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Feb2008

COMBINATION REACTION 1. A metal + non-metal

a. When a Group A metal and a nonmetal react, the metal cation and a nonmetal anion. Mg + Cl2 Mg + O2 MgCl2 MgO

Which of the following oxides may produce an acid when dissolved in water? CO2 NO2 Fe2O3

product is a compound that is a combination of a 5. Metal oxide + nonmetal oxide salt Metallic oxide may also react with nonmetal oxides to form a K2O + SO3 K2SO4

Complete this combination reaction: Be + O2 Sr + I2 ______ _______

CaO + CO2

CaCO3

b. When a transition metal and a nonmetal react, there may be one or more possible products. Fe + S 2. Nonmetal + nonmetal Fe + S Fe2S3 FeS

When a nonmetal and nonmetal react by combination, more than one product is often possible. 2C + O2 C + O2 S + O2 2CO

Using the previous examples as your guidelines, complete the following combination reactions. 1. Al + O2 2. Cu + S 3. SO3 + H2O

CO2 SO2

3. Nonmetal oxide + water

2S + 3O2

2SO3

Some NONMETAL OXIDES react with water to produce an ACID. SO2 + H2O H2SO3

4. Metal oxide + water

Some METALLIC OXIDES react with water to form a BASE. CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2

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Feb2008

DECOMPOSITION REACTION 1. Oxides

Al2(SO4)3

Oxides of metals beyond Hg in the electromotive series can be decomposed by HEATING to produce a metal and oxygen gas. Ag2O ⎯⎯⎯→ 4Ag + O2 Al2O3 ⎯⎯⎯→ no reaction Fe2O3 ⎯⎯⎯→ no reaction 4. Nitrates

heat ⎯⎯⎯→ Al2O3 +3SO3 heat CaSO4 ⎯⎯⎯→ no reaction

The nitrates of Group I metals decompose into nitrites and oxygen. 2KNO3

heat

heat

heat ⎯⎯⎯→ 2KNO2 + O2

heat

The nitrates of other metals will decompose into nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and metal oxide. 2Pb(NO3)2 5. Carbonates

However, oxides of the metals above Hg in the activity series may be decomposed by electrolysis, thus,

heat ⎯⎯⎯→ 2PbO + 4NO2 + O2

electricity 2Al2O3 ⎯⎯ ⎯ ⎯⎯→ 4Al + 3O2
2. Hydroxides

Except for Group I carbonates, all carbonates lose carbon dioxide to form a metallic oxide. MgCO3

All hydroxides except those of Group IA will lose water when heated forming the metal oxide. Mg(OH)2

heat ⎯⎯⎯→ MgO + CO2 heat Na2CO3 ⎯⎯⎯→ no reaction
6. Chlorates

heat ⎯⎯⎯→ MgO + H2O heat NaOH ⎯⎯⎯→ no reaction heat 2Al(OH)3 ⎯⎯⎯→ Al2O3 + 3H2O
3. Sulfates With the exception of the Group IA and Group IIA sulfates, the sulfates of all other metals are decomposed by heated to form a metal oxide and sulfur trioxide.

All chlorates decompose by heating to form the chloride of the metal and oxygen gas. KClO3

heat ⎯⎯⎯→ KCl + O2

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Feb2008

SINGLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS 1. A metal + an acid

DOUBLE-REPLACEMENT REACTIONS 1. One product is slightly soluble and precipitates in the solution.

When a metal is above the hydrogen in the activity series is reacted with an acid, hydrogen is liberated and salt is formed. Zn + HCl Cu + H2SO4 ZnCl2 + H2

a. All salts of sodium, potassium, and ammonium are soluble in water. NaCl, Na2SO4, Na2CO3 ------ soluble

no reaction

b. Nitrates, chlorates and acetates of all metals are soluble in water. KNO3, Mg(ClO3)2, NaC2H3O2 ----- soluble

2. A metal + a salt

Each metal in the activity series displaces any metal below it from a salt in a solution. Cu + AgNO3 Cu + FeSO4

c. Chlorides, bromides and iodides of all metals EXCEPT lead, silver, and mercury (I) are soluble in water. (PbCl2, PbBr2 and PbI2 are soluble in hot water) MgI2--- soluble

Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag

no reaction

AgCl--- insoluble d. Sulfates of all metals EXCEPT lead, mercury (I), barium and calcium are soluble in water. Na2SO4 ----- soluble CaSO4---- insoluble

3. A halogen + halide salt from a halide salt.

A halogen Group VIIA will displace any less active halogen

Cl2 + 2NaI

2NaCl + I2

e. Carbonates, phosphates, borates, sulfites, chromates and arsenates of all metals except sodium, potassium, and ammonium are insoluble in water. Na2CO3 ----- soluble

MgCO3----- insoluble

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Feb2008

f.

Sulfides of barium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, sulfides are insoluble.

potassium and ammonium are soluble in water. All other CaS ---- soluble

ACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS Lithium (Li)

FeS---- insoluble g. The hydroxides of sodium, potassium, ammonium, hydroxides of all other metals are insoluble. MgO--- insoluble NaOH --- soluble

Potassium (K) Barium (Ba) Strontium (Sr) Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na)

calcium and barium are soluble in water. Oxides and

Magnesium (Mg) Aluminum (Al) Zinc (Zn) Manganese (Mn)

INCREASING ACTIVITY

2. One product is a gas that bubbles out in of the mixture. 3. One product is a molecular compound such as water.

Chromium (Cr) Iron (Fe) Cadmium (Cd) Cobalt (Co) Nickel (Ni) Tin (Sn) Lead (Pb)

BaCl2 + K2CO3 NaCl + HBr

BaCO3 + 2KCl

no reaction

Antimony (Sb) Arsenic (As) Bismuth (Bi)

Hydrogen (H)

Copper (Cu) Silver (Ag)

Mercury I (Hg+) Palladium (Pd) Platinum (Pt) Gold (Au)

Mercury II (Hg2+)

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