CHAPTER 1

Introduction

Since the emissions from gas turbine engine are highly polluted and harmful to the environment and to mankind especially, thus clean and stable air transportation is highly in demand nowadays. The need for clean engine with less or non-emissions has becoming great concern during the last few decades. There has been continuous development on the future design of gas turbine to diminish the rate of emission i.e. CO, UHC, NOx and SOx, yet efficient and meet required mission. All kind of emission resulted from aeroengine combustion very harmful such that they may lead to green house effect, global warming problem and depletion of ozone layer. Among the emissions, oxide of nitrogen NOx is the most dangerous and has been propulsion engineer and designer main target, due to its radical reaction with the ozone in the atmosphere. As according to Dr. John R. Richard (2000)
[4]

in his book Control of

Nitrogen Oxides Emission, aircraft contributes five percent out of total NOx emission in the category of non-road sources. Airport when an aircraft is about to take-off is the most polluted area because at that moment, aircraft gas turbine engine is at full power with maximum NOx formation and emission. Oxides of nitrogen are produced mainly from high temperature combustion processes (Nazri, 2005) [2]. Of all nitrogen oxides, nitrogen oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are providing very adverse effect towards environment. NOx gaseous formation should happen in lean and near stoichiometric fuel and air mixture. At stoichiometric, the compound contained in the fuel and air is completely burnout. If the amount of air content is more than the stoichiometric, the combustion is said to be lean mixture, whereas the mixture of fuel and air under rich condition when the content of air is less than the stoichiometric. High oxygen concentration enhances

1 RQL Combustor

the formation of NOx. Residence time needed for fuel and air to completely mix is of significance factor that cause the formation of nitrogen oxides NOx in the combustion chamber. The higher the rate of mixing residence time, the lower the potential of NOx formation should be and vice versa. One method to reduce the formation of NOx emission is through few modifications on the combustion system of the aircraft gas turbine. The modification should be focusing on the chemical reaction within the combustion chamber, followed by the combustor geometry that can sustain to the modified reaction previously. Since NOx is highly dependent to the temperature, the principles of combustion modification are aiming on minimizing the peak temperatures and residence time at the peak temperature [4]. The shorter residence time can avoid near stoichiometric combustion. John also stated that the modification techniques attempt to minimise the oxygen concentration at peak temperature. Less availability of oxygen in fuel rich condition depletes the ability of fuel bound nitrogen to react with oxygen, thus retard the formation of NOx [3].

Rich-Burn Quick-Quench Lean-Burn (RQL) combustor has been introduced as one of the way to reduce the formation of oxides of nitrogen in gas turbine combustor. The RQL concept is that to burn the fuel in the primary zone of the combustor under rich-fuel condition then quickly mix with secondary air in the lean condition [2, 3]. The RQL combustor implies quick mixing between secondary air and rich fuel from primary zone in order to minimise combustion residence time (i.e. rate of combustion). High rate of combustion avoid the near stoichiometric condition that can allow the formation of NOx. The RQL combustion has been successful in reducing the emission of NOx from fuel bound nitrogen, and in avoiding thermal NO formation
[8]

. The combustion takes place in two zones

[7]

which means the

combustor will have physical separation of two chambers (i.e. primary zone and secondary zone). Where the mixing of fuel and air take place is called quickquenching section.

2 RQL Combustor

Mitsuru (2008) in their technical report [6] stated that the RQL combustor technique features simple structure yet excellent combustion stability and performance.M. even during low loads. large smoke emission might as well accumulate. By avoiding fuel droplet stagnation caused by the airflow should diminish the large smoke emission in the combustor [6] . The ignitability during mixing of fuel and air take place is great even though the RQL combustor providing only single fuel path in the fuel nozzle. Appropriate number of dilution holes and their patterns as well play important role since NOx formation mainly occur near the dilution zone. 3 RQL Combustor . Particularly. M. Yoshiaki and I. in primary zone where equivalence ratio is under fuel rich state. The RQL combustor differs from conventional combustor in which it adopted double-wall liner cooling method [6] in order to sustain metallurgy limitation during high temperature combustion process in fuel rich condition. Hideki. Tomoyoshi. N.

