it allows life prediction and design assurance. used in the nuclear industry. or gas-phase embrittlement. casting. fatigue strength depends on the direction of the principal stress. the failure strain for a single reversal. 2N is the number of reversals to failure (N cycles). It can be developed in four stages. such as stress amplitude. Compressive residual stresses can be introduced in the surface by e. Slopes can be considerably steeper in the presence of creep or environmental interactions. however. whatever the mechanism used to produce the stress. • Geometry: Notches and variation in cross section throughout a part lead to stress concentrations where fatigue cracks initiate. which decreases the fatigue strength. biaxiality. • Temperature: Extreme high or low temperatures can decrease fatigue strength. 3. corrosion. This improvement is normally observed only for high-cycle fatigue.7 for metals in time independent fatigue. εf' is an empirical constant known as the fatigue ductility coefficient. • Grain size: For most metals.g. Corrosion fatigue is a problem encountered in many aggressive environments. 1. the presence of surface defects or scratches will have a greater influence than in a coarse grained alloy. 4. • Residual stresses: Welding. mean stress. Such techniques for producing surface stress are often referred to as peening. Factors that affect fatigue-life • Cyclic stress state: Depending on the complexity of the geometry and the loading.g.[14] Fatigue and fracture mechanics The account above is purely empirical and. • Size and distribution of internal defects: Casting defects such as gas porosity. and Ultimate ductile failure. • Direction of loading: For non-isotropic materials.Fatigue (material) • • • • Δεp /2 is the plastic strain amplitude. Stage II crack-growth. commonly ranging from -0. . • Material Type: Fatigue life.5 to -0. 5 A similar relationship for materials such as Zirconium. composites and polymers differ markedly from metals. Low plasticity burnishing. smaller grains yield longer fatigue lives. shot peening to increase fatigue life. 2. and ultrasonic impact treatment can also produce this surface compressive stress and can increase the fatigue life of the component. • Surface quality. Crack nucleation. Stage I crack-growth. c is an empirical constant known as the fatigue ductility exponent. which all affect fatigue life. non-metallic inclusions and shrinkage voids can significantly reduce fatigue strength. Surface roughness cause microscopic stress concentrations that lower the fatigue strength. in-phase or out-of-phase shear stress. laser peening. life improvement or design optimisation can be enhanced using Fracture mechanics. cutting. one or more properties of the stress state need to be considered.

Instruct the user to inspect the part periodically for cracks and to replace the part once a crack exceeds a critical length. Stopping fatigue Fatigue cracks that have begun to propagate can sometimes be stopped by drilling holes. For example. the durability of many designs can be increased significantly.Fatigue (material) 6 Design against fatigue Dependable design against fatigue-failure requires thorough education and supervised experience in structural engineering. This approach usually uses the technologies of nondestructive testing and requires an accurate prediction of the rate of crack-growth between inspections.[16] High Frequency Impact Treatment of weld transitions The durability and lifetime of dynamically loaded. Complete replacement and redesign of parts can also reduce if not eliminate fatigue problems. This is often referred to as damage tolerant design or "retirement-for-cause". parts can be made from better fatigue rated metals. They are not only lighter. or materials science. It is always far better to replace the cracked part entirely.[15] This is not recommended as a general practice because the hole represents a stress concentration factor which depends on the size of the hole and geometry. wings and tails of aircraft. welded steel structures are determined often by the welds. called drill stops. requires only a low tech equipment and still offers high reproducibility and a high grade of quality control. Material change Changes in the materials used in parts can also improve fatigue life. A similar argument has been made for replacement of metal fuselages. They are more expensive. By selective treatment of weld transitions with the High Frequency Impact Treatment method. Thus helicopter rotor blades and propellers in metal are being replaced by composite equivalents. Design to keep stress below threshold of fatigue limit (infinite lifetime concept). 2. but also much more resistant to fatigue. mechanical engineering. This method is universally applicable. or "safe-life" design practice). in the path of the fatigue crack. 3. Design (conservatively) for a fixed life after which the user is instructed to replace the part with a new one (a so-called lifed part. though the hole is typically less of a stress concentration than the removed tip of the crack. but the extra cost is amply repaid by their greater integrity. The possibility remains of a new crack starting in the side of the hole. since loss of a rotor blade usually leads to total loss of the aircraft. particular by the weld transitions. . finite lifetime concept. Example of a HiFIT treated steel highway bridge to avoid fatigue along the weld transition. There are three principal approaches to life assurance for mechanical parts that display increasing degrees of sophistication: 1.

