You are on page 1of 15

LAST170StudyGuide ConceptualConsiderations JohnChasteencharacterizationofU.S.

thinkingonLatinAmerica Racial/CulturalandEnvironmentalDeterminism Toomuchnonwhitebloodmadethemnotselfdisciplined/intelligent Werecatholic,lackedaprotestantworkethic Tropicalclimatemadethemjustlayaround Generallyalazypeople ModernizationTheory Backwardmentalities Traditionalsocialstructures Theyneedtobemodernized DependencyTheory LatinAmericastoodinadependantmannertothecivilizedworld(stillis dependentonAmericaandotherbettercountries) Exportrawmaterialimportfinishedproducts SocialConstructionism Stillsomeofthedependencymodel Moreconcernwithhowlatinamericansviewtheirmulticulturalbackground identitypoliticsandnationalidentities howgender,raceandclassidentitiesareconstructed MichelRolphTrouillotsTheoryofHistoricalNarratives Historyisunderstoodasadistinctionandoverlapofthesociohistoricalprocessandthe narrativesaboutit Positivismwhathappenedsociohistoricalprocess Constructivismwhatissaidtohavehappenednarrativesaboutit 3capacitiesofpeoplewithinthesociohistoricalprocess Agents:occupantsofstructuralpositions Ex:theclassification/groupapersonfallsintoteacher,student Actors:inconstantinterferencewithwithacontext Ex:Thepeopleinvolvedwithhistoricalnarrativesandtheirroleshim talking,uslistening Subjects:voicesawareoftheirvocality Ex:peopletalkingaboutsomethingafterithappens,alsoconsidera strikeitonlymattersbecauseofwhatthepeopleinvolvedthinkustalking notesandtalkingaboutclasslater CyclesofSilences(theopportunityforsomethingtoberemembered),Themomentof: Factcreation thefactthattherewerenowrittenrecordsoftheHaitianrevolution/ sources

Factassembly whenyougobackdoingresearchlookingforinfo,records/archives Factretrieval makingofnarratives,sowritingaresearchpaper Retrospectivesignificanceorhistory itsactualimpact Alamo MercantilismEconomicTheory Nationalwealthmeasuredinbullion Aimforfavorablebalanceoftrade greaterexportsthanimports Seapower merchantfleets militarypower Colonies supplyrawmaterials largelaborforces Activeroleofthestate regulatecommerce tariffsonimports Masslabor,Slavery,PlantationSocieties,ExtractionSocieties Discussthewaystheneedformasslabor(slavesinBrazilandCuba,indigenousforced laborinBolivia)informedspecificracialcategoriesintheAmericas. Theindigenous/enslaved/darkerwereforcedintosubservientlaborpositionsthat madethempoorrightfromthestart.Theywerealsoviewedasotherwiththe Europeanbornbeingtheupperclassandthelowerclassbeingconsideredless. Theseinitialconceptscarrythroughtotodayinsomeform. Discusssomeofthesocial,economic,andculturalconsequencesofthedevelopmentof plantationsocieties(sugar,coffee,bananas)aswesawinthecaseofBrazilandCuba. Social:Theplantationsocietiesinherentlysetupanownerandaworker relationship.Inthisrelationshiptheownerhasallthepowerandtheworkermust followorders.ThereisalsotheconceptfromTheMastersandtheSlaves (Freyre)oftheownerhavinghiswaywiththeworkerswhichhasimplicationsinto viewsonsexuality. Economic:Inaplantationsocietyasmallfewownamajorityoftheland, everyoneelsehastoworkontheirfarmsforminimalpay.Theplantationshavea needforlargeamountsoflabortodoverymenialtasks.Doesnotdevelopother industries,ienoprocessing,etc.Requiresalotoflandtobeprofitable. Cultural:Combiningthefactthatfromaneconomicviewpointtheworkerstended tocomefromtheslave/forcedindigenouslabordemographicandthesocial constructofthemasterandtheslaveageneralconceptofthewhiteEuropeans asthewealthycivilizedpeopleandthedarkerslavesaslesscivilizedemerged.

