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CONTENT

1. Introduction 1. Fuel 2. Need of Alternative fuel 3. Alternative fuel 2. Discovery of Hydrogen 3. Hydrogen 4. Production of Hydrogen
5. Distribution of Hydrogen

6. Benefits of Hydrogen 7. Conclusion 8. Bibliography

INTRODUCTION
FUEL: The
main purpose of fuel is to store energy, which should be in a stable form and can be easily transported to the place of production. Almost all fuels are chemical fuels. The user employs this fuel to generate heat or perform mechanical work, such as powering an engine. It may also be used to generate electricity, which is then used for heating, lighting or electronics purposes.

FUEL CRISIS: A

fuel crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy . With in short span we are going loose the significance of the fuels like petrol, diesel. By replacing these fuels by HYDROGEN we can continue the survival of the automobiles.

NEED OF ALTERNATIVE FUEL:
 Current Supply of Fossil Fuels may be exhausted by the year 2030.  By the year 2025, petroleum production will decrease dramatically.  The political instability in the Middle East will cause the price of petroleum to continue to increase.  The United States is becoming dependent on foreign nations for their petroleum needs and is, therefore, causing a decline in their status as a world leader.  The United State’s Foreign Policy would not have to consider the “OPEC Factor” in making decisions concerning world affairs.

ALTERNATIVE FUEL:

They are known as non-conventional or advanced fuels , are any materials or substances that can be used as fuels , other than conventional fuels. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defines an alternative fuel as a product that is substantially nonpetroleum which yields energy security and environmental benefits Conventional fuels include: F ossil fuels (petroleum (oil), coal , propane , and natural gas ), as well as nuclear materials such as uranium and thorium , as well as artificial radioisotope fuels that are made in nuclear reactors, and store their energy. Some well-known alternative fuels include biodiesel, bioalcohol

The name comes from the Greek ‘hydro’ meaning water and ‘genes’ meaning forming – hydrogen is one of the two water forming elements. vegetable oil. The experiment demonstrated that electricity could pull substances apart into their constituent elements. Cavendish also observed that when the substance was burned. Lavoisier later named the element hydrogen (1783). and other biomass sources DISCOVERY OF HYDROGEN: A favorite school chemistry experiment is to add a metal such as magnesium to an acid. and mercury – and that all other substances were made of different combinations of these three(Chemistry still had a long way to go!). it produced water. In 1806. non-fossil methane.(methanol. Indeed. Hydrogen was first recognized as a distinct element in 1766 by Henry Cavendish. Neither Paracelsus nor De Mayerne proposed that hydrogen could be a new element. with hydrogen well-established as an element. . ethanol. “Air arises and breaks forth like a wind. forming a salt and releases hydrogen from the acid. He is reported to have said of the experiment. a physician. The metal reacts with the acid. when he prepared it by reacting hydrochloric acid with zinc . however. discover any of hydrogen’s properties Turquet De Mayerne repeated Paracelsus’s experiment in 1650 and found that the gas was flammable. He found hydrogen and oxygen were formed. In 1670 Robert Boyle added iron to sulfuric acid. He showed the resulting (hydrogen) gas only burned if air was present and that a fraction of the air (we would now call it oxygen ) was consumed by the burning. He described hydrogen as “inflammable air from metals” and established that it was the same material (by its reactions and its density) regardless of which metal and which acid he used to produce it. butanol). non-fossil natural gas. by a similar method to that used in schools now. Davy realized that substances were bound together by an electrical phenomenon. hydrogen. The first recorded instance of hydrogen made by human action was in the first half of the 1500s. chemically stored electricity (batteries and fuel cells). Paracelsus believed there were only three elements – the tria prima – salt. Humphry Davy pushed a strong electric current through purified water. dissolved iron in sulfuric acid and observed the release of a gas. Theophrastus Paracelsus. he had discovered the true nature of chemical bonding. sulfur.” He did not.

