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A Comparison Between Factory Waste and Office Waste: Live Simulation Case Study in an Office Environment

Paper

Kleber F. Barcia
1023 W. Arkansas Ln Apt. 7 Arlington, TX 76013, USA The University of Texas at Arlington Industrial Manufacturing System Engineering Phone Number: 817-275-2747 Fax Number: 817-272-3406 Email: kleberbarcia@yahoo.com

Bonnie Boardman
PO Box 19017, 420 Woolf Hall Arlington, TX 76019 – 1107, USA The University of Texas at Arlington Industrial Manufacturing System Engineering Phone Number: 817-272-3220 Fax Number: 817-272-3406 Email: boardman@imse.uta.edu

Mary E. Johnson
PO Box 19017, 420 Woolf Hall Arlington, TX 76019 – 1107, USA The University of Texas at Arlington Industrial Manufacturing System Engineering Phone Number: 817-272-5919 Fax Number: 817-272-3406 Email: mjohnson@uta.edu

Keywords:

Office waste, lean office, office improvement, office environment, lean techniques

and to demonstrate the improvement of an office environment through the elimination of waste using lean techniques. In the same way. The trend of ever increasing customer expectations is expected to continue. At the same time. The office demands from the factory the right product or service. the identification of the non-value added activities in an office process allows eliminating them through the application of similar techniques and improves the overall process. In recent years. Increasing product quality. Office tasks represent from 50% to 80% of the total lead-time consumed. The identification of wastes or non-value added activities in a factory allows eliminating these undesirable wastes through the application of lean techniques. A company must implement constant and radical change to develop and maintain a competitive advantage [2]. Office tasks consist of as much as 95% non-value added time. from receiving the request for the products to delivering the products to the customer [1]. but companies have often ignored the importance of the office in overall efficiency. the factory and the office areas have a strong relationship. A live simulation case study is presented to illustrate the relationship between office waste and factory waste. Comparison is made between factory waste and office waste. They are both connected and interdependent. Some strategies applied to increase efficiency on the shop floor are total . the factory and the office areas have a strong relationship. 1 Introduction In the overall production environment. In this relationship. and improving the company net income are other goals that can be reached if a lean office works together with a lean factory. and the relationship between the two work environments is discussed. The factory demands from the office the right paperwork on the line. This paper describes the different types of wastes and non-value added activities in the manufacturing process and their causes. the shop floor depends on the efficiency of document processing to get on-time sales orders and to have an accurate amount of raw material when it is needed. at the right time. at the right time. Customers expect a higher degree of service each time a purchase is made. companies have attempted numerous strategies to maximize shop floor efficiency. One goal of an enterprise is to reduce the overall lead time that the customer experiences [1]. and in the right amounts [1]. shipping products on time to the customer.2 A Comparison Between Factory Waste and Office Waste: Live Simulation Case Study in an Office Environment Abstract In the overall production environment. and in the right amounts. quotations and approved purchase orders are sent to the customers with both product quantity and product delivery time based on the efficiency of the factory process. for example.

Lead-time is the amount of time that elapses between when a customer requests something. six sigma. . and when the request is met and/or paid for. provide background on lean principles used to transform an office into a high-performing lean office by identifying and eliminating non-value added activities. Next. These activities should be eliminated. First. Cost-based mind-set and misconceptions about Quick Response Manufacturing methods. Finally the waste relationship between the two work environments is discussed. Quick Response Manufacturing. Suri states in his book. reduced. Why office processes are neglected: A traditional focus on shop floor processes. or is not necessary. These activities should be simplified. A live simulation is described which demonstrates the improvement of an office environment through the elimination of waste using lean techniques. Absence of lead-time measurement for office activities. or integrated. and why office processes are neglected in a manufacturing enterprise [3]. reengineering.3 quality management (TQM). This paper describes the different types of waste or non-value added activities in a manufacturing process and their causes. It consists of value-added time or activities. some reasons why office processes are significant. They can account for more that 25% of the cost of goods sold. Secondly. Lack of appreciation for the impact and benefits of lead-time reduction in the office. stemming from the success of scientific management methods. A value-added activity is any activity that increases the market form or function of the product or service. These are things the customer is willing to pay for. 2 Factory Wastes The key measure of a business process is lead-time. and business value-added time or activities [4]. A business value-added activity is any activity that does not add market form or function to the product or service but is necessary. or function to the product or service. A non-value-added activity is any activity that does not add market form. All of these strategies can also be successfully applied on the office. and lean manufacturing. Costing based on the direct labor. non-value-added time or activities. They can have a substantial impact on order capture rate. establish the similarities and differences in factory waste and office waste. agility. a comparison is made between factory waste and office waste. The objectives of this paper are twofold. Why office processes are significant: • • • • • • • • They account for more than half the lead-time in many companies.

