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Strategic Approaches to Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy: the trafﬁc lights (TL) scheme
KEN REID, Swansea Institute of Higher Education, Swansea, UK
Some secondary schools have experienced signiﬁcant problems related to pupils’ attendance over a considerable period of time. Therefore, it has proved necessary to start to develop and implement innovative long-term strategic approaches to tackling truancy and other forms of non-attendance from school. This article focuses upon the trafﬁc lights (TL) scheme which has been formulated to monitor and manage pupils’ attendance within schools in a more controlled manner. The conventional approach to introducing the TL scheme is described. This is followed by two variations of the scheme adapted by schools for their own purposes. Evidence from each of the three utilisations of the TL scheme has suggested that overall attendance within the schools has been signiﬁcantly improved with gains of around 8% reported. Finally, the article illustrates how the TL scheme can be adapted to help reduce potential cases of exclusion. Background Evidence from research indicates that some schools have disproportionately high levels of truancy and other forms of absenteeism (Reid, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1999, 2000; O’Keefe et al., 1993). Some schools have experienced these problems consistently over a 30-year period despite all their best endeavours (Reid, 2002a, chapter 2). Therefore, it has become apparent that in order to combat truancy and absenteeism within some schools, it is ﬁrst necessary to change pupils, parents and teachers’ attitudes towards these schools as well as the pervading culture and ethos. The Scottish Council for Research in Education Study (SCRE, 1995) manifestly showed the clearest possible link between attendance and performance at every phase of schooling from the infant and primary stages to the later years of secondary education. Most recent research on truancy and absenteeism from school has focused upon individual facets of the problems and upon the associated consequences of the behaviour. Osler et al. (2002) for example, have suggested that truancy is a form of ‘self-exclusion’ on the part of girls. Truancy and/or school absenteeism has been found to be closely linked with deprivation (Zhang, 2003), a number of childhood pathologies (Woodward & Fergusson, 2000) including running away (de Man, 2000), disaffection and young offending (Ball & Connolly, 2000), alcoholism (Wichstrom, 1998; Miller & Plant, 1999), disturbed adolescent development (Baer,
ISSN 0013–1911 print; 1465–3397 online/03/030305-17 2003 Educational Review DOI:10.1080/0013191032000118956
this aspect often becomes the ﬁrst or second item on their subsequent action plans. teachers are more cautious. pupils’ personalities (Jones & Francis. in England. 2001. Although there is a comparative absence of articles focusing upon good practice in dealing with individual pupil’s case histories of absenteeism and in promoting whole-school approaches to combating truancy and absenteeism (OFSTED. 2002a). Malcolm (1996). In fact. Also. Most LEAs promote their own policy documents on attendance. of their recent OFSTED inspections. a considerable number of schools and LEAs have very little idea about how to overcome their major attendance difﬁculties. 1995). Equally. 2002a). The evidence contained in this article is especially important for those headteachers and teachers. In practice. long-term attendance problems. as anything else. 1995) and attitudes (Lewis. 1999). 1999). behaviour and levels of self-esteem and academic self-concept as well as attitudes towards parents and teachers (Reid. It is currently surprising to ﬁnd how many schools and LEAs have attendance issues as one of. there is abundant evidence of more good practice taking place within LEAs and schools than ever before. some new studies are beginning to emerge. of which Blackpool (2002). education welfare ofﬁcers. Blyth (1999) and McCormack (1999) all make valuable suggestions for staff in schools on how to improve attendance utilising such ideas as role play and drama workshops. early conduct disorders (Fergusson & Horwood. Orr-Munro (2002) has reported on the Safer Schools Partnership plans to station police ofﬁcers in schools. if any. 1998). previous research having been undertaken into these schemes (Reid. 1998. gang membership (Fritsch et al. 2002a). 1998). classroom assistants and personal advisers who operate in schools or LEAs with a history of serious. The real intention should be to use the conceptual base and processes involved in the procedure to attempt to reduce rates of truancy and absenteeism within schools and/or Local Education Authorities (LEAs). There is little. Education .. Nevertheless. In another project. typically within LEAs. Whilst police see the scheme as vital. 