Lean – Burn (RQL) combustor concept is predicted from a conclusion that the primary zone of a gas turbine combustor operates at the most effectively with rich mixture ratios. Quick – Mix. Secondly. a “rich .burn” condition in the primary zone generates the stability of the combustion reaction by producing and maintaining a high concentration of energetic hydrogen and hydrocarbon radical species. Lean-Burn Combustor First.CHAPTER 2 RQL CONCEPT Rich – Burn. Quick-Mix. the rich burn 4 RQL Combustor . Figure 2.1: Rich-Burn.

conditions minimize the nitrogen oxides production due to the relative low temperature and low population of oxygen containing intermediate species. This process creates a “lean – burn” condition at the exit plane of the combustor. This is done by injecting a considerable amount of air through wall jets to be mixed with the primary zone effluent. Generally. and. This waste cannot be exhausted without further processing.2: Nitric Oxide Formation 5 RQL Combustor . The liquid waste form the rich primary zone. Figure 2. this will result in the emission of effluent composed of the major products of combustion which is carbon dioxide (CO2). is very high concentrated of partially oxidized and partially pyrolized (decomposition from high temperatures) hydrocarbons. a non-zero concentration of criteria pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx). nitrogen (N2) and oxide (O2). water (H2O). carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC). Thus the addition of oxygen is needed to oxidize the high concentrations of carbon monoxides. hydrogen and carbon monoxides. hydrogen and hydrocarbon intermediately. then.

In the primary zone. The mixing of the exiting air takes the reaction in which be exposed to a high production of oxides of nitrogen. Thus. the combustor must be able to continuously and rapidly mix the air into the rich-burn effluent in order to rapidly produce the lean-burn conditions. A good RQL is to be able to mix the air with the waste or effluent that exits the primary zone. Figure 2. create a reducing and demanding environment for the liner material.3: RQL Strategy 6 RQL Combustor . The high temperature and composition of gases in the primary zone then. the use of air for cooling the liner wall is prevented to avoid the generation of near-stoichiometric mixture ratios and the production of nitrogen oxides in the surrounding near the wall. Thus the concentration of hydrogen and its demand require a high quality material. This is near the stoichiometric conditions where the temperature and oxygen atom concentrations are elevated.The selection of liner material is important in RQL combustor design.

Figure 2.Thus. Lean-Burn combustor concept is basically the following process that takes place in the combustor in order to reduce the production of NOx. the “quick-mix” label is used to describe the requirement to quickly mix the air and the primary zone effluent. Quick-Mix.4: The Process in the RQL Combustor 7 RQL Combustor . The Rich-Burn.

quick-mix. Rich burn condition minimizes production of NOx due to relative low temperature and low population of oxygen containing intermediate species. gas turbine operates at very high temperate to achieve maximum thermal efficiencies and to be said the combustion is complete.1 General NOx Formation in Gas Turbine Level of pollutants released by gas turbine can be related directly to pressure. The high ratio enhances the stability of the combustion reaction by producing and sustaining a high concentration of energetic hydrogen and hydrocarbon radical species. Generally. 3. temperature. Turbine operates most effectively at primary zone with rich mixture ratio of 1. the level of CO and UHC is 8 RQL Combustor . lean burn or RQL combustor is introduced as a strategy to reduce the emission of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In fact.CHAPTER 3 NOx Emission in RQL Combustor Rich-burn.8. time and concentration histories of the combustion process.