3 Lean Techniques Lean is a systematic approach to identifying and eliminating waste or non-value added activities through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection [4]. unbalance flow waste. improper use of computers. Wastes in an office can be identified and classified in the same way as wastes in a factory. It needs to . about 30 activities will fail to add value [5]. Many processes like government entitlement programs. schedule and production control. waiting time. Many companies make the mistake of introducing lean thinking only on the manufacturing processes. and goal alignment waste. information waste. kaizen methods. and reengineering approaches can be applied in an office environment for improving documentation flow and reducing the total lead-time in the process. If the customer does not benefit from it. and boundary waste. checking waste. Waste is any work that does not add value to a product or service. and inaccurate information waste. People energy wastes are divided into seven categories: structure waste. inventory (WIP). [4]. and waiting waste. control waste. Mika states three additional types of waste. improper use of computers have added complexity. product design. ownership waste. They identify seven kind of waste in a factory area: overproduction. and material and natural resources waste. for achieving excellence in nonmanufacturing areas. Waste or non-value-added activity is a term that was born within the Toyota Production System (TPS) [7]. and general accounting. Process wastes are divided into eight categories: strategic waste. engineering. process waste. and insurance approval programs will contain 1. purchasing and inventory management. for every activity that adds value. work-around waste. in general. cost accounting. motion waste. cost. it is waste [8]. scrap and rework. People work wastes are divided into three categories: processing waste. reliability waste. transporting. and working to the wrong metrics. There is usually a great deal of waste and ineffectiveness within the company’s office processes. and waste instead of decreasing them [9]. The Kaufman Consulting Group developed the “Schlipstraeger Wastes” that details different office wastes in four groups: people energy waste. missing information waste. The NIST MEP Lean Training and the Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center training on lean identified two additional wastes for lean factory: people waste. Identifying and minimizing these wastes can create tremendous saving in office areas. typically 95 % of the lead-time is non-value added [6]. standardization waste. Lean concepts must be applied throughout a business: order entry. These are human underutilization. claims processing programs. focus waste. over-processing. tampering waste. and people work waste [8]. and excess motion of operation. assignment waste. translation waste. Lean principles. Information wastes are divided into five categories: hand-off waste. sub-optimization waste. In a small company.000 or more non-value added activities for every value added activity. irrelevant information waste. The most important of these is the second one.4 In some "good" non-engineered business processes.

Perform “Sort Through and Sort Out” by placing a red tag on all unneeded items and moving them to a temporary holding area. motion. inside and out. Standardize. altogether. Only then will it be possible to implement lean tools and techniques that can improve the flow and eliminate waste in the process. Ensure adherence to the 5 S standards through communication. Set in Order. The steps that are taken in an office have a profound effect on what happen on the manufacturing floor. and minimizes waste of transportation.2 5S The 5 steps to workplace organization originally came from 5 words used by Japanese manufacturers to achieve a clean. visual approach that creates a clear picture of current material and information flow associated with a specific product family.3 Point of Use Storage (POUS) This lean technique states that the location of all parts. The National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership (NIST/MEP) defines the 5 S as follow: Sort. creating an action plan that makes the new picture a reality. moved or given away. processing. 3. training. A brief discussion of some lean techniques that can be used to improve an office processes follow. VSM also incorporates new ideas in a new picture of how material and information have to flow for that product group. people. It is a simple. Identify the best location for remaining items. grime. improves inventory accuracy and tracking. Based on this picture. 3. eliminates. raw materials. introduction of flow and the pull approach. the red tag items are disposed. well-organized. and waiting. and contamination from occurring. a lean factory needs a lean office.1 Value Stream Mapping (VSM) Value stream mapping involves step-by-step tracing of the activities that are involved in. and people. sold. Some advantages to making an office lean are: a company can make substantial savings by eliminating waste in the support process. and the quest of perfection. and install temporary location indicators. Sustain. Continue to inspect items by cleaning them and to prevent dirt. . the concept of a stockroom. when freed from waste. ultimately. and fixtures has to be as close as possible to where they are being used. In office processes. relocate out of place items. Within a predetermined time. are available to work on value-added activities [10]. Shine. Clean everything. POUS eliminates non-value added kitting of any form or document.5 be subjected to the same waste analysis and waste elimination efforts as processes within the value streams. Create the rules for maintaining and controlling the first 3 S and use visual controls. VSM is very important in an office environment. 3. set inventory limits. VSM helps workers to understand the flow of paperwork and the timing of that flow. the final product or service being delivered to the customer. it is possible to identify lean techniques that can improve the flow and eliminate waste in the process. tools. and safe workplace. Lean principles include understanding customer value. All can be applied to office processes. and self-discipline.