both of which can power low. hydrocarbons (such as methane. Hydrogen also can be used to fuel internal combustion engines and fuel cells. This is excellent because the United States has huge agricultural resources. depending on the source. HYDROGEN: Hydrogen HYDROGEN IS THE BEST OF ALL THE REST  Hydrogen is a stable element. hydrogen is non-toxic and burns invisibly. CH 4 ). and other organic matter. However. The simplest and lightest fuel is hydrogen gas. it is a colorless. Efficiently producing hydrogen from these compounds is one of the challenges of using hydrogen as a fuel. It is usually bonded with other elements. Fuel cell cars have no exhaust emissions.  A pound of hydrogen holds more energy than any other material. odorless gas (H2).is the simplest and most abundant element in the universe.  Hydrogen is clean burning – great for our atmosphere.or zero-emissions vehicles such as fuel cell vehicles. At Earth surface temperatures and pressures. Hydrogen may contain low levels of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Major research and development efforts are aimed at making hydrogen vehicles practical for widespread use.  In its gaseous state. Very little hydrogen gas is present in Earth's atmosphere. it is number 1 on the periodic table of elements.  Hydrogen is renewable. .  Hydrogen can be produced from biomass (plant matter). Hydrogen is locked up in enormous quantities in water (H 2 O). hydrogen is rarely found alone in nature.  Hydrogen is the most abundant element on earth – making up 75 percent of our environment.  Hydrogen is odorless – no nauseating fumes to inhale.

HYDROGEN AS AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL: The interest in hydrogen as an alternative transportation fuel stems from its clean-burning qualities. Because hydrogen has a low volumetric energy density (a small amount of energy by volume compared with fuels such as gasoline). Hydrogen is considered an alternative fuel under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 . storing this much hydrogen on a vehicle using currently available technology would require a very large tank— larger than the trunk of a typical car. A light-duty fuel cell vehicle must store 11-29 lb (5-13 kg) of hydrogen to enable an adequate driving range of 300 miles or more. Advanced technologies are needed to reduce the required storage space and weight. The energy in 2. and the fuel cell vehicle's potential for high efficiency (two to three times more efficient than gasoline vehicles). its potential for domestic production. The main interest of hydrogen as an energy carrier is linked to Fuel Cells technology .2 lb (1 kg) of hydrogen gas is about the same as the energy in 1 gallon of gasoline.

fossil fuels. and other renewable energy technologies. rather than fossil fuels. it takes energy to manufacture it. electrolysis and steam-methane reforming process. such as wind or solar. . Because pure hydrogen does not occur naturally. such as. splits water into hydrogen and oxygen. There are different ways to manufacture it. biomass). Hydrogen can be produced from diverse. nuclear energy.  Renewable electrolysis—an electric current generated by renewable energy technologies.  Natural gas reforming—"synthesis gas" is created by reacting natural gas with high-temperature steam or by partial oxidation. biomass.  Gasification—Coal or biomass is converted into gaseous components and then into synthesis gas. geothermal. not an energy source. The synthesis gas is then reacted with water to produce hydrogen. hydro. Obtaining hydrogen from this process is being studied as a viable way to produce it domestically at a low cost. The more natural methods of making electricity (wind. hydro. In electrolysis. and many other resources. Steam-methane reforming process extracts the hydrogen from methane.  Renewable liquid reforming—renewable liquid fuels such as ethanol are reacted with high-temperature steam to produce hydrogen near the point of end-use. biomass. The following are some ways to produce hydrogen.PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN: Hydrogen is an energy carrier. this reaction causes a side production of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide which are greenhouse gases and contribute to global warming. which is reacted with steam to produce hydrogen. This method can be used by using wind. Many are in the early stages of development. Once produced. the current leading technology for producing hydrogen in large quantities is steam reforming of methane gas (CH 4 ). solar. Energy is required to separate it from other compounds. Even so. domestic resources including fossil fuels. geothermal. hydrogen stores energy until it is delivered in a usable form. However. would be better used as to continue the environment-friendly process of the fuel.  Nuclear high-temperature electrolysis—heat from a nuclear reactor is used to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis to produce hydrogen. solar. such as hydrogen gas delivered into a fuel cell. The environmental impact and energy efficiency of hydrogen depends greatly on how it is produced. electricity is run through water to separate the hydrogen and oxygen atoms.

