User manual: Subscriber Manager

Version: 4.6 Released: APR, 2012

This guide is intended for the following products; StarMAX Subscriber Manager

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1 Copyright Notice
1.1 Copyright
APR 2012 This documentation incorporates features and functions provided with SUBSCRIBER MANAGER, version 4.5. Copyright © 2012 EION, Inc. All rights reserved. This guide and the application and hardware described herein are furnished under license and are subject to a confidentiality agreement. The software and hardware can be used only in accordance with the terms and conditions of this agreement. No part of this guide may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means – electronic, mechanical, or otherwise, including photocopying and recording – without the express written permission of EION, Inc. While every effort has been made to ensure that the information contained in this guide is correct, EION Inc. does not warrant the information is free of errors or omissions. Information contained in this guide is subject to change without notice.

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2 Table of Contents
1 Copyright Notice ........................................................................................... 3 1.1 Copyright ........................................................................................................3 2 Table of Contents .......................................................................................... 5 2.1 Introduction ....................................................................................................7 2.2 Abbreviations and Definitions ...........................................................................7 3 Overview ....................................................................................................... 9 3.1 The Role of SUBSCRIBER MANAGER .................................................................9 3.2 Introduction to CPEs Advanced CPE Management Only ......................................9 4 Getting Started With SM Client ................................................................... 10 4.1 Logging In .................................................................................................... 10 4.2 Main Window ................................................................................................ 10 4.3 Properties of Internal Windows ....................................................................... 11 4.4 User Management ......................................................................................... 13 4.5 Active Client Management .............................................................................. 15 4.6 Region Management ...................................................................................... 16 4.7 Adding a New Region or Sub-Region ............................................................... 17 5 Introduction to CPEs ................................................................................... 19 5.1 About CPE Types ........................................................................................... 19 6 CPE Management ........................................................................................ 21 6.1 Adding CPE profile to SUBSCRIBER MANAGER ................................................. 21 6.2 Upgrade ........................................................................................................ 21 6.3 Configure VoIP .............................................................................................. 22 7 Advanced CPE Management ....................................................................... 24 7.1 Setting Up CPE Configuring SUBSCRIBER MANAGER PS/ACS ............................ 24 7.2 Adding CPE profile to SUBSCRIBER MANAGER ................................................. 24 7.3 Configuring CPE Profile for TR-069 management protocol ................................ 25 7.4 Configuring CPE Profile for OMA-DM management protocol .............................. 25 7.5 Making CPE aware of SUBSCRIBER MANAGER ................................................. 25 7.6 First contact .................................................................................................. 26 8 Introduction to CPE Management .............................................................. 28 8.1 CPE general information ................................................................................. 28 8.2 Firmware ...................................................................................................... 29 8.3 Performance Collection Settings ...................................................................... 29 8.4 Request Session ............................................................................................ 29 8.5 Reset CPE State ............................................................................................. 29 8.6 CPE Reboot ................................................................................................... 30 8.7 ACS Tasks ..................................................................................................... 30 8.8 Synchronization between a CPE and SUBSCRIBER MANAGER ........................... 31 8.9 Regular periodic tasks .................................................................................... 31 8.10 Management tasks ....................................................................................... 31 9 Managed Firmware Upgrade ....................................................................... 32 9.1 Firmware Repository ...................................................................................... 32 9.2 Adding new firmware image to the repository ................................................. 32
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9.3 Deleting firmware image from the repository .................................................. 33 9.4 Activating Bulk Firmware Upgrade .................................................................. 33 9.5 Checking Current CPE Firmware Revision ........................................................ 34 10 Managing CPE Configuration Files ............................................................ 35 10.1 About to CPE configuration files ................................................................... 35 10.2 Deploying Per CPE Type Configuration File .................................................... 35 10.3 Deploying Per CPE Configuration File ............................................................ 36 10.4 Check Configuration File Deployment History ................................................ 37 11 Generic Device Management Settings ...................................................... 39 11.1 About Generic Device Management Settings ................................................. 39 11.2 Per CPE Type parameter group..................................................................... 39 11.3 Scanner channel parameter group ................................................................ 39 11.4 Configuring scanner channels ...................................................................... 39 11.5 Performance Collection ................................................................................ 40 11.6 Browsing Collected CPE Counters ................................................................. 41 12 Reporting .................................................................................................. 43 12.1 Viewing the Report ...................................................................................... 43 12.2 Available reports ......................................................................................... 43 12.3 CPE Firmware Revision Report ..................................................................... 43 12.4 CPE Not Authorized Report .......................................................................... 44 12.5 Unique CPE Count Report ............................................................................ 45 12.6 CPE Firmware Upgrade Report ..................................................................... 46 13 Glossary ..................................................................................................... 47

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2.1 Introduction
This document is the user guide for the SUBSCRIBER MANAGER, providing a detailed description of the software. This documentation is for all professionals responsible for managing WiMAX customer premises equipment.

2.2 Abbreviations and Definitions
After successful login you are redirected to the user’s home page which contains access to all available functionality. This table describes abbreviations and definitions used throughout this document.
Abbreviations AAA server ACE ACL ACS ASN controller BS CINR CIR CPE EMS LAN device MIR MVLAN NAT NWG PCM Description Authentication, Authorization and Accounting server Access Control Entry Access Control List Auto-configuration server. Typically used in relation to CPE management over TR-069 or OMA-DM protocol. Access Service Network controller Base Station. In this document relates to StarMAX Base Station. Carrier to Noise plus Interference Ratio Committed Information Rate Customer Premises Equipment. In this document relates to any WiMAX capable device that is installed at customer premises. Element Management System Customer’s equipment connected to a WiMAX capable CPE. E.g. router or a PC. Maximum Information Rate Multiple Virtual LAN Network Address Translation Network Working Group of WiMAX Forum. Performance Collection Module. A component of SUBSCRIBER

MANAGER server.
QoS RSSI RX SF SIP SM SM PS/ACS
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Quality of Service. Relates to profile used to describer service flow properties. E.g. bandwidth. Received Signal Strength Indication Receiving Service Flow Session Initiation Protocol Subscriber Manager Subscriber Manager Provisioning Server/Auto-configuration
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Server. A component of Subscriber Manager Server. SM SP SNMP ToS TR-069 Subscriber Manager Service Provider. A component of Subscriber Manager Server. Simple Network Management Protocol Type of Service Broadband Forum technical specification entitled CPE WAN Management Protocol. It defines an application layer protocol for remote management of end-user devices. Device management protocol specified by the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) Device Management (DM) Working Group and the Data Synchronization (DS) Working Group. Transmission Vendor Class Identifier Voice Over Internet Protocol

OMA-DM

TX VCI VoIP

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3 Overview
3.1 The Role of SUBSCRIBER MANAGER
SUBSCRIBER MANAGER is used in WiMAX deployments for advanced CPE management. SM can work in a multi-vendor CPE environment. A list of supported CPEs can be found in Introduction to CPEs section.

3.2 Introduction to CPEs Advanced CPE Management Only
In a WiMAX deployment with NWG compliant ASN controler and AAA, SUBSCRIBER MANAGER assumes the role of auto-configuration server (ACS) for TR-069 or OMA-DM capable CPEs. CPEs without TR-069 or OMA-DM support cannot be. In this role the main product functions of SUBSCRIBER MANAGER are: 1. bulk firmware upgrades 2. bulk/single configuration file management 3. performance collection (traffic counters, radio statistics)

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4 Getting Started With SM Client
4.1 Logging In
SUBSCRIBER MANAGER comes with a default username admin with password admin. After starting the Client, log in by clicking File -> Login. See Main window with a login dialog. You need the following information in order to log in: • • • Username Password SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server IP address

• SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server port (unless system administrator has changed server defaults, port is 2001) WARNING: For production system you are advised to change password of admin user and create other users without administrative privileges. See section User Management section for more details.

Figure 1: Login window

4.2 Main Window
The main window of the Client consists of the following components:  Main menu: Items above your authorization level do not show up in a menu. E.g. if you are not an administrator, you won’t see User Management.  Navigation pane: The navigation pane offers you the tree view of all items from the main menu (except for File, Window and Help menu). Items above your authorization level do not show up
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in a tree. E.g. if you are not an administrator, you won’t see User Management.  Workspace with internal windows: Internal windows can be minimized, maximized, cascaded, tiled horizontally or tiled vertically (from Window menu).  Status bar: The status bar is displayed at the bottom of the main window and contains the following information:  Currently logged in user  Time of the log in  Address of the Server Client is connected to

Figure 2: Main window

4.3 Properties of Internal Windows
Many windows share a common set of functionality: Filtering: In all windows where larger amount of entries is expected, user has an option to filter entries in the table by applying the filter. Available filtering attributes vary depending on the window. Filter is applied at the server level so only relevant entries are transferred to the client. Filter can be constructed of more than one constraint. When user selects more than one filtering constraint, the result will match ALL constraints. See Example of filter window. In order to remove filter, click Clear Filter button. Paging: Table data is divided into pages. Pager bar allows the user to customize the number of rows displayed per page and navigate through pages. In some windows pager bar also contains refresh functionality. Manual and automatic refresh for selected time interval is available. Refreshing data re-reads data from SM Server. It does not imply that server will also refresh this data from devices (where applicable). See Pager component in Window showing pager. Printing: Tables are first converted to HTML format and previewed to the user. From there printing option is available via internal printing component. Only content that is displayed in a single page of a table can be printed at once. Exporting: Exporting is available in XML format.
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Figure 3: Internal Window navigational options

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Figure 4: Example of filter window

4.4 User Management
Administration -> User Manager enables you to manage users and associated information, like password, group membership etc. See User Manager Section.

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Figure 5: User Management window Add User Window shows a window where one can add/edit user details. Mandatory attributes are: • Username: username is a unique user identified used for loging into SM Client. • Password: only administrator can change a password for a user. User is not able to change his/her own password. • Group: there is a predefined set of groups: administrators, configurators and viewers. • Region: Users assigned to some region can only see and manage CPEs below that region tree. Root region is selected by default. WARNING: If administrator would like to use fine-grained region based privileges for users managing CPEs, suitable region tree must first be constructed in Administration ? Region Management and each CPE must be assigned to its owner region.