AlsocombiningtheconceptsfromTheMastersandtheSlavesimplicationsof thedarkerslaveasthesexualindividualandthewhiterfemaleasworthyof marriage. Discusssomedifferencesandsimilaritiesbetweensugareconomies(Brazil,Cuba)and extractioneconomies(Bolivia). Sugar: Brazil,Cuba,WestIndies Constrainedbyclimate Plantationeconomy(landowningelite:alotoflandinfewhands) RelianceonAfricanslaves getrichquick Extraction: Colombia,Bolivia,Peru Miningofsilverandgoldmostimportanteconomicactivity Reliesonindigenouslaborandsomeslaves ExtractivesocietyLeadstoextremeinequality Both: Placethecountrywitheithereconomyinadependanteconomicstanceto thecivilizedworldthroughtheexportofrawmaterialsandtheimportof finishedgoods. Causeextremeinequalityinasocialcontextthatalsohasracial implications Relyonlargelaborforces GeographicConsiderations: BeringiaWhatroledoesithaveinthepeoplingoftheAmericas? EvolutionofmankindoccurredinAfrica.Theamericannativeswereobviouslyof thesamespeciessoitisassumedthattheymigratedfromEurasiaatsomepoint. ThemostlikelyexplanationisamassmigrationfromAsiaacrosstheBering straightbetweenRussiaandAlaska.Sowithoutamigrationacrossherethe Americaswouldhavebeenunpopulated. GeneralHistoricalContext: LaReconquista/TheconquestofGranada(HowdidthiscontributetoIberiansocial organizationsandculturalpractices?) SpainrecpapturedGranada,SpainfromtheMoorsin1492.Thisreunitedthe Iberianpeninsula.ThemarriagebetweenFerdinandofAragonandIsabelleof CastillehelpeduniteSpainalso.ThisalsoledtothestartoftheInquisition. LosReyesCatlicos/TheCatholicKings FerdinandofAragonandIsabelleofCastille.Marriedin1469(sixtynine amiright?).DubbedthisbyPopeAlexandertheSixth. Whatwerethreeconvergingeventsof1492?Whichweremoreimportantthanothersat thetime?

ConquestofGranadamostimportant.ReunitedtheIberianpeninsula. ExpulsionoftheJewssecondmostimportant.Spain=veryChristian/dontlike Jews(seeTheInquisition). ColumbusreportsthathefoundAsia,eventhoughhelandedinthe Bahamasleastimportant. TreatyofTordesillas Treatysignedin1494,bySpainandPortugal.Thistreatydividedthenewlyfound landsoutsideofEurope.Meridianwassetat18degreeswest,whichexplains whyBrazil(farthestwest)speaksPortugueseandjustabouteveryoneelse speaksSpanish. Name5principlesofMercantilismasapoliticaleconomicorientationoftheSpanish empire. NationalWealthmeasuredinBouillon(gold/silver) Favorablebalanceoftrade greaterexportsthanimports(soundslikeagoodideaAmerica) 0sumgamecommercialexchangewherewhatyourecieveisequal(or slightlygreater)towhatyougiveup Seapowerimportantfortrade(merchantfleets)andnationalpower(navy) Colonies suppliedrawmaterialsformanufacturedgoods largelaborforces Governmenthadanactiveroleinmercantilism regulatedcommerce settariffsonimports THOSEFIRSTFEWWEREJUSTGENERALPRINCIPLESOF MERCANTILISM,THEFOLLOWINGARESPANISHUNIQUE integraltoimperialbureaucracy prohibitedcolonialtradewithotherEuropeancountries Limitedtraderoutesafewcolonialportsandonepeninsularport(easiertocontrol andtax) WhatwerethetwoprinciplesourcesofColonialproductionofwealth? Sugar(Plantation)Economy Brazil,WestIndies,Cuba Constrainedbyclimate PlantationEconomy:landowedbyarichdude(elite)(muchland controlledandownedbyfew(white)people RelianceonAfricanslaves getrichquickmentalityoutcome:mostoftherichestcountriesearlyon (thesesugarcolonies)arenowamongthepoorestintheworld(Haiti) SpanishAmericanExtractionEconomy Colombia,Bolivia,Peru Mostimportanteconomicactivity:mininggoldandsilver(bullion) ReliantonindigenouspeopleandsomeAfricanslavelabor