Louisiana.  Photo biological—microbes such as green algae consume water in the presence of sunlight. and Texas. This level of hydrogen production could fuel more than 34 million cars. Natural gas reforming using steam accounts for about 95% of the approximately 9 million tons of hydrogen produced in the United States annually. The primary challenge for hydrogen production is reducing the cost of production technologies to make the resulting hydrogen cost competitive with conventional transportation fuels. producing hydrogen as a byproduct. PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN . Government and industry research and development projects are reducing the cost as well as the environmental impacts of hydrogen production technologies. Almost all of the hydrogen produced in the United States is used for refining petroleum. and processing foods. treating metals. producing fertilizer. The major hydrogen-producing states are California.  Photo electrochemical—photo electrochemical systems produce hydrogen from water using special semiconductors and energy from sunlight. High-temperature thermo chemical water-splitting—high temperatures generated by solar concentrators or nuclear reactors drive chemical reactions that split water to produce hydrogen.

PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM WATER: Many technologies have been explored but it should be noted that as of 2007 "Thermal. These cells optimally operate at high concentrations electrolyte (KOH or potassium carbonate) and at high temperatures. it was described how heat from atomic pow er plants could be used.  High-pressure tube trailers—Transporting compressed hydrogen gas by truck. Typical catalysts are yttrium -stabilized zirconium together with nickel. 2012. thermo chemical. DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROGEN: Most hydrogen used in the United States is produced at or very near where it is used. often near 200 °C. At the 243rd National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS). or barge in high-pressure tube trailers is expensive and used primarily for distances of 200 miles or less. and the Gulf Coast. or . ship. there is not yet an effective infrastructure for distributing hydrogen to the nationwide network of fueling that is required for widespread use of fuel cell vehicles . As a result. railcar. railcar. with only about 700 miles of pipelines in the United States located near large petroleum refineries and chemical plants in Illinois. hydrogen is most often distributed in the following three ways. The IAE A helps with its Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Program (HEEP). Thermolysis: Water spontaneously dissociates at around 2500 C. Tw o types of cells are popular. biochemical and photochemical processes have so far not found industrial applications. California. Electrolysis: Approximately 5% of industrial hydrogen is produced by electrolysis. ship. but this thermolysis occurs at temperatures too high for usual process piping and equipment. Currently. solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC's) and alkaline electrolysis cells (AEC's).  Liquefied hydrogen tankers—Cryogenic liquefaction enables hydrogen to be transported more efficiently over longer distances by truck. Catalysts are required to reduce the dissociation temperature. Only high temperature electrolysis of alkaline solutions finds some applications. typically at large industrial sites.  Pipelines—This least-expensive way to deliver large volumes of hydrogen is limited.

" Protecting Public Health and the Environment About half of the U. and particulate matter are a major source of this pollution. hydrocarbons. Because the transportation sector accounts for about one third of U. using these sources to produce hydrogen for transportation can slash greenhouse gas emissions. and nuclear energy. The environmental and health benefits are even greater when hydrogen is produced from low. which contribute to climate change .S. carbon dioxide emissions. biomass. It holds promise for economic growth in both the stationary and transportation energy sectors. even though the liquefaction process is expensive. wind. wind. Used to power highly efficient fuel cell vehicles. coal.barge compared with using high-pressure tube trailers. population lives in areas where air pollution levels are high enough to negatively impact public health or the environment.S. and nuclear energy and fossil fuels with advanced emission controls and carbon sequestration. hydrogen holds the promise of an end to the nation's "addiction to oil. With much of the worldwide petroleum reserves located in politically volatile countries.  Increasing Energy Security  Protecting Public Health and the Environment Increasing Energy Security The United States imports more than 60% of its petroleum.or zero-emission sources such as solar. it generates power without exhaust emissions in fuel cells. Hydrogen can be produced domestically from resources such as natural gas. the United States is vulnerable to supply disruptions. Hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles emit none of these harmful substances. solar energy. Once produced. with the potential for near-zero greenhouse gas emissions. No matter how efficient conventional vehicles become. Emissions from gasoline and diesel vehicles such as nitrogen oxides. . some of the gasoline and diesel needed to fuel them will need to be imported. The demand for petroleum imports is increasing. two-thirds of which is used to fuel vehicles in the form of gasoline and diesel. Their only emission is H 2 O— water. BENEFITS OF HYDROGEN: Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic resources.