not bonded. 1843. Other spurious theories seemed to be more acceptable. and the mechanism of crack growth with repeated loading. At least 55 passengers were killed trapped in the carriages. The failure was a result of metal G-ALYP and the site (arrowed) of the failure fatigue caused by the repeated pressurisation and de-pressurisation of the aircraft cabin. the supports around the windows were riveted. Also. The carriages behind piled into the wrecked engines and caught fire. de Havilland Comet Two de Havilland Comet passenger jets broke up in mid-air and crashed within a few months of each other in 1954. Versailles train disaster The derailment had been the result of a broken locomotive axle. As a result systematic tests were conducted on a fuselage immersed and pressurised in a water tank.Fatigue (material) 7 Infamous fatigue failures Versailles train crash Following the King's fete celebrations at the Palace of Versailles. Drawing of a fatigue failure in an axle by Joseph Glynn. who sought an explanation. This 'window' was in fact one of two apertures for the aerials of an electronic navigation system in which opaque fibreglass panels took The recovered (shaded) parts of the wreckage of the place of the window 'glass'. were ignored. The accident was witnessed by the British locomotive engineer Joseph Locke and widely reported in Britain. however. such as the idea that the metal had somehow "crystallized". His and other papers suggesting a crack growth mechanism through repeated stressing. as the original specifications for the aircraft had called for. After the equivalent of 3. It was discussed extensively by engineers. Rankine's investigation of broken axles in Britain highlighted the importance of stress concentration. This accident is known in France as the "Catastrophe ferroviaire de Meudon". and fatigue failures occurred at an ever increasing rate on the expanding railway system. Unlike drill riveting. but ignored the fact that the metal was already highly crystalline.000 flights investigators at the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) were able to conclude that the crash had been due to failure of the pressure cabin at the forward Automatic Direction Finder window in the roof. The problem was exacerbated by the punch rivet construction technique employed. the imperfect nature of the hole created by punch riveting caused manufacturing defect cracks which . The notion was based on the crystalline appearance of the fast fracture region of the crack surface. a train returning to Paris crashed in May 1842 at Meudon after the leading locomotive broke an axle. including the explorer Jules Dumont d'Urville.

Fatigue (material) may have caused the start of fatigue cracks around the rivet. the investigative report[18] concluded that the rig collapsed owing to a fatigue crack in one of its six bracings (bracing D-6). This flange plate held a sonar device used during drilling operations. Kielland oil platform capsize The Alexander L. The list continued to increase and at 18.33 times and an ultimate load of 2. The wind was gusting to 40 knots with waves up to 12 m high. Further. A year later in March 1981. increased stress concentrations due to the weakened flange plate. The skin of the aircraft was also too thin. and cyclical stresses (which would be common in the North Sea). was owned by the Stavanger Drilling Company of Norway and was on hire to the U. the poor weld profile. showing the two ADF windows at-which the initial failure [17] occurred Alexander L. As a result. especially around sharp-cornered cut-outs. Scotland. on board felt a 'sharp crack' followed by 'some kind of trembling'. the one remaining cable preventing the rig from capsizing. The rig. Kielland. The poor profile of the fillet weld contributed to a reduction in its fatigue strength. such as windows. company Phillips Petroleum at the time of the disaster. early in the evening of 27 March 1980 more than 200 men were off duty in the accommodation on the Alexander L. This was traced to a small 6 mm fillet weld which joined a non-load-bearing flange plate to this D-6 bracing. This was a noticeable distinguishing feature of all later models of the Comet.0 times the cabin pressure) and the accident caused a revision in the estimates of the safe loading strength requirements of airliner pressure cabins. The fuselage roof fragment of G-ALYP on display in the Science Museum in London. the curve eliminating a stress concentration. . Kielland was a Norwegian semi-submersible drilling rig that capsized whilst working in the Ekofisk oil field in March 1980 killing 123 people.5 times the cabin proof pressure as opposed to the requirement of 1.53 the remaining anchor cable snapped and the rig turned upside down. Five of the six anchor cables had broken. the investigation found considerable amounts of lamellar tearing in the flange plate and cold cracks in the butt weld. and cracks from manufacturing stresses were present at the corners. Cold cracks in the welds. In driving rain and mist. The capsize was the worst disaster in Norwegian waters since World War II. located approximately 320 km east from Dundee. all future jet airliners would feature windows with rounded corners. Minutes before 18:30 those Fractures on the right side of the Alexander L. The Comet's pressure cabin had been designed to a safety factor comfortably in excess of that required by British Civil Airworthiness Requirements (2. seemed to collectively play a role in the rig's collapse. it was discovered that the stresses around pressure cabin apertures were considerably higher than had been anticipated. Kielland rig Suddenly the rig heeled over 30° and then stabilised.S. The rig had just been winched away from the Edda production platform. Investigators from the RAE told a public inquiry that the sharp corners near the Comets' window openings acted as initiation sites for cracks. 8 In addition. which connected the collapsed D-leg to the rest of the rig.

