org
Merging man and maths
Exercise 4.3 (Solutions)
Calculus and Analytic Geometry, MATHEMATICS 12
Available online @ http://www.mathcity.org, Version: 1.1.2
³ Inclination of a Line: The angle a (0o £ a < 180o ) measure anticlockwise from positive x  axis to the straight line l is called inclination of a line l . ³ Slope or Gradient of Line The slope m of the line l is defined by: m = tan a If A( x1, y1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 ) be any two distinct points on the line l then y  y1 y1  y2 m= 2 = x2  x1 x1  x2 See proof on book at page: 191 ³ Note: l is horizontal, iff m = 0 (Q a = 0o )
A ( x1 ,y1)
a
B( x2 , y2 )
l is vertical, iff m = ¥ i.e. m is not defined. (Q a = 90o ) If slope of AB = slope of BC , then the points A, B and C are collinear i.e. lie on the same line.
³ Theorem The two lines l1 and l2 with respective slopes m1 and m2 are (i) Parallel iff m1 = m2 1 (ii) Perpendicular iff m1m2 = 1 or m1 = m2 ³ Question # 1 (i) (2,4) ; (5,11) y  y1 11  4 7 Slope m = 2 = = =1 x2  x1 5+2 7 – 10 Since tan a = m = 1 Þ a = tan 1 (1) = 45o (ii) (3, 2) ; (2,7) y  y1 7 + 2 9 Slope m = 2 = = = 9 x2  x1 2  3 1 Since tan a = m = 9 Þ  tan a = 9 Þ tan (180  a ) = 9 Þ 180  a = tan 1 ( 9 )
– 5 y 10
y 15
10
(5,11)
(2,4)
5
– 5 – 5
5
10
15 x
(2,7)
5
5
10 x
(3,2)
– 5 y 10
Þ 180  a = 83o 40¢ Þ a = 180  83o 40¢ Þ a = 96o20¢
(ii) (4,6) ; (4,8) y  y1 8  6 2 Slope m = 2 = = =¥ x2  x1 4  4 0 Since tan a = m = ¥ Þ a = tan 1 (¥) = 90o
5
(4,8) (4,6)
– 5
5
10 x
– 5
FScII / Ex. 4.3  2
³ Question # 2 Since A(8,6) , B (4,2) and C (2, 6) are vertices of triangle therefore 26 4 1 A = = (i) Slope of side AB = 4  8 12 3 6  2 8 = = 4 Slope of side BC = 2 + 4 2 6 + 6 12 6 Slope of side CA = = = B C 8 + 2 10 5 (ii) Let D, E and F are midpoints of sides AB , BC and CA respectively. Then A 84 6+2ö æ4 8ö æ Coordinate of D = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 2,4 ) 2 ø è2 2ø è 2 F D æ 4  2 2  6 ö æ 6 4 ö Coordinate of E = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 3, 2 ) 2 ø è 2 2 ø è 2 B æ 2 + 8 6 + 6 ö æ 6 0 ö E Coordinate of F = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 3,0 ) 2 ø è2 2ø è 2 2  6 8 8 Hence Slope of median AE = = = 3  8 11 11 0  2 2 Slope of median BF = = 3+ 4 7 4 + 6 10 5 Slope of median CD = = = 2+2 4 2 (iii) Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of a triangle therefore 1 1 1 Slope of altitude from vertex A = = = A slope of side BC 4 4 1 1 5 Slope of altitude from vertex B = = =slope of side AC 6 6 5 1 1 Slope of altitude from vertex C = = = 3 B slope of side AB 1 3 ³ Question # 3 (a) Let A(1, 3) , B (1,5) and C (2,9) be given points 5+3 8 = =4 Slope of AB = 1+1 2 95 4 Slope of BC = = =4 2 1 1 Since slope of AB = slope of BC Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line. (b) & (c) Do yourself as above (d) Let A(a,2b), B(c, a + b) and C (2c  a , 2a ) be given points. (a + b)  2b a  b Slope of AB = = ca ca 2a  ( a + b) 2 a  a  b a  b Slope of BC = = = (2c  a )  c 2c  a  c c  a Since slope of AB = slope of BC Therefore A, B and C lie on the same line.