. The Sun’s nuclear fires convert  hydrogen to helium releasing a large amount of energy. with atoms of anti hydrogen synthesized at CERN lasting for as long as 1000 seconds (almost 17 minutes). who saw a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen gases explode when triggered by light.  Solid.  We owe most of the energy on our planet to hydrogen. The chain reaction mechanism was fully explained in 1918 by Walther Nernst. crystalline hydrogen has the lowest density of any crystalline solid.  Hydrogen is believed to be one of three elements produced in the Big Bang. proteins and fats.  Hydrogen is the only atom for which the Schrödinger equation has an exact solution.  Hydrogen is the only element that can exist without neutrons. It does this more readily than any other element.  Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe.Important Facts about Hydrogen  About 10 percent of the weight of living organisms is hydrogen – mainly in water.  Hydrogen reacts explosively w ith the elements oxygen.  Liquid hydrogen has the lowest density of any liquid.  The first chain reaction discovered was not a nuclear reaction. chlorine and fluorine: O2. and F2. Cl2. Hydrogen’s most abundant isotope has no neutrons. Each atom of anti hydrogen contains a positron (positively charged version of the electron) orbiting an antiproton (negatively charged version of the proton). it was a chemical chain reaction.  Hydrogen forms both positive and negative ions. It was discovered in 1913 by Max Bodenstein.  Anti hydrogen is the only antimatter element made so far. the others are helium and lithium.

The engine can reach an overall efficiency of 38 percent.000 miles. one electron.  Both Chevron and Shell have opened hydrogen fueling stations in California and Washington D.  From 2000-2005.C.1 million kilometers of travel.  Ford Motor Company has developed an engine that is optimized to burn hydrogen. The engine is comparable to Ford’s 2. In its commonest form. the hydrogen atom is made of one proton. 65 light-duty trucks using fuel cells were placed into use in Los Angeles.000 hours of operation and 1.000 fuel cell cars by 2010. Characteristics : Hydrogen is the simplest element of all. and the lightest. Appearance and Characteristics Harmful effects: Hydrogen is highly flammable and has an almost invisible flame. Thirty-six of the buses have 75. Hydrogen is the only element that can exist without neutrons. The trucks have logged more than 220. The cars’ power and range of driving have increased over the past years. Over 90 percent of the atoms in the Universe are hydrogen. Hydrogen to be used to run the fuel cells. . This is about 25 percent more fuelefficient than a typical gasoline engine.Current Usages of Hydrogen as an Alternative Fuel for Automobiles  Honda Motor Company – plans to have 50. Los Angeles will soon have 21 stations while San Francisco will have eight.  Fed-Ex and UPS plan to phase in hydrogen powered trucks over the next five years.3 liter engine used in the Ford Ranger. and no neutrons.  General Motors has already designed and built model fuel cells and plan to have a production-ready hydrogen model available by 2010.  Daimler-Chrysler has 100 fuel cell cars and buses in operation using hydrogen as their fuel. It is also by far the most common element in the Universe. which can lead to accidental burns.