Figure 3.1.1.decreases at this operating temperature as shown in Figure 3. CO and UHC levels are lower at high-power setting and vice versa and in contrast.1. the flame zone temperatures are lower than high load temperature.2.1: CO Emissions in RQL combustor relatives to exit temperature Figure 3. with reduced power or at frequent power fluctuation.1.2: NOX Emissions in RQL combustor relatives to exit temperature 9 RQL Combustor . yielding low thermal efficiencies and incomplete combustion.1. However. In other words. NOX emission is higher at high-power setting as shown in Figure 3.

First. Results obtained shown in Figure 3. it can be seen that as the number of holes increases. the NOx emission also increases. The second configuration is for jet air preheat which means only the jet air is heated back while main is not reheated. three preheat configurations were prepared.In RQL combustor. The third configuration is for both jet air and main air preheat. 10 RQL Combustor . The potential utilization of RQL concept is limited by the ability of the quench process to rapidly and uniformly dilute the fuel-rich mixture and to transport in to the lean zone. optimization of aerodynamic mixer may not minimize emission of nitrogen oxides.3 shows that NOx increases by fifteen percent when mixer holes are increased from eight to twelve holes. reduction in NOx is achieved by preventing stoichiometric combustion. In that experiment. The results obtained in Figure 3. First configuration is for no preheat air wich act as a benchmark.4 indicates that third configuration which is main and jet air preheat increases the NOx emission while non-preheat air will only emit small percentage of NOx . High concentration of NOx is spotted to occur in the wakes of the jets adjacent to the wall instead at the centre of the combustor. RQL combustor has excellent operability range. In recent research reported by Scott Samuelson. This is done via three stages.1. As a result. fuel is burned in controlled fuel-rich and fuel-lean regions separated by air quenching. the number of preheat air also increases. Thus.1.

3: Composite NOx Emission Data Fig 3.Fig 3.4: Effect of Preheat on NOx 11 RQL Combustor .1.1.

1 Clayton Steam Generator Clayton. 4. In this part. 12 RQL Combustor . This unique combustion system provides extremely low emissions without sacrificing efficiency and reliability. The RQL is preferred the most over lean premixed options in aeroengine applications due to the safety considerations and overall performance throughout the duty cycle. one of the most respected names in the boiler industry has been a leader in the development and manufacture of innovative and highly efficient steam generators since 1930. we are going to introduce some of the products that use low NOx.CHAPTER 4 Technology for Advanced Low NOx Advanced low NOx technology (TALON) was deployed commercially by Pratt & Whitney and this RQL is the anchor combustor technology in aeroengines. cost effective steam production around the world.1 shows the steam generator. This steam generator has proven the superiority and ability to provide reliable. Figure 4.

1: Clayton Steam Generators Advantages Save fuel Description The unique counter flow design provides higher fuel-tosteam efficiency than traditional boilers.Figure 4. Table 4.1: Steam Generator Table 4.5% quality separator to minimize 13 RQL Combustor . Compact and lightweight The Clayton design typically occupies one-third of the floor space and weighs 75% less than a traditional boiler.1 below show us some advantages of the Clayton steam generators and their description. Ensures high quality Clayton provides a 99. Safe for personnel and Inherently safe. the Clayton design eliminates hazardous equipment Provide rapid response steam explosions. The Clayton design responds rapidly to sudden or fluctuating load demands. without thermal stress. Star fast Provide full output from a cold start within fifteen minutes.

J burner. The FIR burner was choosen to address the Under 20 PPM to Under 9 PPM NOx requirement also used for new and retrofit applications. Johnston Burner products are also AR burner. Includes support outstanding Every steam generator is backed by Clayton factory direct sales and service plus full service feedwater treatment. Figure 4. Figure 4. In the FIR burner. PLC controls.2 show the cross section of the FIR burner and the burner mechanics respectively.steam Offers advanced controls moisture in the steam. variable speed drives and a linkage-less servo controlled burner management system are standard. All of these burners are using low NOx. Other than FIR burner.2 FIR Burner This FIR burner was developed by the Johnston Burner Company. A burner and S burner.1 and Figure 4.2.1: FIR burner cross section 14 RQL Combustor .2. no efficiency was lost and consumed the lowest cost premium. 4.2.