Extractivesocietysocietybuiltaroundtheextractionofpreciousandrare naturalresources Leadstoextremeinequality(sodoesplantationthough...weshould discuss) WhenwastheHaitianRevolution?Whatisitsworldhistoricalsignificance? Lastedfrom17911804. 500,000slaveswerelivinginHaiti(SaintDominique,wealthiestcolonyofthe NewWorld).Primeexportsweresugar,coffee,andindigo.Inspiredbythe FrenchRevolution(whoironicallycontrolledHaiti),therewasalargeslave uprising.LedbyToussaintLouverture(formerslave),Haitibecamethethe secondindependentcountryintheAmericas(USAUSAUSA!).Theywerealso theFirstBlackRepublicoftheWorld.Lastly,thiswastheonlysuccessfulslave revolutionthatresultedintherevoltersbecominganindependentcountry,ever. AfterHaitirevolutioned,Cubabecameamuchlargersugarproducer(secondto Brazil) Countrycasestudies(Brazil,Cuba,Bolivia) Beabletocomparethemajorpoliticaleventsshapingthesecountries'historiesasbriefly presentedinreadingsandinlecture(colonization,independence,revolutions,dictatorships, currentleaders).Beabletocomparekeyeconomicfactorsforthesecountries(majorproducts, significantshiftsinproduction) Beabletofindsimilaritiesanddifferencesinthesocialstructuresofthesecountries(different ethnicgroups,causesofinequalityanddiscrimination,foreignpresence)Discussbasic similaritiesbetweenthemovementofAfroCubanismo(GerardoMachado/FernandoOrtiz)and theinclusionofAfricannessinBrazilianculturalidentity(GetulioVargas/GilbertoFreyre) DiscusstheMSTmovementsgoalsandmethods. Brazil: MajorProducts: 1526BrazilbegansupplyingPortugalwithSugar 1626BrazilwasthemainsugarsupplyforallofEurope TodayBrazilisstillthelargestproducerofsugarcane Later1800ssomeshifttowardscoffee MajorPoliticalEvents: InitialcolonizationbyPortuguese FreedomgainedduringtheNapoleoncrisiswhentheKingofPortugallefthisson behindtogovernPortugal.LatertherewasaConstitutionalistmovementtofree thecountry. ThemainrevolutionisreallytheMST. Current: 7thLargestEconomyintheWorld President:DilmaRouseff(WorkersPartylikepreviouspresidentLuiz InaciodaSilva,Lula)

SocialStructure: Controlledbyasmallagrarianelite.Largepoorclassofslave/nativeorigins. Theconceptthatracedoesntexist,onlyclass. Cuba MajorPoliticalEvents: InitialcolonizationbySpain servedasastrategiclocationintoandoutofthenewworld Freedom: CubanwarsofIndependence18681878and18951898. U.S.steppedinafterthesinkingoftheMainein1898andhelpedCubaget itsfreedomfromSpain(SpanishAmericanWar). StillheavyU.S.occupation18981917includingthePlattAmendment 19031934. In1933therewasarevolutionarymovementthatfailedbutsucceededin endingthePlattAmendment. Shufflingofleaders,someAmericanpuppetsothersindependantCubans MachadowasanAmericanpuppet,hewasoverthrownin1934by Batista.Batistawasreelectedin1940 Batista(Americancontrolled)takespower1952 AttackonMoncadain1953,Fidelwasinvolvedandjailedhistory willabsolveme,thenexiled Fidel,Raul,andChereturntoCubain1956,hideinmountains runningaguerillacampaign TriumphoftheRevolutionin1958whenBatistaflees CubaisfreeunderFidelsrule,butstillneedsfood>relianceonUSSR USSRfallsin1990,Cubaultimatelyfree Current: SocialistGovernment President:RaulCastro FidelCastrowaspresident19592008 MajorProducts: TheFrenchRevolutioninpartledtotheslaverevolutioninHaitiwhichhad previouslybeenamajorsupplierofsugar.Thisledtoariseinsugarproductionin Cuba(andLouisiana). SocialStructure IdentityinCubacomesprimarilyfromanationalismbasiswithallofthesocialist banners,etctryingtomotivatethepeople. AlsoofnoteisthemusicalidentitythroughSonandSalsa. Bolivia MajorPoliticalEvents OriginallypartoftheIncanEmpire AtahualpawastheSapacInca(king/childofthesungod)andhehada