C
C
FScII / Ex. 4.3  3
³ Question # 4 Since A(7,3) , B(k , 6) , C (4,5) and D(6,4) 6  3 9 = Therefore slope of AB = m1 = k 7 k 7 4  5 1 1 Slope of CD = m2 = = = 6 + 4 2 2 (i) If AB and CD are parallel then m1 = m2 9 1 Þ = Þ  18 = k  7 k 7 2 Þ k = 18 + 7 Þ k = 11 (ii) If AB and CD are perpendicular then m1m2 = 1 æ 9 öæ 1 ö Þ ç ÷ç ÷ = 1 Þ  9 = 2(k  7) è k  7 øè 2 ø Þ 9 = 2k  14 Þ 2k = 9 + 14 = 23 Þ k= 23 2
³ Question # 5 Since A(6,1), B(2,7) and C (6, 7) are vertices of triangle therefore 7 1 6 3 Slope of AB = m1 = = =REMEMBER 2  6 4 2 The symbols 7  7 12 7 Slope of BC = m2 = = = (i) P stands for ‘parallel” 6  2 8 4 (ii) P stands for “not parallel” 1+ 7 8 2 Slope of CA = m3 = = = (iii) ^ stands for “perpendicular” 6 + 6 12 3 æ 3 öæ 2 ö Since m1m3 = ç  ÷ç ÷ = 1 è 2 øè 3 ø Þ The triangle ABC is a right triangle with mÐ A = 90o ³ Question # 6 Let D (a, b) be a fourth vertex of the parallelogram. 2 +1 3 1 = =Slope of AB = D (a,b) 2  7 9 3 42 2 Slope of BC = = 1+ 2 3 b4 Slope of CD = a 1 A (7,1) 1  b Slope of DA = 7a Since ABCD is a parallelogram therefore Slope of AB = Slope of CD 1 b4 Þ  = Þ  (a  1) = 3(b  4) 3 a 1 Þ  a + 1  3b + 12 = 0 Þ  a  3b + 13 = 0 .............(i )
C (1,4)
B (2,2)
Also slope of BC = slope of DA 2 1  b Þ = Þ 2(7  a ) = 3(1  b) Þ 14  2 a = 3  3b 3 7a Þ 14  2 a + 3 + 3b = 0 Þ  2a + 3b + 17 = 0.............(ii )
FScII / Ex. 4.3  4
Adding (i) and (ii)
 a  3b + 13 = 0  2a + 3b + 17 = 0
3a + 30 = 0 Þ 3a = 30 Þ a = 10 Putting value of a in (i) 10  3b + 13 = 0 Þ  3b + 3 = 0 Þ 3b = 3 Þ b = 1 Hence D (10,1) is the fourth vertex of parallelogram. ³ Question # 7 Let D (a, b) be a fourth vertex of rhombus. 1  2 3 = Slope of AB = D(a,b) C(6,3) 3 +1 4 3 +1 4 Slope of BC = = 63 3 b3 Slope of CD = a6 A (1,2) B(3,1) 2b Slope of DA = 1  a Since ABCD is a rhombus therefore Slope of AB = Slope of CD 3 b3 Þ  = Þ  3(a  6) = 4(b  3) 4 a6 Þ  3a + 18 = 4b  12 Þ  3a + 18  4b + 12 = 0 Þ  3a  4b + 30 = 0.............(i ) Also slope of BC = slope of DA 4 2b Þ = Þ 4(1  a ) = 3(2  b) 3 1  a Þ  4  4a = 6  3b Þ  4  4a  6 + 3b = 0 Þ  4a + 3b  10 = 0 .............(ii ) ´ ing eq. (i) by 3 and (ii) by 4 and adding.  9a  12b + 90 = 0 16a + 12b  40 = 0 25a + 50 = 0 Þ 25a = 50 Þ a = 2 Putting value of a in (ii) 4(2) + 3b  10 = 0 Þ 3b  18 = 0 Þ 3b = 18 Þ b = 6 Hence D ( 2,6 ) is the fourth vertex of rhombus. 32 1 Now slope of diagonal AC = = 6 +1 7 b  (1) 6 + 1 7 Slope of diagonal BD = = = = 7 a3 2  3 1 Since æ1ö (Slope of AC )(Slope of BD ) = ç ÷ (7) = 1 è7ø Þ Diagonals of a rhombus are ^ to each other. For notes and latest news visit http://www.mathcity.org
FScII / Ex. 4.3  5
³ Question # 8
(a) Slope of line joining (1, 2 ) and ( 2, 4 ) = m1 =
4+2 6 = =6 2 1 1 2 1 1 Slope of line joining ( 4,1) and ( 8,2 ) = m2 = = 8  4 12 Since m1 ¹ m2 1 1 =  ¹ 1 Also m1m2 = 6 × 12 2 Þ lines are neither parallel nor perpendicular. Do yourself as above.
