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This paper presents a new technique for identifying the locations of multiple harmonic sources in a distribution system using independent component analysis and mutual information theory. Independent component analysis is applied for estimating the current profile of injected harmonic currents caused by the harmonic sources, while the mutual information theory is for estimating the location of harmonic sources. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, numerical simulations were made in locating multiple harmonic sources in the IEEE 34 bus radial distribution system. Results showed that the proposed method can accurately estimate the locations of multiple harmonic sources without prior knowledge of the network parameters.

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**A New Method for Determining Multiple Harmonic Source Locations in a Power Distribution System
**

Masoud Farhoodnea, Azah Mohamed, Hussain Shareef Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia Bangi, 43600, Selangor, Malaysia Email: masoud702001@yahoo.com

Abstract— This paper presents a new technique for identifying the locations of multiple harmonic sources in a distribution system using independent component analysis and mutual information theory. Independent component analysis is applied for estimating the current profile of injected harmonic currents caused by the harmonic sources, while the mutual information theory is for estimating the location of harmonic sources. To verify the accuracy of the proposed method, numerical simulations were made in locating multiple harmonic sources in the IEEE 34 bus radial distribution system. Results showed that the proposed method can accurately estimate the locations of multiple harmonic sources without prior knowledge of the network parameters. Keywords—Harmonic distortion; Harmonic source location; Power quality

I.

INTRODUCTION

In harmonic study, it is important to identify the source of harmonics to solve the problems related to harmonic distortion. Harmonic source localization in power system is one of the approaches used to address the attribution of responsibility between customers and utilities for harmonic distortion in a power system. In practical radial distribution systems, harmonic sources can be located upstream and downstream relative to a monitoring point which is usually at the point of common coupling (PCC). With regards to this, different single point approaches can be found in the literature, for locating the source of harmonics and determining the share of utility and customer harmonic distortion at the PCC [1-4]. All of these methods focus on single point strategy for locating harmonic source at the PCC. Such methods cannot work in practical systems because harmonic sources exist and spread at various points in a power network. Hence, several methods have been developed for the purpose of locating multiple harmonic sources in a distribution system. Most of these multiple point approaches are based on harmonic state estimation (HSE) technique [5-7]. The HSE based methods require complete knowledge about the system parameters at different harmonic frequencies, which are usually unknown in practice. In addition, the measurement placement technique which is widely

applied in HSE for optimizing the number of measurements in a system needs to have prior knowledge about harmonic sources and their locations. Another concern with HSE is that this technique needs many harmonic measurements of voltage, real and reactive powers which are costly for large systems. In [8], independent component analysis (ICA) has been applied for locating the multiple harmonic sources. In this method, measured voltages at the selected buses which are determined by the measurement placement technique are used for estimating the impedance matrix of the system, and current traces of the harmonic sources. The minimum electrical distances between the estimated impedance matrix and the actual impedance matrix are then obtained for estimating the location of harmonic sources. However, this method is not completely practical because it needs to determine the actual impedance matrix of a system at each harmonic frequency. This paper presents a new method based on ICA and mutual information (MI) theory to identify the location of multiple harmonic sources in a distribution system. In this method, ICA is used to reconstruct or estimate the harmonic currents produced by the harmonic sources while the MI theory is used for determining the locations of harmonic sources, respectively. Unlike the previous methods, in this method only voltage measurements are made at all buses and there is no need for other kinds of measurements such as real and reactive powers. In addition, it is assumed that there are no prior information about the system parameters, harmonic impedance matrix and characteristics of harmonic sources and estimation will be done completely blindly. This assumption is important in the deregulated power systems where complete power system information, load behavior and utility response is not known because of economic and security restrictions. II. INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS Basically, ICA is a statistical technique that transforms the observed signals into a linear transform of source signals that are statistically independent from each other. To separate the source signals from the observed signals, certain assumptions are considered such that the independent components are statistically independent, all but one source signals must have nongaussian distributions and the number of observations should be greater or equal to the number of sources [9]. Assuming