doi:10. [11] P. W.H>. supplement 1. pp. and on the means of preventing such accidents by observing the law of continuity in their construction". Jukvoka. Japan. • The 1992 El Al Flight 1862 lost both engines on its right-wing due to fatigue failure in the pylon mounting of the #3 Engine. • The 1988 Aloha Airlines Flight 243 suffered an explosive decompression due to fatigue failure. W. T. 69. p. [12] (http:/ / ijd. Press release regarding metal fatigue damage to the Manahawkin Bay Bridge in New Jersey [16] "Horrors in the Skies.1460-2695. The 2000 Hatfield rail crash was likely caused by rolling contact fatigue. Institution of Civil Engineers. prnewswire. Laird. doi. The Trend in Engineering (1961). 1-12.J. (1978). roymech.. June 1989. M. Completes EFS Inspection of Bridge in New Jersey". uk/ Useful_Tables/ Fatigue/ Stress_levels. Rankine. John Wiley & Sons. • The 1948 Northwest Airlines Flight 421 crash due to fatigue failure in a wing spar root • The 1957 "Mt. A history of fatigue. ISBN 978-0-444-88603-3. P. "On the causes of the unexpected breakage of the journals of railway axles. Jr and T. ISBN 978-3-639-25625-3. C. uk/ wiki/ Fuselage_of_de_Havilland_Comet_Airliner_G-ALYP). F.. References [1] Kim. Henry O. 789-799.). Braithwaite.1999. Anderson. M. The 2002 China Airlines Flight 611 had disintegrated in-flight due to fatigue failure. crashed due to engine failure caused by metal fatigue. 67-70.II Mechanism. Acta Metallurgica. html "Material Technologies. • The 1968 MacRobertson Miller Airlines Flight 1750 that lost a wing due to improper maintenance leading to fatigue failure • The 1977 Dan-Air Boeing 707 crash caused by fatigue failure resulting in the loss of the right horizontal stabilizer • The 1980 LOT Flight 7 that crashed due to fatigue in an engine turbine shaft resulting in engine disintegration leading to loss of control • The 1985 Japan Airlines Flight 123 crashed after the aircraft lost its vertical stabilizer due to faulty repairs on the rear bulkhead. com/ books?id=BeQDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA67& dq=Popular+ Mechanics+ Science+ installing+ linoleum& source=bl& ots=ntxUR1RGVz& sig=NdCEzBMspY21K7-yYWDdf3p84Ug& hl=en& sa=X& ei=99YUUMO_GYSzrQHo4YHIDA& sqi=2& ved=0CD4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage& q& f=true) Popular Mechanics. VDM. Science Museum. Elsevier. • The 1989 United Airlines Flight 232 lost its tail engine due to fatigue failure in a fan disk hub. Korkmaz (2010).1016/S1006-706X(11)60102-7 [6] Bathias. Langer. 9-14. • • • • The 1998 Eschede train disaster was caused by fatigue failure of a single composite wheel." (http:/ / books. com/ news-releases/ material-technologies-inc-completes-efs-inspection-of-bridge-in-new-jersey-58419432. 2011. Crack Nucleation and State I Propagation in High Strain Fatigue. presidential plane of Philippine President Ramon Magsaysay. com/ cgi/ reprint/ 15/ 1/ 89. A rational analytic theory of fatigue. Inc. "There is no infinite fatigue life in metallic materials". Vol 20. [9] F. E. doi:10. 1968. (1999). (1854). [4] S.M. Korkmaz (2011). (2001). Seeger (1990). Fuchs. Minutes of Proceedings. Minutes of Proceedings. sagepub. Fatigue of Metals Subjected to Varying Stress. . . [10] Matsuishi. 