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Exercise 4.3 (Solutions)
Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12
Available online @ http://www.mathcity.org, Version: 1.1.2

³ Inclination of a Line: The angle a (0o £ a < 180o ) measure anticlockwise from positive x - axis to the straight line l is called inclination of a line l . ³ Slope or Gradient of Line The slope m of the line l is defined by: m = tan a If A( x1, y1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 ) be any two distinct points on the line l then y - y1 y1 - y2 m= 2 = x2 - x1 x1 - x2 See proof on book at page: 191 ³ Note: l is horizontal, iff m = 0 (Q a = 0o )
A ( x1 ,y1)
a

B( x2 , y2 )

l is vertical, iff m = ¥ i.e. m is not defined. (Q a = 90o ) If slope of AB = slope of BC , then the points A, B and C are collinear i.e. lie on the same line.

³ Theorem The two lines l1 and l2 with respective slopes m1 and m2 are (i) Parallel iff m1 = m2 1 (ii) Perpendicular iff m1m2 = -1 or m1 = m2 ³ Question # 1 (i) (-2,4) ; (5,11) y - y1 11 - 4 7 Slope m = 2 = = =1 x2 - x1 5+2 7 – 10 Since tan a = m = 1 Þ a = tan -1 (1) = 45o (ii) (3, -2) ; (2,7) y - y1 7 + 2 9 Slope m = 2 = = = -9 x2 - x1 2 - 3 -1 Since tan a = m = -9 Þ - tan a = 9 Þ tan (180 - a ) = 9 Þ 180 - a = tan -1 ( 9 )
– 5 y 10

y 15

10

(5,11)

(-2,4)

5

– 5 – 5

5

10

15 x

(2,7)
5

5

10 x

(3,-2)
– 5 y 10

Þ 180 - a = 83o 40¢ Þ a = 180 - 83o 40¢ Þ a = 96o20¢
(ii) (4,6) ; (4,8) y - y1 8 - 6 2 Slope m = 2 = = =¥ x2 - x1 4 - 4 0 Since tan a = m = ¥ Þ a = tan -1 (¥) = 90o

5

(4,8) (4,6)

– 5

5

10 x

– 5

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 2

³ Question # 2 Since A(8,6) , B (-4,2) and C (-2, -6) are vertices of triangle therefore 2-6 -4 1 A = = (i) Slope of side AB = -4 - 8 -12 3 -6 - 2 -8 = = -4 Slope of side BC = -2 + 4 2 6 + 6 12 6 Slope of side CA = = = B C 8 + 2 10 5 (ii) Let D, E and F are midpoints of sides AB , BC and CA respectively. Then A 8-4 6+2ö æ4 8ö æ Coordinate of D = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 2,4 ) 2 ø è2 2ø è 2 F D æ -4 - 2 2 - 6 ö æ -6 -4 ö Coordinate of E = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( -3, -2 ) 2 ø è 2 2 ø è 2 B æ -2 + 8 -6 + 6 ö æ 6 0 ö E Coordinate of F = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 3,0 ) 2 ø è2 2ø è 2 -2 - 6 -8 8 Hence Slope of median AE = = = -3 - 8 -11 11 0 - 2 -2 Slope of median BF = = 3+ 4 7 4 + 6 10 5 Slope of median CD = = = 2+2 4 2 (iii) Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of a triangle therefore -1 -1 1 Slope of altitude from vertex A = = = A slope of side BC -4 4 -1 -1 5 Slope of altitude from vertex B = = =slope of side AC 6 6 5 -1 -1 Slope of altitude from vertex C = = = -3 B slope of side AB 1 3 ³ Question # 3 (a) Let A(-1, -3) , B (1,5) and C (2,9) be given points 5+3 8 = =4 Slope of AB = 1+1 2 9-5 4 Slope of BC = = =4 2 -1 1 Since slope of AB = slope of BC Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line. (b) & (c) Do yourself as above (d) Let A(a,2b), B(c, a + b) and C (2c - a , 2a ) be given points. (a + b) - 2b a - b Slope of AB = = c-a c-a 2a - ( a + b) 2 a - a - b a - b Slope of BC = = = (2c - a ) - c 2c - a - c c - a Since slope of AB = slope of BC Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line.

C

C

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 3

³ Question # 4 Since A(7,3) , B(k , -6) , C (-4,5) and D(-6,4) -6 - 3 -9 = Therefore slope of AB = m1 = k -7 k -7 4 - 5 -1 1 Slope of CD = m2 = = = -6 + 4 -2 2 (i) If AB and CD are parallel then m1 = m2 -9 1 Þ = Þ - 18 = k - 7 k -7 2 Þ k = -18 + 7 Þ k = -11 (ii) If AB and CD are perpendicular then m1m2 = -1 æ -9 öæ 1 ö Þ ç ÷ç ÷ = -1 Þ - 9 = -2(k - 7) è k - 7 øè 2 ø Þ 9 = 2k - 14 Þ 2k = 9 + 14 = 23 Þ k= 23 2