The detection of a burning hydrogen leak may require a flame detector. such leaks can be very dangerous. The hydrogen auto ignition temperature. On Earth. H 2 O. heat or sunlight.Hydrogen is a colorless. instead of burning the non-renewable fuel petrol or diesel. Any hydrogen that forms eventually escapes from the atmosphere into space. There is little free hydrogen on Earth because hydrogen is so light that it is not held by the planet’s gravity. Such pressures are found within gas giant planets such as Jupiter and Saturn. [ 1 6 ] Pure hydrogenoxygen flames emit ultraviolet light and are nearly invisible to the naked eye. Jupiter’s high magnetic field (14 times Earth’s) is believed to be caused by a dynamo effect resulting from electrically conducting metallic hydrogen circulating as the planet rotates. It burns and forms explosive mixtures in air and it react violently with oxidants. when hydrogen is burnt only heat and water are . Hydrogen gas forms explosive mixtures with air if it is 4–74% concentrated and with chlorine if it is 5–95% concentrated. Unlike petrol and diesel. it becomes a liquid metal when enormous pressure are applied to it. the temperature of spontaneous ignition in air. at standard temperature and pressure. as diatomic molecules. Phases      Compressed hydrogen Liquid hydrogen Slush hydrogen Solid hydrogen Metallic hydrogen Combustion engines: They have been designed which burn hydrogen to release its stored energy. H 2 . the major location of hydrogen is in water. The mixtures spontaneously explode by spark. is 500 °C(932 °F). PROPERTIES OF HYDROGEN: Combustion : Hydrogen gas is highly flammable and will burn in air at a very wide range of concentrations between 4% and 75% by volume. odorless gas which exists. Although hydrogen is usually a nonmetal.

which is released into the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. Stored chemical energy can be released from hydrogen to create power for vehicles using a hydrogen combustion engine. the volumetric energy density (mega joules per liter) is small relative to that of gasoline. Hydrogen has a three times higher specific energy by mass compared to gasoline (143 MJ/kg versus 46. equal to about one-third that of methane. combustion engines burn the non-renewable fuel petrol or diesel. Air : The air that surrounds us is an invisible substance made up of lots of different gases. Water : Water forms when two hydrogen atoms are joined together with one oxygen atom. The chemical formula for the element oxygen is O. Oxygen from the air is needed for combustion to take place. when petrol and diesel are burnt they produce the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).S. A recent study by Dutch researcher Robin Gremaud has shown that metal hydride hydrogen tanks are actually 40 to 60-percent lighter than an equivalent energy battery pack on an electric vehicle permitting greater range for H2 cars. found a new single-stage method for recharging ammonia borne. Department of Energy . before they are ignited.produced so no carbon dioxide or other pollutants are given off into the atmosphere. Remember! Water was one of the sources of hydrogen Storage of HYDROGEN: Hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy density at ambient conditions. However. One of the gases is oxygen. Some research has been done into using special crystalline materials to store hydrogen at greater densities and at lower pressures. In traditional cars. Hydrogen is stored in a fuel tank in the form of liquid hydrogen. This makes hydrogen a clean source of energy. In 2011. scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and University. By cooling hydrogen gas to a very low temperature hydrogen gas turns into a liquid. Air and hydrogen are mixed together in the cylinder. at hydrogen production sites. Even when the fuel is stored as liquid hydrogen in a cryogenic tank or in a compressed hydrogen storage tank . Water that is produced by a hydrogen combustion engine is released through the exhaust of a vehicle. When hydrogen is burnt in a combustion engine in the presence of oxygen from the air water is the only chemical that is given off.9 MJ/kg). working with the U. refueling stations and stationary power sites Hydrogen has very high energy content by weight (3x more than gasoline) and very low energy content by volume (4x less than gasoline) . a hydrogen storage compound Hydrogen will need to be stored onboard vehicles.