2001).. New initiatives concerned with tackling truancy and school absenteeism have proliferated in recent years. Reid 1999). Birmingham (2002) and Staffordshire (2002) are three good examples. Despite this. 1998) health factors (Michaud et al. implementing long-term strategic approaches to combat poor attendance is a relatively new idea. exclusion from school (Bratby. school-based family social work schemes helped to halve rates of truancy in project schools (Pritchard & Williams. education social workers. drug usage (Lloyd. 1999). the vast majority of schools now have policies on school attendance although many of these are deﬁcient in some aspects such as including appropriate reintegration and return to school strategies (Reid. This is in response to the ﬁnding that truants from schools are at the epicentre of day-time street crime. and providing an appropriate monitoring structure for tackling the issues. In fact. Audit Commission. However. most schools have their own freestanding documents which are entirely different from one another. there is some evidence for their potential (Reynolds. 2003b). the potential of these schemes is almost as important for stressing the possibility of promoting positive school change. these initiatives include attendance aspects in such major developments as the Connexions Service.306 K. parenting styles (McNeal. or the most important criticism. Consequently. Currently. 1998). there is often little synergy between LEA guidelines and those of local schools (Reid. pre-court sentencing information (Ball & Connolly. learning mentors. Reid. For example. 1996). 1999).
are making very little difference to overall local and national rates of daily attendance within schools. particularly the destination of GEST funding and the pilot projects for tackling disaffection. much of the good local practice which exists is uncoordinated and there is also very little evidence of good practice in schools in the existing literature (O’Keefe et al. parents’ and the local communities’ perceptions of schooling as well as promote good attendance and behaviour amongst a group of less able. In Wales. 2002b. the Welsh Assembly established a Task Force to produce a Report on reducing truancy and absenteeism in both the short. electronic registration schemes are in much wider usage. electronic registration schemes. Excellence in Cities. Its key short-term recommendations are: (a) to simplify the Welsh Assembly Government’s guidance on clarifying absence as indicated in Circular 3/99.. Scotland.and long-term (Welsh Assembly. it is clear that most of these. The main long-term recommendations are: . 2003a). 2002. 2003). 2002c. truancy buster awards. fast-track punishment schemes for parents of truants are being trialled. In addition. Reid.Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy 307 Action Zones. In fact. truancy ‘sweeps’ as well as a host of youth participation and community projects and local shopping centre schemes as well as selected LEAs receiving specialist payments in order to improve attendance and behaviour within schools in their area (Reid. cross-Whitehall groups to combat the link between truancy and crime. While any number of appropriate short-term strategies are in place. (f) to consider the approaches to be used in pursuing legal action on parental-condoned cases. Sure Start. (c) to commence an audit of the methods of passing information between primary and secondary schools on individual pupils’ attendance. there is currently much pioneer work taking place within the 14–19 curriculum as attempts are made to ﬁnd relevant and alternative curriculum schemes. Unfortunately. 2002a). 2001). In Scotland. changes in court procedures and ﬁnes. 2002d). England. how up-to-date these are and how well they link together. (e) to undertake an audit of schools’ and LEAs’ attendance policies. (b) to establish how many primary schools have readily available ﬁgures on attendance rates. On Track. deprived and disaffected pupils (Reid. some LEAs are privately reporting recent rises in their own levels of non-attendance possibly because of the longer term effects of the national curriculum (Shefﬁeld. with the possible exception of ﬁrst day response schemes. For example. (d) to undertake an audit and evaluation of LEAs’ spending on attendance issues. Pupil Support Grants. In England. for example. Wales and Northern Ireland have all started to follow their own separate paths in the search for solutions on truancy and school absenteeism as the effects of asymmetric devolution begin to bite. Children’s Fund. (g) to perform truancy sweeps on a regular basis in each LEA. 1993. the Mountain Ash Out-of-School Learning Project is one example of how successful alternative curriculum projects can raise pupils’. In Northern Ireland processes are in place to signiﬁcantly increase the number of education welfare ofﬁcers involved in attendance cases.