(b)
³ Equation of Straight Line: (i) Slopeintercept form Equation of straight line with slope m and y  intercept c is given by: y = mx + c See proof on book at page 194 (ii) Pointslope form Let m be a slope of line and A( x1, y1 ) be a point lies on a line then equation of line is given by: y  y1 = m ( x  x1 ) See proof on book at page 195 (iii) Symmetric form Let a be an inclination of line and A( x1, y1 ) be a point lies on a line then equation of line is given by: y  y1 x  x1 = cosa sin a See proof on book at page 195 (iv) Twopoints form Let A ( x1 , y1 ) and B ( x2 , y2 ) be points lie on a line then it’s equation is given by: y  y1 y  y1 = 2 ( x  x1 ) x2  x1 or y  y1 y  y2 = 2 ( x  x2 ) x2  x1 or x x1 x2 y 1 y1 1 = 0 y2 1
See proof on book at page 196 (v) Twointercept form When a line intersect x  axis at x = a and y  axis at y = b i.e. x  intercept = a and y  intercept = b , then equation of line is given by: x y + =1 a b See proof on book at page 197 (vi) Normal form Let p denoted length of perpendicular from the origin to the line and a is the inclination of the perpendicular then equation of line is given by: x cosa + y sin a = p See proof on book at page 198
l
p
a
FScII / Ex. 4.3  6
³ Question # 9 (a) Since slope of horizontal line = m = 0 & ( x1, y1 ) = (7, 9) therefore equation of line: y  (9) = 0( x  7) Þ x + 9 = 0 Answer 1 0 & ( x1, y1 ) = (5,3) therefore required equation of line y  3 = ¥ ( x  (5) ) 1 Þ y  3 = ( x + 5) Þ 0( y  3) = 1( x + 5) 0 Þ x+5=0 Answer (b) Since slope of vertical line m = ¥ = (c) The line bisecting the first and third quadrant makes an angle of 45o with the x  axis therefore slope of line = m = tan 45o = 1 Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation y  0 = 1( x  0) Þ y = x Þ x y=0 Answer (d) The line bisecting the second and fourth quadrant makes an angle of 135o with x  axis therefore slope of line = m = tan135o = 1 Also it passes through origin ( 0,0 ) , so its equation y  0 = 1( x  0) Þ y =  x Þ x+ y=0 Answer ³ Question # 10 (a) Q ( x1 , y1 ) = ( 6,5) and slope of line = m = 7 so required equation y  5 = 7 ( x  (6) )
Þ y  5 = 7 ( x + 6) Þ 7 x + 42  y + 5 = 0
Þ y  5 = 7 x + 42 Þ 7 x  y + 47 = 0
Answer
(b) (c)
Do yourself as above.
Q ( x1 , y1 ) = (8,5) and slope of line = m = ¥ So required equation y  5 = ¥ ( x  (8) ) 1 Þ y  5 = ( x + 8) Þ 0( y  5) = 1( x + 8) 0 Þ x+8=0 Answer
(d) The line through ( 5, 3) and ( 9, 1) is 2 1  (3) y  (3) = ( x  (5) ) Þ y + 3 = ( x + 5 ) 14 9  (5) 1 Þ y + 3 = ( x + 5) Þ 7 y + 21 = x + 5 7 Þ x + 5  7 y  21 = 0 Þ x  7 y  16 = 0 Answer
FScII / Ex. 4.3  7
(e)
Q y  intercept = 7 Þ (0, 7) lies on a required line Also slope = m = 5 So required equation y  (7) = 5( x  0) Þ y + 7 = 5 x Þ 5 x + y + 7 = 0 Q x  intercept = 9 Þ (9,0) lies on a required line Also slope = m = 4 Therefore required line y  0 = 4( x + 9) Þ y = 4x + 9 Þ 4x  y + 9 = 0
Answer
(f)
Answer
(e)
x  intercept = a = 3 y  intercept = b = 4 Using twointercept form of equation line x y x y + =1 Þ + =0 a b 3 4 Þ 4 x  3 y = 12 ´ ing by 12 Þ 4 x  3 y + 12 = 0 Answer
³ Question # 11 Given points A(3,5) and B (9,8) æ 3 + 9 5 + 8 ö æ 12 13 ö æ 13 ö Midpoint of AB = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ç 6, ÷ 2 ø è 2 2ø è 2ø è 2 85 3 1 Slope of AB = m = = = 93 6 2 1 1 Slope of line ^ to AB =  = =2 1 m 2
A (3,5)
B(9,8)