³ Question # 5 Since A(6,1), B(2,7) and C (-6, -7) are vertices of triangle therefore 7 -1 6 3 Slope of AB = m1 = = =REMEMBER 2 - 6 -4 2 The symbols -7 - 7 -12 7 Slope of BC = m2 = = = (i) P stands for ‘parallel” -6 - 2 -8 4 (ii) P stands for “not parallel” 1+ 7 8 2 Slope of CA = m3 = = = (iii) ^ stands for “perpendicular” 6 + 6 12 3 æ 3 öæ 2 ö Since m1m3 = ç - ÷ç ÷ = -1 è 2 øè 3 ø Þ The triangle ABC is a right triangle with mÐ A = 90o ³ Question # 6 Let D (a, b) be a fourth vertex of the parallelogram. 2 +1 3 1 = =Slope of AB = D (a,b) -2 - 7 -9 3 4-2 2 Slope of BC = = 1+ 2 3 b-4 Slope of CD = a -1 A (7,-1) -1 - b Slope of DA = 7-a Since ABCD is a parallelogram therefore Slope of AB = Slope of CD 1 b-4 Þ - = Þ - (a - 1) = 3(b - 4) 3 a -1 Þ - a + 1 - 3b + 12 = 0 Þ - a - 3b + 13 = 0 .............(i )

C (1,4)

B (-2,2)

Also slope of BC = slope of DA 2 -1 - b Þ = Þ 2(7 - a ) = 3(-1 - b) Þ 14 - 2 a = -3 - 3b 3 7-a Þ 14 - 2 a + 3 + 3b = 0 Þ - 2a + 3b + 17 = 0.............(ii )

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 4

Adding (i) and (ii)

- a - 3b + 13 = 0 - 2a + 3b + 17 = 0

-3a + 30 = 0 Þ 3a = 30 Þ a = 10 Putting value of a in (i) -10 - 3b + 13 = 0 Þ - 3b + 3 = 0 Þ 3b = 3 Þ b = 1 Hence D (10,1) is the fourth vertex of parallelogram. ³ Question # 7 Let D (a, b) be a fourth vertex of rhombus. -1 - 2 -3 = Slope of AB = D(a,b) C(6,3) 3 +1 4 3 +1 4 Slope of BC = = 6-3 3 b-3 Slope of CD = a-6 A (-1,2) B(3,-1) 2-b Slope of DA = -1 - a Since ABCD is a rhombus therefore Slope of AB = Slope of CD 3 b-3 Þ - = Þ - 3(a - 6) = 4(b - 3) 4 a-6 Þ - 3a + 18 = 4b - 12 Þ - 3a + 18 - 4b + 12 = 0 Þ - 3a - 4b + 30 = 0.............(i ) Also slope of BC = slope of DA 4 2-b Þ = Þ 4(-1 - a ) = 3(2 - b) 3 -1 - a Þ - 4 - 4a = 6 - 3b Þ - 4 - 4a - 6 + 3b = 0 Þ - 4a + 3b - 10 = 0 .............(ii ) ´ ing eq. (i) by 3 and (ii) by 4 and adding. - 9a - 12b + 90 = 0 -16a + 12b - 40 = 0 -25a + 50 = 0 Þ 25a = 50 Þ a = 2 Putting value of a in (ii) -4(2) + 3b - 10 = 0 Þ 3b - 18 = 0 Þ 3b = 18 Þ b = 6 Hence D ( 2,6 ) is the fourth vertex of rhombus. 3-2 1 Now slope of diagonal AC = = 6 +1 7 b - (-1) 6 + 1 7 Slope of diagonal BD = = = = -7 a-3 2 - 3 -1 Since æ1ö (Slope of AC )(Slope of BD ) = ç ÷ (-7) = -1 è7ø Þ Diagonals of a rhombus are ^ to each other. For notes and latest news visit http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 5

³ Question # 8

(a) Slope of line joining (1, -2 ) and ( 2, 4 ) = m1 =

4+2 6 = =6 2 -1 1 2 -1 1 Slope of line joining ( 4,1) and ( -8,2 ) = m2 = = -8 - 4 -12 Since m1 ¹ m2 1 1 = - ¹ -1 Also m1m2 = 6 × -12 2 Þ lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular. Do yourself as above.

(b)

³ Equation of Straight Line: (i) Slope-intercept form Equation of straight line with slope m and y - intercept c is given by: y = mx + c See proof on book at page 194 (ii) Point-slope form Let m be a slope of line and A( x1, y1 ) be a point lies on a line then equation of line is given by: y - y1 = m ( x - x1 ) See proof on book at page 195 (iii) Symmetric form Let a be an inclination of line and A( x1, y1 ) be a point lies on a line then equation of line is given by: y - y1 x - x1 = cosa sin a See proof on book at page 195 (iv) Two-points form Let A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 ) be points lie on a line then it’s equation is given by: y - y1 y - y1 = 2 ( x - x1 ) x2 - x1 or y - y1 y - y2 = 2 ( x - x2 ) x2 - x1 or x x1 x2 y 1 y1 1 = 0 y2 1