(step?)brotherHuascarwhomhehadkilled. AtahualpawascapturedbytheSpanishanddidntwanthisbrothertoransomhim becausetheIncanempirewasonthebrinkofcivilwar Onebrotherhadthesupportofthesocial/economicelitewhiletheotherhadthe supportofthemilitaryleaders. FranciscoPizzaroledtheSpanishconquestoftheIncas(15261533) BattleofCajamarcain1533 MajorProducts exportofrawmaterialsSuchassilver(fromPotisi) SocialStructure UndertheIncastherewastheaylluwhichprovidedlaborforcommunitiesandthe state UndertheSpaniardsmitawasareciprocallaborsystemthatwasataxofsorts (Somethinglike34monthsofforcedlaborevery7yearsforeveryman) IndigenouspeopleareintheAndeanhighlandsontheeasternhalfofthecountry Whites/Mestizoareinthelowlandsinthewesternhalf PoliticalEvents Spanishplayed2fightingbrothersagainsteachother incomplete Cuba DiscussthedifferenthistoricalconditionsofCubandependencytootherpowers(Spain, US,USSR)? Spain ColumbuslandsinCubain1492,Spainsetsupsettlementtherein1512 MuchofindigenouspopulationdiedofffromSpanishdisease(smallpox) ControlofCubawasvitalforthecontroloftheNewWorldonits defenserestedthedefenseoftheSpanishEmpireFortressoftheIndies ShipbuildingwasCubasfirstmajorindustryinmid1500s Strategiclocationinandoutofthenewworld Enteringthe1800sCubasvaluetotheSpanishbecameitstremendous sugarproduction. WarsofIndependence: 18681878 1879 18951898finallywonindependencefromSpain(alsoendof SpanishAmericanWar) Mambarmy:CubanRevolutionaryfighters SawlargeparticipationbyAfroCubans Nationalistdiscourseofracialfraternityemergedinthe midstofongoingracism US

SinkingoftheMainein1898,startedtheSpanishAmericanWar.Then TeddyRooseveltwonit(withhisbigstick)andAmericatookover. PlattAmendment(19031934) AmericaoccupiedCuba18981902,19061909,1912,1917. AmericacontrolledCubacommerceintheearly20thcentury Cubanmonoculturaldependenceonsugar UScontrolled75%ofsugarproductionin1925 USpurchasedupto80%oftheirsugar GerardoMachado(Cubanpresident:19251933) Populistpresidentfavorsnormalpeopleovertheelites KnownasTheButcheractedasaUSpuppet FulgencioBatista OustedMachado,ledantiUSsentiment,gotPlattAmendment removed. AmericanmediarepresentedCubaasatouristdestination ShowedonILoveLucy Americanpresenceincreasinglylinkedtopoliticalcorruption LuckyLucianoandMeyerLanskyAmericanmobsters,dominatedCuban gambling,buildinghotelswithcasinos. HavanaRivierawasLanskysbiggesthotelandcasino. CubanRevolutionledbyFidel,eventuallysucceedsinDec.31,1958 SovietUnion BayofPigs=1961 MissleCrisis1962 DependentonSovietUniontotradewithbecauseofUSembargo. Kindofalliedwiththem,butstillpissedthemoff(Angola) USSRCollapsesCubadoesnthavemanypeopletotradewith,knownatSpecial Period USdollarislegalized TourismshitloadofCanadiensgothere Prostitution/Jineterismo Resurgenceofclassandracebaseddisparities WhatwasthePlattAmendment? GaveUSAtherighttointerveneonanyCubanaffair(foreignordomestic)ifUS interestswereinJeopardy. SetaUSterritoryontheisland:GuantanamoBayBase HowdidtherelationshipbetweenCubaandSpain,theU.S.andU.S.S.R.playarolein theprocessoftheCubanRevolution? AtonepointCubarevoltedfromeachofthecountriesabove.Theybecame independentfromSpainin1898intheSpanishAmericanWar.Thentheysortof becameAmericasbitch,withAmericacontrollingalotoftheirtradeandputtinga puppetpresidentinCuba.CubathenbecameindependentofAmericain1958,led