13. [5] S. sciencemuseum. DOI (http:/ / dx. "On the fatigue and consequent fracture of metals".Fatigue (material) 9 Others • The 1919 Boston Molasses Disaster has been attributed to a fatigue failure. Uniform Material Law: Extension to High-Strength Steels. Nuclear Science and Engineering. html [14] O'Donnell. C. The 2005 Chalk's Ocean Airways Flight 101 lost its right wing due to fatigue failure brought about by inadequate maintenance practices.00183. Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers. (1842). 105-108. Endo. Materials data for cyclic loading. [3] A.1046/j. Inc. 463–474. Gomez and W. A Methodology to Predict Fatigue Life of Cast Iron: Uniform Material Law for Cast Iron. Institution of Civil Engineers. org.. [17] "ObjectWiki: Fuselage of de Havilland Comet Airliner G-ALYP" (http:/ / objectwiki. pp. co. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures 22 (7): 559–565. C. Schutz (1996). Retrieved 9 October 2009. [15] http:/ / www. ISBN 0-471-51059-9. International 18:8. [2] Stephens. Paris.x. 1964. Ralph I. Metal Fatigue in Engineering (Second edition ed. p. Journal of Iron and Steel Research. 1016/ 0013-7944(95)00178-6) [8] W.. [7] W. 24 September 2009. and B. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 54: 263-300. • The 1968 Los Angeles Airways Flight 417 lost one of its main rotor blades due to fatigue failure. Bäumel. Pinatubo". google. org/ 10. pdf) [13] http:/ / www.J.

1981 ISBN B0000ED27N 10 Further reading • Andrew. G.org) • Article regarding Fatigue Testing of Bolted Joints (http://www. Report of a Norwegian public commission appointed by royal decree of March 28. C. Modern Metal Fatigue Analysis. E.uk/mem/mem_mf. • Lalanne. ISBN 0-947817-79-4.Fatigue (material) [18] The Alexander L. 2nd Edition with Cd-Rom. Kielland accident. Issue 8. M. • Draper. • Subra Suresh. E. C. and Evaluation Committee website (http://www. Applicability of published data for fatigue-limited design (http://onlinelibrary. Springer. presented to the Ministry of Justice and Police March. (1995) Fatigue and Tribological Properties of Plastics and Elastomers. 1998. & Jebe.. ISBN 1-884207-15-4 • Leary. • Dieter. Kelly (http://www. Les (2007). G. Vol 68. (1975) Statistical design of fatigue experiments ISBN 0-470-54115-6 • A. (2009).ac. pp 339–341. J. Metal Fatigue.zwick. ISTE . ISBN 0-521-57046-8.php?id=25) • Examples of fatigued metal products (http://materials. Palmgren (1924): Die Lebensdauer von Kugellagern (Life Length of Roller Bearings. W.com) . John (2008).htm) • A collection of fatigue knowledge and calculators (http://www. ISBN 978-1-4020-6807-2. 2009. (2009).edu/classes/MSE2094_NoteBook/97ClassProj/anal/kelly/ fatigue. External links • Fatigue by Shawn M. why it matters. 1980.fatigue. R. ISBN 0-07-100406-8 • Little.co. Second Edition. Burvill.com/ doi/10. Springer. Design. (1988) Mechanical Metallurgy. No 14. Zeitschrift des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI Zeitschrift).1002/qre.html) • SAE Fatigue. EMAS.uk/appsdisp.vt.wiley. E. H. Fatigue of Materials. • Schijve. ISBN 978-1-84821-125-4. • Pook. What it is.fatiguecalculator.Wiley. In German).open.sv. April 1924. ISBN 978-1-4020-5596-6. ISSN 0341-7258. Fatigue Damage. Cambridge University Press.1010/pdf) Quality and Reliability Engineering International Volume 25. Fatigue of Structures and Materials.

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