978-1-4244-8946-6/10/$26.00 ©2010 IEEE

146

there are N sources and M measurements, then the linear mixing model of ICA can be written as (1) x j = a j1s1 + a j 2 s2 + ... + a jn sn for all j = 1,2,..., M The matrix representation of (1) is

~ X = ED −1 / 2 E T X

(5)

where D and E are the diagonal matrix of eigenvalues and the orthogonal matrix of eigenvectors, respectively which are obtained from the covariance matrix of the observed vector, X . III. MUTUAL INFORMATION THEORY Another approach for ICA estimation, inspired by information theory is minimization of MI. Using the concept of entropy defined for continuous random variables, the discrete form of entropy is derived as,

X = AS

where,

(2)

S (t ) = [ s1 (t ), s2 (t ),..., sn (t )]T : N-dimensional vector of

unknown source signals.

X (t ) = [ x1 (t ), x 2 (t ),..., x m (t )] :

of observed signals.

T

M-dimensional vector

H ( y ) = −∑ p( y ) log p( y )

y =1

N

(6)

**A : M × N full column coefficient matrix aij called as
**

the mixing matrix. Here X and S are M × T and N × T matrices whose column vectors are observation vectors and sources, and T is the number of observations. In ICA, the objective is to find estimates of the S and A from the available observations X . The unknown source matrix S can be estimated as: (3) S est = WX where, Sest : estimate of the sources S with N × T dimension. W : N × M separating matrix which is the pseudo inverse of the mixing matrix A . For estimating the ICA model given by (3), the ICA algorithm with maximization of nongaussianity of the source signal has been applied [10]. Based on this approach, the entropy of a random variable which is related to the information that the observation of the variable gives, is considered. To determine the independent components, maximization of the estimated negentropy is necessary. By maximizing the sum of N one unit contrast functions and taking into account the constraint of decorrelation, an optimization problem is obtained as follows: Maximize under constraint where

The entropy in (6) can be interpreted as a measure of uncertainty of the events with probability function, p. In fact, the entropy of a random variable can be defined as the degree of information that the observation of the variable gives. To determine uncertainty about variable Α in subsequence of trials in which Β occurs, the conditional entropy is used [12]. Assuming random variables Α and Β consisting of the Ν elements of ai and bi for i = 1,2,..., N , the conditional entropy can be defined as:

H ( Α bi ) = −∑ p (ai bi ) log p (ai bi )

i =1

N

(7)

**Β is the average of H ( Α bi ) , the conditional entropy of variables Α and Β can be written
**

Assuming that as:

H ( Α Β) = ∑ p (bi ) H ( Α bi )

i =1

N

(8)

The mutual information, be obtained as:

**I of variables Α and Β can
**

(9)

I ( Α, Β) = H ( Α) − H ( Α Β) , I (Α, Β) ≥ 0

∑ J (w

i =1

n

T i

x)

T E ( wk x)( wT x) = δ jk j

{

}

(4)

Equation (9) is symmetric and can be interpreted as the information about Α contained in Β and vice versa. If Α and Β are independent, their MI will be zero. In addition, MI is a better function for measuring dependency between two random variables rather than the correlation function [13]. The reason is that MI is able to measure general dependency between two variables, while the correlation function can only measure linear dependency between them. IV. APPLICATION OF ICA AND MUTUAL INFORMATION THEORY FOR HARMONIC SOURCE LOCALIZATION In this section, the procedure for estimating the location of multiple harmonic sources is described. Firstly, consider the system equation under non-sinusoidal condition which is written in matrix form as:

**wi for i = 1,2,..., N are the rows of the separating matrix, W which is inverse of coefficient matrix, A .
**

For maximizing the contrast functions in (4), the FastICA algorithm [11] is applied. Before implementing ICA, the observed vector X is preprocessed by centering and whitening [9]. By centering, the mean of vector X is subtracted and transformed to zero-mean variable, while by whitening; the observed vector X is transformed linearly to a new vector X that its components are uncorrelated and their variances equal unity. In whitening, we consider,

V h = Z hI h

(10)

~

where V , Z and I are the bus voltage, impedance and bus injected current vectors, respectively and h is the harmonic order of the frequency.