byFidelCastro.ThismadethemdependentonUSSRformostoftheirtrade. Whatwasthetriumphoftherevolution? BatistafleesCubaDecember31,1958.Everyoneishappy. WhatwastheroleoftheU.S.inCubaintheyearsbeforetherevolution? Controlledcommerce.Regulatedtrade.Madethemproducealotofsugar.Force themintobeingamonoculture.ViewedandusedCubaasatouristdestination. Runbythemob,sortofsimilartoVegas. WhatwastheroleoftheU.S.mafiainCubaintheyearsbeforetherevolution? Ranhotelsandcasinos.Controlledalotofthemoneyfromtourism.Cubawas similartoVegas. DiscusstheearlyandcontemporarychallengestotheCubanRevolution? FidelattackedBatista(thenpresident),attackonMoncada,failed,senttojail. DuringexileinMexicoFidelmeetsChe.Wentbacktotheislandin1956,rebel armygainsmomentuminguerrillacampaign.Successful12/31/58. Early RisingtensionwithUSovernationalizationofsugarrefineries RefiningofSovietOilincontextofpoliticalretributionagainstBatista supportersleadstoUSembargo 1961BayofPigsinvasion 1962MissileCrisis ChekilledinBoliviahelpingtheirrevolution CubasupportsliberationinAfricaandMidEast(Angola).Makesthings betweenAmericaandUSSReventenser. Current FallofSovietUnion 1990SpecialPeriod LegalizedUSDollar Tourism Prostitution Resurgenceofclassandracialdisparities WhatwastheOperationMongoose?Whatwereitsfourcomponents? AplantomakeCubarevoltagainstitsnewcommunistrulersafterthefailedBay ofPigs.AlsowantedtoassasinateFidel. Disableorrenderuselesspowerplants Pschologicalwarfarepropaganda,anticommunistradioads LayminestodisruptCubanshipping AssasinateCastroandoverthrowcommunistregime WhydoesBrennanclaimthatCubanindependencedidnotfullycomeaboutuntilthe 1990s? BecauseCubawasstillsomewhatcontrolledbysomeoneuntiltheirleaderatthat time,USSR,dissolved. NamethreemajorreformsintheearlyyearsoftheCubanrevolution. Nationalizationoftheeconomy,sugarrefineriesadntelecommunications.

Literacycampaigncollegekidshadtotakeaschoolbreakandgoteachpeople (usuallyremotevillagers)toreadandwrite Socialjusticeprograms Freepublichealthcare Freepubliceducation Eliminationofofficiallysanctionedracialdiscrimination Fooddistribution Bolivia DiscusssomekeyaspectsoftheIncaEmpirethatallowedittobecomeoneofthe largestsocialgroupsintheAmericasatthetimeoftheencounter. Administrative/logisticalunificationoflargeareas Roads Efficientcommunications(runners) Adaptiontotropicalmountainenvironment Terraces Domesticationofthepotato Abilitytofarmorraiselivestock(llamas/alpacas) Whatistherelationshipbetweenmassconstructionsandlabor?Whatdoesittellus aboutasociety? Theyhaveasurplus Thereexistsastrongstatepowerabletosecuremasslaborandtoorganize everything DiscussthechangingroleoftheBolivianstateinshapingtheeconomyfrom19522009 Spanishtookoverin1533Itbecameanextractiveeconomymorethan 7millionpoundsofsilverreachedSevilla TodaythecountryisoneofthepoorestinLatinAmerica60%belowpoverty line. 19521979:NationalRevolutionaryMovement(MNR)(1952) NationalizingoftinminingAgragianandeducationalreformuniversal suffrage(everyonecanvote) 19801990s Neoliberalizationoftheeconomy(basicallyundoingthenationalization process) Layoffsstatedivestmentinminingprivitazition,diminishedpowerof laborunions Effortstowardseradicationofcocacultivation 2000s WaterWar(2000) GasWar(2003) Inbothofthesecasesaprivatizationattemptwasmade,butpeople revolted