æ 13 ö Now equation of ^ bisector having slope 2 through ç 6, ÷ è 2ø 13 Þ y  = 2( x  6) 2 13 13 Þ y  = 2 x + 12 Þ y  + 2 x  12 = 0 2 2 37 Þ 2x + y =0 Þ 4 x + 2 y  37 = 0 Answer 2 ³ Question # 12 Given vertices of triangle are A(3,2) , B (5, 4) and C (3, 8) . Equation of sides: A 42 2 1 Slope of AB = m1 = = = 5  (3) 8 4 8  4 12 Slope of BC = m2 = = =6 35 2 B C 2  (8) 10 5 Slope of CA = m3 = = =3  3 6 3 1 Now equation of side AB having slope passing through A(3,2) 4 [You may take B ( 5, 4 ) instead of A(3, 2) ]
FScII / Ex. 4.3  8
1 ( x  (3) ) Þ 4 y  8 = x + 3 4 Þ x + 3  4 y + 8 = 0 Þ x  4 y + 11 = 0 y2= Equation of side BC having slope 6 passing through B (5, 4) . y  4 = 6( x  5) Þ y  4 = 6 x  30 Þ 6 x  30  y + 4 = 0 Equation of side CA having slope Þ 6 x  y  26 = 0 5 passing through C (3, 8) 3 5 y  (8) =  ( x  3) Þ 3( y + 8) = 5( x  3) 3 Þ 3 y + 24 = 5 x + 15 Þ 5 x  15 + 3 y + 24 = 0 Þ 5x + 3 y + 9 = 0 Equation of altitudes: Since altitudes are perpendicular to the sides of triangle therefore 1 1 Slope of altitude on AB =  = = 4 1 m1 4 Equation of altitude from C (3, 8) having slope 4 y + 8 = 4( x  3) Þ y + 8 = 4 x + 12 Þ 4 x  12 + y + 8 = 0 Slope of altitude on BC = Þ 4x + y  4 = 0 B 1 6 C 1 1 =m2 6
A
Equation of altitude from A(3,2) having slope 1 y  2 =  ( x + 3) 6 Þ x + 3 + 6 y  12 = 0 Slope of altitude on CA = 
Þ 6 y  12 =  x  3 Þ x + 6y  9 = 0
1 1 3 == m3 5 5 3 3 Equation of altitude from B (5, 4) having slope 5 3 y  4 = ( x  5) Þ 5 y  20 = 3 x  15 5 Þ 3 x  15  5 y + 20 = 0 Þ 3x  5 y + 5 = 0 Equation of Medians: Suppose D, E and F are midpoints of sides AB , BC and CA respectively. æ 3 + 5 2 + 4 ö æ 2 6 ö Then coordinate of D = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = (1,3) A 2 ø è2 2ø è 2 æ 5 + 3 4  8 ö æ 8 4 ö Coordinate of E = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 4, 2 ) D 2 ø è2 2 ø è 2 æ 3  3 8 + 2 ö æ 0 6 ö Coordinate of F = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ( 0, 3 ) 2 ø è2 2 ø è 2 B E Equation of median AE by twopoint form 2  2 y2= ( x  (3) ) 4  (3)
F
C
FScII / Ex. 4.3  9
4 ( x + 3) 7 Þ 7 y  14 + 4 x + 12 = 0 Þ y2=
Þ 7 y  14 = 4 x  12 Þ 4x + 7 y  2 = 0
Equation of median BF by twopoint form 3  4 y4= ( x  5) 05 7 Þ y4= Þ  5 y + 20 = 7 x + 35 ( x  5) 5 Þ  5 y + 20 + 7 x  35 = 0 Þ 7 x  5 y  15 = 0 Equation of median CD by twopoint form 3  (8) y  (8) = ( x  3) 1 3 11 Þ y + 8 = ( x  3) Þ  2 y  16 = 11x  33 2 Þ 11x  33 + 2 y + 16 = 0 Þ 11x + 2 y  17 = 0 ³ Question # 13 Here ( x1 , y1 ) = ( 4, 6 ) 3 Slope of given line = m = 2 Q required line is ^ to given line 1 1 2 \ slope of required line =  = = 3 m 3 2 2 Now equation of line having slope passing through ( 4, 6 ) 3 2 y  (6) = ( x  (4) ) 3 Þ 3( y + 6 ) = 2( x + 4) Þ 3 y + 18 = 2 x + 8 Þ 2 x + 8  3 y  18 = 0 Þ 2 x  3 y  10 = 0 Answer ³ Question # 14 Here ( x1 , y1 ) = (11, 5 ) Slope of given line = m = 24 Q required line is P to given line \ slope of required line = m = 24 Now equation of line having slope 24 passing through (11, 5)
y  (5) = 24 ( x  11) Þ y + 5 = 24 x + 264 Þ 24 x  264 + y + 5 = 0 Þ 24 x + y  259 = 0 Answer
A D B E C
³ Question # 15 Given vertices A(1, 2) , B (6,3) and C (2, 4) Since D and E are midpoints of sides AB and AC respectively. æ 1 + 6 2 + 3 ö æ 5 5 ö Therefore coordinate of D = ç , ÷=ç , ÷ 2 ø è2 2ø è 2
FScII / Ex. 4.3  10
æ 1 + 2 2  4 ö æ 1 2 ö æ 1 ö Coordinate of E = ç , ÷ = ç , ÷ = ç , 1 ÷ 2 ø è2 2 ø è2 è 2 ø 7 1  5 2 = 2 =7 Now slope of DE = 1 5 4 4 2 2 2 4  3 7 7 slope of BC = = = 2  6 4 4 Since slope of DE = slope of BC Therefore DE is parallel to BC . Now 5ö æ1 5ö æ æ 4ö æ 7ö DE = ç  ÷ + ç 1  ÷ = ç  ÷ + ç  ÷ 2ø è2 2ø è è 2ø è 2ø 49 65 65 = 4+ = = ………... (i) 4 4 2 BC = From (i) and (ii) DE = 1 BC 2 Proved.