One is to use landfill gas to produce hydrogen in a steam reformer. is a renewable fuel . Hydrogen fuel.HYDROGEN STORAGE TANK Renewable HYDROGEN: Currently there are several practical ways of producing hydrogen in a renewable industrial process. and the other is to use renewable power to produce hydrogen from electrolysis. when produced by renewable sources of energy like wind or solar power.

HYDROGEN FUEL CELL FUEL CELL: A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent. buses. forklifts. FUEL CELL There are many types of fuel cells. Welsh Physicist William Grove developed the first crude fuel cells in 1839. fuel cells have been used in many other applications. Fuel cells are used for primary and backup power for commercial. They are used to power fuel cell vehicles. a cathode (positive side) and an electrolyte that allows charges to move between the two sides of the fuel cell. but they all consist of an anode (negative side). motorcycles and submarines. Since then. Electrons are drawn from . The first commercial use of fuel cells was in NASA space programs to generate power for probes. Fuel cells are different from batteries in that they require a constant source of fuel and oxygen to run. but hydrocarbons such as natural gas and alcohols like methanol are sometimes used. Hydrogen is the most common fuel. industrial and residential buildings and in remote or inaccessible areas. boats. but they can produce electricity continually for as long as these inputs are supplied. satellites and space capsules. including automobiles. airplanes.

conduct electricity before entering cathode  Electrolyte allows H + to pass into the cathode  In cathode. fuel cells produce water. very small amounts of nitrogen and other emissions. Individual fuel cells produce very small amounts of electricity. doesn’t need to be recharged 2500 fuel cell systems have been installed globally Used to power landfills and water treatment plants 50 fuel cell buses Every major automotive manufacturer has designed a fuel cell-powered vehicle Mercedes-Benz projects 40% efficiency in compact cars running on Hydrogen fuel cells Hydrogen Fuel Initiative (2003) Fuel cells require specific humidity. or placed in series or parallel circuits.=> 2H 2 O  Net Reaction: 2H 2 + O 2 => 2H 2 O  Exact opposite of electrolysis Preset Day Applocations Of Fuel Cells:           Little-to-no pollution. divided by an electrolyte  Hydrogen gas is channeled through anode side. or up to 85% efficient if waste heat is captured for use. SCIENCE OF HYDROGEN FUEL CELL:  Anode (-) and Cathode (+) on each side of the fuel cell. pressure. heat and. so cells are "stacked". The energy efficiency of a fuel cell is generally between 40-60%. about 0. depending on the fuel source.7 volts. catalyst combines H + . to increase the voltage and current output to meet an application’s power generation requirements. O 2 . As the main difference among fuel cell types is the electrolyte. etc.and electrons. forming H 2 O and heat  Anode: 2H 2 => 4H + + 4e  Cathode: O 2 + 4H + + 4e . producing direct current electricity. Catalysts are pricey and sensitive to poisoning Difficult to produce hydrogen . fuel cells are classified by the type of electrolyte they use. In addition to electricity. oxygen passes through cathode  Platinum catalyst oxidizes hydrogen atoms into H + and electrons  Electrons pass along external circuit.the anode to the cathode through an external circuit. Fuel cells come in a variety of sizes.

 Difficult to store optimum amounts of Hydrogen  If fuels other than hydrogen are used. some greenhouse gasses are emitted  Very few cars currently running on hydrogen FUEL CELL • • • • The fuel is the anode The oxidant is the cathode The fuel and oxidant continuously flow through the cell An electrolyte separates the fuel and oxidant channels .