and material handling. The benefits of a good cellular layout are: reduced inventory. 3. and demands a very different way of thinking about processing data [10].6 3. purchasing. obsolescence. and management by sight. repair. equipment. expediting. Some of these similarities . improved use of human resources. A technique of controlling the flow of resources by replacing only what has been consumed.5 Cellular Layout This technique helps to decide the proper placement of equipment in a production or office environment. technical support. work in process. Customer service. balanced work.6 Pull System Another lean technique is flowing the product at the pull of the customer. and excess inventory (work-in-process and finished). improved control and automation.4 Team Work and Cross Training Process improvement teams are cross-trained and responsible for detecting waste. Departmental barriers are eliminated and replaced with cross-functional teams that study the process and then immediately implement improvements. Table 1 gives the definition of nine factory wastes and the definition for the same nine wastes found in the office area. 6]. 3. Cellular layout includes work balancing. storage. The company reduced its lead-time by 66 %. and quality assurance personnel formed the teams. as the company transforms lean principles from theoretical to an everyday reality throughout the workplace. and improved working area. It is important to establish waste similarities between these two areas. rework. This allows minimizing the presence of waste in the whole process using the same techniques in both areas. 4 Factory Wastes and Office Wastes Based on the factory waste definitions given by the NIST/MEP and the Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center (TMAC). minimized walking time. Pull systems eliminate waste of handling. The Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center presents a case study where a distributor of aircraft parts to the commercial and defense industries applied a cross-functional team approach to its order entry process. better communication. Most people need a considerable amount of training and a gradual changeover to their new roles. Change from traditional office to lean office often frightens office workers because it represents a dramatically different approach within the company. Pull systems consist of small lots. it is possible to establish a relationship between factory wastes and office wastes [4. from 3 months to 1 month [11]. which maximizes worker efficiency by matching work content to tatk time. low inventories. facilities. set-up time. Converting the manufacturing process and the office process from a push system to a pull system can enable the entire company to run more smoothly.

factory and office lose time waiting for processing a part or a form. physical. Examples of overproduction wastes are: printing documents earlier in batches due to long printer set-up. Any movement of people or equipment that does not add value to the service. earlier than is required. stored. unleveled scheduling. creative. physical. and factory and office do not use the correct capacity of people in their areas. using a shotgun approach for analysis instead of a focused approach (lots of trade shows. skill). The waste of not using people’s abilities (mental. earlier than is required. long process set-ups. and memos to everyone. printing a document twice just in case. loss of focus on company’s objective. factory and office try to have more than they need. and faster than is required by the next process Any supply in excess of a one-piece flow through your office process Inspection and correction of forms and information in inventory Effort that adds no value to the service from the customers’ viewpoint Idle time created when waiting for something. and faster than is required by the next process Any supply in excess of a one-piece flow through your manufacturing process Inspection and repair of material in inventory Effort that adds no value to the product or service from the customers’ viewpoint Idle time created when waiting for something. unbalanced workload. and maintained. recycled. and examples of each office waste are presented below.1 Overproduction Waste Overproduction waste can be defined as making more than is required by the next process. skill). preparing monthly reports early. or recycled. multiple bosses and multiple jobs cause wrong order of jobs. and lack of communication. Factory Waste and Office Waste Comparison Definition. causes. weak organizational structure.7 are: factory and office try to produce more than they need. Any movement of people or machines that does not add value to the product or service Transporting parts and materials around the plant Anything that cannot be reused. factory area and office area must know that they have to eliminate the common transportation waste. For instance. creative. or making faster than is required by the next process. or resold Office Waste Making more than is required. Waste Overproduction Inventory Defects Processing Waiting People Motion Transportation Material & Natural Resources Factory Waste Making more than is required. instead of focusing on one). Table 1. ineffective supervision. . and in terms of too much information gathered. 4. Factory people identify this problem as the necessity of reducing transportation of parts and materials around the plant and office people identify this problem as the necessity of reducing the transportation of forms and information around the office. reused. or making earlier than is required by the next process. These examples can be thought of both in terms of too many things produced. The waste of not using people’s abilities (mental. Transporting forms and information around the office Anything that cannot be reduced. Causes of overproduction are: just-in-case logic.