See proof on book at page 196 (v) Two-intercept form When a line intersect x - axis at x = a and y - axis at y = b i.e. x - intercept = a and y - intercept = b , then equation of line is given by: x y + =1 a b See proof on book at page 197 (vi) Normal form Let p denoted length of perpendicular from the origin to the line and a is the inclination of the perpendicular then equation of line is given by: x cosa + y sin a = p See proof on book at page 198

l

p
a

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 6

³ Question # 9 (a) Since slope of horizontal line = m = 0 & ( x1, y1 ) = (7, -9) therefore equation of line: y - (-9) = 0( x - 7) Þ x + 9 = 0 Answer 1 0 & ( x1, y1 ) = (-5,3) therefore required equation of line y - 3 = ¥ ( x - (-5) ) 1 Þ y - 3 = ( x + 5) Þ 0( y - 3) = 1( x + 5) 0 Þ x+5=0 Answer (b) Since slope of vertical line m = ¥ = (c) The line bisecting the first and third quadrant makes an angle of 45o with the x - axis therefore slope of line = m = tan 45o = 1 Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation y - 0 = 1( x - 0) Þ y = x Þ x- y=0 Answer (d) The line bisecting the second and fourth quadrant makes an angle of 135o with x - axis therefore slope of line = m = tan135o = -1 Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation y - 0 = -1( x - 0) Þ y = - x Þ x+ y=0 Answer ³ Question # 10 (a) Q ( x1 , y1 ) = ( -6,5) and slope of line = m = 7 so required equation y - 5 = 7 ( x - (-6) )

Þ y - 5 = 7 ( x + 6) Þ 7 x + 42 - y + 5 = 0

Þ y - 5 = 7 x + 42 Þ 7 x - y + 47 = 0

Answer

(b) (c)

Do yourself as above.

Q ( x1 , y1 ) = (-8,5) and slope of line = m = ¥ So required equation y - 5 = ¥ ( x - (-8) ) 1 Þ y - 5 = ( x + 8) Þ 0( y - 5) = 1( x + 8) 0 Þ x+8=0 Answer
(d) The line through ( -5, -3) and ( 9, -1) is 2 -1 - (-3) y - (-3) = ( x - (-5) ) Þ y + 3 = ( x + 5 ) 14 9 - (-5) 1 Þ y + 3 = ( x + 5) Þ 7 y + 21 = x + 5 7 Þ x + 5 - 7 y - 21 = 0 Þ x - 7 y - 16 = 0 Answer

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 7

(e)

Q y - intercept = -7 Þ (0, -7) lies on a required line Also slope = m = -5 So required equation y - (-7) = -5( x - 0) Þ y + 7 = -5 x Þ 5 x + y + 7 = 0 Q x - intercept = -9 Þ (-9,0) lies on a required line Also slope = m = 4 Therefore required line y - 0 = 4( x + 9) Þ y = 4x + 9 Þ 4x - y + 9 = 0

Answer

(f)

Answer

(e)

x - intercept = a = -3 y - intercept = b = 4 Using two-intercept form of equation line x y x y + =1 Þ + =0 a b -3 4 Þ 4 x - 3 y = -12 ´ ing by -12 Þ 4 x - 3 y + 12 = 0 Answer

³ Question # 11 Given points A(3,5) and B (9,8) æ 3 + 9 5 + 8 ö æ 12 13 ö æ 13 ö Midpoint of AB = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ç 6, ÷ 2 ø è 2 2ø è 2ø è 2 8-5 3 1 Slope of AB = m = = = 9-3 6 2 1 1 Slope of line ^ to AB = - = =--2 1 m 2

A (3,5)

B(9,8)

æ 13 ö Now equation of ^ bisector having slope -2 through ç 6, ÷ è 2ø 13 Þ y - = -2( x - 6) 2 13 13 Þ y - = -2 x + 12 Þ y - + 2 x - 12 = 0 2 2 37 Þ 2x + y =0 Þ 4 x + 2 y - 37 = 0 Answer 2 ³ Question # 12 Given vertices of triangle are A(-3,2) , B (5, 4) and C (3, -8) . Equation of sides: A 4-2 2 1 Slope of AB = m1 = = = 5 - (-3) 8 4 -8 - 4 -12 Slope of BC = m2 = = =6 3-5 -2 B C 2 - (-8) 10 5 Slope of CA = m3 = = =-3 - 3 -6 3 1 Now equation of side AB having slope passing through A(-3,2) 4 [You may take B ( 5, 4 ) instead of A(-3, 2) ]

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 8

1 ( x - (-3) ) Þ 4 y - 8 = x + 3 4 Þ x + 3 - 4 y + 8 = 0 Þ x - 4 y + 11 = 0 y-2= Equation of side BC having slope 6 passing through B (5, 4) . y - 4 = 6( x - 5) Þ y - 4 = 6 x - 30 Þ 6 x - 30 - y + 4 = 0 Equation of side CA having slope Þ 6 x - y - 26 = 0 5 passing through C (3, -8) 3 5 y - (-8) = - ( x - 3) Þ 3( y + 8) = -5( x - 3) 3 Þ 3 y + 24 = -5 x + 15 Þ 5 x - 15 + 3 y + 24 = 0 Þ 5x + 3 y + 9 = 0 Equation of altitudes: Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of triangle therefore 1 1 Slope of altitude on AB = - = = -4 1 m1 4 Equation of altitude from C (3, -8) having slope -4 y + 8 = -4( x - 3) Þ y + 8 = -4 x + 12 Þ 4 x - 12 + y + 8 = 0 Slope of altitude on BC = Þ 4x + y - 4 = 0 B 1 6 C 1 1 =m2 6