Whereas the SSTG and PSCC schemes are closely linked to attainment. Normally. (f) to increase the level of intervention at primary school level. this ‘pragmatic’ methodology. 2003c.308 K. (b) to review the funding. especially headteachers and senior managers. Essentially. in order to resolve attendance issues within a school. Methodology The methodology followed within schools is action-orientated towards ﬁnding appropriate school-based solutions utilising a number of key principles. including the necessary training elements. partially based on social anthropological and action research theory and practice. long-term strategic approach to improving attendance within schools. and. It involves implementing school-change processes. being put into situations where they have been required to ﬁnd their own solutions to externally-imposed governmental . (h) to review the process of taking attendance cases through magistrates’ courts. how the scheme is set up is key to the process. including the link between magistrates’ clerks and the educational welfare service as well as the timetable for hearing attendance cases. During this period the school’s speciﬁc attendance issues are discussed and examined in detail. (c) to clarify and simplify the funding streams used to tackle truancy in Wales. Rather. (e) to carry out a pilot study on reducing absence in two schools to assess the extent to which this is possible thereby informing future funding. Normally. Reid (a) to review and cost the extent of electronic registration schemes throughout Wales and to develop a strategy for extending its use to an appropriate standard. is to provide a whole-school. The methodological approach involved in implementing the school-based solutions has been continuously modiﬁed in the light of ongoing practice. the TL scheme is exclusively an attendance strategy although it can be adapted to monitor behavioural and exclusion policies as well (see later). disproportionate problems. 2003d) as staff and LEAs may prefer implementing one to the other. Therefore. often. the scheme has been implemented into selected schools using the expertise of the author and staff within the schools along an in-service paradigm. The purpose of this article therefore. This is achieved by controlling and managing differently some of the input (pupil and pupils’ attendance) variables and by changing some of the internal school policies and managerial practice on attendance and/or performance-related issues. role and responsibilities of the education welfare service in Wales to include professional development. (d) to establish systems to share good and innovative practice between professions on tackling truancy in Wales. the trafﬁc lights (TL) scheme should be compared and contrasted with the Secondary School Three Group (SSTG) and Primary Secondary Colour Coded (PSCC) formats (Reid. The TL scheme is one of these potential long-term strategic solutions. (g) to develop a framework for multi-agency working. has been brought about by school staff. Thus far. a special professional development day is held. Ideally. the TL structure and local circumstances. various possible shortand long-term solutions are put forward. The speciﬁc TL concept has to date not formed part of a funded research project. it has evolved as a pragmatic response to speciﬁc school-based situations in which truancy and absenteeism are signiﬁcant.
targets on attendance. 2003a) and some have had long periods—20 plus years—of experiencing similar problems (Reid. The adoption of the strategy is often in response to schools fearing difﬁcult OFSTED inspections on attendance or as a consequence of being put into special measures. The 5 year cycle using the TL scheme.Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy 309 FIG. It is good practice to ensure that all pupils and parents are made aware of the school’s policy and practice on monitoring attendance and the follow-up procedures which will be used when pupils and their parents fail to adhere to the basic standards which are required. After 5 years.1. the latter having been raised from 90% to 92% for secondary schools in September 2002. the scheme can be extended to Years 7 and 8. The evidence suggests that a large number of schools put into special measures because of attendance issues have very little idea how to resolve their difﬁculties (Reid. In secondary schools with serious attendance problems. it is methodologically better to introduce the scheme in Year 7 only in the ﬁrst year of implementation. . Rates of overall attendance and unauthorised absence show considerable variation in league tables both at school and LEA levels. 2002b). the scheme will involve Years 7–11 and all the pupils will have their attendance monitored and managed in the same way (see Figure 1). In the second year.