Whathasbeenthechangingroleoflaborunionsinthispoliticalprocess?Whathasbeen theroleofwomensorganizations? Womensorganizationshavebeenhuge WhatisPotos?Whatwasitssignificanceduringthecolonialperiod? Thehighestcityintheworld.AtonepointitwasalsooneofthemostwealthyIt producedover137millionpoundsofsilver.Pop~200kin1660s,rivalingLondon andlargerthanParis.Todaypop.~120k,quec DiscusstheMASanditsrelationshipwiththecocalerosStillleadbyEvo Morales,whowasacocafarmer.HeismakingabigpushtoshowhowCoca hasrealuses(tea,chewing,etc). NamethreereformspursuedbythegovernmentofEvoMorales [FIGURETHISOUT!!!]PLEASEDO!! EducationalReforms AgrarianReforms Renegotiationoftheoil/gascontractswithforeignbusinesses Whatisthebasisofthecurrentpoliticaltensionsregardingautonomousmovementsof someBoliviandepartments(provinces)?Whatarethedepartmentsinquestion?How doesthiscorrespondtotheethnicdiversityofBolivia? Thelowlands(whicharemostlywhite/mestiso)dontlikethattheirpresidentis anindigenous.Theytriedtopeditiontobecomeindependent,butitdidntreally work.Theindividualstatesgotmorepower,andtheoverallgovtspowerwas reducedalittle. WhataresomeoftheusesofcocaamongAndeanpeasants? Tea Chewing(increaseoxygenflow?Ithelpswithaltitudesicknessorsomething) Race Explainhowthefollowingauthorsconceptualizerace:delaCadena,Guimares,Goldstein, VaughanandRoland. DelaCadenaDelaCadenadescribesraceinLatinAmericaasemphasizing thespiritualandculturalaspectsofraceoverthebiological. GuimaraesRacismisawaytojustifysocialorder.5socialmechanismsthat permitthefunctioningofrace,anditishardtocombatbecauseitisinvisible (neverhadanyJimCrowlaws).Brazil. GoldsteinColorblinderoticdemocracy,subtleunspokenrelationship,two kisses VaughanandRoland(wroteLaLucha)Rolandwasdarkersoassumedtobe Cubangivenweakerdrinks,ahardtimeatclubsandrestaurant,treatedher muchworseuntiltheyfoundoutshewasntCuban,butatourist Nameandexplain5socialmechanismsthatpermitthefunctioningofracismasasystem in changeinsociallegitimizationofdiscourseondifferences.Inequalitiesaredueto

culture,notrace.(Guimaraes) notionofcolorreplacedrace(Guimaraes) Racerelationshavebroadsocialsupport.Unequaltreatmentbeforelawwas common.(Guimaraes) nonracialismlinkedtoantiracialism(Ifyoueventalkaboutrace,youarebeing racist).(Guimaraes)Makesithardtotalkabout. povertyanddependenceleadtosubordinationpromotingdiscrimination(classas ajustification) BrazilaccordingtoGuimares. Basicallybrazilhasonly1mixedbrazilianrace.Discriminiationisdoneonclass, notrace.Thereare5mechanismsthatallowracismtoexistinBrazil,andsince raceisinvisible,itishardtofightit(unlikeintheUSwheresegregationwaslegal atonepoint.Itiseasytofightsomethingthatwaswrittendownorisalaw). Describetheracializedandsexualizedconstructionsofthemulata(Roland,Goldstein) Mulatawomenwereseenaspeopleyouwouldwanttohookupwithortohave asalover,butnotsomeoneyouwouldwanttomarry.Thiscouldbewhysex tourismisbiginsomecountries(suchasCuba) DiscussthediscourseofracialdemocracyandhowitwasestablishedinBraziland Cuba. Theideaofaracialdemocracyisthatracismdoesntexistonlyclassisusedto discriminate(andthatisOK).Thereisonly1mixedBrazilianRace. RacialDemocracyclaimsthatpeoplecanchangetheirracebywhattheywear, theirprofession,etc.HoweverinGoldsteinsreading(theoneaboutthe grandmotherandthechild),thisisshownthatitisntalwaystrue.2kisses exampleunspokenracismstillexist DeLaCadaenaStanfordprofessor,embraceformerlowerclassness HowisraceconceptualizedinBrazil,CubaandtheU.S.?Whataresomeofthe differencesthatyoufind? TheU.S.Raceislargelybasedonphenotype(primarilyskincolor) CubaEmbracedafrocubanism.Believeindifferentraces,butdontmakeabig dealaboutit.