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Figure 6:Add User window Users from different groups (administrators, configurators, viewers) have a different set of privileges. E.g. only administrators can manage users etc. Detailed list of privileges for each group of users can be found in
Menu User management Active Client Management Region management ACS setup CPE Management CPE Types Firmware Repository Reports Window x x x ro CPE Profiles ro ro Reports Viewers group x x rw ro ro rw rw ro Configurators group rw rw rw rw rw rw rw rw rw rw Administrators group

NOTE: ro … read only rw … read write x … no access

4.5 Active Client Management
The Active Client Management module displays a list of all the users which are currently connected to SUBSCRIBER MANAGER. It is possible to disconnect user sessions which are currently in progress.

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Figure 7: Active Client Management window The Active Client Management window is only available for members of the Administrators group. It is not possible to disconnect your own session or session owned by other members of Administrators group.

4.6 Region Management
The Region Management module allows you to define geographical . In CPE Management -> CPE Profiles one can assign owner region to each CPE and in Administration ->User Management on can assign parent region to a user. This has two meanings: • One can filter CPEs by region • One can limit CPEs that particular user can see. E.g. if one assigns user X to region A, user X will be only able to manage CPEs from region A. He/She won’t see users from other regions (except for those that are below region A in a region tree). To access the region management module select Administration -> Region Management in the main menu or select it from Navigation Pane. The Region Management window appears in the work area of the main window.

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Figure 8: Region Management window

4.7 Adding a New Region or Sub-Region
1. To add a new region right-click Root region in the navigation pane of the Region Management window and select Add in the drop-down menu. 2. The Add Region window appears where you can enter name and description of the new region. 3. You can also edit, refresh or remove an entry by selecting the appropriate option in the drop-down menu. 4. The Refresh command refreshes the data in this window.

Figure 9: Add Region dialog

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For adding a sub-region to any of the existing regions, right-click the parent region and follow the same procedure.

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5 Introduction to CPEs
5.1 About CPE Types
SUBSCRIBER MANAGER is capable of managing a variety of CPEs with different capabilities. Not all CPEs support the same feature-set. What are CPE types? For each CPE once user selects a CPE type, the GUI automatically adapts for that CPE type; only configuration options for that particular CPE type are displayed.

Figure 10: Supported CPE Types

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Eion PN 3180-23-00-01 Supplier Greenpacket Supplier PN OX-230 TR-069 /OMA-DM? TR-069 FW upgrade ok Reboot ok Set update intervalok Session request ok web GUI activationok Performance collection support BytesReceived Performance collection support BytesSent Performance collection support RSSI_level Performance collection support CINR_level Performance collection support BSID Performance collection support UpTime

3180-25-00-01 Greenpacket OX-250 TR-069 ok ok ok ok ok BytesReceived BytesSent RSSI_level CINR_level BSID UpTime

3410-23-00-013410-23-00-02 Greenpacket Greenpacket DV-235 DV-235T TR-069 TR-069 ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok ok BytesReceivedBytesReceived BytesSent BytesSent RSSI_level RSSI_level CINR_level CINR_level BSID BSID UpTime UpTime

3410-35-00-01 Greenpacket DV-360 TR-069 ok ok ok ok ok BytesReceived BytesSent RSSI_level CINR_level BSID UpTime

Table 1: Supported new CPE Features

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6 CPE Management
6.1 Adding CPE profile to SUBSCRIBER MANAGER
Before CPE can be recognized by SUBSCRIBER MANAGER, one must first add its CPE profile. This needs to be done for each CPE. 1. Open CPE Configuration -> CPE Profiles window. 2. Click Add. 3. Fill at least mandatory fields: Serial Number ... CPE’s serial number. Check CPE for this info. MAC Address ... CPE’s MAC address. Check CPE for this info. MAC address is very important as it is the only way to identify a CPE that contacts SUBSCRIBER MANAGER. Make sure you have entered the correct one. For advanced CPE management over TR-069 or OMA-DM, it is very important to define both MAC address and serial number correctly. 4. Optionally also fill the following fields (these fields are not stored at a CPE; only in SUBSCRIBER MANAGER database): Desc no. 1 ... First string that operator might use to additionally describe this CPE (e.g. customer’s name or home address or phone contact...) Desc no. 2 ... Second string that operator might use to additionally describe this CPE (e.g. customer’s name or home address or phone contact...) VIP ... special flag based on which operator might filter a select group of customers. Owner Region ... One can assign CPE to a particular region in a regional tree. Setting this attribute is beneficial if you manage larger amount of CPEs, because it will give you ability to filter out CPEs belonging to a particular region. 5. Under CPE Type select the one that matches your CPE.

6.2 Upgrade
If Enable automatic upgrades is checked, CPE upgrades will be controlled by SUBSCRIBER MANAGER. See Chapter 6 for more details on firmware upgrades over TR069 or OMA-DM. Configure TR-069 Not applicable for all CPE Types. This component is only applicable for CPEs that support TR-069 management protocol. See Advanced CPE Management on page 51 for details on TR-069 configuration. Configure OMA-DM Not applicable for all CPE Types. This component is only applicable for CPEs that support OMA-DM management protocol. See Chapter 6 for details on OMA-DM configuration.
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6.3 Configure VoIP
SIP Servers can be defined at CPE Management menu › SIP. To define a SIP server IP address and port should be provided. The figure below shows the main window for managing SIP servers. Each SIP server configured here can be assigned to many CPEs in CPE Management › CPE Profiles.

Figure 11: SIP window If VoIP is enabled for CPE you must configure: 1. Username and password 2. Select a SIP server from the list

Figure 12: Configure VoIP Applicable for CPE Types EION 3400DO, EION 3400DV and Gigaset SX682

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7 Advanced CPE Management
7.1 Setting Up CPE Configuring SUBSCRIBER MANAGER PS/ACS
Before we can obtain information regarding CPE's advanced management we need to configure the SM PS/ACS location. 1. Open Administration-> ACS Setup window. 2. Click Add. 3. Fill fields: • • • Name ... ACS name. IP address ... ACS IP address. Port...ACS Port (default is 8080).

If the ACS IP address is correct and ACS is running the status in the table will be online otherwise it will be offline.

7.2 Adding CPE profile to SUBSCRIBER MANAGER
Before CPE can be recognized by SUBSCRIBER MANAGER, one must first add its CPE profile. This needs to be done for each CPE. 1. Open CPE Configuration -> CPE Profiles window. 2. Click Add. 3. Fill at least mandatory fields: • • Serial Number ... CPE’s serial number. Check CPE for this info. MAC Address ... CPE’s MAC address. Check CPE for this info.

Serial number is very important as it is the only way to identify a CPE that contacts its ACS (SUBSCRIBER MANAGER in our case). It is usually (but not always!) the same as the MAC address without the ‘:’ characters. E.g. 11:22:33:44:55:66 -> 112233445566. Consult CPE vendor’s documentation. 4. Optionally also fill the following fields (these fields are not stored at a CPE; only in SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Database): • Desc. no. 1 ... First string that operator might use to additionally describe this CPE (e.g. customer’s name or home address or phone contact...) • Desc. no. 2 ... Second string that operator might use to additionally describe this CPE (e.g. customer’s name or home address or phone contact...) • VIP ... special flag based on which operator might filter a select group of customers. • Owner Region ... One can assign CPE to a particular region in a regional tree. Setting this attribute is beneficial if you manage larger amount of CPEs, because it will
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give ability to filter out CPEs belonging to a particular region. 5. Under CPE Type select the one that matches your CPE.

7.3 Configuring CPE Profile for TR-069 management protocol
8. Click on ... Protocol Management button 9. In the opened window click Configure TR-069. 10. Enter username and password used for session requests from the ACS to the CPE. These must match the ones you have configured on a CPE. Defaults in SUBSCRIBER MANAGER are predefined for each CPE type, but you must change them in case they don’t match settings on your CPE. In case these settings do not match the ones from CPE, SUBSCRIBER MANAGER will not be able to send any requests to a CPE. 11. If you want to allow SUBSCRIBER MANAGER to manage firmware upgrades for this CPE, then check Enable Automatic Upgrade. 12. If you want to configure VoIP parameters click on Configure VoIP. 13. Click Apply. CPE Configuration window closes. 14. Click Apply. CPE profile is now created and stored in the database. CAUTION: Default TR-069 Session Request username and password set on a CPE might be different depending on a CPE vendor, model and firmware version of the CPE. They are usually configurable on the CPE using telnet or Web GUI. CPE vendor documentation must be consulted for this.

7.4 Configuring CPE Profile for OMA-DM management protocol
15. Click on ... Protocol Management button 16. In the opened window click Configure OMA-DM. 17. Enter username and password used for authentication between the ACS and CPE. These must match the ones you have configured on a CPE. Defaults are predefined for each CPE type, but you must change them in case they don’t match settings on your CPE. In case these settings do not match the ones from CPE, SUBSCRIBER MANAGER will not be able to send any requests to a CPE. 18. If you want to allow SUBSCRIBER MANAGER to manage firmware upgrades for this CPE, then check Enable Automatic Upgrade. 19. Click Apply. CPE Configuration window closes. 20. Click Apply. CPE profile is now created and stored in the database. Default OMA-DM Session Request username and password set on a CPE might be different depending on a CPE vendor, model and firmware version of the CPE. They are usually configurable on the CPE using telnet or Web GUI. CPE vendor documentation must be consulted for this.