however. The cell surface area can be increased.  A typical fuel cell produces a voltage from 0. water or carbon dioxide is created. which breaks down the fuel into electrons and ions.6 V to 0. The electrolyte is a substance specifically designed so ions can pass through it. but the electrons cannot. The electrolyte substance usually defines the type of fuel cell. which can be used to power electrical devices. At the anode a catalyst oxidizes the fuel.  The anode catalyst. Such a design is called a fuel cell stack. to create water or carbon dioxide. The net result of the two reactions is that fuel is consumed. The ions travel through the electrolyte to the cathode. Once reaching the cathode. where series yields higher voltage. they all work in the same general manner. the ions are reunited with the electrons and the two react with a third chemical. usually oxygen.7 V at full rated load. causing rapid loss of voltage). The most common fuel is hydrogen. turning the fuel into a positively charged ion and a negatively charged electron.  The cathode catalyst. normally referred to as the load. the electrolyte .  The fuel that is used. to allow stronger current from each cell. The anode catalyst is usually made up of very fine platinum powder. the fuel cells can be combined in series and parallel circuits. usually hydrogen. They are made up of three adjacent segments: the anode. The most important design features in a fuel cell are  The electrolyte substance. and the cathode. due to several factors:  Activation loss  Ohmic loss (voltage drop due to resistance of the cell components and interconnects)  Mass transport loss (depletion of reactants at catalyst sites under high loads. Two chemical reactions occur at the interfaces of the three different segments. The cathode catalyst is often made up of nickel but it can also be a nonmaterial-based catalyst.• • Solid or liquid electrolyte that conducts protons Need catalyst at low temp TYPES OF FUEL CELLS: Fuel cells come in many varieties. [ 9 ]  To deliver the desired amount of energy. . The freed electrons travel through a wire creating the electric current. which turns the ions into the waste chemicals like water or carbon dioxide. and an electric current is created. and parallel allows a higher current to be supplied. Voltage decreases as current increases.

a Fuel Cell will produce both energy and heat  A Fuel Cell consists of two catalyst coated electrodes surrounding an electrolyte  One electrode is an anode and the other is a cathode  The process begins when Hydrogen molecules enter the anode  The catalyst coating separates hydrogen’s negatively charged electrons from the positively charged protons  The electrolyte allows the protons to pass through to the cathode. but not the electrons  Instead the electrons are directed through an external circuit which creates electrical current  While the electrons pass through the external circuit.WORKING OF FUEL CELL  It operates similarly to a battery. oxygen molecules pass through the cathode  There the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons after they have passed through the external circuit  When the oxygen and the protons combine with the electrons it produces water and heat  Individual fuel cells can then be placed in a series to form a fuel cell stack  The stack can be used in a system to power a vehicle or to provide stationary power to a building . but it does not run down nor does it require recharging  As long as fuel is supplied.

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airplanes. etc. or weeks (instead of hours) Potentially power all cars. 60 million tons of carbon dioxide could be eliminated from yearly greenhouse gas production Development of cheaper and more reliable catalysts Higher demand = cheaper Economic crisis has greatly slowed technological advancements Past predictions for 2010 seem unlikely Hydrogen cannot be the only alternative fuel source to solve the energy crisis . laptops Enough energy to run for days. iPods. ships.Feature Of Fuel Cells:          Used to power personal electronic devices: cell phones.

an electrolyte and two electrodes  Different types of fuel cells are classified by the kind of electrolyte used  The type of electrolyte used determines the kind of chemical reactions that take place and the temperature range of operation  Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)  This is the leading cell type for passenger car application  Uses a polymer membrane as the electrolyte  Operates at a relatively low temperature. about 175 degrees  Has a high power density. can vary its output quickly and is suited for applications where quick startup is required making it popular for automobiles  Sensitive to fuel impurities . Many more years of research before mass production will be possible Major Types of Fuel Cells  In general all fuel cells have the same basic configuration .

possibly cell phones and laptops .Direct Methanol (a subset of PEM)  Expected efficiencies of 40% plus low operating temperatures between 120-190 degrees  Also uses a polymer membrane as the electrolyte  Different from PEM because the anode catalyst is able to draw hydrogen from methanol without a reformer  Used more for small portable power applications.