15 RQL Combustor .2.3 below. The FIR burner is an efficient solution for boiler low NOx applications which they are simple to be controlled and has a standard boiler packages.2: FIR burner mechanics We can see the difference after using the FIR burner and the uncontrolled burner in the Figure 4. It will reduce NOx emission from the burner if we installed the FIR burner.Figure 4.2.

1 shows the ultra low NOx coal burner and Figure 4. Figure 4. 16 RQL Combustor .3.2.Figure 4.3.3 Ultra NOx Coal Burner Fuel Tech’s Ultra Low NOx coal burners provide industrial and utility boiler owners with the ultimate solution to their NOx compliance needs.3: NOx before and after 4. Each system application is specifically designed to maximized NOx reduction without sacrificing combustion performance or unit operation.2 show the performance. NOx reductions exceeding 50% from baseline levels are achieved across the load range with minimal increases in unburned carbon. Fuels being fired range from subbituminous through low and high sulphur eastern bituminous coals.

3.2: Ultra Low NOx Coal Burner Performance 17 RQL Combustor .Figure 4.3.1: Ultra Low NOx Coal Burner Figure 4.

It appears to us that everybody is giving out their effort in reducing the emission of this oxide of nitrogen. power plant and boiler industry. Few minor modifications were made on the conventional combustor in order to diminish the rate of NOx formation included the separation of the combustor into primary. Everybody is now realizing the importance of reducing the emission is due to the harmful effects the NOx providing to the environment and mankind. Although the contribution of aeroengine towards the emission of this oxide 18 RQL Combustor .CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION The RQL combustor is the anchor technology proven today to reduce the amount of NOx emission from aeroengine. secondary and mixing zone. The concentration of NOx in the combustor plays important role whether the amount of emission would be much or less. RQL differ from any conventional combustor in which it implies double-liner geometry to ensure cooling ability of the combustor during fuel rich condition. thus the design and pattern of dilution holes is an important consideration in RQL combustor. as well as the finer droplet of fuel the better. the technology did not only stop to gas turbine engine only but the technology on reducing NOx emission has been further adopted in other industry too such as manufacturing. The concept of burning fuel at rich condition then quickly mix with secondary air to produce lean mixture has proven the effectiveness of the engine in reducing the emission of NOx without prior sacrificing the performance of the engine even at low load. Also.

but by mean of RQL combustor. 19 RQL Combustor . it enhances the reduction of the harmful emission by significance amount throughout many years already.of nitrogen is considered small.

Efficient and Low Emissions Gas Turbine Applications. Greece. Experiment Study of the Effects of Elevated Pressure and Temperature on Jet Mixing and Emission in an RQL Combustor for Stable. Technical Review Vol. and Coghe A. Scott S. Lean-Burn (RQL) Combustor. Nazri M. Cozzi F. 2011.D. California..US. . 2005 20 RQL Combustor . Research and Development of a Combustor for and Environmentally Compatible Small Aero Engine.. 2. and Papailiou D..S.EFFECT OF AIR STAGING ON A COAXIAL SWIRLED NATURAL GAS FLAME. Quick-Mix. TURBULENT MIXING PROCESSES IN A SWIRLING-MULTIPLE JET CONFINED CROSSFLOW CONFIGURATION. Italy. 4 7.Nakae T. Jermakian V.G. Richards J.3-5 Notes: Rich-Burn. 8. Kalogirou I. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.. 5.D.REFERENCE 1. Miyake Y.McDonell V. 3. Chishty and Manfred Klein 4. 45 No. 2012 3. 2000 6. and Inada M..G.2. Irvine.1. 2008. Combustion and Emission Issues in Gas Turbines by Wajid A.R.. Moriai H. Bakrozis A. Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions: Students Manual APTI Course 418. Jenis Enjin Pesawat Udara dan Analisis Kitar. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. and Samuelson G.