7.5 Making CPE aware of SUBSCRIBER MANAGER
For the CPE to be able to contact SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server an ACS URL must be set on the CPE using one of the following methods: • Connection Manager
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• • •

WEB GUI Telnet access DHCP server

Configuring ACS URL on a CPE depends on the CPE vendor, model and firmware version of the CPE and is out of scope of this manual. CPE vendor documentation must be consulted for this. The ACS URL assumes the following form: http://ACS_IP:PORT/PATH For SUBSCRIBER MANAGER this would be: ACS_IP ... IP Address of the SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server. PORT ... Default SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server port for ACS operation is 8080, unless you have changed it in provisioningserver.xml configuration file under property httpserver-port. PATH ... For SUBSCRIBER MANAGER this default paths are tr69 for TR-069 and omadm for OMA-DM. ACS_USERNAME ... ACS Username of the SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server (OMA-DM only). ACS_PASSWORD ... ACS Password of the SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server (OMA-DM only). ACS_AUTHENTICATION_TYPE ... ACS support BASIC and DIGEST authentication (OMADM only). ACS_SESSION_REQUEST_USERNAME ... ACS Username of the SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server used for session requests from the ACS to the CPE (TR-69 only). ACS_SESSION_REQUEST_PASSWORD ... ACS Password of the SUBSCRIBER MANAGER Server used for session requests from the ACS to the CPE (TR-69 only). TR-069 authentication on ACS is not supported yet. E.g. ACS URL would look like this: http://10.0.1.15:8080/tr69 or http://10.0.1.15:8080/omadm Some CPEs can start TR-069 or OMA-DM session with newly changed ACS URL immediately, but since this is not mandatory by standard, not all CPE vendors have implemented this option. Therefore, if in doubt, CPE reboot will make sure new ACS URL is applied and TR-069 or OMA-DM session is started.

7.6 First contact
TR-069 and OMA-DM protocols are designed so that CPE is responsible for starting TR069 or OMA-DM session with ACS (in our case, this is SUBSCRIBER MANAGER). Every time a CPE makes contact with the ACS it is checked if the CPE has a record inside the database and if it is enabled. If both is true then information like last access time, last access IP and current firmware revision are updated inside the database. Upon first contact, management tasks are also performed. For more details see
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Management tasks in section Synchronization between a CPE and SUBSCRIBER MANAGER.

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8 Introduction to CPE Management
For a CPE that has already made first contact with ACS, operator can observe additional CPE info: 1. Open CPE Management -> CPE Profiles window 2. Select a CPE Profile from the table and click on the Manage CPE button or right-click on a CPE in the table and select Manage CPE from the drop-down menu. Advanced Management window opens. If a CPE has not yet made the first contact with ACS then Advanced management window will not contain complete information from this device and user will be informed of this with a warning message.

Figure 13: Advanced Management window The following functionality is available in Advanced Management window:

8.1 CPE general information
• Serial Number, MAC Address, Manufacturer, Model Name, OUI and Product Class are all static in nature and are burned into the CPE. They can’t be changed neither from a CPE Web GUI nor from SUBSCRIBER MANAGER. TR-069 standard defines that combination of Product Class, OUI and Serial Number
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must be a unique identifier for a CPE. There should exist no two CPEs with exactly the same combination of these values. • Managed Upgrades: if it is checked then firmware upgrades are possible only over TR-069 protocol. User cannot perform firmware upgrades over CPE Web GUI. This attribute is currently not configurable; it is read-only. • Last IP: this is IP address from which CPE has last contacted ACS. • Last Access Time: Time when CPE has last contacted ACS. • Last MGMT Session Time: Time when last management session was established between CPE and ACS.

8.2 Firmware
Current Firmware Revision: This is current firmware revision of a CPE that ACS has obtained from a CPE upon its last contact. Latest Firmware Revision: This is firmware revision activated for this specific CPE type. If CPE was already upgraded, this should match Current Firmware Revision. Otherwise, during next management session CPE will be instructed by ACS to download and apply this firmware revision. See section: Managed Firmware Upgrade for more details on CPE firmware upgrades.

8.3 Performance Collection Settings
If troubleshooting is disabled then the CPE will make contact with the ACS once every hour when regular periodic tasks will be performed. If troubleshooting is enabled then the CPE will make contact with the ACS once every two minutes. These times are only approximate. They can vary slightly. Only up to five CPEs are allowed to be in troubleshooting mode at any time. SUBSCRIBER MANAGER will not allow you to enable troubleshooting mode on more than five CPEs. It is possible to easily find CPEs with troubleshooting enabled by applying the filter in CPE Profile’s window. ACS regular periodic tasks include collection of CPE performance data (traffic counters, radio counters Vendor Configuration File). See section: Managing CPE Configuration Files for more details. Visible only if feature is supported.

8.4 Request Session
TR-069 and OMA-DM protocols used for Device Management by the Subscriber Manager are designed that the CPE always contacts the ACS and never the other way around. This means that when the user edits a certain CPE Profile or CPE Type the changes are only set inside the database (exceptions are Troubleshooting setting and Reboot command which are triggered immediately). Actual changes are applied to the CPE only after it contacts the ACS. If the user wishes to speed up this process he can use the 'Request Session' button found inside the CPE Profiles view. By clicking this button the ACS instructs the selected CPE to start a new session with the ACS. When this happens the ACS tells the CPE what needs to be done (firmware upgrade, settings update, configuration file update...). CAUTION: Make sure you have set CPE username and password correctly, otherwise request session will fail with an authentication error. See section 'Configuring CPE Profile for TR-069 and OMA-DM management protocol" for more details. Firewalls also can block ACS to a CPE and cause the session request to fail.

8.5 Reset CPE State
Resetting the CPE state has the effect of launching a Management session at the first
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contact of CPE to the ACS. If this button is never used then the management session will NOT be launched more often than once every day. This button has the effect of making ACS forgetting that a management session was ever made for this CPE. CAUTION: Make sure you have set CPE username and password correctly, otherwise reset CPE state will fail with an authentication error. See section 'Configuring CPE Profile for TR-069 or OMA-DM management protocol" for more details.

8.6 CPE Reboot
When user clicks Reboot button, he/she is prompted for confirmation. After confirming the request, ACS starts procedure for CPE reboot. SUBSCRIBER MANAGER provides the user with feedback whether reboot was successfully initiated or if it failed. E.g. CPE reboot will fail when CPE cannot be reached. Reboot button is visible only if feature is supported. CAUTION: Make sure you have set CPE username and password correctly; otherwise reboot will fail with an authentication error. See section ‘Configuring CPE Profile for TR069 or OMA-DM management protocol” for more details.

8.7 ACS Tasks
When a user clicks the Show Tasks button, the ACS Tasks window opens. In this window user can observe recent activity between ACS and this particular CPE. Each entry represents issued task, time of an event and a status description. In case status reports failure, double clicking on the entry will reveal a more detailed description of the error. The following tasks can be reported in ACS Tasks: • Update CPE State ... Loads certain data from the CPE and stores it inside the database. • Setup periodic interval ... Enables periodic informs on a CPE and sets the interval to 3600 or 120 seconds depending on the troubleshooting setting. • Reboot ... Manual CPE Reboot was performed. • Firmware upgrade ... A firmware upgrade task. X represents an URL to the location of the image. • Cpe Configuration download with file X ... A download of a CPE specific configuration file X. • Cpe Type Configuration download with file X ... A download of a CPE Type Configuration file X. • Enabling Troubleshooting or Disabling Troubleshooting ... Sets the periodic inform interval to 3600 seconds if 'disabled' and to 120 seconds if enabled. • PCM … Collects statistic data from CPE and BS. • Update configuration parameters … Configure data (scanner channles) on CPE • VoIP … Setup VoIP parameters on CPE • Get Object Tree Model … Retrieve the object tree model from CPE (results are visible only in the PS/ACS logs) • Get RPC Methods … Retrieve RPC methods available on CPE (results are visible only in the PS/ACS logs) • Get Value … Retrieve value from CPE • Set Value … Set value on CPE Some of those tasks (Upgrade, Reboot, Apply Configuration File) require confirmation from a CPE that they have completed successfully. For such tasks you would see status “Waiting for Confirmation” before it will change to the final result (either success or failure). Status Cancelled is used when task is queued but is not completed because is not needed (CPE is already properly configured). Task can also be added manually or aborted by clicking on Add button or Abort (used
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mainly for debug).

Figure 14: Example of ACS logs for CPE

8.8 Synchronization between a CPE and SUBSCRIBER MANAGER
This section describes what kind of synchronization is performed between a CPE and ACS and at what intervals.

8.9 Regular periodic tasks
Regular periodic tasks are performed once every hour for all TR-069 or OMA-DM capable CPEs. It is up to a CPE to contact ACS at these intervals. During regular periodic tasks, ACS collects counters from a CPE and stores them in the database. Even if CPE isn’t configured to contact ACS once every hour, this is corrected by ACS during the management task. At that time, ACS sets periodic interval on the CPE to 1 hour.

8.10 Management tasks
Management tasks are triggered on two occasions: • Upon first contact from a CPE. • After regular periodic tasks in case sufficient time has elapsed since the last management task. Default interval between two management tasks for the same CPE is 24 hours. Management sessions will be performed also after the Reset CPE State is executed. During a management session, SUBSCRIBER MANAGER schedules/performs several synchronization tasks: 1. Checks if the CPE has managed upgrades activated (if only ACS can upgrade the firmware) and store this info inside the database. 2. Sets up the periodic interval task if it is not yet set. (default is 1 hour for all CPEs except for those in troubleshooting mode; then it is 2 minutes) 3. Checks current firmware revision with the latest revision for its CPE type and schedules a firmware upgrade task. This is done only if firmware upgrade is enabled. 4. Checks if the CPE type configuration file is up to date – if not then it schedule a CPE type configuration file download task. 5. Checks if the CPE specific configuration file is up to date – if not then it schedules a CPE specific configuration file download task. 6. Check if VoIP is properly configured on CPE.
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9 Managed Firmware Upgrade
9.1 Firmware Repository
SUBSCRIBER MANAGER maintains a repository of all past and present firmware images for all different CPE types. When new firmware image becomes available for particular CPE type, operator needs to import it into firmware repository. Once firmware image is in the repository, CPE upgrades can be requested.

Figure 15: Firmware Repository window Firmware images are stored per CPE type. All CPEs of the same type (same vendor, same model) have the same firmware revision.