147

If voltage, V and impedance, Z are known, then the harmonic current I can be solved using (10). Applying ICA to (10), the mixing matrix, A represents the admittance matrix, Z in the harmonic domain; the estimated signal, S represents the bus injected current vectors and X represents the harmonic voltage measurement vectors. From (10), the injected harmonic currents generated by the harmonic sources at the respective buses have a relationship with the bus voltages. By using the MI theory, the produced harmonic current at each bus has maximum MI with its own bus voltage and the MI between these harmonic current and other bus voltages is reduced due to the current division between branches. The procedure in implementing the proposed method using ICA and MI theory for estimating the location of multiple harmonic sources is summarized as follows: I. Measure harmonic voltages at all buses. II. Reconstruct current traces of the harmonic sources using the fast ICA algorithm. III. Compute MI between the extracted current traces and bus voltages. IV. Determine the location of harmonic sources based on the computed MI. V. SIMULATION RESULTS To validate the performance of the proposed method, the IEEE 34 bus radial distribution system is chosen as the test system [14]. The test system as shown in Figure 1, has three harmonic sources containing the 5th, 7th, and 11th harmonic orders placed at bus 15, 25, and 33. It is assumed that all loads are with constant power factor and the harmonic loads are modeled as harmonic current injection sources with spectrums given in [15]. Prior to estimating multiple harmonic sources using ICA, the harmonic load flow algorithm for radial systems introduced in [16-17] has been programmed using the Matlab codes for simulating harmonic power flow and generating harmonic voltage measurements. Harmonic bus voltages are calculated by solving the linear system equation in (10) for each harmonic frequency of interest. Here, 500 voltage samples have been created for each of the 34 buses to determine the harmonic measurement vector, X. The Fast ICA algorithm programmed in Matlab is used for reconstructing the harmonic currents produced by the harmonic sources at bus 15, 25, and 33. To validate the accuracy of the ICA algorithm for extracting the harmonic current traces, correlation coefficients between the actual and the reconstructed current signals have been computed as shown in Table 1. From the table, it is clear that all the correlation coefficients are in the acceptable range because their values are all close to 1. This implies the matching of high accuracy between the estimated and the actual harmonic currents. Table 2 shows the mean square error of the signals so as to quantify the difference between the estimated and the actual harmonic currents. The result of Table 2 shows that the Fast ICA algorithm can reconstruct signals with high accuracy in which the mean square error of the estimated and the actual harmonic currents is less than 0.002. To achieve better accuracy in results with less mean square error and better correlation coefficient, the performance of the ICA algorithm can be improved by

Figure 1. IEEE 34 bus test system

increasing the number of samples or duration of sampling time [18]. To identify the location of harmonic sources, the MI theory has been applied to calculate the pair-wise MI between the estimated current trends and bus voltage for each harmonic frequency. The result of the MI is shown in Table 3 in which each column and row represents the estimated current and the harmonic bus voltage at individual harmonic frequency, respectively. The intersection between each column and row represents the computed MI between the three estimated currents at each harmonic frequency, and the specified bus harmonic voltage. As shown in Table 3, the bold MI values imply that the related bus has the greatest MI between the estimated harmonic currents and voltages and therefore this bus is identified as the location of harmonic source. For example, the MI of 2.45 between the first estimated current of the 5th harmonic order (first column) and the harmonic voltage at bus 25 (25th row) has the greatest value in the related column. This implies that the location of harmonic source is at bus 25. From the Table, it is obvious that harmonic source locations are located at bus 15, 25, and 33 because the MI values are high at these buses. Thus, the harmonic source locations at bus 15, 25 and 33 have been correctly identified by the proposed method using ICA and MI theory.