Phosphoric Acid  This is the most commercially developed fuel cell  It generates electricity at more than 40% efficiency  Nearly 85% of the steam produced can be used for cogeneration  Uses liquid phosphoric acid as the electrolyte and operates at about 450 degrees F  One main advantage is that it can use impure hydrogen as fuel .

meaning it must be made from another fuel Hydrogen can be produced from a wide variety of energy resources including: o Fossil fuels. planes. boats. Europe. water. wind and biomass   Fuel Cell Technology Applicable Areas     Transportation Stationary Power Stations Telecommunications Micro Power Transportation  All major automakers are working to commercialize a fuel cell car  Automakers and experts speculate that a fuel cell vehicle will be commercialized by 2010  50 fuel cell buses are currently in use in North and South America. scooters. such as solar. heat and water  The water byproduct is then recirculated back to the solar-powered electrolyses beginning the process again     Importance of HYDROGEN for Fuel Cell   Fuel Cells require highly purified hydrogen as a fuel Researchers are developing a wide range of technologies to produce hydrogen economically from a variety of resources in environmentally friendly ways Hydrogen is a secondary energy resource. Asia and Australia  Trains.Regenerative Fuel Cells Currently researched by NASA This type of fuel cell involves a closed loop form of power generation Uses solar energy to separate water into hydrogen and oxygen Hydrogen and oxygen are fed into the fuel cell generating electricity. forklifts and even bicycles are utilizing fuel cell technology as well . such as natural gas and coal o Nuclear energy o Renewable resources.

S. the Internet and sophisticated communication networks there is a need for an incredibly reliable power source  Fuel Cells have been proven to be 99. hotels.999% reliable Micro Power  Consumer electronics could gain drastically longer battery power with Fuel Cell technology  Cell phones can be powered for 30 days without recharging  Laptops can be powered for 20 hours without recharging Benefits of Fuel Cell technology       Physical Security Reliability Efficiency Environmental Benefits Battery Replacement/Alternative Military Applications Physical Security  Both central station power generation and long distance.Stationary Power Stations  Over 2. nursing homes. office buildings. high voltage power grids can be terrorist targets in an attempt to cripple our energy infrastructure  Fuel Cells allow the country to discontinue reliance on these potential targets Reliability  U. schools and utility power plants  Most of these systems are either connected to the electric grid to provide supplemental power and backup assurance or as a grid-independent generator for locations that are inaccessible by power lines Telecommunications  Due to computers. businesses lose $29 Billion a year from computer failures due to power outages .500 fuel cell systems have been installed all over the world in hospitals.

Businesses  Properly configured fuel cells would result in less than one minute of down time in a six year period Efficiency  Because no fuel is burned to make energy.S. More reliable power from fuel cells would prevent loss of dollars for U. but it would be 90% less than the pollutants produced from combustion engines HYDROGEN AS ALTERNATE FUEL & HYDROGEN FUEL CELL . fuel utilization can exceed 85% Environmental Benefits  Fuels cells can reduce air pollution today and offer the possibility of eliminating pollution in the future  A fuel cell power plant may create less than one ounce of pollution per 1.000 kilowatt-hours of electricity produced  Conventional combustion generating systems produce 25 pounds of pollutants for the same electricity  Fuel Cell Vehicles with hydrogen stored on-board produce ZERO POLLUTION in the conventional sense  The only byproducts of these Fuel Cell vehicles are water and heat  Fuel Cell Vehicles with a reformer on board to convert a liquid fuel to hydrogen would produce a small amount of pollutants. fuel cells are fundamentally more efficient than combustion systems  Additionally when the heat comes off of the fuel cell system it can be captured for beneficial purposes  This is called Cogeneration  The gasoline engine in a conventional car is less than 20% efficient in converting the chemical energy in gasoline into power  Fuel Cell motors are much more efficient and use 40-60% of the hydrogen’s energy  Fuel Cell cars would lead to a 50% reduction in fuel consumption  Fuel Cell vehicles can be up to 3 times more efficient than internal combustion engines  Fuel Cell power generation systems in operation today achieve 40% to 50% fuel-to-electricity efficiency  In combination with a turbine. electrical efficiencies can exceed 60%  When Cogeneration is used.