Music/Dance/Photography Discusswhatisnationalism,andhowandwhydonationalistprojectsusemusicanddanceto createnationalistsentiment.Whyismusiceffectivefortheconstructionofsolidarities/group identities?Whatissamba?Howdiditcometobeconsideredthenationalsong/danceformof Brazil?HowdoesRaphaeldescribethehistoricalprocessofsambaschoolsinRioduringthe 20thCentury?WhatisCubanson?Whatisitsrelationshiptosalsa? Whatissalsa?HowisCeliaCruz,accordingtoAparicio,bothasignofnationalistCubanpride, andoftransnationalLatinidad? Nationalismwasdefinedinlectureas:Apoliticaldiscoursethatmakespeoplefeelconnectedto

aanidentitygroupcallednationandthereforefeeltheyhavetherighttohaveastate.It generatesanationalsentiment Basicallyittriestomakeitsothatpeoplethinkofthenationastheirstate.Rememberingthata stateisthepoliticalorganizationthatcontrolsviolencewhileanationisdefinedbythemembers ofagroupthatidentifyasagroup.Sobasicallyitallowsthepoliticalcontroltoincludepeoplethat wanttobemembersofthatnation. Constructingnationalsentimentisbestdonethroughrepetitionofexpressivepractices.Inother wordsthenationalanthembeforesportingeventsisthebestexampleasitisalwaysrepeated beforeeverymajorsportingeventanditisverysymbolicoftheU.S.Musicisagreatwaytodo thisbecauseitisoftencatchy/getsstuckinyourheadandcancommunicatemoreemotionthan anythingwrittenaswellasincludingtheabilitytocommunicatetotheilliterate.Radiois everywhere,whichallowsmusictobetransmittedeasily.Easilymassmediated. Summaryofwhymusic? 1)Strongandmultipleindexicalconnectionsarepossibletakesonextrameaning 2)Repetitive,redundant. 3)Nonliteratedependent 4)Easilymassmediated/radio. Samba Sambainthesimplestsenseisastyleofmusic.IntheearlydaysitwasanAfroBrazilian religiousstyleofmusicthatwasnotwelldefinedastherewasalotofvariationfromplaceto place.AfroBrazilianreligiousritualswereconsideredwitchcraftandsothemusicwasinitially lookeddownuponuntilitgainedpopularityinEuropeandthenitgainedrespectfromBrazilian aristocracy.AroundthetimethecapitalmovedfromRiodeJaneirotoBrasiliatheofficialsinRio wantedtoincreasetourismsoCarnivalwaspromotedmoreandaspartofthatSambaschools becamemoreformalwithgovernmentregulation.Thisultimatelytookitfromitsnaturalrootsand madeitmoreofficialwithspecificrestrictionsdesignedtokeeptheparademovingsoforeign viewerswouldntgetbored. CubanSon CubanstyleofmusicsungmostlyinSpanish.ItisablendofEuropeanandAfricanstyles.String instruments(European)areusedliketheguitaraswellaspercussioninstruments(African)like thedrumandclave.The1strecordingofaSonwasin1918bySextetoHabernero.Asforthe singingtheversesaremoreofaEuropeaninfluencewhilethecallandanswersectionsarefrom Africanheritage.SoniscubanidadwhichprettymuchmeansCubancultureorbeingCuban. Salsa SalsaisessentiallyCubanSon,butalteredinawaytocommercializeittothemassmarkets suchasAmericaandEurope.ThenamechangetoSalsawasalsoforthisreason.Salsais moreofacreationfromNewYork,butalsoPuertoRico.Thischangemayhavecomeabout