9.2 Adding new firmware image to the repository
1. Open CPE Management -> Firmware repository window. 2. Click Add. New window opens. 3. Populate fields: • CPE type ... select from a drop down list to match your CPE firmware image • Revision ... It’s ok to enter any string to distinguish this image from other versions. Once first CPE is upgraded with this firmware, SUBSCRIBER MANAGER will be able to extract exact version number as reported by a CPE and will update this string. Since all CPE vendors have different image formats, it is impossible for SUBSCRIBER MANAGER to extract version information from the image itself; therefore version is extracted from a CPE upon first upgrade. • File to upload ... Either enter local path to the file that’s about to be uploaded to SUBSCRIBER MANAGER as firmware image or click Browse and select the file from a dialog. 4. Click OK. Firmware image will begin upload to the Server. This might take some time depending on the image size and link quality between Server and Client. You will be notified of the success or failure, once upload finishes.
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CAUTION: Maximum supported single firmware image size in repository is 12 Mb.

9.3 Deleting firmware image from the repository
By default repository will store entire history of firmware upgrades in the network for all CPE types. In case operator decides older and no more used firmware images are obsolete and must be removed, this is possible by selecting image in question and clicking Delete. If firmware image is currently assigned as the active firmware revision then it cannot be deleted. This status is shown inside the 'assigned' column of the firmware images table.

9.4 Activating Bulk Firmware Upgrade
Bulk firmware upgrades are always performed for all CPEs of the same type. Once newer revision of firmware is imported into firmware repository, operator can activate bulk firmware upgrade for that CPE type. 1. Open CPE Management -> CPE Types window. 2. Select CPE type for which you would like to activate bulk firmware upgrade and click Edit. New window CPE Type Details opens. 3. In section Latest Firmware, one can observe the last active firmware scheduled for bulk upgrade. From a drop-down list select newer revision of firmware that you have imported to the repository. Only firmware images imported for this particular CPE type will be shown in a list.

Figure 16: Example of CPE Types details window

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4. Optionally you can check history of past bulk firmware upgrades by clicking Show Firmware History; these logs only show when bulk firmware upgrades were activated for this CPE type in the past. But it does not guarantee that all CPEs of this type were actually upgraded to each of those revisions. E.g. a CPE can skip some firmware revision in between if it wasn’t active in the network for a long time. 5. Click Apply. Bulk firmware upgrade for all CPEs of this type is now active. Upon next periodic inform from a CPE of this type firmware revision is compared and in case it does not match active one, firmware upgrade is started. For some reasons (poor radio link, CPE issues) downloading firmware image to a CPE might fail. If this happens, SM will try to initiate firmware upgrade in the next periodic task (by default every 60 minutes). It will keep trying twice more. If both additional upgrades fail, new upgrade will not be attempted again until next management task (by default every 24 hours).

9.5 Checking Current CPE Firmware Revision
The user can check the current CPE firmware revision in three places: 1. CPE table in CPE Management -> CPE Profiles window. 2. Advanced Management window. See section Introduction to CPE Management on page 56 for more details. 3. High-level firmware revision report for the whole network aggregated by CPE types. See Reporting for more details.

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10 Managing CPE Configuration Files
10.1 About to CPE configuration files
CPE configuration files are vendor specific configurations. Some vendors have chosen to implement text based configuration files, while others have them in binary form. CAUTION: It is very important that CPE vendor documentation must be consulted before trying to deploy new configuration file to a CPE. Wrongly constructed content of a configuration file can result in CPE becoming inoperable! SUBSCRIBER MANAGER provides user with two different approaches to deploying a configuration file: 1. Per CPE configuration file that can be deployed from Advanced management window. Use this approach when configuration file is specific for a particular CPE. 2. Deploying configuration file in bulk to all CPEs of the same type. Use this approach when configuration file is the same for all CPEs of the same type. Deploying new configuration to a CPE changes only attributes that are specified in a configuration file. It does not erase or change other attributes. When some CPE has per CPE type configuration and per CPE configuration defined, both are applied. In case some attributes are defined in both configurations, those from per CPE configuration will overwrite those from per CPE type configuration.

10.2 Deploying Per CPE Type Configuration File
1. Open CPE Management -> CPE Types window. 2. Select CPE type of your choice and click Edit. 3. Click Edit Configuration. Edit Configuration File window opens.

Figure 17: Example of Edit Configuration File window 4. There are three ways how to specify a configuration file that is about to be deployed
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to CPEs: • Load From Disk: Use this option if you already have configuration file on your disk ready to be deployed. New dialog window opens where you browse for a file on your disk. • Load From Repository: Use this option if you have already deployed this file in the past (so it was automatically stored to the repository). New window opens that lists all configuration files already loaded to the repository. They are sorted so that the last added file is at the bottom. Select one. • Write it in Configuration File Editor: This option is available only when this CPE type supports plain-text configuration files. Otherwise this option is not available and editor control is hidden. 5. After you have specified a configuration to be deployed, write a comment under Configuration File Update Comment, so when configuration gets stored in the repository, it is tagged with this comment. This comment is also visible in logs. 6. Click Apply. Bulk configuration file deployment for all CPEs of this type is now active. Upon next periodic inform when management tasks are performed, configuration will be updated on a CPE. See section Check Configuration File Deployment History on page 68 for information about how to check whether and when configuration file was deployed. 7. Click 'Disable Configuration' to cancel future configuration file synchronization. This can be useful if we find out that the previously applied configuration file was faulty.

10.3 Deploying Per CPE Configuration File
1. Open CPE Management -> CPE Profiles window. 2. Select the CPE Profile inside the table and click the Manage CPE button or right-click on a CPE profile of your choice and select Manage CPE from the drop-down menu. 3. Click Edit Configuration. Edit Configuration File window opens.

Figure 18: Example of Edit Configuration File window 4. There are three ways how to specify a configuration file that is about to be deployed to CPEs: • Load From Disk: Use this option if you already have configuration file on your
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disk ready to be deployed. New dialog window opens where you browse for a file on your disk. • Load From Repository: Use this option if you have already deployed this file in the past (so it was automatically stored to the repository). New window opens that lists all configuration files already loaded to the repository. They are sorted so that the last added file is at the bottom. Select one. • Write it in Configuration File Editor: This option is available only when this CPE type supports plain-text configuration files. Otherwise this option is not available and editor control is hidden. 5. After you have specified a configuration to be deployed, write a comment under Configuration File Update Comment, so when configuration gets stored in the repository, it is tagged with this comment. This comment is also visible in logs. 6. Click Apply. Bulk configuration file deployment for all CPEs of this type is now active. Upon next periodic inform when management tasks are performed, configuration will be updated on a CPE. See section Check Configuration File Deployment History on page 68 for information about how to check whether and when configuration file was deployed. 7. Click 'Disable Configuration' to cancel future configuration file synchronization. This can be useful if we find out that the previously applied configuration file was faulty.

10.4 Check Configuration File Deployment History
User has an option to observe history of configuration file deployment for each CPE: 1. Open CPE Management -> CPE Profiles window. 2. Select the CPE Profile inside the table and click the Manage CPE button or right-click on a CPE of your choice and select Manage CPE from the drop-down menu. Advanced Management window opens. 3. Click Show History to see the history of configuration file deployments to this CPE. 4. The upper table shows a list of per CPE type configuration files that were deployed to this CPE. The lower table shows per CPE configuration files applied to this CPE. By double-clicking on an entry in the table, configuration file and its comment are opened in a separate window (only applicable for plain-text configuration files).

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Figure 19: Example of Configuration History window

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11 Generic Device Management Settings
11.1 About Generic Device Management Settings
Using device management protocols like OMA-DM or TR-069 we can set various parameters of individual CPEs. These parameters vary from vendor to vendor and from CPE model to CPE model as some are specified as mandatory by the standard that defines the protocol, TR-069 has many parameters that are recommended by the WiMAX forum, besides that most vendors specify their own set of proprietary parameters. All of these parameters are sorted into parameter groups that can be applied to specific CPE Types, regions, individual CPEs or specially defined groups of CPEs. This makes possible to assign parameter groups of parameters like Scanner Channels, VoIP, Authentication and many others to a predefined subset of CPEs inside the existing network. Currently the only setting group available inside the SM is Scanner Channel. These parameters can be set per CPE Type. This means that if parameters for a particular CPE Type are configured over SM Client, these parameters will be applied to every CPE of this CPE Type in the next management session of that CPE. All Device management parameter configurations have the enable/disable and reset setting. By disabling the configuration it is ignored in the next management session of all CPEs to which these parameters apply. If the configuration is reset default settings of all of the parameters are applied and used for the configuration of all CPEs to which the parameters apply.

11.2 Per CPE Type parameter group
Parameter configurations that are set per CPE Type apply to all CPEs of that type in their next management session. These configurations can be found and edited inside the CPE Management -> CPE Types view by double clicking on a CPE Type and selecting any tab but the General tab inside the CPE Type Details view.

11.3 Scanner channel parameter group
Every wireless CPE must - in order to make a connection to a wireless network – first find a base station which can provide this service. This means that the CPE must search the frequency channels for the one that the Base Station is using. This can be done in two ways. First way is by searching the entire specter of frequencies that this CPE can use to communicate over – this is called Full Band Scanning. The second is basically an optimization and requires that allowed frequencies are predefined on every individual CPE. The CPE scans these frequencies and then decides which band (Sector) it will use for communication and establish a network connection over.

11.4 Configuring scanner channels
Scanner Channels configuration is currently available only per CPE Type. So if we want to set scanner channels configuration for a particular CPE Type we have to open the CPE Management -> CPE Types view. Inside the view select the desired CPE Type and click the edit button or just double click on the CPE Type. If the Scanner Channels configuration is possible for the selected CPE Type then the CPE Type Details view will have more than one tab – next to General should be the Scanner Channels tab.
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Inside this tab the Scanner Channels and the Bandwidth can be set. CPE should use these scanner channels and bandwidth in order to find a Base Station to use for network connection establishment

Figure 20: Scanner Channel window If no base station can be found with the specified scanner channels then the CPE should use full band scanning in order to prevent it from being lost in terms of network management. If this happens then the CPE can’t establish the connection to the network and the only means of reestablish the connection would be to factory reset the CPE – by the user at home!