and leaky pens. Causes of waiting wastes are: unbalanced workload. and waiting for signatures.8 4. politics. printer or computer break-down. faxing. old guard thinking. redundant approval/inspection. mail delivery within the firm. poor design of forms and equipment. 4. lack of communication/information. environmental problems. purchase order does not match with quotation. Causes of excess inventory are: buying excessive supply material. papers). inconsistent work speed. irrelevant data existence. improperly trained employees. Causes of people wastes are: bad hiring practices. use of different software in different departments when processing an order. unbalanced workload. 4. and no storage space because it is filled with other items that are not needed.6 People waste People waste involves not using people’s abilities (mental. performing monotonous work. material waiting to be handled. not enough space to fill in forms. redundant approval. improperly coordinated departments. and confusing procedures. Causes of processing wastes are: just-in-case logic. Examples of people wastes are: bypassing procedures to hire a favorite . creative. non-standardized business process. and just-in-case logic. improperly trained/unskilled employee. typographical error. lack of proper instruction for filling out forms. politics/corporate culture. lack of communication /information. Causes of defects are: improperly trained/unskilled employees. documents are waiting to be matched or signed. Examples of inventory wastes are: buying supplies just-in-case (too many pens. physical. and business culture. and inconsistent work speed. Examples of processing wastes are: printing and mailing. and re-entering data. long equipment setups. different work schedules of team members meeting. 4. and emailing the same memo. files pile up between work desks.5 Waiting Waste Waiting waste is idle time created when waiting for something. Examples of waiting wastes are: waiting for printer to warm-up.3 Defect Waste Defect waste is the inspection and correction of forms and information in inventory. unstructured reward system. and re-keying a purchase order. overnight mailing. Examples of defect wastes are: improper lighting. bad quality of supply material. true requirements undefined. 4. lack of checklist. doing processes in a rush. bad scheduling. repetition of same information in different forms. attendees not all on time. skill).2 Inventory Waste Inventory waste is any supply in excess of a one-piece flow through your office process.4 Processing Waste Effort that adds no value to the service from the customers’ viewpoint is processing waste. unreliable equipment.

start using MRP software without prior training. looking for items because they do not have a defined place. They have developed a lean office-training workshop with live simulation [6] to show the relationship between factory wastes and the office wastes. just-in-case logic. not grouping similar orders. unfilled papers. use of poorly maintained copiers causing a waste of paper. reused. 4. poor utilization of paper space. time and money. ink. lack of signs.7 Motion Waste Any movement of people or equipment that does not add value to the service is motion waste. Examples of material and natural resources wastes are: poor storage of temperature sensitive materials. 5 Lean Office Live Simulation TMAC and the Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI) are exploring the application of lean principles in administrative processes.9 candidate. improper batch sizing. saving files everywhere. redundant approval. taking many backups. Causes of transportation wastes are: poor location of office to other areas. and not providing opportunity for growth. and bad hiring practices.8 Transportation Waste Transporting forms and information around the office is transportation waste. and non-energy efficient office equipment. Examples of transportation wastes are: copier is too far from desk. poor location of supply to other desks. poor document flow scheduling. and long travel for small amount of documents. Causes of material and natural resource wastes are: poor purchasing habits. bad scheduling of work. 4. . no signs identifying areas or departments. The live simulation also shows the implementation of the lean techniques in two office processes: the generation of quotations based on request for quotations and the generation of sales orders based on purchase orders. 4. improper/lack of training. Examples of motion wastes are: keeping forms far from reach of employees. paper and stapler kept away from printer and copier. large file storage area. too many copies in too many places. nonstandard work methods. and making a draft before preparing formal document. or recycled makes up material waste and natural resources waste. unclear qualifications. and defects. Causes of motion wastes are: poor workplace organization. requirement of extra and unnecessary documents. improperly trained or unskilled employees. and bad process and document design. poor efficiency of support equipment. walking back and forth to correct mistakes.9 Material Waste & Natural Resources Waste Anything that cannot be reduced. employee working by experience instead of standard method.

