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Japanese Verb Conjugations: Yodan Verbs: (verbs that end in u, ku, gu, su, tsu, nu, bu, mu, or ru) Base 1 (a) Base 2 (e) Base 3 (u) Base 4 (e) kawakaikau (to buy

) kaearukaarukiaruku (to walk) arukeisogaisogiisogu (to hurry) isogekasakashikasu (to lend) kasematamachimatsu (to wait) mateshinashinishinu (to die) shineasobaasobiasobu (to play) asobeyomayomiyomu (to read) yomekaerakaerikaeru (to return) kaere-

Base 5(o) kaou arukou isogou kasou matou shinou asobou yomou kaerou

Ichidan Verbs: (verbs that end in -eru and -iru except hairu, kaeru, shiru, kiru and iru) Base 1 Base 2 Base 3 (plain form) Base 4 Base 5 tabetabetaberu (to eat) taberetabeyou oboeoboeoboeru (to remember) oboereoboeyou kimekimekimeru (to decide) kimerekimeyou dedederu (to leave) deredeyou karikarikariru (to borrow) karirekariyou mimimiru (to look, watch) miremiyou

Used to make the verb past polite negative. Watashi wa ashita kimimasu. -seru is used when the verb to be conjugated belongs to Yodan group. Used to indicate you want to do something. –saseru when the verb belongs to Ichidan group.. this is also equivalent to “Let me do (something) for you” or “Let me do this for you” Example: Watashi wa hakobimashou Let me carry this/ these for you. / John has to return now. watashi wa makudunarudo ni ikimasu.” “has to. Watashi wa kasa o kaitakunai desu. Used when something is "supposed to be" or "ought to be. / I want to buy an umbrella. Means that somebody is probably not going to do something. / Yoshie did not eat an apple. negative probability John wa kasa o kawanai deshou. Used as an invitation to do something.” John wa ima kaeranakereba narimasen. Means "must do. positive polite probability. 2. Doko de kaimashita ka? / Where did you buy it? Used to make the verb present polite negative. Watashi wa kasa o kaitai. Yoshie wa ringgo o tabemasen deshita. / John probably is not going to buy an umbrella. Can also be used in the same way as ne? Example: Osaka ni iku deshou? You’re going to Osaka. Used to make the verb past polite positive. right? . causative Ojii-san wa kodomotachi ni asobaseru / grandpa lets the children play. / I’ll have John decide by next week. John wa kasa o kawanai / John is not going to buy an umbrella. In English. 3. / I don’t want to buy an umbrella. Keiko ni furansugo o benkyou saseru hazu desu? / Am I supposed to make Keiko study French? Base 1 + (a) -nakereba -nakereba narimasen -seru / -saseru -masu -mashita -masen -masen deshita 1 Base 2 + (e) -tai / -tai desu -takunai / -takunai desu -mashou -nasai 2 -deshou Base 3 + (u) -hazu desu 1. Used when you want to let/have/make someone do something. John ni raishuu made ni kimesaseru. Ikimashou! / Let’s go! Used in making simple command. / I’m supposed to be in Osaka. Used to make the verb present polite positive. Tabenasai! / Eat! Means “perhaps” or “maybe”.. Raishuu watashi wa Kurashiki ni iku deshou. / If grandpa doesn’t come back soon I’m doing to McDonalds. / I’ll probably go to Kurashiki next week. / I’ll decide tomorrow." etc. / I will not an umbrella. The opposite of tai / tai desu. the opposite of nai deshou.Summary: Base -nai Suffix -nai deshou Meaning / Function / Usage Used to make the verb present plain negative. Watashi wa kasa o kaimasen. Used to make negative conditional sentences Ojii-san wa sugu kaeranakereba.. Osaka ni iku hazu desu.