2 2 2 2
(2  6)
2
+ ( 4  3 ) =
2
( 4 )
2
+ ( 7 )
2
= 16 + 49 = 65 ………… (ii)
³ Question # 16 Let l denotes the number of litres of milk and p denotes the price of milk, Then ( l1 , p1 ) = ( 560,12.50 ) & ( l2 , p2 ) = ( 700,12.00 ) Since graph of sale price and milk sold is a straight line Therefore, from two point form, it’s equation p  p1 p  p1 = 2 (l  l1 ) ALTERNATIVE l2  l1 You may use determinant 12.00  12.50 Þ p  12.50 = (l  560) form of twopoint form to 700  560 find an equation of line.  0.50 Þ p  12.50 = (l  560) l p 1 140 l1 p1 1 = 0 Þ 140 p  1750 = 0.50l + 280 l2 p2 1 Þ 140 p  1750 + 0.50l  280 = 0 Þ 0.50l + 140 p  2030 = 0 If p = 12.25 Þ 0.50l + 140(12.25)  2030 = 0 Þ 0.50l + 1715  2030 = 0 Þ 0.50l  315 = 0 315 Þ 0.50l = 315 Þ l= = 630 0.50 Hence milkman can sell 630 litres milk at Rs. 12.25 per litre. ³ Question # 17 Let p denotes population of Pakistan in million and t denotes year after 1961 , Then ( p1 , t1 ) = ( 60,1961) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 95,1981) Equation of line by two point form: t t t  t1 = 2 1 ( p  p1 ) p2  p1 1981  1961 Þ t  1961 = ( p  60) 95  60
FScII / Ex. 4.3  11
4 Þ t  1961 = ( p  60) 7 Þ 7t  13727 + 240 = 4 p 7 13487 Þ 4 p = 7t  13487 Þ p = t …………. (i) 4 4 This is the required equation which gives population in term of t . Þ t  1961 = (a) Put t = 1947 in eq. (i) 7 13487 p = (1947) = 3407.25  3371.75 = 35.5 4 4 Hence population in 1947 is 35.5 millions. Put t = 1997 in eq. (i) 7 13487 p = (1997) = 3494.75  3371.75 = 123 4 4 Hence population in 1997 is 123 millions.
20 ( p  60) 35 Þ 7t  13727 = 4 p  240
(b)
³ Question # 18 Let p denotes purchase price of house in millions and t denotes year then ( p1 , t1 ) = (1,1980 ) and ( p2 , t2 ) = ( 4,1996 ) Equation of line by two point form: ALTERNATIVE t2  t1 You may use determinant t  t1 = ( p  p1 ) p2  p1 form of twopoint form to find an equation of line. 1996  1980 Þ t  1980 = ( p  1) p t 1 4 1 p1 t1 1 = 0 16 Þ t  1980 = ( p  1) p2 t 2 1 3 Þ 3 t  5940 = 16 p  16 Þ 3 t  5940 + 16 = 16 p Þ 16 p = 3 t  5924 3 5924 3 1481 Þ p= tÞ p= t…………. (i) 16 16 16 4 This is the required equation which gives value of house in term of t . Put t = 1990 in eq. (i) 3 1481 p = (1990) = 373.125  370.25 = 2.875 16 4 Hence value of house in 1990 is 2.875 millions. ³ Question # 19 Since freezing point of water = 0o C = 32o F and boiling point of water = 100o C = 212o F therefore we have points ( C1 , F1 ) = ( 0,32 ) and
F 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20
Take scale 10ss = 20C and 10ss = 20F on xaxis and yaxis respectively to draw graph.