310 The TL Scheme: the conventional approach K. The monitoring of the pupils is both preventative and therapeutic in nature ensuring that pupils fully appreciate that their attendance matters and is crucial for their academic progress (SCRE. all the pupils at the school will be aware of only one system for monitoring their attendance. behaviour and attainment as each of these dimensions is inextricably linked. it may not be possible to start the scheme until appropriate information has been collected in Year 7. The scheme emphasises that attendance matters and the school treats the issue of attendance with the importance it deserves. The blue group is comprised of less serious cases of non-attendance although this group often contains pupils whose attendance is also notably erratic and inconsistent (between 71 and 84%). The yellow group is made up of occasional absentees. Evidence from undertaking this work with schools suggests that in Year 7 even schools with serious attendance problems tend to have many hardened persistent absentees at the age of 11. by using on-line registration systems it is becoming increasingly possible for secondary schools to be given the attendance records of their new intakes from their local primary schools in advance. this level of absenteeism grows with age with Years 10 and 11 showing the largest numbers of non-attenders. Figure 2 presents its typical usage although attendance rates within these bands can vary depending upon individual school situations (see later). 1995). This includes the head downwards including deputies. heads of year. Reid The title ‘trafﬁc lights’ (TL) is given to this scheme because categories of absentees by level are colour coded by schools for monitoring and enhancement purposes. learning mentors. the objective is to move pupils into higher attending groups as soon as enhancement processes begin to start to work effectively. In schools with an intake from the same primary schools annually it is possible to start the scheme at the point of transfer. moving pupils from the blue group into the yellow group and the yellow group to the green group as attendance improves further. Then. classroom assistants. The aim of the scheme is to monitor the attendance of all of a school’s pupils. attendance support staff and. As schools follow the monitoring processes rigorously. Once introduced. education social workers. the aspiration is to move all red group pupils into the blue group following appropriate intervention strategies adopted by the school and the education welfare service. in ideal circumstances. crucially. it utilises a whole-school approach. persistent absentees (less than 70% attendance). The TL scheme is heavily dependent upon the willing contribution and participation of every member of staff. However. to . The TL scheme should be introduced at the start of Year 7 in conventional 11–16 or 11–18 schools. chapters 9 and 10) can be especially helpful. The red group is made up of the most serious cases. given that 35% of absentees begin their histories within primary schools. The green group is comprised of regular attenders. For those secondary schools whose intake comes from a wide range of different primary schools every year. they may well be able to raise their internal standards of attendance. form tutors. Traditionally. Ideally. For low attendance schools. Implementing the scheme using school-based review processed as described by Reid (1999. it affords an opportunity for a fresh start. Figure 2 presents the ideas diagrammatically and this idea is denoted by the direction of the arrow. As policies begin to bite. ideally. Therefore. It adopts a partial zero-tolerance approach towards attendance. Thus. LEAs and headteachers might consider implementing the scheme from Year 3 in primary schools onwards.
rid themselves of negative pupil (and parental) attitudes towards regular school attendance. change their internal culture. 2. The TL scheme. the scheme is proactive and raises the importance of pupils’ attendance in a school’s often long lists of current priorities. monitoring and subsequent supportive activities .Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy 311 FIG. It adopts a colour-coding approach in order to facilitate pupil and group selection. ethos and hopefully. Therefore. The scheme is also ﬂexible.
