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Language teaching occupies an important place in the curriculum of every country. In the ongoing quest for improvement in standards of teaching as well as learning attainments, many factors need to be continually reviewed, including the design of the curriculum, the quality of instructional materials, the role of tests, provisions for teacher training, and the kinds of administrative support provided by schools and educational institutions. The principal educational resources however are teachers and the kinds of teaching they are able to provide in their schools and classrooms. The focus of this paper is how quality teaching can be achieved and maintained in a language program. It seeks to examine factors that are involved in creating conditions for good teaching to take place. Quality teaching is achieved not only as a consequence of how well teachers teach but through creating contexts and work environments that can facilitate good teaching. In this paper four factors will be examined: institutional factors, teacher factors, teaching factors, and learner factors. The organizational culture of a school refers to the ethos and environment that exists within a school, the kinds of communications and decisionmaking that takes place, and the management and staffing structure it supports. All teachers do good things some of the time, and all good teachers do bad things some of the time. The differences among teachers lie not only in the proportions of the good and the bad, but also in their awareness of the effects of what they are doing and their readiness to share this awareness with their students. This paper examines some factors that can have a significant impact on the success of language teaching programs according to Richards in his book Curriculum and Material Development. Some references are also added to this paper in order to bring some discussion

related to the topic. Institutional factors include the school‟s organization culture and its approach to maintenance to educational quality. Teacher factors include the skills and qualification of teachers and the level of professional support provided. Teaching factors include the goal set in the teaching program and how good teaching is supported and maintained. Learning factors include learners‟ views of the program as well as learning styles and motivations and how these are addressed within the program. Each of these factors is examined and suggestions offered as to how they can contribute to the achievement of quality language teaching.

A. Effective Teaching If it is asked, what is good or effective teaching? Smith (1995) suggests that learning is a consequence of experience‟ (p.588). He argues that education and therefore teaching, should be focused on the creation of „appropriately nourishing experiences so that learning comes about naturally and inevitably (p.589). He states that schools should focus less on „talking about learning‟ and teaching and „more about doing‟ (p.589). Is this then the answer to the quest? To reflect on what we do in the classroom rather than on all the talk about theory and practice, Alton-Lee (2003) has provided ten clearly defined and research-supported characteristics of quality teaching: 1. A focus on student achievement. 2. Pedagogical practices that create caring, inclusive and cohesive learning communities. 3. Effective links between school and the cultural context of the school. 4. Quality teaching is responsive to student learning processes. 5. Learning opportunities are effective and sufficient. 6. Multiple tasks and contexts support learning cycles. 7. Curriculum goals are effectively aligned. 8. Pedagogy scaffolds feedback on students' task engagement. 9. Pedagogy promotes learning orientations, student selfregulation, metacognitive strategies and thoughtful student discourse. 10. Teachers and students engage constructively in goaloriented assessment. (Alton-Lee, 2003: vi-x)

B. The Institutional Factor There are three institutional factors that contribute to the teaching programs; the organizational culture, quality indicators in an institution, and the teaching context. 1. The Organizational Culture The organizational culture refers to the ethos and environment that exist within a school, the kind of communications and decision making that take place, and the management and staffing structure they support. Basic to the organizational culture of an institution is its management structure because it is built by managerial decision that delineate the number and type of jobs in the organization and the processes that subordinate, control, and link them, such as authority relationships, communication networks, and specific planning and organizational techniques (Davidson and Tesh, 1997:177). Two types of organizational structure are mechanistic model (bereaucratic approach to organizing collective activities that stresses the need for authority, hierarchies of control, and an explicit chain of command) and the organic model (one that maximizes flexibility and adaptability, encourages complete confidence and trust between superior and subordinates, and taps a wide range of human motivations to achieve organizational goals). (p. 199). 2. Quality Indicators in an Institution Language teaching institutions vary greatly in terms of how they view their educational mission. The following characteristics are indicators of the quality of a school or educational institution(Morris 1994):    Clearly educational goals Well-planed, balanced, and organized program that meets the needs of the student Systematic and identifiable process exist for determining educational needs in the school and placing them in order of priority.

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Commitment to learning, and an expectation that students will do well High degree of staff involvement in developing goals and making decisions. Motivated and cohesive teaching force with good team spirit Administrators are concerned with the teacher professional development and are able to make the best use of their skills and experience.

The school‟s programs are regularly reviewed and progress toward their goals is evaluated

Some of the key dimensions of quality (p. 202-206):  A sense of mission (a useful format in the form of a mission statement that should be developed collectively by those who have a commitment to the succes of the institution).  A strategic plan (description of the long-term vision and goals of an institution and the means it undertakes for fulfilling them). 6 elements of a good strategic plan: vision, values, purpose, mission, goals, strategies.  Quality assurance mechanisms(refers to systems a school has in place to ensure the quality of its practices). Factors relevant to creating a culture of quality assurance in an institution are a formulated policy on quality assurance, reasonable and acceptable standards, system are in place, a reward system is in place,and support is available.  Sound curriculum (reflected in the following features of a school‟s programs): the range of courses, the curriculum is coherent, courses have been developed, course descriptions, teaching materials and tests are of high quality, mechanism are in place, the curriculum is subject. (p 204)

Flexible organizational framework(effectives school and language programs are characterized by administrators who are open to change, flexible, and who encourage teachers to innovate)