(100,212)
( C2 , F2 ) = (100,212 )
Equation of line by two point form F  F1 F  F1 = 2 ( C  C1 ) C2  C1 212  32 Þ F  32 = (C  0) 100  0 180 Þ F  32 = C 100 9 Þ F = C + 32 5
(0,32)
20 40 60 80 100 C
FScII / Ex. 4.3  12
³ Question # 20 Let s denotes entry test score and y denotes year. Then we have ( s1 , y1 ) = ( 592,1998) and ( s2 , y2 ) = ( 564,2002 ) By two point form of equation of line y  y1 y  y1 = 2 ( s  s1 ) s2  s1 2002  1998 4 Þ y  1998 = ( s  592) Þ y  1998 = ( s  592) 564  592 28 1 Þ y  1998 =  ( s  592) Þ 7 y  13986 =  s + 592 7 Þ 7 y  13986 + s  592 = 0 Þ s + 7 y  14578 = 0 Put y = 2006 in (i) s + 7(2006)  14578 = 0 Þ s + 14042  14578 = 0 Þ s  536 = 0 Þ s = 536 Hence in 2006 the average score will be 536 . ³ Question # 21 (a) (i)  Slopeintercept form Q 2 x  4 y + 11 = 0 Þ 4 y = 2 x + 11 Þ y = Þ y= 1 11 x+ 2 4 1 11 and c = 2 4
2 x + 11 4
is the intercept form of equation of line with m = (ii)  Twointercept form Q 2 x  4 y + 11 = 0 2 4 Þ xy =1 11 11
Þ 2 x  4 y = 11 x y Þ + =1 11 11 2 4 11 11 and b = . is the twopoint form of equation of line with a = 2 4 (iii)  Normal form Q 2 x  4 y + 11 = 0 Þ 2 x  4 y = 11 Dividing above equation by (2)2 + (4) 2 = 20 = 2 5 2x 4y 11 x 2 y 11 = Þ = 2 5 2 5 2 5 5 5 2 5 x 2y 11 ´ ing by 1 . Þ + = 5 5 2 5 1 2 Suppose cosa = < 0 and sin a = >0 5 5 æ 1 ö o Þ a lies in 2nd quadrant and a = cos 1 ç ÷ = 116.57 5ø è Hence the normal form is 11 x cos 116.57 o + y sin 116.57o = 2 5 11 And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p = 2 5
(
)
(
)
FScII / Ex. 4.3  13
³ Question # 21 (b) (i)  Slopeintercept form Q 4x + 7 y  2 = 0 Þ 7 y =  4x + 2 4 2 Þ y = x+ 7 7 Þ y=
 4x + 2 7
is the intercept form of equation of line with m = (ii)  Twointercept form Q 4x + 7 y  2 = 0 7 Þ 2x + y = 1 2 x y Þ + =1 1 2 2 7 Þ 4x + 7 y = 2
4 2 and c = 7 7
¸ ing by 2
is the twopoint form of equation of line with a = (iii)  Normal form Q 4x + 7 y  2 = 0 Þ 4x + 7 y = 2
1 2 and b = . 2 7
Dividing above equation by (4)2 + (7) 2 = 16 + 49 = 65 4 7 2 . Þ x+ y= 65 65 65 4 7 Suppose cosa = > 0 and sin a = >0 65 65 æ 4 ö o Þ a lies in first quadrant and a = cos 1 ç ÷ = 60.26 è 65 ø Hence the normal form is 2 x cos 60.26o + y sin 60.26o = 65 2 And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p = 65
(
)
(
)
³ Question # 21 (c) (i)  Slopeintercept form Q 15 y  8 x + 3 = 0 Þ 15 y = 8 x  3 Þ y= 8 3 x15 15
Þ y=
8x  3 15 8 1 Þ y= x15 5 8 1 and c = 15 5
is the intercept form of equation of line with m =
(ii)  Twointercept form Q 15 y  8 x + 3 = 0 Þ  8 x + 15 y = 3 8x x y Þ  5y =1 Þ + =1 3 3 1 5 8 3 1 is the twopoint form of equation of line with a = and b =  . 8 5
FScII / Ex. 4.3  14
(iii)  Normal form Q 15 y  8 x + 3 = 0 Þ 8 x  15 y = 3 Dividing above equation by (8) 2 + (15)2 = 64 + 225 = 289 = 17 8 15 3 Þ x y= . 17 17 17 8 15 Suppose cosa = > 0 and sin a =  < 0 1 æ 8 ö 17 17 a = cos ç ÷ è 17 ø æ8 ö Þ a lies in 4th quadrant and a = cos 1 ç ÷ = 298.07 o o o = 61.93 , 298.07 è 17 ø Taking value that Hence the normal form is lies in 4th quadrant. 3 o o x cos 298.07 + y sin 298.07 = 17 3 And length of perpendicular from (0,0) to line = p = 17
(
)
(
)
³ General equation of the straight line A general equation of straight line (General linear equation) in two variable x and y is given by: ax + by + c = 0 where a , b and c are constants and a and b are not simultaneously zero. See proof on book at page: 199. Note: Since ax + by + c = 0 Þ by =  ax  c a c Þ y= xb b a Which is an intercept form of equation of line with slope m = b