**TABLE I. CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS BETWEEN THE ACTUAL AND THE
**

RECONSTRUCTED SIGNALS

Harmonic order 5 7 11

Bus 15

9.9568 9.9814 9.9567

Bus 25

9.9447 9.9504 9.9449

Bus 33

9.8661 9.8906 9.8661

148

**TABLE II. MEAN SQUARE ERROR BETWEEN THE ACTUAL AND RECONSTRUCTED
**

SIGNALS

Harmonic order 5 7 11

Bus 15

2.66E-03 2.58E-03 2.28E-03

Bus 25

2.41E-03 2.31E-03 2.43E-03

Bus 33

2.57E-03 2.56E-03 2.72E-03

identify the location of harmonic sources. The results from the case study confirm that the proposed method can accurately identify the location of multiple harmonic sources in the 34 bus radial distribution system.

REFERENCES

[1] N. Hamzah, A. Mohamed, and A. Hussain, "Harmonic source location at the point of common coupling based on voltage magnitude," in TENCON 2004. 2004 IEEE Region 10 Conference, 2004, pp. 220-223 Vol. 3. [2] A. Cataliotti and V. Cosentino, "Disturbing Load Identification in Power Systems: A Single-Point Time-Domain Method Based on IEEE 1459-2000," Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 58, pp. 1436-1445, 2009. [3] M. Farhoodnea, A. Mohamed, and H. Shareef, "Novel method for determining the contribution of utility and customer harmonic distortion in distribution systems," in Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO), 2010 4th International, 2010, pp. 386-390. [4] M. Farhoodnea, A. Mohamed, H. Shareef, and R. Khan, "An Improved Method for Determining Contribution of Utility and Customer Harmonic Distortions In A Power Distribution System," International Journal on Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 2, pp. 204-215, 2010. [5] Z. P. Du, J. Arrillaga, N. R. Watson, and S. Chen, "Identification of harmonic sources of power systems using state estimation," Generation, Transmission and Distribution, IEE Proceedings-, vol. 146, pp. 7-12, 1999. [6] G. D'Antona, C. Muscas, and S. Sulis, "State Estimation for the Localization of Harmonic Sources in Electric Distribution Systems," Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 58, pp. 1462-1470, 2009. [7] A. Kumar, B. Das, and J. Sharma, "Determination of location of multiple harmonic sources in a power system," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 26, pp. 73-78, 2004. [8] E. Gursoy, "Independent component analysis for harmonic source identification in electric power systems," Drexel University, 2007. [9] E. Oja and A. Hyvarinen, "Independent component analysis: algorithms and applications," Neural Networks, vol. 13, pp. 411430, 2000. [10] A. Hyvar nen, J. Karhunen, and E. Oja, "Independent Component Analysis," 4th ed: John Wiley, 2001. [11]A. Hyvarinen, "Fast and robust fixed-point algorithms for independent component analysis," Neural Networks, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 10, pp. 626-634, 1999. [12]A. Papoulis and S. Pillai, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes: McGraw-Hill, 2002. [13]W. Li, "Mutual information functions versus correlation functions," Journal of Statistical Physics, vol. 60, pp. 823-837, 1990. [14]S. F. Mekhamer, S. A. Soliman, M. A. Moustafa, and M. E. ElHawary, "Application of fuzzy logic for reactive-power compensation of radial distribution feeders," Power Systems, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 18, pp. 206-213, 2003.