accepts PO's.10 The lean office simulation involves a mix of classroom style learning with an interactive live simulation. issues Sales Orders. The Sales Department handles all interactions with the customer. Workflows in the Sales and Estimating Departments The office is transformed in three "rounds". effective. The participants work in a traditional office environment with forms. By the end of the simulation. and the implementation of the lean techniques in two office processes is presented in three steps: Round one-office waste identification. After running round one. Improvements are implemented for each "round". In the office live simulation. The two departments are the Sales Department and the Estimating Department. The relationship between the factory wastes and the office wastes. the office is transformed from a confused and slow environment to a much more efficient. . The Estimation Department provides current quotes on manufacturing and material costs. and predictable one. During the simulation. and other customer contact. Quotation / Purchase VP Production Department Sales Department Estimating Department Warehouse Sales Sales RFQ RFQA PO POA POC Q Customer Order Entry Department Billing/Invoice Department Figure 1. Through the implementation of the lean techniques. they helped redesign a leaner office that gets more done with less effort. See Figure 1. and procedures. and inventory availability. A set of lean techniques is implemented to improve the process as seen in Table 2. The office wastes are identified based on the factory wastes classification defined by NIST/MEP and TMAC. using the same terms taught in lean for the factory. Round two-lean techniques implementations. where participants take on the roles of managers and workers within a company. The Sales Department receives RFQ's. participants learn and use lean techniques. receives PO's. calculators. checks credit. two departments are setup and staffed to process Request For Quotations (RFQ) and Purchase Orders (PO) that come from the company's customers. requests quotes. most of the office wastes are identified.

papers) Files pile up between work desks No storage space because it is filled with other stuff we don’t need Papers not filed Saving files everywhere No signs identifying areas or departments Keeping forms far from reach of workers Lean techniques implemented Changes incorporated in Round 2 Improve documentation (forms & logs) Implement inboxes Remove unnecessary items & forms 5S Motion Transportation Visual Control POUS Use big signs Use labels on trays Motion Remove document keeper Forms available near to the desk Transportation Copier is too far from desk Layout Move fax closer to sales representative 1 Simplify process Zero copies Improve forms Overproduction Processing Material and Natural Resources Defect Copy documents twice just-in-case Lack of proper instruction for filling out form Repetition of same information in different forms Requirement of extra and unnecessary documents Not enough space to fill in forms Standardized Work Reassign work tasks Eliminate steps Table 2. Waste Identified and their Related Lean Techniques . Team work. See Table 3.11 Round three-lean techniques implementations. additional lean techniques are applied to eliminate wastes. Waste Inventory Description Buying stuff just-in-case (too many pens. and pull system are implemented. After running round two. cross training. cellular layout (see Figure 2). Round 2.

12 Quotation Process Sales Rep. . Round 3. Round 3. Number of RFQ processed increased 450 %. Total cycle time for generating a quotation decreased 75 %. Inbox Fax Fax Documentation Inbox Inbox Estimation Assistant Sales Rep. 2 Inbox Inbox Sales Manager To Customer To Order Entry Dept. Workflows Waste Transportation People People Processing Waiting Processing Description Long travel for small amount of documents Underutilized workers Workers do not help each other Confusing document flow Documents are waiting to be matched or signed Confusing document flow Lean technique implemented Team work Cross training Cellular layout Work Balancing Pull System Changes incorporated in Round 3 Work as a team Just one department All employees have multiple skills Implement ‘U’-shape layout Balance work between team members One piece flow Table 3. RFQ in the process (WIP) at the end of the simulation cycle decreased 100 %. Some results from previously run simulations are: • • • • • Movement and transportation of orders decreased 95 %. Office cost and employee cost decreased 50 %. Waste Identified and their Related Lean Techniques The live simulation demonstrates that it is possible to improve the office environment productivity using lean techniques. 1 From Customers Figure 2.