11.5 Performance Collection
SUBSCRIBER MANAGER is capable of collecting performance counters over TR-069 or OMA-DM for CPEs that support either of these two protocols Counters are collected at each regular periodic task. Frequency of this task is once per hour, while for CPEs in troubleshooting mode, counters are collected every 2 minutes. See section Introduction to CPE Management on page 56 for more info on troubleshooting mode. Variety of counters available for a particular CPE depends on a CPE type. From each vendor we have selected a predefined set of counters that we find useful

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11.6 Browsing Collected CPE Counters
CPE counters are persisted to SUBSCRIBER MANAGER database. In order to browse collected counters: 1. Open CPE Management -> CPE Profiles window. 2. Select the CPE Profile inside the table and click the PCM Statistics button or rightclick on a CPE profile of your choice and select PCM Statistics from the drop-down menu. New CPE Statistics window opens. 3. In this window user selects: • one or more counters • time interval (data from up to 1 day ago and up to 1 month ago) SUBSCRIBER MANAGER stores in its database counters that are up to 1 month old.

Figure 21: TR-69 statistics window with 2 counters 4. Once counters and time interval are selected user can either: View raw data by clicking on Show text. If needed, one can select and copy-paste data from there to the program of your choice (e.g. to Excel). Draw graph by clicking on Show graph. Already drawn graph can also be resized if you resize a window. In case one needs to save the graph, this can be achieved by rightclicking on a graph and selecting Save as from a drop-down menu. See Example of graphical representation of collected data.

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Figure 22: Example of graphical representation of collected data.

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12 Reporting
High-level network reports in SUBSCRIBER MANAGER aggregate raw data that is collected during the operation and present it in form of reports that can be either printed or saved to the file system. All reports are generated periodically by the server (no configuration is required) once every 24 hours. Some reports can also be generated per user’s request. Below you will find info about each report and for which scenario this report is applicable.

12.1 Viewing the Report
1. Click on a report type (e.g. CPE Firmware Version Report) in the navigation tree and select the report. In a list you will see reports for last 7 days; newest is on top. Doubleclick on a report. • Alternatively you can also click on Reporting menu and select report type from the menu. In this case, new window opens with a list of available reports. Select a report and click View Report. Reports which contain data for the exact time of generation are represented in the list by the date and time of generation. Other reports are generated for whole day (24 hour interval) and are represented with the date of the report. CAUTION: The database stores reports for last 7 days. Older reports are automatically purged from the database. If you would like to keep older reports, you must manually save them to your archive. 2. Report window opens showing the report in a tabular form. There are three options available to the user: • Click Print: select this option if you would like to print the report. Printing dialog will open from which you can select your printer. • Click Save: select this options if you would like to save HTML file to your file system. E.g. for archiving purposes. • Click Close: select this option if you are done with viewing this report.

12.2 Available reports 12.3 CPE Firmware Revision Report
This report counts the number of CPEs with the same firmware revision. Presented data is for the exact point in time. This report is automatically generated once every day, but its generation can also be triggered upon demand. 1. Click on Reporting menu and select CPE Firmware Revision Report from the menu. New window opens with a list of available reports. 2. Click Generate. 3. Select newly generated report from the list and click View Report. It supports: 2. All supported TR-069 capable CPEs that are using SUBSCRIBER MANAGER for advanced management over TR-069. 3. All supported OMA-DM capable CPEs that are using SUBSCRIBER MANAGER for advanced management over OMA-DM. Use this report if you want to find out if all CPEs of particular CPE type have already
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upgraded to the new revision or there are some CPEs in the network that are not yet upgraded.

Figure 23: CPE firmware revision report

12.4 CPE Not Authorized Report
This report provides data about connection attempts of CPEs which are not authorized to join the network. Presented data is for the last 24 hours. It supports: 1. All supported TR-069 capable CPEs that are using SUBSCRIBER MANAGER for advanced management over TR-069. 2. All supported OMA-DM capable CPEs that are using SUBSCRIBER MANAGER for advanced management over OMA-DM. Use this report to check whether there might be a CPE in your network that is trying to join the network or tries to contact ACS, but it has not yet been added to the database.

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Figure 24: CPE not authorized report

12.5 Unique CPE Count Report
This report provides daily count of unique CPEs which were connected at any time of the selected day. Output shows daily counts for last 30 days, though it is generated once every day. Every day data for new day is appended to the report and days older than 30 days are discarded from the report. Use this report to observe how amount of CPEs using the service is increasing / decreasing.

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Figure 25: Unique CPE count report

12.6 CPE Firmware Upgrade Report
This report counts the number of CPEs per CPE Type, number of all upgraded CPEs and upgrade success ratio. This report is automatically generated once every day, but its generation can also be triggered upon demand. 1. Click on Reporting menu and select CPE Firmware Upgrade Report from the menu. New window opens with a list of available reports. 2. Click Generate. 3. Select newly generated report from the list and click View Report. Use this report if you want to find out if all CPEs of particular CPE type have already upgraded to the new revision or there are some CPEs in the network that are not yet upgraded. You can also see if there is a type of CPE that has particular problems with its firmware upgrade procedure.

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13 Glossary
1+1 protected system
Two transceivers are used at each end of a link to protect against transmission failure. If a data transmission fails on the operating transceiver, it is transferred to the backup transceiver. With a 1+1 protected microwave radio link, the protection mechanism normally allows receiver switching independently of the transmitter, and vice-versa.

1U
Standard Electronic Industries Association size for a single rack unit (44.5 mm / 1.75 in.)

A
AAA (Authentication Authorization Accounting Server)
A network server used for access control. Authentication identifies the user. Authorization implements policies that determine which resources and services a valid user may access. Accounting keeps track of time and data resources used for billing and analysis.

AACS
Access and Administration Control System.

ACM (Adaptive Coding and Modulation)
Adaptive modulation refers to the dynamic adjustment of modulation rate. Coding refers to an ability to adjust individual modulation rates to support more throughput, or more system gain. RAC 60 and RAC 6X support ACM with a modulations from QPSK to 256 QAM, and coding options of maximum throughput or maximum system gain on each modulation rate. For Eclipse, ACM is enabled on the RAC 60, RAC 6X plug-ins. See Adaptive Modulation.

ACU
Antenna Coupling Unit.

ADC
Analog-to-digital Converter. A device that converts an analog signal to a digital signal that represents equivalent information.

ADM
Add/Drop Multiplexer. Digital multiplexing equipment that adds/removes individual signals to/from a collection of multiplexed signals in a network.

AGC
Automatic Gain Control. A process that automatically adjusts gain as a function of a specified parameter, such as received signal level. AGC is used to help maintain a constant output level when the input signal level is changing.

AIS
Alarm Indication Signal - The code generated by a regenerator upon loss of input signal or loss of frame. A signal transmitted in lieu of the normal signal to maintain transmission continuity and to indicate to the receiving terminal that there is a transmission fault that is located either at, or upstream from, the transmitting terminal.

ALC
Automatic Level Control. See also AGC.

AM
Adaptive Modulation.

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AM (Adaptive Modulation)
The dynamic adjustment of modulation rate to ensure maximum data bandwidth is provided most of the time, with a guaranteed bandwidth provided all of the time. This provides more user capacity over the air during good propagation conditions, where the modulation level of the radio link “adapts” dynamically to the conditions of the path. On a typical link, higher capacity will be available for better than 99.5 percent of the time. For Eclipse, ACM is enabled on the RAC 60, RAC 6X plug-ins; AM only on the RAC 30A.

AMI
Alternate Mark Inversion Signal. A pseudoternary signal, representing binary digits. Successive marks are of alternately positive and negative polarity and the absolute values of their amplitudes are normally equal. Spaces are of zero amplitude.

Analog Signal
A signal that has a continuous nature instead of pulsed or discrete.

ANSI
American National Standards Institute.

ARP
Address Resolution Protocol.

ASCII
American National Standard Code for Information Interchange.

ASN (Access Services Network)
Network service level that connects WiMAX service subscribers to the CSN level of a WiMAX network, using the OFDMA air link to the IP backbone. Its functions include data forwarding, network access control, service flow authorization, and relay function for IP connectivity.

ASN-GW (Access Service Network Gateway)
Links the ASN to the CSN. It assists mobility and security in the control plane and handles IP forwarding.

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A dedicated connection switching technology that organizes digital data into 53-byte cell units and transmits them over a physical medium using digital signal technology. Relative to other related cells, each cell is processed asynchronously and queued before being multiplexed over the transmission path.

ATPC
Automatic Transmit Power Control. A feature of digital microwave radio equipment that adjusts the transmitter output power based on path fading detected at the receiver. This feature reduces interference with neighboring systems and permits greater link density.

AUX
Auxiliary Services Module.

AWG
American Wire Gauge. A wire diameter specification. The smaller the AWG number, the larger the wire diameter.

Azimuth
The angle in the horizontal ground plane with respect to true North (such as, horizontal direction); used in reference to antenna alignment.

B
B1
Bit Interleaved Parity-8 (BIP-8). An RSOH byte for error checking the complete STM-1 signal at the end of a regenerator section.
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B2
Bit Interleaved Parity-24 (BIP-24). MSOH bytes for error checking an STM-1 signal (minus the RSOH) at the end of the multiplexer section.

B8ZS
Binary 8 zeros substitution/Bipolar 8 zero substitution.

BBP
Baseband Processing.

Beamwidth
The beamwidth of an antenna is defined as the angle between the two half-power (-3 dB) points on either side of the main lobe of radiation (half power beamwidth).

BER
Bit Error Ratio or Bit Error Rate - The number of erroneous bits divided by the total number of bits transmitted, received, or processed over some stipulated period.

BNC
Type of coaxial connector.

bps
Bits per second.

BSI
British Standards Institute.

Bursty Traffic
Communications data does not flow in a steady stream.

C
Carrier Ethernet
Described by the MEF as a ubiquitous, standardized, carrier-class service. It is defined by attributes for standardized services, reliability, scalability, quality of service, and service management; attributes that distinguish it from familiar LAN based Ethernet.

CCITT
International Telegraph and Telephone Consultive Committee.

CDMA
Code Division Multiple Access.

CE
Conformité Européene. The CE marking indicates that the product has been designed and manufactured in conformity with the essential requirements of all relevant EU (European Union) directives, and submitted to the relevant conformity assessment procedure.