A

Equation of altitude from A(-3,2) having slope 1 y - 2 = - ( x + 3) 6 Þ x + 3 + 6 y - 12 = 0 Slope of altitude on CA = -

Þ 6 y - 12 = - x - 3 Þ x + 6y - 9 = 0

1 1 3 == m3 5 -5 3 3 Equation of altitude from B (5, 4) having slope 5 3 y - 4 = ( x - 5) Þ 5 y - 20 = 3 x - 15 5 Þ 3 x - 15 - 5 y + 20 = 0 Þ 3x - 5 y + 5 = 0 Equation of Medians: Suppose D, E and F are midpoints of sides AB , BC and CA respectively. æ -3 + 5 2 + 4 ö æ 2 6 ö Then coordinate of D = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = (1,3) A 2 ø è2 2ø è 2 æ 5 + 3 4 - 8 ö æ 8 -4 ö Coordinate of E = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 4, -2 ) D 2 ø è2 2 ø è 2 æ 3 - 3 -8 + 2 ö æ 0 -6 ö Coordinate of F = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 0, -3 ) 2 ø è2 2 ø è 2 B E Equation of median AE by two-point form -2 - 2 y-2= ( x - (-3) ) 4 - (-3)

F

C

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 9

-4 ( x + 3) 7 Þ 7 y - 14 + 4 x + 12 = 0 Þ y-2=

Þ 7 y - 14 = -4 x - 12 Þ 4x + 7 y - 2 = 0

Equation of median BF by two-point form -3 - 4 y-4= ( x - 5) 0-5 -7 Þ y-4= Þ - 5 y + 20 = -7 x + 35 ( x - 5) -5 Þ - 5 y + 20 + 7 x - 35 = 0 Þ 7 x - 5 y - 15 = 0 Equation of median CD by two-point form 3 - (-8) y - (-8) = ( x - 3) 1- 3 11 Þ y + 8 = ( x - 3) Þ - 2 y - 16 = 11x - 33 -2 Þ 11x - 33 + 2 y + 16 = 0 Þ 11x + 2 y - 17 = 0 ³ Question # 13 Here ( x1 , y1 ) = ( -4, -6 ) -3 Slope of given line = m = 2 Q required line is ^ to given line 1 1 2 \ slope of required line = - = = -3 m 3 2 2 Now equation of line having slope passing through ( -4, -6 ) 3 2 y - (-6) = ( x - (-4) ) 3 Þ 3( y + 6 ) = 2( x + 4) Þ 3 y + 18 = 2 x + 8 Þ 2 x + 8 - 3 y - 18 = 0 Þ 2 x - 3 y - 10 = 0 Answer ³ Question # 14 Here ( x1 , y1 ) = (11, -5 ) Slope of given line = m = -24 Q required line is P to given line \ slope of required line = m = -24 Now equation of line having slope -24 passing through (11, -5)

y - (-5) = -24 ( x - 11) Þ y + 5 = -24 x + 264 Þ 24 x - 264 + y + 5 = 0 Þ 24 x + y - 259 = 0 Answer
A D B E C

³ Question # 15 Given vertices A(-1, 2) , B (6,3) and C (2, -4) Since D and E are midpoints of sides AB and AC respectively. æ -1 + 6 2 + 3 ö æ 5 5 ö Therefore coordinate of D = ç , ÷=ç , ÷ 2 ø è2 2ø è 2

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 10

æ -1 + 2 2 - 4 ö æ 1 -2 ö æ 1 ö Coordinate of E = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ç , -1 ÷ 2 ø è2 2 ø è2 è 2 ø -7 -1 - 5 2 = 2 =7 Now slope of DE = 1 -5 -4 4 2 2 2 -4 - 3 -7 7 slope of BC = = = 2 - 6 -4 4 Since slope of DE = slope of BC Therefore DE is parallel to BC . Now 5ö æ1 5ö æ æ 4ö æ 7ö DE = ç - ÷ + ç -1 - ÷ = ç - ÷ + ç - ÷ 2ø è2 2ø è è 2ø è 2ø 49 65 65 = 4+ = = ………... (i) 4 4 2 BC = From (i) and (ii) DE = 1 BC 2 Proved.
2 2 2 2

(2 - 6)

2

+ ( -4 - 3 ) =
2

( -4 )

2

+ ( -7 )

2

= 16 + 49 = 65 ………… (ii)