Verb Dictionary Form: [eat] taberu Verb Infinitive: [to eat] tabe Verb Gerund: [eating] tabete Verb Gerund Plain Negative: [not eating] tabenaide Verb Gerund Polite Negative: [not eating] tabenakute Verb Present Plain: [eat] taberu Verb Present Plain Negative: [do not eat] tabenai Verb Present Polite: [eat] tabemasu Verb Present Polite Negative: [do not eat] tabemasen Verb Past Plain: [ate] tabeta Verb Past Plain Negative: [did not eat] tabenakatta Verb Past Polite: [ate] tabemashita Verb Past Polite Negative: [did not eat] tabemasen deshita Verb Present Progressive Plain: [is/are/am eating] tabete iru Verb Present Progressive Plain Negative: [is not/are not/am not eating] tabete inai Verb Present Progressive Polite: [is/are/am eating] tabete imasu Verb Present Progressive Polite Negative: [is not/are not/am not eating] tabete imasen Verb Past Progressive: [was/were eating] tabete imashita Verb Past Progressive Negative: [was not/ were not eating] tabete imasen deshita Verb Present Presumptive Plain: [must be eating] taberu darou Verb Present Presumptive Plain Negative: [is not probably eating] tabenai darou Verb Present Presumptive Polite: [is probably eating] taberu deshou Verb Present Presumptive Polite Negative: [is not probably eating] tabenai deshou Verb Past Presumptive Plain: [probably ate] tabeta darou Verb Past Presumptive Plain Negative: [probably did not eat] tabenakatta darou Verb Past Presumptive Polite: [probably ate] tabeta deshou Verb Past Presumptive Polite Negative: [probably did not eat] tabenakatta deshou Verb Future Presumptive Plain: [will probably eat] tabeyou Verb Future Presumptive Polite: [will probably eat] tabemashou Verb Imperative Plain: [eat!] tabero Verb Imperative Plain: (please eat!)] tabenasai Verb Imperative Plain Negative: [do not eat!] taberuna Verb Imperative Polite: [please eat!] tabete kudasai Verb Imperative Polite Negative: [please do not eat!] tabenaide kudasai Verb Conditional If: [たべれば] tabereba Verb Conditional If Negative: [たべなければ] tabenakereba Verb Conditional When/if: [たべたら] tabetara Verb Conditional When/if Negative: [たべなかったら] tabenakattara Verb Potential Plain: [can eat] taberareru Verb Potential Plain Negative: [can not eat] taberarenai .

Verb Potential Polite: [can eat] taberaremasu Verb Potential Polite Negative: [can not eat] taberaremasen Verb Passive Plain: [たべられる] taberareru Verb Passive Plain Negative: [たべられない] taberarenai Verb Passive Polite: [たべられます] taberaremasu Verb Passive Polite Negative: [たべられません] taberaremasen Verb Causative Plain: [たべさせる] tabesaseru Verb Causative Plain Negative: [たべさせない] tabesasenai Verb Causative Polite: [たべさせます] tabesasemasu Verb Causative Polite Negative: [たべさせません] tabesasemasen Verb Causative Passive Plain: [たべさせられる] tabesaserareru Verb Causative Passive Plain Negative: [たべさせられない] tabesaserarenai Verb Causative Passive Polite: [たべさせられます] tabesaseraremasu Verb Causative Passive Polite Negative: [たべさせられません] tabesaseraremasen Base 1 There are three main uses for Base 1    The plain negative form -nai .Please do not die matanaide mo ii desu . ..If you do not take it.If you do not call.You should not do it miranai to omoimasu .He perhaps/probably does not speak Japanese shinaide kudasai .the same for all three categories The passive case (to be instead of to do) -reru ... yobanai to..eru/iru and special verbs The causitive case (make to do case) -seru .If you don't eat.. tabenakereba narimasen .. it won't happen (you must eat) NOTE: this is how you say must in Japanese shinakute wa ikemasen .normal verbs -rareru .eru/iru and special verbs The Plain Negative Form (Examples)              hon o kawanai .. toranakereba.It's ok not to hurry (you don't have to hurry) konakatta ... it's ok (you don't have to wait) isoganakute mo ii desu .Even if you don't wait. .I think that I don't see it (I don't think I see it) .normal verbs -saseru ..He perhaps/probably will not write the letter Nihongo de hanasanai deshoo ..He will not buy the book tegami o kakanai daroo .If you did not read it..He did not come yomakattara. .