Ideally. most schools have more truants and absentees in Years 10 and 11 than in Years 7–9. by implementing a process of earlier intervention and monitoring. In their scheme more than 93% attendance is considered to be satisfactory and equates with green. Between 83 and 92% is amber and taken to be a cause for concern. In one LEA. Typically. The Pupil Retention Unit (which specialises in social inclusion policies including reintegration and return to school strategies) introduced a version of the TL scheme into local schools using the colour coding for attendance. often. although it had a serious attendance problem. The TL scheme also tries to combat the progressive nature of absence. In practice. Chesswood and Broadwater Middle schools and St Andrew’s and Davison High Schools. The RAG project uses the same principles and ideas but operates them differently (see Figure 5). Comparatively few pupils miss more than 50% of school time. more girls than boys tend to be parentally condoned whilst more boys than girls are truants per se (Reid. Reid (see Figure 3). its scale was not considered to be so out-of-control as some schools which use the standard format of the scheme as presented in Figure 2. boys and girls tend to be manifested more or less equally in most categories of absence. Second. the ratio of pupils with minor attendance problems when compared with serious attendance issues (over 50%) was 1 7 (Reid. its parents and non-attenders. Downsbrook.312 K. Less than 82% is red and judged to be unsatisfactory. All these schools follow the same attendance guidance and practice after implementing the TL scheme. Included in the federated scheme are Bramber. The idea was to improve relationships between the school. The scheme also provides a management tool for monitoring attendance (see Figure 4). Lyndhurst. Therefore. Davison instigated these higher categories because. Case Studies of Good Practice: variations on a theme The TL scheme presented so far is the conventional package. the pupils like the colour-coding scheme. The school operates the system . a couple of alternative models for using the scheme are now presented. The East Worthing Project: the RAG scheme Schools in East Worthing—led by Davison High school—introduced their colourcoded RAG project based on the TL concept in a local clustering arrangement. consistent) attendance problems predominate in the majority of schools. 2003b). the scheme can be adapted to suit individual school’s needs. However. There is strong competition between them to improve and to move ‘up’ groups which facilitates and motivates improved attendance and attainment. pupils with minor (but. the TL scheme will be operated alongside appropriate enhancement strategies within a school which are aimed at improving the academic potential of its less able pupils including its erratic attenders. 1999). the opportunity is created to enable erratic attenders to be reintegrated back with regular attenders as their own attendance improves. Signiﬁcantly. The project was broadened to include attendance across a family of schools including ﬁrst and middle schools. Springﬁeld and Whytemead First schools. two points stand out. First. The scheme allows for movement up and down between each group and back into the mainstream green group as pupils’ circumstances improve or vice versa. However. However.
88% 84.35% 95.05% Green Green Amber Green Red Amber Green Green Green 96.35% 84.93% 95. Example of a monitoring process for the TL scheme.71% 98.59% Green Green Amber Green Red Amber Green Green Green 95.05% 100.98% 95.54% 98.88% 82.88% 85.35% 95.90% 93.20% 93.90% 98.66% 96.00% 96.70% 96.28% Green Green Amber Green Amber Amber Green Green Green 95.49% 86.45% 97.08% 82.46% 97.64% 97.46% Green Green Amber Green Amber Amber Green Green Green 94.94% Green Green Amber Green Red Amber Green Green Green 313 .58% 86.14% 98.92% 87.Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy Beverly Eleanor Jenny Jennifer Louise Emma Jenny Victoria Laila FIG.80% 98.70% 90.76% 94.73% 85.29% 94.35% 87.67% 96.50% 98.71% 100.92% 89.88% 80.90% Green Green Amber Green Amber Amber Green Green Green 95.39% 90.00% 97.96% 97.92% 82.94% 96. 3.65% 83.46% 95.39% 96.65% 85.92% 95.19% 97.83% 86. 09B 09B 09B 09B 09B 09B 09B 09B 09B 96.
K. The TL scheme used as a management tool. 4. Cumulative summary.314 FIG. Reid .
It utilises its colour-coding scheme for both attendance and behaviour monitoring and adds in extra coding categories. alongside a positive rewards scheme to encourage its pupils (e. The school considers there to be no negative connotations from using the labels. Contrary to some expectations. the colour-coded labels are interpreted positively by pupils and parents alike. prizes for most improved attendance).g. 5. only positive beneﬁts. .Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy 315 FIG. The Chamberlayne Model Chamberlayne Park School goes one stage further. The Davison RAG project model.