³ Question # 16 Let l denotes the number of litres of milk and p denotes the price of milk, Then ( l1 , p1 ) = ( 560,12.50 ) & ( l2 , p2 ) = ( 700,12.00 ) Since graph of sale price and milk sold is a straight line Therefore, from two point form, it’s equation p - p1 p - p1 = 2 (l - l1 ) ALTERNATIVE l2 - l1 You may use determinant 12.00 - 12.50 Þ p - 12.50 = (l - 560) form of two-point form to 700 - 560 find an equation of line. - 0.50 Þ p - 12.50 = (l - 560) l p 1 140 l1 p1 1 = 0 Þ 140 p - 1750 = -0.50l + 280 l2 p2 1 Þ 140 p - 1750 + 0.50l - 280 = 0 Þ 0.50l + 140 p - 2030 = 0 If p = 12.25 Þ 0.50l + 140(12.25) - 2030 = 0 Þ 0.50l + 1715 - 2030 = 0 Þ 0.50l - 315 = 0 315 Þ 0.50l = 315 Þ l= = 630 0.50 Hence milkman can sell 630 litres milk at Rs. 12.25 per litre. ³ Question # 17 Let p denotes population of Pakistan in million and t denotes year after 1961 , Then ( p1 , t1 ) = ( 60,1961) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 95,1981) Equation of line by two point form: t -t t - t1 = 2 1 ( p - p1 ) p2 - p1 1981 - 1961 Þ t - 1961 = ( p - 60) 95 - 60

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 11

4 Þ t - 1961 = ( p - 60) 7 Þ 7t - 13727 + 240 = 4 p 7 13487 Þ 4 p = 7t - 13487 Þ p = t …………. (i) 4 4 This is the required equation which gives population in term of t . Þ t - 1961 = (a) Put t = 1947 in eq. (i) 7 13487 p = (1947) = 3407.25 - 3371.75 = 35.5 4 4 Hence population in 1947 is 35.5 millions. Put t = 1997 in eq. (i) 7 13487 p = (1997) = 3494.75 - 3371.75 = 123 4 4 Hence population in 1997 is 123 millions.

20 ( p - 60) 35 Þ 7t - 13727 = 4 p - 240

(b)

³ Question # 18 Let p denotes purchase price of house in millions and t denotes year then ( p1 , t1 ) = (1,1980 ) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 4,1996 ) Equation of line by two point form: ALTERNATIVE t2 - t1 You may use determinant t - t1 = ( p - p1 ) p2 - p1 form of two-point form to find an equation of line. 1996 - 1980 Þ t - 1980 = ( p - 1) p t 1 4 -1 p1 t1 1 = 0 16 Þ t - 1980 = ( p - 1) p2 t 2 1 3 Þ 3 t - 5940 = 16 p - 16 Þ 3 t - 5940 + 16 = 16 p Þ 16 p = 3 t - 5924 3 5924 3 1481 Þ p= tÞ p= t…………. (i) 16 16 16 4 This is the required equation which gives value of house in term of t . Put t = 1990 in eq. (i) 3 1481 p = (1990) = 373.125 - 370.25 = 2.875 16 4 Hence value of house in 1990 is 2.875 millions. ³ Question # 19 Since freezing point of water = 0o C = 32o F and boiling point of water = 100o C = 212o F therefore we have points ( C1 , F1 ) = ( 0,32 ) and
F 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20
Take scale 10ss = 20C and 10ss = 20F on x-axis and y-axis respectively to draw graph.

(100,212)

( C2 , F2 ) = (100,212 )

Equation of line by two point form F - F1 F - F1 = 2 ( C - C1 ) C2 - C1 212 - 32 Þ F - 32 = (C - 0) 100 - 0 180 Þ F - 32 = C 100 9 Þ F = C + 32 5

(0,32)
20 40 60 80 100 C

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 12

³ Question # 20 Let s denotes entry test score and y denotes year. Then we have ( s1 , y1 ) = ( 592,1998) and ( s2 , y2 ) = ( 564,2002 ) By two point form of equation of line y - y1 y - y1 = 2 ( s - s1 ) s2 - s1 2002 - 1998 4 Þ y - 1998 = ( s - 592) Þ y - 1998 = ( s - 592) 564 - 592 -28 1 Þ y - 1998 = - ( s - 592) Þ 7 y - 13986 = - s + 592 7 Þ 7 y - 13986 + s - 592 = 0 Þ s + 7 y - 14578 = 0 Put y = 2006 in (i) s + 7(2006) - 14578 = 0 Þ s + 14042 - 14578 = 0 Þ s - 536 = 0 Þ s = 536 Hence in 2006 the average score will be 536 . ³ Question # 21 (a) (i) - Slope-intercept form Q 2 x - 4 y + 11 = 0 Þ 4 y = 2 x + 11 Þ y = Þ y= 1 11 x+ 2 4 1 11 and c = 2 4

2 x + 11 4

is the intercept form of equation of line with m = (ii) - Two-intercept form Q 2 x - 4 y + 11 = 0 2 4 Þ xy =1 -11 -11

Þ 2 x - 4 y = -11 x y Þ + =1 11 -11 2 4 11 11 and b = . is the two-point form of equation of line with a = 2 4 (iii) - Normal form Q 2 x - 4 y + 11 = 0 Þ 2 x - 4 y = -11 Dividing above equation by (2)2 + (-4) 2 = 20 = 2 5 2x 4y -11 x 2 y -11 = Þ = 2 5 2 5 2 5 5 5 2 5 x 2y 11 ´ ing by -1 . Þ + = 5 5 2 5 1 2 Suppose cosa = < 0 and sin a = >0 5 5 æ 1 ö o Þ a lies in 2nd quadrant and a = cos -1 ç ÷ = 116.57 5ø è Hence the normal form is 11 x cos 116.57 o + y sin 116.57o = 2 5 11 And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p = 2 5