CEMF
Cisco Element Management Framework.

CEPT
The European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations.

CEPT-1
ITU-T digital signal level 1 (2.048 Mbps) = E1

CEPT-2 ITU-T digital signal level 2 (8.448 Mbps) = E2 CEPT-3
ITU-T digital signal level 3 (34.368 Mbps) = E3

CEPT-4
ITU-T digital signal level 4 (139.264 Mbps)

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CLEC
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier Market. A service provider that builds and operates communication networks in metropolitan areas, thus providing customers with an alternative to local telephone companies. USA terminology.

CMOS
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor.

CODEC
Abbreviation of coder/decoder. A device that encodes and/or decodes a signal. For example, telcos use codecs to convert digital signals to analog signals - and viceversa.

Commisioning
A radio link is commissioned when customer traffic circuits have been connected and the link is completely ready to provide a data service.

Community String
When configuring an SNMP agent, the community string (which is a name or combination of characters) is input as part of the configuration information. When a management system wants to communicate with the device, it authenticates using the community string. There are normally two community strings accommodated by a device, one for reading values and one for writing (setting) values. These are normally set to “Public” or “Private”, but can be set to other values as a form of security.

CORBA
Common Object Request Broker Architecture.

CRC
Cycle Redundancy Check.

CSN (Connectivity Services Network)
Network service core for a WiMAX network, including ASP/internet connections, AAA, IP address management, ASN mobility and connections, and policy and QoS.

CTB
Cable Termination Block.

CTU
Customer Termination Unit.

D
D/A
Digital to Analog.

DAC
1) For Eclipse: Digital Access Card; 2) Digital to Analog Converter.

DADE
Differential Absolute Delay Equalization. An equalization process used to render a protected system hitless.

dB
The abbreviation for decibel; the standard unit of measure for relative signal power.

DB9
A standardized connector with 9 pins.

dBm
db referenced to one milliwatt = 0 dBm. The standard unit of measure for absolute power values.

dc
Direct current; EION radios operate on dc power.

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dc-dc Converter
An electrical device used to convert direct current from one level to another.

DCE
Data Communications Equipment.

DEMUX
De-Multiplexer.

DFE
Decision Feedback Equalizer.

DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol.

Diagnostic Controls or Functions.
Radio system features used for troubleshooting or testing the radio or radio link. Some examples: RF loopback, PA mute, and tributary loopback.

Digital signal (DS)
A signal format where the intelligence is transported as binary code.

Digital signal 1 (DS1)
An ANSI digital signaling rate of 1.544 Mb/s, corresponding to the North American and Japanese T1 designator.

Diplexer
A RF filter device used to separate the Tx and Rx signals at the transceiver antenna feed port.

Direct current (dc)
EION radios operate on dc power.

DLC
Digital Loop Control.

DPP
Data Packet Plane.

DQPSK
Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying.

DS1
Digital signal 1: an ANSI digital signaling rate of 1.544 Mb/s, corresponding to the North American and Japanese T1 designator.

DS3
Digital signal 3: an ANSI digital signal level 3 (44.736 Mbps), the North American T3 designator.

DSx
ANSI digital signal level x.

DTE
Data Terminal Equipment. Devices acting as data source, data sink, or both. They typically connect to a network via a DCE.

DTMF
Dual Tone Multi-Frequency.

DTPC
Dynamic Transmit Power Control. A feature enabling the regulation of a target receive signal level by remotely and proportionally controlling the corresponding transmitter output power level.

Dual Link
Two radio links operating in parallel, on different frequencies, and transporting different data.

DUART
Dual Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter

DVM
Digital Volt Meter.

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DXR
Digital Cross-Connect Radio. A legacy EION radio family.

E
E/N
Energy to Noise Ratio.

E1
ITU digital signal level 1 (2.048 Mbps) = CEPT 1.

E3
ITU digital signal level 3 (34.368 Mbps) = CEPT 3.

ECC
Error Correction Code.

Eclipse Node
Refers to the EION Eclipse INU or INUe with ODU300. Plug-in cards provide multiple link and tributary options. Frequency optins extend from 5 to 38 GHz. Modulation options extend from QPSK to 256QAM. Protection options support hot standby, space diversity, frequency diversity, or ring.

Eclipse Packet Node
An industry-leading wireless backhaul solution for current and next generation networks with unique attributes for transitioning networks from TDM to all-IP. Combines high capacity packet transport, intelligent IP networking, and key convergence features, while retaining flexible support for PDH and SDH interworking.

Eclipse Terminal
Refers to the EION Eclipse IDU with ODU 300. Different versions are available to transport NxE1/DS1 tribs, STM1/OC3, Fast Ethernet, or Gigabit Ethernet. Most Terminals are protectable, using two co-located Terminals with an interconnecting protection cable.

EEPROM
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.

EIA
Electronic Industries Association.

EISA
Extended Industry Standard Architecture - A 32-bit bus standard that supports the features of microchannel architecture. A special card is required for 32-bit operations that maintain compatibility with the older ISA (Industry Standard Architecture).

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Though the electromagnetic spectrum was, by custom and practice, formerly divided into 26 alphabetically designated bands, the ITU formally recognizes 12 bands, from 30 Hz to 3000 GHz.

EM
Element Manager.

EMC
Electro-Magnetic Compatibility.

EMI
Electromagnetic interference.

EML
Element Management Level in the TMN model.

EMS
Element Management System.

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End-to-end delay
The time it takes a signal to travel from point of transmission, to the point of reception.

EOW
Engineering Orderwire (Voice and/or Data).

ERP
Effective Radiated Power.

ESD
Electrostatic discharge.

ETSI
European Telecommunications Standards Institute. Provides international technical standards for wireless radios. EION radios are in compliance with all relevant ETSI standards.

F
Fade Margin
The amount of attenuation a link can suffer before link performance is affected. Typically measured as the dB difference between the received signal strength and the receive threshold.

FCAPS
Fault, Configuration, Accounting, Performance and Security functions in the TMN model.

FCC
Federal Communications Commission. The FCC is an independent United States government agency, directly responsible to Congress. The FCC was established by the Communications Act of 1934 and is charged with regulating interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable. The FCC's jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. possessions.

FD
Frequency Diversity. A path protection mode. The main and standby radios are transmitting simultaneously and are tuned to different frequencies (at least two channels apart) to avoid interference. When a fault is detected on the active radio, the traffic is switched to the standby radio.

FDD (Frequency Division Duplexing)
A transmission method utilizing separate channels for transmitting and receiving. See also TDD.

FEC
Forward Error Correction. A system of error control for data transmission. It compensates for errors induced in the transmitted stream, by sending along with the primary data payload, additional information to correct for errors that occur in transmission.

FFE
Feed Forward Equalizer.

FIFO
First In First Out.

FPGA
Field Programmable Gate Array.

FSK
Frequency-shift Keying. The modulating signal shifts the output frequency between predetermined values.

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G
G.821
An ITU-T recommendation on error performance parameters and objectives for primary-rate (64 kbit/s) data circuits. It can be used for higher bit-rates, typically up to to 2 Mbit/s. G.821 is a bit-based system.

G.826
An ITU-T recommendation on error performance parameters and objectives for high-speed data circuits; circuits operating at 2 Mbit/s and above. G-826 is a block-based system.

Ga AsFET
Gallium Arsenide Field Effect Transistor.

Gain
The increase in signal power caused by a device or network (for example, the signal gain provided by an antenna).

GHz
Gigahertz.

Golden Cells
These are sites where it is imperative that communications traffic continues at peak performance. They are typically sites where any communications down-time can mean significant loss of revenue, or a significant breach against a service level agreement (SLA).

GSM
Global Systems for Mobile.

GUI
Graphical User Interface.

H
H.323
A standard approved by the ITU that defines how audiovisual conferencing data is transmitted across networks. In theory, H.323 should enable users to participate in the same conference even though they are using different videoconferencing applications.

HDB3
High Density Bipolar Order 3. The default method of encoding transmissions for E1 and E3 radios. Substitutes a 1 for every 3 zeros.

HHT
Handheld terminal.

Hitless Receive Switching
A protected system configuration whereby if a fault occurs at the receiving end of the link, the traffic is switched to the standby radio without causing errors.

HLDC
High-level Data Link Control. A bit-oriented synchronous data link layer protocol developed by ISO. HDLC specifies a data encapsulation method on synchronous serial links using frame characters and checksums.

Hot Standby
Hot Standby is a protected configuration whereby standby equipment is held ready to be switched immediately into service if the main equipment fails.

HPA
High Power Amplifier.

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HSB
Hot-Standby Protection Mode.

HSC
Hardware/Software Compatibility. Different hardware may require different software versions.

I/O
Input/Output

ICMP
Internet Control Message protocol. An integral part of the Internet Protocol that handles error and control messages.

IDC
Indoor Chassis.

IDU
Indoor Unit. The IDU s the control center of a split-mount radio system. It interfaces between the customer signals and the ODU.

IEEE 1588v2
A Precision Timing Protocol (PTP) for phase and frequency synchronization. Dedicated timing packets are transmited within the data packet stream to maintain a Master-Slave synchronization relationship.

IF
Intermediate Frequency. The signal frequency or frequencies intermediate between the modem electronics and the transmitted/received frequencies.

IIOP
CORBA's Internet Inter-ORB Protocol.

Intermodulation
Intermodulation can occur in systems where multiple signals are present at the same point. Where there is a nonlinearity in the system any signal will generate harmonics, but when two signals are present, harmonics of both are produced. The harmonics of the two signals can intermix, resulting in further spurious signals that are known as intermodulation products. The result of an intermodulation signal can have a major impact on reception if it falls in a receive channel. As the number of signals increases and/or TX power increases, the probability of an intermodulation signal causing noise in a receive channel grows.

INU
Intelligent Node Unit. INU is the term used to describe the indoor unit of a EION Eclipse Node. The INU is a 1U chassis (the IDC) fitted with mandatory cards plus option cards. It supports up to three ODUs for three non-protected links, or one protected/diversity link and one non-protected link.