Good internal communications(depend on setting up system that facilitate communications among teachers and between teachers and administrators.) such systems include: regular meetings and briefings, acces to administrative leaders, shared decision making, availability of relevant course documentation,written guidance for staff,etc…(p. 204-205)

Profesional treatment of teachers (teacher must be regarded as profesional) the extend to which teachers are regarded as profesionals is indicated by following: employment terms and conditions and support and reward systems. (p. 206)

Opportunities for teacher development is a rapidly changing field, and teachers need regular opportunities to update their professional knowledge and skills). There are: conference participation, workshops and in-service seminar, reading groups, peer observation, writing about teaching, project work, and action research. 3. The Teaching Context It is the last factor that affect the quality of teaching in a program relate to the institution context in which teachers work. It includes the following:  Size and staff structure (refer to how teachers and the staff knowing each other and being a good communication and relationship for reach the school purposes).  Equipment (a good school equipments have a positive affect on teaching, staff workload, and morale.)

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Support staff(adequate support staff can also facilitate teacher,s work.) Teacher work space(how far teacher get space or role on teaching and learning process) Teacher resource room(refers to how many resource available in the school for teacher ) Teaching facilities(refers to the good place and facilities for teaching) Class size.

C. The Teacher Factor There are two factors included in this point; skill and qualifications and support for teachers. 1. Skill and qualifications; core components of teacher knowledge include the following; practical knowledge, content knowledge, contextual knowledge, pedagogical knowledge, personal

knowledge, and reflective knowledge. (p. 209-212)

2. Support for teacher. Support forms to develop teachers teaching skills and knowledge are:          Orientation; Adequate materials; Course guides; Division of responsibilities; Further training; Teaching release; Mentors; Feedback; Rewards;

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Help lines;and Review.

D. The Teaching Factor The focus here is on the teaching practices that occur within a program, how these can be characterized, and how quality teaching can be achieved and maintained. There are 3 aspects (teaching model and principles, maintaining good teaching, and evaluating teaching). 1. Teaching model and principles; according to Roberts(1998,103) there are 2 teaching models in many language programs,the operative model and the problem-solving model. Page 215. In language teaching programs, teaching models are often based on particular methods or approaches. For example: the communicative approach, the cooperative approach, the proces approach, and the whole-language 215-216. Examples of teacher‟s principles cited by Breen are: Selectively focus on the form of the language; selectively focus on vocabulary or meaning; enable the learners to use the language; address learners‟s mental-processing capacities, make the new language familiar and manageable; make the learners internalize and remember the new language,etc. (p. 217) 2. Maintaining good teaching; quality teaching is results from an active, ongoing effort on the part of teachers and administrators to ensure that good teaching practices are being maintained. The following are strategies to provide quality teaching:

monitoring,observation, identification and resolution of problems, shared planning, documentation and sharing of good practices, and self-study program.

3. Evaluating teaching; is a program seeks to provide quality teaching. An appraisal system may have several different purposes: to reward teacher, to help identify needs for further training, to reinforce the need for continous staff development, to help improve teaching, to provide a basis for contract renewal and promotion, to demonstrate an interest in teachers‟ performance and development. (p. 220)  the focus of appraisal, may include a number of other aspects of a teacher‟s work,such as: lesson plans, teacher-made classroom material, course outlines and handouts, class assignment, and participation in profesion development activities.  conducting the appraisal; Appraisal by a supervisor; Appraisal by a college; Self appraisal; Lesson reports; Teaching journal; Audio/video recording; and Student appraisal.

E. The Teaching Factor The there are 4 factors that may affect how succesfully a course is received by learners. There are:   understanding of the course views of learning; a variety of different learner roles, such as: manager of his/her own learning, independent learner, needs analyst, collaborator and team member, and peer tutor.  learning styles; Willing (1985, cited in Nunan 1988, 93) foun 4 different learner types: Concrete learners, analytical learners, communicative learners, authority-oriented learners. A questionnaire on preferred learning styles, classroom activities, and teaching approaches can be used to identify learner‟s learning style preferences and motivation. (page 224)

support; these include the kinds of feedback learners will get about their learning and opportunities that are provided for faster or slower learners.

Language teaching has often been discussed from a relatively narrow perspective, with a focus on teaching methods and techniques. Improvement in language teaching has been linked to the use of better methods of teaching, hence the extensive literature on teaching methods and the preoccupation with the search for best teaching methods that has characterized the history of language teaching for much of the last 100 years. This paper has sought to move the focus beyond methods to the context of teaching itself, and to explore factors in the teaching context that can play a crucial role in determining the success of second or foreign language teaching. In recent years it has been acknowledged that since language teaching normally takes place within an institution of some sort, some of the principles of effective institutional management identified in other kinds of settings can also be applied to language teaching. Hence notions such as “quality management”, “strategic planning,” “best practice” and “quality assurance” have now entered the terminology of language teaching. In this paper I have examined a number of issues that are fundamental to the effectiveness of language teaching programs, including institutional factors, teacher factors, and the processes of teaching and learning. A better understanding of the role of these processes is essential to the success of second and foreign language teaching programs.

Alton-Lee, A. (2003). Quality teaching for diverse students in schooling: Best evidence synthesis. Wellington: Ministry of Education. Richards, J. C. 2005. Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press. Smith, F. (1995). Let's declare education a disaster and get on with our lives. Phi Delta Kappan, 76, 584-590.