(

)

(

)

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 13

³ Question # 21 (b) (i) - Slope-intercept form Q 4x + 7 y - 2 = 0 Þ 7 y = - 4x + 2 4 2 Þ y =- x+ 7 7 Þ y=

- 4x + 2 7

is the intercept form of equation of line with m = (ii) - Two-intercept form Q 4x + 7 y - 2 = 0 7 Þ 2x + y = 1 2 x y Þ + =1 1 2 2 7 Þ 4x + 7 y = 2

4 2 and c = 7 7

¸ ing by 2

is the two-point form of equation of line with a = (iii) - Normal form Q 4x + 7 y - 2 = 0 Þ 4x + 7 y = 2

1 2 and b = . 2 7

Dividing above equation by (4)2 + (7) 2 = 16 + 49 = 65 4 7 2 . Þ x+ y= 65 65 65 4 7 Suppose cosa = > 0 and sin a = >0 65 65 æ 4 ö o Þ a lies in first quadrant and a = cos -1 ç ÷ = 60.26 è 65 ø Hence the normal form is 2 x cos 60.26o + y sin 60.26o = 65 2 And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p = 65

(

)

(

)

³ Question # 21 (c) (i) - Slope-intercept form Q 15 y - 8 x + 3 = 0 Þ 15 y = 8 x - 3 Þ y= 8 3 x15 15

Þ y=

8x - 3 15 8 1 Þ y= x15 5 8 1 and c = 15 5

is the intercept form of equation of line with m =

(ii) - Two-intercept form Q 15 y - 8 x + 3 = 0 Þ - 8 x + 15 y = -3 8x x y Þ - 5y =1 Þ + =1 3 3 -1 5 8 3 1 is the two-point form of equation of line with a = and b = - . 8 5

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 14

(iii) - Normal form Q 15 y - 8 x + 3 = 0 Þ 8 x - 15 y = 3 Dividing above equation by (8) 2 + (-15)2 = 64 + 225 = 289 = 17 8 15 3 Þ x- y= . 17 17 17 8 15 Suppose cosa = > 0 and sin a = - < 0 -1 æ 8 ö 17 17 a = cos ç ÷ è 17 ø æ8 ö Þ a lies in 4th quadrant and a = cos -1 ç ÷ = 298.07 o o o = 61.93 , 298.07 è 17 ø Taking value that Hence the normal form is lies in 4th quadrant. 3 o o x cos 298.07 + y sin 298.07 = 17 3 And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p = 17

(

)

(

)

³ General equation of the straight line A general equation of straight line (General linear equation) in two variable x and y is given by: ax + by + c = 0 where a , b and c are constants and a and b are not simultaneously zero. See proof on book at page: 199. Note: Since ax + by + c = 0 Þ by = - ax - c a c Þ y=- xb b a Which is an intercept form of equation of line with slope m = b

and c = -

c b

³ Question # 22 (a) Let l1 : 2 x + y - 3 = 0 l2 : 4 x + 2 y + 5 = 0 2 Slope of l1 = m1 = - = -2 1 4 Slope of l2 = m2 = - = -2 2 Since m1 = m2 therefore l1 and l2 are parallel. (b) l1 : 3 y = 2 x + 5 Þ 2 x - 3 y + 5 = 0 l2 : 3 x + 2 y - 8 = 0 2 2 Slope of l1 = m1 = = -3 3 3 Slope of l2 = m2 = - = 2 æ 2 öæ 3 ö Since m1m2 = ç ÷ç - ÷ = -1 Þ l1 and l2 are perpendicular. è 3 øè 2 ø Let l1 : 4 y + 2 x - 1 = 0 Þ 2 x + 4 y - 1 = 0 l2 : x - 2 y - 7 = 0 2 1 Slope of l1 = m1 = - = 4 2 Let

(c)

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 15

1 1 = -2 2 1 æ 1 öæ 1 ö Since m1 ¹ m2 and m1m2 = ç ÷ç - ÷ = - ¹ -1 4 è 2 øè 2 ø Þ l1 and l2 are neither parallel nor perpendicular. Slope of l2 = m2 = (d) & (e) Do yourself as above. ³ Question # 23 (a) l1 : 3 x - 4 y + 3 = 0.............(i ) l2 : 3 x - 4 y + 7 = 0.............(ii ) We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form (i ) Þ -3 x + 4 y = 3 Dividing by (-3) 2 + (4)2 = 25 = 5 3 4 3 - x+ y= 5 5 5 3 4 Let cosa = - < 0 and sin a = > 0 5 5

æ 3ö Þ a lies in 2nd quadrant and a = cos -1 ç - ÷ = 126.87o è 5ø 3 Þ x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 5 3 Hence distance of l1 form origin = 5 Now (ii ) Þ - 3 x + 4 y = 7 Dividing by (-3) 2 + (4)2 = 25 = 5 3 4 7 - x+ y= 5 5 5 3 4 Let cosa = - < 0 and sin a = > 0 5 5 Þ a lies in 1st quadrant æ 3ö and a = cos -1 ç - ÷ = 126.87o è 5ø
y

l2 B A O l1 126.87
x

Þ x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 7
Hence distance of l2 form origin = 7