INUe
Expanded Intelligent Node Unit. The EION term used to describe the 2U indoor unit of an Eclipse Node. The INUe supports up to six ODUs for six non-protected links, or up to three protected/diversity links.

IP
Internet Protocol. A method or protocol by which data is sent from one device to another on the Internet.

IRU
Indoor Radio Unit.

IRU 600
An all-indoor 1+1 optimized radio transceiver for Eclipse Packet Node. Operation is on the North American L6 to 11 GHz frequency bands. Comprises two RFUs (Radio Frequency Unit) and an ACU (Antenna Coupler Unit) in one compact 3RU rack-mounting unit.

IRU 600 Expansion Port
Used to connect two IRU 600 radios, or an IRU 600 and a 3rd party radio, to allow common access to a waveguide.
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ISI
Inter-Symbol Interference.

ISO
International Standards Organization.

ITU
International Telecommunications Union. A civil organization established to promote international standards for telecommunications.

ITU-R
International Telecommunication Union - Radio Communication Sector (formerly CCIR and IFRB).

ITU-T
International Telecommunication Union - Telecommunication Standardization Sector (formerly CCITT).

K
K1 and K2
In an SDH system, K1 and K2 are MSOH bytes used for * controlling the multiplexer section protection switching, * signalling Alarm Indication Signal (AIS), Far End Remote Failure (FERF), and * signalling Automatic Protection Switching (APS) alarms, when implemented.

L
LAN
Local-area Network. A data network typically located on a user's premises or within a limited geographical area. Ethernet is the most widely used LAN transport technology.

LBO
Line Build-Out (I/O Cable Distance Compensator).

LED
Light Emitting Diode.

Link
A radio link comprises two terminals, one at each end of the link.

LMCDR
Low-medium capacity data radio.

LMT
Local Maintenance Terminal.

LNA
Low Noise Amplifier.

LO

Local Oscillator. Line Overhead. Contains the media's framing, routing protocol, and network-layer protocol overhead.

LOH Loopback
A diagnostic function designed to assist testing of system components by routing traffic back to the direction it came from.

LOS
1) Loss of signal; 2) Line of Sight.

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M
MAC Address
Media Access Control address. A unique number assigned to every layer 2 Ethernet device in the world.

Mbps
Megabits Per Second. Also Mbit/s.

Megahertz = 1 million hertz. Message Board
Scratch pad text area that allows radio users to leave each other messages.

MGB
Master Ground Bar.

MHSB
Monitored Hot Standby.

MIB
Management Information Base. A file that describes the information that can be accessed for each network device. The MIB is required by SNMP.

MIMO (Multiple Input/Multiple Output)
Uses multiple transmitters and receivers (multiple antennas) on wireless devices to improve performance. The IEEE 802.11n wireless standard uses MIMO to increase maximum speed to 100 Mbps and beyond, double the 802.11a and 11g wireless standards.

MIS
Management Information System. An organized assembly of resources that collects, processes, and distributes data.

MLPPP (Multi-Link Point to Point Protocol)
Based on PPP, a standards-based data-link-layer protocol. MLPPP bonds multiple PPP connections to support one connection with a capacity totalling the individual connections. Typically used to leverage existing capacity on legacy TDM links whereby multiple PDH circuits are bonded together to support one high-capacity connection for Ethernet.

MMC
MultiMediaCard. A compact, removable standard for storing and retrieving digital information in small, low-power devices. MultiMediaCards use flash technology for reusable recording, and ROM technology for read-only applications.

MMIC
Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuit.

Modulator/Demodulator
A device used to convert digital signals into analog signals suitable for transmission over analog communications channels and/or recover digital signals from analog signals.

MSOH
Multiplexer Section Overhead. Part of an SDH frame.

MSU
Multiplexer Switching Unit.

MTBF
Mean Time Between Failure. The average time (usually expressed in years) over which a component operates without failure.

MTBO
Mean Time Between Outages. A function of MBTF, MTFF, and the probability that the monitoring circuits detect a failure. The only circuits considered in the MTBO calculations are the ones that impact traffic.

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MTR
Mean Time to Restore.

MTTR
Mean Time to Repair. The average time taken to repair or replace a failed device.

Multiplex
A multiplexer sends/receives two or more signals over the same channel.

Mute
When a transmitter is muted, it is prevented from transmitting.

MUX
Multiplexer. A device that combines two or more information-carrying channels for transmission over one channel.

My Term
My definition

N
NBI
North Bound Interface.

NCM (Network Convergence Module)
A plug-in module for Eclipse Packet Node for MLPPP operation. See MLPPP.

NE
Network Element.

NEBS (Network Equipment-Building Systems)
A U.S.A. government level of compliance for equipment evaluated for its function in extreme environments/phenomena, i.e., fire, surge power faults, lightning, earthquakes, airborne contaminants, and temperature extremes. Eclipse Packet Node and IRU 600 are NEBS Level 3 certified.

NEL
Network Elements Level in the TMN Model.

Network Operator
The organization responsible for installing and maintaining a radio network.

NMI
Network Management Interface.

NML
Network Management Level in the TMN Model.

NMS
Network Management System.

NOC
Network Operations Center.

Node
A network device or device-grouping that is mid-point in a network, as distinct from a terminal device that is at the end/edge of a network.

Nonprotected
A 1+0 radio configuration in which there is only one set of radio equipment.

O
O&M
Overhead and Maintenance.

Object Class
The object class identifies the radio type to which the object belongs.
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Object Group
A group of network elements created using user-defined selection criteria.

OC-n
Optical Carrier Level n. The optical signal that results from an optical conversion of a synchronous transport signal n (STS-n).

ODU
Outdoor Unit. ODU generally refers to the outdoor transceiver unit that is colocated with an antenna in a split-mount radio system.

OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer.

OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)
Digital transmission using multiple carriers spaced apart at slightly different frequencies. The multiple subcarriers enable the receiver to more easily detect the signals in environments with multipath and other interference. Each subcarrier can transmit a lower-speed signal, all of which are aggregated at the receiving side into the original high-speed signal.

OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Air)
A cellular air interface based on OFDM for multiple, simultaneous users. The multiuser capability is achieved by assigning each user a subset of OFDM subcarriers. Used in communications networks such as WiMAX and LTE, OFDMA is expected to provide air interfaces that are superior to CDMA and TDMA.

ohm
The unit of electrical resistance. A potential difference of one volt across a circuit resistance of 1 ohm produces a current of one ampere.

OMM
Optical Multimode.

Orderwire
An auxiliary communications channel provided for use by maintenance and service personnel, typically allowing both voice and/or data transmission between radio terminals.

Oscillator
An electronic circuit designed to produce an ideally stable alternating voltage or current.

OSI
Open Systems Interconnection.

OSM
Optical Single Mode.

OSPF
Open Shortest Path First. An OSI layer 3 dynamic routing protocol.

OSS
Operations Support System.

P
PA
Power Amplifier.

PAM
Pulsed Amplitude Modulation.

Path
A radio path refers to the path traversed by the signal between two radios.

Payload Encryption
Secures wireless data traffic. Eclipse operation is FIPS-197 compliant and features an AES-CCM cipher suite with AES counter mode data encryption and CBC-MAC
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data integrity validation. The integrity of each data frame sent over the link is checked to ensure that received data has been sent by the intended transmitter, and if it detects that received data has been modified (man-in-the-middle attack), then received data is replaced with AIS.

PCA
Printed Circuit Assembly.

PCB
Printed Circuit Board.

PCM
Pulse-code Modulation. Modulation in which a signal is sampled, quantized and then digitized for transmission. PCM is the basic method of encoding an analog voice signal into digital form using 8-bit samples.

PCR
Paperless Chart Recorder. A software based diagnostic tool that stores operational data from a remote radio and provides view capability to the user.

PCS

Personal Communications Service. A set of capabilities that provides a combination of terminal mobility, personal mobility, and service profile management. Personal Digital Assistant.

PDA PDH
Plesiosynchronous Digital Hierarchy. A multiplexing scheme of bit stuffing and byte interleaving. It multiplexes the lower level 64 kbit/s circuits into a successively higher order 2 Mbit/s, and 34 Mbit/s aggregate rates.

Ping
A message used to determine whether an IP address is accessible on a network.

PIU
Plug-In Unit.

PLL
Phase-locked Loop. A circuit that controls an oscillator so that it maintains a constant phase angle relative to a reference signal.

PLT
Party Line Telephone.

PMA
Protection Mutliplex Adaptor.

PN
Part Number.

ppm
Parts Per Million.

PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol. A TCP/IP routing protocol that allows communications over serial communications lines without the use of other adapters, such as modems.

PPT
Point-to-Point Protocol. A TCP/IP routing protocol that allows communications over serial communications lines without the use of other adapters, such as modems.

PROM
Programmable Read Only Memory.

Protection Switch
A unit that controls protection switching in hot-standby, diversity or ring protected devices.

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Proxy
An entity that performs information preparation and exchange on behalf of a device it is representing.

Pseudowires (PWE-3 – Pseudowire Encapsulation End to End)
An emulation of a TDM service over a packet switched network. Used on modern packet switched networks to transport legacy TDM circuits.

PSU
Power Supply Unit.

PTSN
Public switched telephone network.

Q
QAM
Quadrature Amplitude Modulation. A method of modulating digital signals using both amplitude and phase coding.

QoS
Quality of Service.

QPSK
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying. A method of modulating digital signals using four phase states to code two digital bits per phase shift.

R
RAC
Radio Access Card

RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service)
An integrated RADIUS Client capability for Eclipse Packet Node enables authentication, authorization and accounting of user accounts from a remote RADIUS Server for central management of Eclipse user accounts. The RADIUS remote server provides centralized management and authentication of user names, passwords, and access permissions, and ensures that all users have consistent access privileges throughout the network, using a common set of user credentials.

RAS
Remote Access Server.

RCS
Reverse Channel Switching. A feature set that provides protection against potential far-end transmitter silent failure.

RDI-L
Remote Defect Indication - Line.

Restricted Area
A location qualified in accordance with IEC Standard 60950-1 as providing an access that can only be gained by Skilled Persons or users who have been instructed about the reasons for the restriction applied to the location and about any precautions to be taken; and access achieved through the use of a Tool, lock and key, or other means of security, and is controlled by the authority responsible for the location.