and c = 
c b
³ Question # 22 (a) Let l1 : 2 x + y  3 = 0 l2 : 4 x + 2 y + 5 = 0 2 Slope of l1 = m1 =  = 2 1 4 Slope of l2 = m2 =  = 2 2 Since m1 = m2 therefore l1 and l2 are parallel. (b) l1 : 3 y = 2 x + 5 Þ 2 x  3 y + 5 = 0 l2 : 3 x + 2 y  8 = 0 2 2 Slope of l1 = m1 = = 3 3 3 Slope of l2 = m2 =  = 2 æ 2 öæ 3 ö Since m1m2 = ç ÷ç  ÷ = 1 Þ l1 and l2 are perpendicular. è 3 øè 2 ø Let l1 : 4 y + 2 x  1 = 0 Þ 2 x + 4 y  1 = 0 l2 : x  2 y  7 = 0 2 1 Slope of l1 = m1 =  = 4 2 Let
(c)
FScII / Ex. 4.3  15
1 1 = 2 2 1 æ 1 öæ 1 ö Since m1 ¹ m2 and m1m2 = ç ÷ç  ÷ =  ¹ 1 4 è 2 øè 2 ø Þ l1 and l2 are neither parallel nor perpendicular. Slope of l2 = m2 = (d) & (e) Do yourself as above. ³ Question # 23 (a) l1 : 3 x  4 y + 3 = 0.............(i ) l2 : 3 x  4 y + 7 = 0.............(ii ) We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form (i ) Þ 3 x + 4 y = 3 Dividing by (3) 2 + (4)2 = 25 = 5 3 4 3  x+ y= 5 5 5 3 4 Let cosa =  < 0 and sin a = > 0 5 5
æ 3ö Þ a lies in 2nd quadrant and a = cos 1 ç  ÷ = 126.87o è 5ø 3 Þ x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 5 3 Hence distance of l1 form origin = 5 Now (ii ) Þ  3 x + 4 y = 7 Dividing by (3) 2 + (4)2 = 25 = 5 3 4 7  x+ y= 5 5 5 3 4 Let cosa =  < 0 and sin a = > 0 5 5 Þ a lies in 1st quadrant æ 3ö and a = cos 1 ç  ÷ = 126.87o è 5ø
y
l2 B A O l1 126.87
x
Þ x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 7
Hence distance of l2 form origin = 7
5
5 From graph we see that both lines lie on the same side of origin therefore 7 3 4 Distance between lines = AB = OB  OA =  = 5 5 5 Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then uuu r 4 AB 3 3 4 Distance of l3 from origin = OA + = + 5 = + =1 2 5 2 5 10 Hence equation of l3 x cos(126.87) + y sin(126.87) = 1 æ 3ö æ4ö Þ x ç  ÷ + y ç ÷ = 1 Þ  3x + 4 y = 5 è 5ø è5ø Þ 3x  4 y + 5 = 0
FScII / Ex. 4.3  16
³ Question # 23 (b) l1 : 12 x + 5 y  6 = 0.............(i ) l2 : 12 x + 5 y + 13 = 0.............(ii ) We first convert l1 and l2 in normal form (i ) Þ 12 x + 5 y = 6 Dividing by (12)2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13 12 5 6 x+ y= 13 13 13 12 5 Let cosa = > 0 and sin a = > 0 13 13
æ 12 ö Þ a lies in 1st quadrant and a = cos 1 ç ÷ = 22.62o è 13 ø 6 Þ x cos(22.62) + y sin(22.62) = 13 6 Hence distance of l1 form origin = 13 Now (ii ) Þ  12 x  5 y = 13 Dividing by
y
(12)2 + (5) 2 = 169 = 13 l1 12 5  x  y =1 l2 13 13 A 12 5 Let cosa =  < 0 and sin a =  < 0 O 13 13 B Þ a lies in 3rd quadrant æ 12 ö and a = cos 1 ç  ÷ = 202.62o è 13 ø Þ x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) = 1 Hence distance of l2 form origin = 1 From graph we see that lines lie on the opposite side of origin therefore 6 19 Distance between lines = AB = OA + OB = + 1 = 13 13 Let l3 be a line parallel to l1 and l2 , and lying midway between them. Then uuu r 19 AB 19 7 Distance of l3 from origin = OB = 1  13 = 1 = 2 2 26 26 Hence equation of l3 7 x cos(202.62) + y sin(202.62) = 26 æ 12 ö æ 5ö 7 Þ xç  ÷ + y ç  ÷ = Þ  24 x  10 y = 7 è 13 ø è 13 ø 26 Þ 24 x + 10 y + 7 = 0 Do yourself as Question # 23 (a)
x
³ Question # 23 (c)
Made by: Atiq ur Rehman, Email: atiq@mathcity.org, URL: http://www.mathcity.org
FScII / Ex. 4.3  17