becauseofthetensionsbetweentheUSandCubamakingitsoCubanmusicianscouldnot traveltotheUS.Salsacameaboutinthe1960searly1970sandfeaturedmorepercussionand biggerhorn(trumpet?)sectionsthanCubanSon.Thetermsalsawaspromotedbytherecord labelLaFania,whichhadsignedmostifnotallofthemajorSon/SalsamusiciansincludingCelia Cruz. CeliaCruz TheonlywomansuperstaroftheSon/Salsamusicgenre(atleastatthattime)19252003. Embodimentofcubanidad,LaReinadelaSalsa,QueenofRhythm.JoinedLaSonora Matancerain1950whichbecameknownasGuaracheradeCuba.TheyleftCubain1960 (presumablybecauseofFidelCastrosgovernment)andthenCeliatookonasolocareerin 1965.(aroundthesametimesalsabecamearecognizedmusicalgenre)Shedonated3items tosomemuseumorhalloffame:(??)Awig,apairofshoesandarumberadress.Thedress showedoffherafrocubansidebecauseofitstraditionalside.Theshoesrepresentedher TransnationalismacrossLatinAmericabecausetheywerecraftedbyaMexicanshoemaker. TheblondewigsymbolizedherenteringthemainstreamAmerican/Hollywoodscene.Shewould sometimesshoutAzucarwhichtranslatestosugar.Thisonewordisgivenalotofmeaning becauseofCubaspastwiththesugarplantationcultureandtheracial/genderdiscrepancies thatwere/areaproductofthatpast.

Talkedtoafriendofminethathad2semestersofoldexams.Nothingspecialreallybuthereare somesummaries: Fillinblank 2waysbrazilianindependencewasdifferentthantherestofthespanishspeakingcountries? gainedfreedomfromportugalnotspain nobloodshed 2majorreformsenactedinsocialistcuba literacycampaign agrarianreform 4countrieswithportioninamazon oksotherewasafillintheblankaskingfor4countriesthathadterritorycontainingthe amazon,wedidntcoverthatsoIdoubtitwillbeontherebutitstuckouttome 2majoreventsoniberianpeninsulaaroundthetimeofcolumbusdiscovery? conquestofgranada explusionofjews 2keyaspectsofincaempirethatleadtotheirsuccess? roads

strongcentralgovt plattamendmentwasa1wordfillinblank,veryobvious ShortAnswer Thesewereheshortanswerpromptsfor2differentexams2separatesemsters: (notethereisa1worddifference,thesearetheexactORDERaswell) celiacruz,carmenmiranda,MST,fidelcastro,touissantloverture,freyre,che,vargas,catholic kings,claves celia,carmen,mst,fidel,touissant,freyre,bartolinasinfederation,vargas,catholickings, claves

MultipleChoice prettystraightforwardforthemostpart,didntreallyremindmeofthequizquestions,afew thingsIdidntknoweasily: encomiendasgiventoconquerersinnewworld thiswasreallyrandom,maybewedidntcoveritormaybeitwasinsomeobscurereading aboutbrazil thisissomethingtheSpanishdid,basicallytheecomiendatoldacolonisthowmany nativestheywereresponsibleforhehadtomakesuretheydidntstartwarsorrevoltandalso hadtoteachthemSpanishandaboutCatholicism.Sortofsimilartoslavery,madethemwork hardforlittlepay.EspeciallycommoninregardstotheIncas. notethata5yearbanonagrofuelswasNOTacauseofthefoodshortagebutitWASa proposedsolution,thequestionwasphrasedwhichofthefollowingwasNOTareasonforthe foodshortages...inbothmidtermsIsaw

whichwasnotasocialmechanismperpetuatingracisminbrazil? A:upperclassbeliefinbiologyasreasonforracism sobasicallylooktheactualreasonsover: changeinsociallegitimizationofdiscourseondifferences,notionofcolorreplacedrace,race relationssupportedbybroadersocialhierarchy,nonracialismlinkedtoantiracialism,poverty anddependenceleadtosubordinationpromotingdiscrimination(classasajustification)

didhaveafewmultiplechoicequestionsaboutsonandsamba,werentterriblemostlyintuitive