QUALITY PLANNING Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Meet customers’ needs Minimise product dissatisfaction Avoid costly deficiencies (costly redoing of prior work) Optimise company performance Provide participation for those who are affected

As in previous chapters, “products” is not limited to saleable goods and services; i t includes the outputs of business processes as well. Similarly, “customers” is not limited to clie nts; it extends to all who are affected by a company’s products and processes. QUALITY PLANNING: DEFINITIONS AND RELATIONSHIPS The terminology relating to quality planning has not been standardised. In view of this we shall define the key words and terms as we go along. Each of these definitions sets ou t what is meant by a particular word or term as it is used in this book. What Is Quality Management? Quality management is the totality of ways through which we achieve quality. Qua lity management includes all three processes of the quality trilogy: quality planning, quality c ontrol, and quality improvement. What Is Quality Planning? Quality planning is the activity of (a) determining customer needs and (b) devel oping the products and processes required to meet those needs. In using this definition, note that quality planning is required for numerous pr oducts—not only the goods and services that are sold to clients but also many internal products, suc h as purchase orders, invoices, and reports. Quality planning is also required for numerous pr ocesses, many of which are internal business processes—for example, recruitment of new employees, p reparing sales forecasts, and producing, invoices. The Alligator Hatchery There is an interrelation between quality planning and quality improvement. It i s well described by the plight of the fabled manager who was up to his waist in alligators. Under th at analogy each live alligator is a potential quality improvement project. Each completed improvement project is a dead alligator. If our fabled manager succeeded in exterminating all alligators then quality imp rovement would be complete—for the moment. However, the manager would not be finished with alligator s. The 4 reason is that the planning process has not changed.

Quality improvement can take I care of the existing alligators. Understand how quality planning should be done 3. However. An important part of that damage is inadequate competitiveness in the market place. the damage done to sales and costs adds up to a problem of upper-m anagement magnitude. the quality planning process is a dual hatchery. The leadership for change must come from the manag ers. This damage should not go on. A benign hatchery pr oduces new. ©Copyright CEPP – BATC/IPPMS Page 2 For managers to provide this leadership requires that they 1. Moreover. one by one. considerable. and is. that hatchery has deep roots in the company. That approach ha s been tried. Another important part of the damage is the resulting chronic cost of poor quali ty. THE DAMAGE DONE AND UPPER MANAGEMENT RELUCTANCE The damage due to deficient quality planning has been. It has failed because the prevailing ways of quality planning are so completely wov en into the existing fabric of company activities. A malignant hatchery produces new alligators. to stop the production of new alli gators requires shutting down that malignant hatchery. It would be much simpler if they could somehow set broad goals to improve quality plannin g and then delegate—that is. so that sales inc ome is reduced. but it will go on so long as that malig nant hatchery remains in operation. useful quality plans.MLK 1923 – QUALITY MANAGEMENT In effect. It has been running for such a long time that nothing short of leadership by the managers can shut i t down. Understand how quality planning is being done 2. WHO HAS BEEN DOING QUALITY PLANNING? Most quality planning is done by experienced amateurs: people who have never bee n trained in the . stimulate their subordinates to meet the goals. Provide the needed infrastructure and resources Many managers are not enthusiastic about devoting the time needed to take such a ctions. About a third of the work in the United States economy consists of redoing what was done previous ly. Collectively.

Why Use Experienced Amateurs? We use experienced amateurs because we assign responsibility for planning mostly on a functional basis. O bvious examples are the craft workers. cost. They likewise are masters of their craft but are often on ly experienced amateurs in quality planning. and billing. Use of Quality Professionals In many manufacturing companies wide use has been made of quality planning by “qua lity professionals”—that is. manufacture. For example. as well as quality. These experienced amateurs include the managers. responsibility for quality planning is assigned nonsupervisors.concepts. This situation is usually at its worst at the highest levels of the company. Even in “simple” intradepartmental cases. That manager then has the problem of planning for multiple parameters: technology. These han doffs MLK 1923 – QUALITY MANAGEMENT become numerous in such major processes sales forecasting. word processing or plastic moulding. and productivity. T he work performed in department A is then “handed off” to department B. To make matters more complex our most important processes are multifunctional. sin ce strategic quality management has usually been non-existent. In such compani es the organisational structure usually provides for these professionals to assist the . Those assigned to do the planning are likely to be expert in the purchasing function but seldom expert in how to plan for quality. schedule. there is much quality planning by experien ced amateurs. In many cases. the supervisor is seldom a master in quality planning . and so on. quality engineers and reliability engineers. new product launching . methods. skills. and tools of planning for quality. the responsibility for the design of a purchase order (a pro duct) and of a purchasing procedure (a process) is typically assigned to the purchasing manager. The department supervisor is usually a master of the technology—for example. However.

However.line engineers and managers. In turn. This emerging consensus requires a massive cultural change: a major revision of the thought and behaviour patterns of those experienced amateurs. The emerging consensus is that the planners (the experienced amateurs) should themselves beco me proficient in using the methods and tools of modern quality planning. leadership must come from the ma nagers. Here again. such as debates over jurisdiction and personality differen ces. this arrangem ent has its own array of limitations. such a change requires extensive training in meth ods and tools as well as the motivation to use them. Use of Inspection and Checking . who retain the overall planning responsibility.

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