5

5 From graph we see that both lines lie on the same side of origin therefore 7 3 4 Distance between lines = AB = OB - OA = - = 5 5 5 Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then uuu r 4 AB 3 3 4 Distance of l3 from origin = OA + = + 5 = + =1 2 5 2 5 10 Hence equation of l3 x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 1 æ 3ö æ4ö Þ x ç - ÷ + y ç ÷ = 1 Þ - 3x + 4 y = 5 è 5ø è5ø Þ 3x - 4 y + 5 = 0

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 16

³ Question # 23 (b) l1 : 12 x + 5 y - 6 = 0.............(i ) l2 : 12 x + 5 y + 13 = 0.............(ii ) We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form (i ) Þ 12 x + 5 y = 6 Dividing by (12)2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13 12 5 6 x+ y= 13 13 13 12 5 Let cosa = > 0 and sin a = > 0 13 13

æ 12 ö Þ a lies in 1st quadrant and a = cos -1 ç ÷ = 22.62o è 13 ø 6 Þ x cos(22.62) + y sin(22.62) = 13 6 Hence distance of l1 form origin = 13 Now (ii ) Þ - 12 x - 5 y = 13 Dividing by

y

(12)2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13 l1 12 5 - x - y =1 l2 13 13 A 12 5 Let cosa = - < 0 and sin a = - < 0 O 13 13 B Þ a lies in 3rd quadrant æ 12 ö and a = cos -1 ç - ÷ = 202.62o è 13 ø Þ x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) = 1 Hence distance of l2 form origin = 1 From graph we see that lines lie on the opposite side of origin therefore 6 19 Distance between lines = AB = OA + OB = + 1 = 13 13 Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then uuu r 19 AB 19 7 Distance of l3 from origin = OB = 1 - 13 = 1 = 2 2 26 26 Hence equation of l3 7 x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) = 26 æ 12 ö æ 5ö 7 Þ xç - ÷ + y ç - ÷ = Þ - 24 x - 10 y = 7 è 13 ø è 13 ø 26 Þ 24 x + 10 y + 7 = 0 Do yourself as Question # 23 (a)

x

³ Question # 23 (c)

Made by: Atiq ur Rehman, Email: atiq@mathcity.org, URL: http://www.mathcity.org

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 17

³ Question # 24 Let l : 2 x - 7 y + 4 = 0 2 2 = Slope of l = m = -7 7 Since required line is parallel to l Therefore slope of required line = m = Now equation of line having slope 2 7

REMEMBER If l : ax + by + c = 0 a then slope of l = b

2 passing through ( -4,7 ) 7

2 y - 7 = ( x - (-4)) 7 Þ 7( y - 7) = 2( x + 4) Þ 7 y - 49 = 2 x + 8 Þ 2 x + 8 - 7 y + 49 = 0 Þ 2 x - 7 y + 57 = 0 Question # 25 Given: A ( -15, -18 ) , B (10,7 ) and ( 5,8) 7 - (-8) Slope of AB = m = 10 - (-15) 7+8 15 3 = = = 10 + 15 25 5 Since required line is perpendicular to AB 1 1 5 Therefore slope of required line = - = =3 m 3 5 5 Now equation of line having slope - through ( 5, -8) 3 5 y - (-8) = - ( x - 5) 3 Þ 3( y + 8) = -5( x - 5) Þ 3 y + 24 = -5 x + 25 Þ 5 x - 25 + 3 y + 24 = 0 Þ 5 x + 3 y - 1 = 0 Ans. Question # 26 Let l : 2 x - y + 3 = 0 2 = 2 -1 Since required line is perpendicular to l 1 1 Therefore slope of required line = = m 2 Let y - intercept of req. line = c 1 Then equation of req. line with slope - and y - intercept c 2 1 y = - x + c ………… (i) 2 1 Þ x+ y = c 2 x y Þ + =1 2c c This is two intercept form of equation of line with x - intercept = 2c and y - intercept = c Slope of l = m = -

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 18

Since product of intercepts = 3

Þ (c) ( 2c ) = 3
Putting in (i)

Þ 2c 2 = 3

Þ c2 =

3 2

Þ c=±

3 2

1 3 x± 2 2 1 3 1 3´ 2 Þ x+y m = 0 Þ x+y m = 0 2 2 2 2´ 2 1 6 Þ x+y m = 0 2 2 Þ x + 2 y m 6 = 0 are the required equations. Þ y = Question # 27 Let A (1,4 ) be a given vertex and B ( x1, y1 ) , C ( x2 , y2 ) and D ( x3 , y3 ) are remaining vertices of parallelogram. Since diagonals of parallelogram bisect at (2,1) therefore 1 + x 4 + y2 ö 1 ( 2,1) = æ 2 , D (x3 , y3) ç ÷ C (x2 , y2) 2 ø è 2 1 + x2 4 + y2 Þ 2= and 1 = 1 2 2 1 – (2,1) – 7 Þ 4 = 1 + x2 , 2 = 4 + y2 7 Þ x2 = 4 - 1 , y2 = - 4 + 2 Þ x2 = 3 , y2 = -2 1 A (1,4) B (x1 ,y1) Hence C ( x2 , y2 ) = C ( 3, -2 ) Now slope of AB = 1 y -4 Þ 1 = 1 Þ y1 - 4 = x1 - 1 x1 - 1 Þ x1 - y1 - 1 + 4 = 0 Þ x1 - y1 + 3 = 0 ……………. (i) 1 Also slope of BC = 7 y - y1 1 -2 - y1 1 Þ 2 =Þ =x2 - x1 7 3 - x1 7 Þ - 14 - 7 y1 = -3 + x1 Þ - 3 - x1 + 14 + 7 y1 = 0 Þ x1 + 7 y1 + 11 = 0 …………(ii) Subtracting (i) and (ii) x1 - y1 + 3 = 0 x1 + 7 y1 +11 = 0
-

