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Annotated List of Works Consulted Primary

Bakken, Earl. "Relections on Leadership." Medtronic Inc., 1989. Web. 8 Nov. 2009. This source is originally a speech delivered by Dr. Earl Bakken in 1989 and contains information on his co-founding of Medtronic, and his contributions to the development of the first battery-powered, wearable pacemaker in late 1957. Bakken also describes the fulfilling feeling of seeing his pacemaker used in Dr. C. Walton Lillehei’s operating room to save children with heart block after open-heart surgery. He also speaks of the remarkable possibilities of electrophysiologic engineering after three years later; Medtronic Inc. began manufacturing the Chardack-Greatbatch implantable pacing system.

Greatbatch, W., CF Holmes, ES Takeuchi, and SJ Ebel. "Lithium/carbon monofluoride (Li/CFx): a new pacemaker battery." Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: Pace 2nd ser. 19.11 (1996): 1836-840. Web. 3 Dec. 2009. Greatbatch, Holmes, Takeuchi, and Ebel, discuss a new pacemaker system, the lithium/CFx. The system is more desirable because of it can supply higher current densities at useful voltages than lithium/ iodine used during that time period. The lithium/CFx is also an innovation in pacemakers by being compatible with a titanic casing that would allow a 50% reduction weight over the same size of a lithium/iodine battery.

Hans Ryden, Hans Shuller, Berit Larsson. "Biography of Arne Larsson."

Gerald. Ake Senning.Heart Rhythm Society. Ake Senning also describes his lab experiments in testing for the pacemaker." Ctsnet. Else Marie) In this interview Arne Larsson talks about time building up to the operation and the operation. Ake Senning and engineer Rune Elmqvist at the Karolinska Hospital and Institute who think they might be able to save Larsson. 17 June 2005. This is where I learned about Dr. Web. Web. 23 Sept.8 (1973): 881-86. Dr. Else Marie and Arne Larsson talk about hunting for a doctor that could perhaps save him as he was told he had almost no chance of living for very long. Cardiothoracic Surgery Network. (Note: This is originally an interview with excerpts of audio clips from Arne Larsson and his wife. "Dr. and his contributions and journey to the first implantable pacemakers. 1997. JAMA. Paul. 2009." Journal of the American Medical Association 228. "Development of Electric Control of Cardiac Rhythm. later. external electric stimulation and external countershock with electrodes on the precordium permitting emergency resuscitation from ventricular standstill and fibrillation and provided a means for stopping rapid arrhythmias (abnormal beating of the heart). then a direct stimulation or countershock defibrillation with electrodes placed directly on an exposed heart. 2009. They later meet Dr. 1979. This took place on November 14. This source describes one technique of electrical control of cardiac rhythm. 29 Oct. 2009. W. 12 Nov. Ake Senning. It begins with a demonstration of an action current of each myocardial contraction. 14 Sept. Rainer. Zoll. Cardiac monitors permit the quick recognition and identification of arrhythmias .

In 1986. John L. Hess. They later compare the 12 Nov. Cray. Greatbatch established a series of companies to manufacture his inventions. cadmium batteries that must be replaced every 22 months ." New York Times 23 July 1972: 1-1. Web. Bigchalk. 5 Oct. including Greatbach Enterprises. "Pacemakers Going Nuclear. Web. 2009.Andrew Gage and his assistant William Chardack. Greatbatch's innovation was selected in 1983 by the National Society of Professional Engineers as one of the two major engineering contributions to society during the previous 50 years. 1970: 29-29. Bigchalk." New York Times 29 Apr. Greatbatch was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame. which produces most of the world's pacemaker batteries." Uspto.356 for the cardiac pacemaker and was the first patent for a cardiac pacemaker. 2009. "Cardiac pacemaker patent issued October 9. Kim. United States Patent and Trademark Office. This source is where I learned how French scientists implanted the first nuclear powered pacemaker into a human heart. The objects of these experiments was to create up to ten years more of "battery life" of the pacemaker. 1962. 1962. This source describes how on October 9.057. Web. This history fair source is where I found out how pacemakers powered by nuclear sources were experiments run by and implanted by Dr. 28 Oct. The patient was a 58year old women who suffered from a malfunction of nerves controlling the heartbeat. Douglas W. "A Heart Is Given Atom Pacemaker. Wilson Greatbatch received patent #3. 2001. 2009.Secondary Byars. 23 Sept.

. Most implants are put on the non-dominant side meaning that if you are righthanded. Kantrowitz manufactured by General Electric Company). The first pacemaker was zincmercury followed by the 'demand' pacemaker ( A pacemaker that only sends electrical impulses when your heart rate is to slow) in the 1960's and the lithium battery in the 1970's. and Timothy Betts. Andrew Mitchell. Paul Zoll's version manufactured by the Electrodyne Company. it converts into electricity by a set of thermocouples made of bismuth-tellurium compound thought much superior to rival and past materials. 2009. 2008. it is on your the new nuclear powered pacemaker that is slimmer and is supposed to last a life time(it will supposedly lose half of its radioactivity in 87. The new pacemaker is made of plutonium 238 and weighs 150 milligrams. Dr. and Dr.000 Kept Alive by Electronic Cardiac Devices.4 years) but guaranteed to last ten there are over two million pacemakers worldwide. Schmeck Jr. Bigchalk. Cardiac Pacemakers and ICDs. 1963: 82-82.. Jonathon. Print. Web. USA: Oxford UP. 8 Oct. William Chardack's version manufactured by Medtronic Inc. "3. Paul Leeson. This source is where I learned about the number of people who have pacemakers and the main three who developed them (Dr. Timberley. From this source I learned that since their first use." New York Times 13 Oct. Through mild heat radiated from the plutonium. Harold M.The article also talks about the heart blocks that Stokes-Adams syndrome patients suffer from and how the pacemaker has benefited them.

1997. Greatbatch has focused on the environment building a solar panel canoe.S. Massachusetts Intsitute of Technology."Wilson Greatbatch." Wen. and battling Building an oscillator to record heart sounds. Greatbatch became interested in medical research and dreamed of the biggest innovation in the era. In more recent years. Mar.D. Greatbatch graduated from and earned a BS from Cornell and MSEE from the University of Buffalo and later he served in the navy in WWII. 2009. He took it one step further though and invented the lithium/iodine battery that has saved millions. to create the 1 Dec. .I. This article is a biography of Greatbatch's life and his accomplishments. Greatbatch realized than realized the small device could be used to regulate the human heart beat. Web. he accidentally installed a resistor with the wrong resistance into the unit. it began to give off a steady electrical pulse.