The school previously had exclusion rates three and a half times above the national average. 2003d). is central to a school’s attendance (and. The second is for persistent serious abuse of school rules on the third occasion. communicate with parents (attendance letters home). provides them with clear evidence of their child’s attendance patterns. The ﬁrst is for extreme violent conduct. setting targets. Theale Green Community School. pupils have been identiﬁed into the following ﬁve bands in order to monitor their attendance (see Figure 6). In this version. the PSCC and STGG schemes (Reid. The colour-coding concept is used within participating schools to: raise the school’s proﬁle (marketing and publicity). there are 850 pupils on roll. The Project has the support of the Education Welfare Service. 23% of these are on free school meals. • EWO: helpful to monitor students. ﬁnally. The adult unemployment levels for the city are also high. The school draws its pupils mainly from two feeder primary schools. Reid The School is a co-educational comprehensive on the south-eastern edge of a large city in the south of England. There are two red card offences. in theory. goals and attainable targets. ease monitoring processes (form tutor review meetings. visual. heads of year/department. For example. It creates an ethos that school attendance matters at all ages. visual. and schools within an LEA. Its location is in an area which has considerable social deprivation. has found that by using ‘staged’ approaches to exclusion.5%. One school in Watford found that the ‘safety-net’ nature of the system reduced exclusion rates by approximately two-thirds during the ﬁrst year of its operation. the LEA and the Pupil Retention Team. red cards are immediately given for offences which lead to automatic exclusion (ﬁxed or permanent). Implications and Conclusions Utilising and implementing the TL scheme is relatively easy to manage. Other versions of the TL scheme have begun to be adopted. Figure 7 presents these ideas diagrammatically using exclusion as the issue. it has not excluded a single pupil for several years. provides guidance. • SMT: easy-to-use management tool. • pupils: easy to understand. the Davison scheme has been implemented in West Sussex for all pupils aged from 5 to 16. The school has raised its attendance target to 93. an 11–18 school in West Berkshire. an LEAs) policy and policy document. SMT). 51% of the pupils are on the special needs register. To facilitate this rise. The colour-coding concept provides a high impact visible display which can be used by: • form tutors: for monitoring attendance. It is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary and multi-disci- .316 K. 2003c. the ﬁrst two having warranted either a blue or yellow card and both offences having been recorded and the formal warnings being notiﬁed to pupil and parent(s). The school’s average daily attendance hovers around 90%. and. • parents: easy to understand. It is certainly much less demanding than its sister schemes. some by utilising the ideas for work with pupils who have behavioural problems or likely to be excluded (ﬁxed or permanent candidates) as well as with attendance cases. for example.
- . The Chamberlayne model of the TL scheme.Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy 317 FIG. 6.
318 K. 2002b. plinary. A school’s coordinator has been appointed to communicate between the schools. Since its inception. Using the TL scheme for exclusion. the Project has won the support of the DfES and been awarded a Best Practice Research Scholarship for each school involved. 2002d). Reynolds. 2002c. expanding the Project into the local community (cf. Reid. 1996. 7. Reid FIG. Preliminary results using the TL scheme have been encouraging although these .