P. Suri. Lean Thinking." Texas Manufacturing Assistance Center and Automation & Robotics Research Institute. Carmel. 2001. New York: Simon & Schuster." Industrial Engineering. [6] TMAC and ARRI. LLC. the connection between the office and the factory is key to reducing overall lead-time. "Administrative flow. To promote integration and cooperation in the enterprise. "An Entreprise Transformation Methodology. A combination of classroom training and live simulation is recommended. lean training for office employees should contain the same terminology as the lean training for the factory. pp. pp. 67. Lean principles can be applied to office areas for improving documentation flow and reducing the total lead-time. [5] D. 1998. IN 1999. pp. Maskell. 1996. "Accounting for lean manufacturing. "Lean Office Training.13 6 Conclusion Wastes in an office environment can be treated in the same way that wastes are treated in a factory. July 2001. 126. T." National Institute of Standards and Technology Manufacturing Extension Partnership 1998. Underdown. vol." The Kaufman Consulting Group. 46-47. Identifying and minimizing these wastes can create tremendous savings in office areas. pp. E. Arlington. Womack and D. 315. The live simulation has been used to demonstrate lean principles to office employees. [11] DVIRC. 18. [7] [8] J. Boardman and M. Johnson. "Principles of lean manufacturing 101.." Manufacturing Engineering." Delaware Valley Industrial Resource Center. [2] D. 1993. [9] [10] G." Proceedings of the 2001 8th Annual E&R Foundation Summer Workshop. S. vol." Manufacturing Engineering. KCG. 1997. Mika. Ulis. "Office Kaizen: Making lean work in service environment. [3] R. 125. Chicago. TX: University of Texas at Arlington. In an enterprise. "Business Process Engineering. References [1] B. 21-25. Fort Worth. [4] NIST/MEP. Delaware 2000. "Lean Techniques in an Office Setting. vol. Jones. IL. Quick Response Manufacturing: A Companywide Approach to Reducing Lead Times: Productivity Press Inc. TX 2001. 2000. B. . R. "Eliminating all muda." CMA Management Accounting Magazine.

dissertation.D. USA. beverage packaging. Kleber has a BS in Mechanical Engineering. enterprise modeling. He has experience in lean office techniques application. Barcia is a Ph. strategic justification of enterprise technologies. He is currently working in the development of a methodology to identify and eliminate non-value added in office environment in small companies. supply chain design. and Ph. For the past 2 years at ARRI. industrial simulation. D student of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Arlington (UTA). performance measures. Kleber is also a Graduate Assistant Researcher at UTA Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI). Mary has a Ph. Mary E.D. the Educational Society for Resource Management. she has been focusing on the development of the discipline of Enterprise Engineering http://arri. . Johnson is the Enterprise Engineering Program Coordinator at The University of Texas at Arlington Automation & Robotics Research Institute (ARRI). the National Industrial Engineering honor society and a co-sponsor of the APICS student chapter. She has hands-on experience as an Industrial Engineer in the aerospace. and industrial processes design. Her primary research interests are in the logistics and resource planning disciplines. Dr. in Industrial Engineering from Texas A&M University. he has been focusing on the development of the lean office workshop.S. Bonnie Boardman is an Assistant Professor of Industrial and Manufacturing Systems Engineering at The University of Texas at Arlington. strategic information systems. and financial services industries.14 Bibliographies Kleber F.uta. MS in Agricultural Economics. in Industrial Engineering from The University of Arkansas and an M. His research interests are lean techniques. Boardman is active in numerous technical and professional organizations. For the past 10 years at ARRI.S.D in Industrial Engineering. She is the student advisor for the UTA Alpha Pi Mu.edu/eif/. USA. and complexity. and he is currently working on his Ph. Dr. chaos theory in manufacturing. She has published papers on enterprise performance measures. USA. She also holds the position of Newsletter Editor for the Greater Fort Worth Chapter of APICS. and enterprise process design. Boardman holds a B. Her research interests are enterprise design.