make to do (Examples) normal verbs   kawaseru .to not be bought (plain ending) kawaremasen .to feed / cause to eat (masu ending) Base 2 Besides the masu verb ending.to be eaten (plain ending) taberaremasu . The masu verb ending (Examples)      ikimasu .to be seen (masu ending) The Causitive Case .to be bought (plain ending) kawaremasu .did not go (past tense) ikimashoo . there are several uses for Base 2.go (command / imperative) tabenasai .to not be bought (masu ending) eru/iru verbs     taberareru . The conjugation is the same for all three categories.The Passive Case (Examples) normal verbs     kawareru .to be eaten (masu ending) mirareru .to be bought (masu ending) kawarenai .to not go (present tense) ikimashita .to go (present tense) ikimasen .eat (command / imperative) .let's go Misc.went (past tense) ikimasen deshita .to have him buy it (plain ending) kawasemasu .to be seen (plain ending) miraremasu .to have him buy it (masu ending) eru/iru verbs   tabesaseru .to feed / cause to eat (plain ending) tabesasemasu . verb endings for Base 2 (Examples)   ikinasai .

Let's ask whether or not he is going nihongo de yomu koto ga dekimasu .go to eat (masu ending) tabe ni ikimashoo .I think I will go tegami o kaku daroo . .. .If you want to go Base 3 The conjugation is the same for all three categories.. nihongo de kaku to kaku hodo jyoozu ni narimasu The more you write in Japanese.this is easy to read kore wa tabeyasui .that is hard to write sore wa minikui .He will probably go iku ka doo ka kikimashoo .Because I work.It's better if you read this hon o kau hazu desu .You should buy the book iku kamo shiremasen ..              iku .If you wait. the more skillful you will become.wanted to go (past tense plain) ikitaku wa nai .let's go and eat! kore wa yomiyasui . I don't rest ame ga furu soo desu .go to eat (plain ending) tabe ni ikimasu ..go to buy a book (plain ending) hon o kai ni ikimasu .that is hard to do isogi soo desu .eat too much ikitai .to go (plain ending) iku to omoimasu .go to buy a book (masu ending) tabe ni iku .He will perhaps/probably write a letter tegami o kaku deshoo .I hear that it will rain matsu to.He will perhaps/probably write a letter kore o yomu hoo ga ii desu .this is easy to do sore wa kakinikui .that is hard to see sore wa shinikui .want to eat ikitakatta .seems to be busy shini soo dewa arimasen .He can read Japanese hataraku kara yasumimasen .come (command / imperative) hon o kai ni iku .this is easy to eat kore wa shiyasui .I do not want to go (plain ending) ikitaku wa arimasen .talk too much tabesugiru .does not seem to be dying hanashisugiru .I do not want to go (masu ending) ikitakereba .want to go tabetai .                      kinasi .

I cannot go (masu ending) Base 5 The conjugation is the same for all three categories.I was writing a letter (plain ending) tabete imashita .Try to wait (masu ending) The Te-Form There are several uses for the te-form.     ikoo .If you come The Can Form (Examples) NOTE: with can.use only with the normal verb category The If Form (Examples)     hon o kaeba .the same for all three categories The can form -ru .I can speak Japanese (masu ending) matenai .I am not living in Osaka (masu ending) tegami o kaite ita .I am not living in Japan (plain ending) Osaka ni sunde imasen .Where are you living (masu ending) Nippon ni sunde inai .I cannot wait (plain ending) ikemasen .        yonde kudasai . The conjugation is the same for all three categories.If you write the letter tabereba .I can write kanji (plain ending) Nihongo ga hanasemasu .If you buy the book tegami o kakeba .If you eat kureba .Where shall we go? (plain ending) tako o tabeyoo to suru .I was eating (masu ending) .I am living in Tookyoo (plain ending) doko ni sunde imasu ka .Let's go (plain ending) doko e ikoo ka .Try to eat octopus (plain ending) matoo to shimasu . use ga after the object (instead of o)     kanji ga kakeru .Base 4 There are two main uses for Base 4   The If form -ba .please read Tookyoo ni sunde iru .

hon o katte kara kaerimashita .Even if you eat it.After I bought the book. yooji wa shite aru .I bought it kaita .       hon o katte ageru .Get someone to do it for you tabete suru . tabete mo ii desu .I wrote it tabeta .I saw it kita . it's ok (It's ok to eat it) shite morau . The conjugation is the same for all three categories.I came shita .To be finished eating The Ta-Form The main use for the ta-form is the plain past tense.       katta .I ate it mita .I did it . I returned home.This/it is written here.To buy a book for someone/you kore wa koku ni kaite aru .The errand is done/finished.