Three of the most popular apart from ﬁrst day contact tend to be mentoring (however this is done) and appropriate alternative curriculum and out-of-school learning support (Reid. Parents need to be briefed on the scheme as part of the preliminary process before their pupils transfer to the secondary school. have evolved through a number of modiﬁcations and manifestations. Establishing the TL scheme needs careful thought. Correspondence: Ken Reid. In far too many schools. Swansea Institute of Higher Education. Results now show an average attendance for the whole school of 92% compared with 85% immediately prior to the scheme starting. REFERENCES AUDIT COMMISSION (1998) Misspent Youth.4 to 97. Some schools need to raise the proﬁle of attendance on their agendas. Report (London. parents. schools will utilise a few short-term approaches alongside this major long-term strategic initiative. pp. to some extent. However. Once again. the School’s GCSE A–C record for ﬁve or more passes rose from 4 to 45% and is currently on schedule to achieve over 55%. Over a 10-year period. So do all the pupils. attendance is too low on their school development plans.ac. it provides a total package. Swansea SA1 6ED.reid@sihe. The causes of non-attendance are so varied and diverse that ﬁnding similar solutions which work effectively in every school situation is not easy (Reid. 21(4). The Commission). However. Deputy Principal. 2002e). The author ﬁrst started applying a form of long-term strategic approach to schools’ truancy and attendance problems as long ago as 1986. The TL scheme gives schools a simple and convenient way of raising the proﬁle of attendance in a caring and empathetic manner. the community and OFSTED that a school is taking its responsibilities for attendance seriously. UK. Mount Pleasant Campus. Ideally.Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy 319 are. E-mail: k. the overall attendance for Mountain Ash School rose from 79. Choose three or four of the best short-term strategies outlined by Reid. variations in practice abound. J. whatever works—use it. the various approaches including the TL scheme. BAER. (2002a). early days. 238–248. this shows the clear link between attendance and achievement (SCRE. Therefore.uk. Knowsley LEA has similarly improved its attendance by 5% in its ﬁrst year since adopting the scheme. Since then. It shows pupils. evidence is mounting over a signiﬁcant period of time that utilising the TL scheme can help improve pupils’ attendance rates quite signiﬁcantly when the appropriate methodology is followed. Adopted and set up correctly. 1995). Davison School (see earlier) also reported that their overall attendance rates improved by 8% during the ﬁrst year of usage. Beaufort Community School in Gloucestershire achieved a signiﬁcant increase in attendance ﬁgures following the implementation of the TL scheme. 1999). Other schools have reported gains of between 5 and 8% in Year 7 during the ﬁrst year of adopting the scheme. For example.4%. The potential gains of the scheme far outweigh the disadvantages as the beneﬁts offer schools and their pupils far more than a simple reduction in non-attendance and truancy. It requires a whole-school approach in the fullest meaning of the term. . (1999) Adolescent development and the junior high school environment. The ‘caring’ message given to the parents and the pupils and how this is put across are crucial to favourable long-term outcomes. Social Work in Education. During the same period.
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The LEA). pp. Final Report (Cardiff. 2 Vols. SCRE). WELSH ASSEMBLY (2002) The Attendance Task and Finish Group. 17(4). National Assembly for Wales). Shefﬁeld LEA). Shefﬁeld City Council Internal Report. SCOTTISH COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH IN EDUCATION STUDY (SCRE) (1995) Understanding Truancy: Links Between Attendance. WOODWARD. (1988) Towards the Effective School (Oxford. Basil Blackwells). M. & FERGUSSON. Provisional Action Plan (Cardiff. 41(2). (2003) Links between school absenteeism and child poverty. K. REYNOLDS. ZHANG. pp. 10–17. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. SHEFFIELD (2001) Making a Mark (Shefﬁeld. M.Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy 321 REID. (2003d) A Strategic Approach to Tackling School Absenteeism and Truancy (The PSCC Scheme) Educational Studies (in press). L. E.. WELSH ASSEMBLY (2003) Attendance Task and Finish Group. STAFFORDSHIRE (2002) School Attendance Policy Document (Stafford. (2000) Childhood peer relationship problems and later risks of educational under-achievement and unemployment. (1998) Alcohol intoxication and school dropout. 191–201. REID. Drug and Alcohol Review. et al. D. 413–421. J. (1996) An In-Depth Analysis of an Initiative to Improve Attendance in a South Wales Comprehensive School. L. National Assembly for Wales). . Swansea Institute of Higher Education. unpublished MPhil thesis. 21(1). pp. Truancy and Performance (Edinburgh. K. WICHSTROM. Pastoral Care in Education.
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