**TABLE III. MUTUAL INFORMATION BETWEEN ESTIMATED CURRENTS AND BUS
**

VOLTAGES

5 Bus No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34

Harmonic order 7

11

1

0.00 1.09 1.09 1.24 1.33 1.35 1.21 1.17 1.07 1.02 1.02 1.02 0.97 0.81 0.82 0.82 1.51 1.66 1.83 1.95 2.03 2.15 2.29 2.40 2.45 2.43 2.42 1.21 1.21 1.21 1.02 0.99 0.96 0.96

2

0.00 0.88 0.88 0.75 0.66 0.62 0.63 0.64 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.65 0.97 1.14 1.24 1.23 0.63 0.59 0.62 0.62 0.61 0.58 0.60 0.61 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.64 0.64 0.65 0.65

3

0.00 0.77 0.77 0.77 0.70 0.73 0.82 0.83 0.90 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.71 0.64 0.62 0.62 0.68 0.65 0.63 0.60 0.61 0.62 0.63 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.82 0.82 0.82 1.01 1.07 1.11 1.01

1

0.00 0.73 0.73 0.81 0.88 0.88 0.99 1.05 1.10 1.16 1.16 1.16 0.72 0.66 0.68 0.68 0.79 0.79 0.71 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.64 0.64 0.64 0.99 0.99 0.99 1.23 1.24 1.28 1.27

2

0.00 1.04 1.04 0.87 0.81 0.74 0.75 0.73 0.72 0.70 0.70 0.70 1.21 1.45 1.55 1.35 0.69 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.62 0.66 0.65 0.62 0.61 0.61 0.61 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.65 0.69 0.70 0.70

3

0.00 0.81 0.81 0.95 0.98 1.04 0.96 0.95 0.87 0.89 0.89 0.89 0.77 0.72 0.69 0.69 1.09 1.15 1.26 1.37 1.45 1.50 1.59 1.70 1.76 1.65 1.56 0.96 0.96 0.96 0.82 0.80 0.80 0.80

1

0.00 0.84 0.84 0.94 1.04 1.01 0.98 0.96 0.95 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.78 0.69 0.66 0.66 1.15 1.23 1.33 1.37 1.45 1.52 1.60 1.72 1.77 1.67 1.47 0.98 0.98 0.98 0.87 0.90 0.86 0.86

2

0.00 1.03 1.03 0.85 0.81 0.73 0.70 0.73 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 1.26 1.44 1.52 1.22 0.68 0.68 0.64 0.64 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.62 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.68 0.70 0.64 0.64

3

0.00 0.61 0.61 0.72 0.73 0.79 0.90 0.98 1.06 1.08 1.08 1.08 0.60 0.59 0.59 0.59 0.83 0.80 0.82 0.80 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.70 0.71 0.71 0.71 0.90 0.90 0.90 1.13 1.16 1.19 0.97

VI. CONCLUSION A new technique for locating multiple harmonic sources in a distribution system using ICA and MI theory has been presented. In the proposed method, ICA which is a blind source separation technique is applied for estimating the injected harmonic currents produced by harmonic sources and the MI theory is employed to

149

[15]R. Abu-Hashim, et al., "Test systems for harmonics modeling and simulation," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 14, pp. 579-587, 1999. [16]T. Jen-Hao and C. Chuo-Yean, "Backward/Forward Sweep-Based Harmonic Analysis Method for Distribution Systems," Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 22, pp. 1665-1672, 2007. [17]J. Teng, "A network-topology-based three-phase load flow for distribution systems," Proc Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC (A), vol. 24, pp. 259-264, 2000. [18]E. Gursoy and D. Niebur, "Impact of Sample Size on ICA-Based Harmonic Source Estimation," in Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems, 2005. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on, 2005, pp. 123-127.

BIOGRAPHIES

Masoud Farhoodnea received his B.Sc degree in Electrical Engineering from the Azad University of Najaf Abad, Esfahan, Iran in 2005. He is currently pursuing his Master degree in Electrical Engineering at the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

Azah Mohamed received her B.Sc from King’s College, University of London in 1978 and M.Sc and Ph.D from Universiti Malaya in 1988 and 1995, respectively. She is a professor at the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Her main research interests are in power system security, power quality, distributed generation and artificial intelligence. She is a senior member of IEEE.

Hussain Shareef received his B.Sc with honor from IIT, Bangladesh, MS degree from METU, Turkey, and Ph.D from Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia. He currently is a faculty member at the Department of Electrical, Electronic and Systems Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. His current research interests are power system deregulation and power quality.

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