- 8 y1 - 8 = 0 Þ y1 + 1 = 0 Þ y1 = -1

-

-

Þ B ( x2 , y2 ) = B ( -4, -1) Now E is midpoint of BD
Þ

Putting in (i) x1 - ( -1) + 3 = 0

Þ x1 + 4 = 0

Þ x1 = -4

( 2,1)

æ x + x y + y3 ö = ç 1 3, 1 ÷ 2 ø è 2 æ -4 + x3 -1 + y3 ö = ç , ÷ 2 ø è 2

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 19

-4 + x3 -1 + y3 , 1 = 2 2 Þ 4 = - 4 + x3 , 2 = - 1 + y3 Þ x3 = 8 , y3 = 3 Þ D ( x3 , y3 ) = D ( 8,3) Hence ( -4, -1) , ( 3, -2 ) and D ( 8,3) are remaining vertex of P gram . Þ 2 = Position of the point with respect to line (Page 204) Consider l : ax + by + c = 0 with b > 0 Then point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies i) above the line l if ax1 + by1 + c > 0 ii) below the line l if ax1 + by1 + c < 0 Corollary 1 (Page 205) The point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies above the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have the same sign and the point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies below the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have opposite signs. Question # 28 (a) 2x - 3y + 6 = 0 To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with -1 . - 2x + 3y - 6 = 0 Putting ( 5,8) on L.H.S of above -2(5) + 3(8) + 6 = - 10 + 24 - 6 = 8 > 0 Hence ( 5,8) lies above the line. (b) Alternative Method 4x + 3y - 9 = 0 *Correction Putting ( -7,6 ) in L.H.S of given eq. 4(-7) + 3(6) - 9 = - 28 + 18 - 9 = - 19 …..…. (i) Since coefficient of y and expression (i) have opposite signs therefore ( -7,6 ) lies below the line. Question # 29 2x - 3y + 6 = 0 (a) To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with -1 . -2 x + 3 y - 6 = 0 ……. (i) Putting (0,0) on L.H.S of (i) -2(0) + 3(0) - 6 = - 6 < 0 Þ ( 0,0 ) lies below the line. Putting ( - 4,7 ) on L.H.S of (i ) -2(-4) + 3(7) - 6 = 8 + 21 - 6 = 23 > 0 Þ ( - 4,7 ) lies above the line. Hence ( 0,0 ) and ( - 4,7 ) lies on the opposite side of line. (b) 3x - 5 y + 8 = 0 To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with -1 . -3 x + 5 y - 8 = 0 ……. (i) Putting (2,3) on L.H.S of (i)

FSc-II / Ex. 4.3 - 20

Hence ( 2,3) and ( -2,3) lies on the same side of line. Perpendicular distance of P(x1,y1) from line (Page 212) The distance d from the point P ( x1 , y1 ) to the line l , where l : ax + by + c = 0 , is given by: d = ax1 + by1 + c a2 + b2

Putting ( -2,3) on L.H.S of (i ) -3(-2) + 5(3) - 8 = 6 + 15 - 8 = 13 > 0 Þ ( -2,3) lies above the line

-3(2) + 5(3) - 8 = - 6 + 15 - 8 = 1 > 0 Þ ( 2,3) lies above the line.

Question # 30 l : 6x - 4 y + 9 = 0 Let d denotes distance of P ( 6, -1) from line l then d = = 6(6) - 4(-1) + 9 (6) 2 + (-4) 2 36 + 4 + 9 = 36 + 16 49 52 49 2 13

=

Area of Triangular Region Let A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x2 , y2 ) and C ( x3 , y3 ) are vertices of triangle then x 1 1 Area of triangle = x2 2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 x1 x2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 = 0 y3 1

If A , B and C are collinear then Question # 31

Do yourself as below (Just find the area)

Question # 32 Given: A ( 2,3) , B ( -1,1) , C ( 4, -5) 2 3 1 Area of D ABC = -1 1 1 4 -5 1 1 = ( 2(1 + 5) - 3(2 - 4) + 1(5 - 4) ) 2 1 1 19 = sq. unit (12 + 6 + 1) = (19 ) = 2 2 2 Q Area of triangle ¹ 0 Þ A, B and C are not collinear.
Bilal Ahmad –

Error Analyst

FAZMIC Sargodha. 2004-06

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