RF
Radio Frequency.

RFI
Radio Freqency Interference.
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RFU
Radio Frequency Unit.

Rigger
The member of the radio installation team responsible for installing the antenna and cabling on the transmission tower.

RIM
Radio Interface Module.

RIP
Routing Information Protocol. An OSI layer 3 dynamic routing protocol.

RMA
1) Return Material Authorization; 2) Radio Modem Adaptor.

RMS
Rock Mounting Space.

Routing Protocol
Routing protocol is a protocol used between routers to exchange routing information. OSPF and RIP are the two most common dynamic routing protocols.

RS
Revertive Switching. A process that sends traffic back to the original working system after the system returns online.

RSL
Received Signal Level. The signal level at the receiver input (from the antenna). RSL is usually expressed in dBm.

RSOH
Regenerator Section Overhead. Part of an SDH frame.

RSSI

Received Signal Strength Indicator. The raw indicator of signal level at the receiver input (from the antenna). Usually expressed as a voltage, RSSI is usually converted to dBm and presented as an RSL. Rack Unit, 1 standard EIA rack unit (44.5 mm / 1.75 inch).

RU Rx
Receive.

S
SAW
Surface Acoustic Wave (filter).

SD
Space Diversity.

SDH
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. An international standard for synchronous data transmission. SDH uses a multiplexing structure that enables direct access to individual 2 Mbit/s data streams from within the higher order aggregate line signals.

SDLC
Synchronous Data Link Control. A bit-oriented, full-duplex serial protocol that has spawned numerous similar protocols, including HLDC and LAPB.

Secure Management
Supports secure management access to Eclipse Packet Node radios over unsecured networks. It protects the radio from accidental or intentional miss-configuration and provides centralized access control based on sophisticated permission attributes. An event logger records all management activity for proper

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accountability and optimum troubleshooting support. Security is provided through use of encrypted communication protocols, a requirement for complex passwords, and protection against mechanized attacks. Communication encryption is based on a FIPS140-2. SNMPv3 is used to secure the management communication connections.

SES
Severely Errored Seconds.

SI
System International Units.

Simple Network Management Protocol
See SNMP.

Skilled Person
A skilled person in the microwave radio installation and maintenance industry is considered to have the necessary knowledge and practical experience of electrical and radio engineering to competently and safely carry out their work. They must have a full understanding of the various hazards that can arise from working on and around radio installations and be competent to take responsibility for their safety and the safety of any other personnel under their immediate supervision.

SLIP
Serial-Line Internet Protocol.

SMA
Services Management Adaptor.

SML
Service Management Level in the TMN model.

SMS
Short Message Service.

SNCP
Subnetwork Connection Protection. Designates path-switched SDH rings that employ redundant, fiber-optic transmission facilities. Organized in pairs, one fiber transmits in one direction while the backup fiber transmits in the other. If the primary ring fails, the backup takes over.

SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol. A networking management protocol used to monitor network-attached devices. SNMP allows messages (protocol data units) to be sent to various parts of a network. Upon receiving these messages, SNMPcompatible devices (agents) return data stored in their Management Information Bases.

SNR
Signal-to-noise ratio.

SONET
Synchronous Optical Network. An ANSI standard for synchronous data transmission on optical media that is the equivalent of SDH

Space Diversity
A protection mode. The main and standby radios are set up in Hot Standby mode, but are connected to their own antennas. Both antennas, separated by a specific distance, are receiving the signal transmitted from the online radio at the other end of the link. If a fault occurs in the receiving end of the link, the traffic is switched to the standby radio without causing errors (hitless receive switching). As in Hot Standby mode, a fault detected in the online transmitter causes that transmitter to mute and the standby transmitter to unmute.

SSC
Software-Software Compabitility.

SSL
Secure Sockets Layer.

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Static Routing
Static routing requires manual configuration of the routing table within Layer 3 routers. Data is forwarded within a network via a fixed path defined by the static routes - it cannot adjust to changing line conditions, unlike dynamic routing.

STDM
Statistical Time Division Multiplexing. Time slots are assigned to signals dynamically to make better use of bandwidth.

STM-0
ITU digital signal level used in Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equivalent to a 51.84 Mbps data rate.

STM-1
ITU digital signal level used in Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) equivalent to a 155.52 Mbps data rate.

STM-N
Synchronous Transport Module-level N (Nx155.52 Mbps) where N = 1, 4, 16 or 64.

Strong Security
Refers to the Strong Security options supported on Eclipse Packet Node for payload encryption, secure management access, and RADIUS Client.

STS-N
Synchronous Transport Signal-level N (Nx51.84 Mbps) where N = 1, 3, 12, 48, or 192.

SU
Switch Unit.

Subnet
A portion of a network sharing a particular subnet address.

Subnet Mask
A 32-bit combination used to describe which portion of an address refers to the subnet and which part refers to the host.

Subscriber Station
A WiMAX radio receiver/transmitter used by service end users/customers. Smaller and less powerful than a Base Station. EION’ subscriber station products for WiMAX are the StarMAX 3000 series.

SWR
Standing Wave Ratio.

Synchronous Ethernet
Enables synchronization to be distributed over the physical layer of the Ethernet network, through an Ethernet port, in a similar way to the SONET / SDH standards.

T
T1
A digital carrier system for DS1 signals. T1 is a term for a digital facility used to transmit a DS1 formatted digital signal at 1.544 megabits per second. The 'T' is about the carrier facility and the 'DS' is about the signal format, which includes the muxed relationship between DS0, DS1, DS2, and DS3.

T3
T3 is a term for a digital facility used to transmit a DS3 formatted digital signal at 44.7 megabits per second. The 'T' is about the carrier facility and the 'DS' is about the signal format, which includes the muxed relationship between DS0, DS1, DS2, and DS3.

TAE
Transversal Adaptive Equalization.
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TCM
Trellis-Coded Modulation. A bandwidth-efficient scheme that combines errorcorrection coding with modulation. The redundancy thus introduced by the coding does not expand the bandwidth, since the parity bits are absorbed by the extended signal constellation. Two-dimensional (2D) TCM uses dependency between inphase and quadrature symbols, while four-dimensional (4D) TCM introduces dependency between symbols of two successive intervals.

TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Protocols that define connectivity across computer platforms interconnected via the Internet. The TCP protocol is responsible for an error free connection between two computers, while the IP protocol is responsible for the data packets sent over the network.

TDD (Time Division Duplexing)
A transmission method that uses the same channel for transmitting and receiving but separates them by time slots. In 1/1 TDD, downlink slots are interleaved equally with the uplink; a 2/1 TDD gives the downlink twice as many slots as the uplink.

TELNET
A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet.

TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol.

TIM
Tributary Interface Module

TMN
Telecommunications Management Network.

T-R Spacing
The difference in MHz between transmit and receive frequencies for duplex radios.

Trap
A program interrupt, usually caused by some exceptional situation in the user program. In most cases, the operation system performs some action, then returns control to the program. Used for event notification with SNMP.

Tree View
A ‘trunk to branches and leaves’ view. It is often applied to a network where the core of the network is the trunk, and the various end-user connections are the leaves.

Tree Viewer
The Tree Viewer is part of the User Interface. The entire radio network is represented as a tree of containers and radios. Each container (for example, a region) is represented as a parent, with all the devices positioned underneath, as its children. Regions, sites, racks, and devices are listed in alphabetical order.

Trib
Tributary.

TVT
Transparent Virtual Tributary.

Tx
Transmit.

TXCO
Temperature Controlled Crystal Oscillator

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U
UDP/IP
Universal Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol. Used primarily for short, broadcast messages, such as for SNMP messaging. UDP does not guarantee reliability or ordering in the way that TCP does. Datagrams may arrive out of order, appear duplicated, or go missing without notice. Avoiding the overhead of checking whether every packet actually arrived makes UDP faster and more efficient than TCP, at least for applications that do not need guaranteed delivery. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropped packets are preferable to delayed packets.

UTC
Coordinated Universal Time. A time format used when a time zone independent time and date is required. Identical to Greenwich mean time (GMT) for most purposes.

V
V.24
Serial data communication interface. Also called RS-232.

VCO
Voltage Controller Oscillator. An electronic circuit designed to produce an ideally stable alternating voltage.

Vdc
Volts, direct current.

VF
Voice Frequency signal.

VGA
Video Graphics Array. A display standard for IBM PCs.

Viterbi
Viterbi is a “convolutional code” which is used in data correction circuits. It operates on serial data, one or a few bits at a time, unlike block codes such as Reed-Solomon, which operate on relatively large message blocks (typically greater than 100 bytes).

VLSI
Very Large Scale Integration.

VPN
Virtual Private Network.

VSWR
Voltage Standing Wave Ratio.

VT100
A port on the IDU for making a connection to the NMI card.

W
WAN
Wide-area Network. A network that provides telecommunication services to a geographic area larger than that served by a local area network or a metropolitan area network.

WAP
Wireless Application Protocol.
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WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, a telecommunications technology providing wireless transmission of data, best known for providing portable, fully mobile internet access, especially last mile wireless broadband without requiring cables or DSL. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16 (Broadband Wireless Access) Standard.

WiMAX Base Station
A WiMAX radio receiver/transmitter with a wireless router. It is the hub of a local wireless network, receiving signals and sending signals to be picked up by nearby subscriber stations. Base stations can be configured to be the hub between a wired network and the wireless network. EION’ base station products for WiMAX are the StarMAX 6100 (one blade) and StarMAX 6400 (up to 4 blades).

WMT
Web-based Maintenance Terminal.

WR-xx
The designation for a specific size of waveguide used to transmit the microwave RF signal.

WSG (Wireless Services Gateway)
Part of the StarMAX wireless solution, a converged IP core network solution that combines intelligent wireless control technology with IP routing technology to scale the control and transport planes of the ASN functions. It enables multiple services over 2G, 2.5G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies using a converged IP core network and enables “plug & play” between ASN Gateways and from multiple vendors.

X
XPD
Cross-Polar Discrimination.

XPIC
Cross-Polarized Interference Cancellation.

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