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# [FAISAL SARDAR] 2009-CIV-122

EXPERIMENT#02 TO INVESTIGATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPECIFICENERGY (S.E) AND DEPTH OF FLOW (Y) IN A LABORATORY FLUME. OBJECTIVE :
To study the specific energy as a function of depth of flow for a given discharge ( to ploat E-Y diagram) to compare critical depth of flow determined theoretically & from E-Y diagram .

APPARATUS :
S6 glass sided Tilting lab flume with manometric flow arrangement and slope adjusting scale. Point gauge (For measuring depth of channel).

## RELATED THEORY : FLUME:

It is a channel supported above the ground level. .

SPECIFIC ENERGY:
S.E if the total energy per unit weight measured relative to the channels bed a nd mathematically

E=Y+
Where E = S.E of the per unit weight Y= depth of flow V2/2g = kinetic head or velocity head

## [FAISAL SARDAR] 2009-CIV-122

In Term Of Discharge

## SPECIFIC ENERGY CURVE

It is the plot which shows the variations in S.E as a function of Depth of flow

CRITICAL FLOW :
It is the type of flow which take place at a critical depth with minimum specific energy . Type of flow in which froudes number is 1

FROUDS NUMBER:
It is the ratio of inertial forces to the gravitational forces. Mathematically it is:

Fr =
CRITICAL VELOCITY :
Velocity corresponding to critical depth

Vc =
SUB-CRITICAL FLOW:
It is the flow with larger depths and less flow velocities or flow at which Frouds Number is les than 1 .

y > yc , V < VC
SUPER CRITICAL FLOW:
It is the flow corresponding to the lesser depths and larger flow velocities. And flow will be called as super critical flow for Frouds Number

y < yc , V <>VC

## [FAISAL SARDAR] 2009-CIV-122

ALTERNATE DEPTHS:
For the value of the specific energy other than at the critical point for a constant discharge, there are two water depths. One is greater than critical depths. Other is Less than critical depthsThese two depths for a given specific energy are termed as alternate Depths

PROCEDURE:
Maintain the constant discharge in open channel. For one particular value of flow, find out the water depths at the different locations andcalculate the average depth of flow.. Calculate the specific energy using this relation: Repeat this by varying the value of slopes. Draw E y curves6. Find out the critical depths and E min

## OBSERVATION & CALCULATION

Width of channel = 300mm
DEPTH OF FLOW Sr.# SLOPE DISCHARGE (m3/sec) 1 1/500 2 1/300 3 1/200 4 1/100 5 1/6O 6 1/5O 0.0080 0.0080 0.0080 0.0080 0.0080 0.0080 q (m3/sec/m) 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 yc m 0.0417 0.0417 0.0417 0.0417 0.0417 0.0417 y1 mm 45.6 42.5 31.8 26 21.9 18.7 y2 mm 50 40 44.6 24.5 21.6 21.2 y3 mm 44.8 35.5 31 25.6 20 21 y avj mm 46.8 39.3 35.8 25.4 21.2 20.3 AREA m2 0.014 0.012 0.011 0.008 0.006 0.006 VELOCITY m/sec 0.570 0.678 0.745 1.051 1.260 1.313 0.017 0.023 0.028 0.056 0.081 0.088 V2/2g SPECIFIC ENERGY m 0.063 0.063 0.064 0.082 0.102 0.108

## [FAISAL SARDAR] 2009-CIV-122

E-y DIAGRAM
E-Y diagram
0.05

0.045
0.04 0.035 D E 0.03 P T 0.025 H 0.02 0.015 ( m )

E VS y

E VS y ( E=y)

0.01
0.005 0 0.000

0.020

0.040

0.080

0.100

0.120

## [FAISAL SARDAR] 2009-CIV-122

E-y DIAGRAM
E-Y diagram
0.05 0.045 0.04 0.035 D E 0.03 P T 0.025 H 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 ( m )

yc

V2/2g

## SUPER CRITICAL FLOW

E=y

E VS y E VS y ( E=y)

E VS y

Emin =0.0630