³ Question # 24 Let l : 2 x  7 y + 4 = 0 2 2 = Slope of l = m = 7 7 Since required line is parallel to l Therefore slope of required line = m = Now equation of line having slope 2 7
REMEMBER If l : ax + by + c = 0 a then slope of l = b
2 passing through ( 4,7 ) 7
2 y  7 = ( x  (4)) 7 Þ 7( y  7) = 2( x + 4) Þ 7 y  49 = 2 x + 8 Þ 2 x + 8  7 y + 49 = 0 Þ 2 x  7 y + 57 = 0 Question # 25 Given: A ( 15, 18 ) , B (10,7 ) and ( 5,8) 7  (8) Slope of AB = m = 10  (15) 7+8 15 3 = = = 10 + 15 25 5 Since required line is perpendicular to AB 1 1 5 Therefore slope of required line =  = =3 m 3 5 5 Now equation of line having slope  through ( 5, 8) 3 5 y  (8) =  ( x  5) 3 Þ 3( y + 8) = 5( x  5) Þ 3 y + 24 = 5 x + 25 Þ 5 x  25 + 3 y + 24 = 0 Þ 5 x + 3 y  1 = 0 Ans. Question # 26 Let l : 2 x  y + 3 = 0 2 = 2 1 Since required line is perpendicular to l 1 1 Therefore slope of required line = = m 2 Let y  intercept of req. line = c 1 Then equation of req. line with slope  and y  intercept c 2 1 y =  x + c ………… (i) 2 1 Þ x+ y = c 2 x y Þ + =1 2c c This is two intercept form of equation of line with x  intercept = 2c and y  intercept = c Slope of l = m = 
FScII / Ex. 4.3  18
Since product of intercepts = 3
Þ (c) ( 2c ) = 3
Putting in (i)
Þ 2c 2 = 3
Þ c2 =
3 2
Þ c=±
3 2
1 3 x± 2 2 1 3 1 3´ 2 Þ x+y m = 0 Þ x+y m = 0 2 2 2 2´ 2 1 6 Þ x+y m = 0 2 2 Þ x + 2 y m 6 = 0 are the required equations. Þ y = Question # 27 Let A (1,4 ) be a given vertex and B ( x1, y1 ) , C ( x2 , y2 ) and D ( x3 , y3 ) are remaining vertices of parallelogram. Since diagonals of parallelogram bisect at (2,1) therefore 1 + x 4 + y2 ö 1 ( 2,1) = æ 2 , D (x3 , y3) ç ÷ C (x2 , y2) 2 ø è 2 1 + x2 4 + y2 Þ 2= and 1 = 1 2 2 1 – (2,1) – 7 Þ 4 = 1 + x2 , 2 = 4 + y2 7 Þ x2 = 4  1 , y2 =  4 + 2 Þ x2 = 3 , y2 = 2 1 A (1,4) B (x1 ,y1) Hence C ( x2 , y2 ) = C ( 3, 2 ) Now slope of AB = 1 y 4 Þ 1 = 1 Þ y1  4 = x1  1 x1  1 Þ x1  y1  1 + 4 = 0 Þ x1  y1 + 3 = 0 ……………. (i) 1 Also slope of BC = 7 y  y1 1 2  y1 1 Þ 2 =Þ =x2  x1 7 3  x1 7 Þ  14  7 y1 = 3 + x1 Þ  3  x1 + 14 + 7 y1 = 0 Þ x1 + 7 y1 + 11 = 0 …………(ii) Subtracting (i) and (ii) x1  y1 + 3 = 0 x1 + 7 y1 +11 = 0

 8 y1  8 = 0 Þ y1 + 1 = 0 Þ y1 = 1


Þ B ( x2 , y2 ) = B ( 4, 1) Now E is midpoint of BD
Þ
Putting in (i) x1  ( 1) + 3 = 0
Þ x1 + 4 = 0
Þ x1 = 4
( 2,1)
æ x + x y + y3 ö = ç 1 3, 1 ÷ 2 ø è 2 æ 4 + x3 1 + y3 ö = ç , ÷ 2 ø è 2
FScII / Ex. 4.3  19
4 + x3 1 + y3 , 1 = 2 2 Þ 4 =  4 + x3 , 2 =  1 + y3 Þ x3 = 8 , y3 = 3 Þ D ( x3 , y3 ) = D ( 8,3) Hence ( 4, 1) , ( 3, 2 ) and D ( 8,3) are remaining vertex of P gram . Þ 2 = Position of the point with respect to line (Page 204) Consider l : ax + by + c = 0 with b > 0 Then point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies i) above the line l if ax1 + by1 + c > 0 ii) below the line l if ax1 + by1 + c < 0 Corollary 1 (Page 205) The point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies above the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have the same sign and the point P ( x1 , y1 ) lies below the line if ax1 + by1 + c and b have opposite signs. Question # 28 (a) 2x  3y + 6 = 0 To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 .  2x + 3y  6 = 0 Putting ( 5,8) on L.H.S of above 2(5) + 3(8) + 6 =  10 + 24  6 = 8 > 0 Hence ( 5,8) lies above the line. (b) Alternative Method 4x + 3y  9 = 0 *Correction Putting ( 7,6 ) in L.H.S of given eq. 4(7) + 3(6)  9 =  28 + 18  9 =  19 …..…. (i) Since coefficient of y and expression (i) have opposite signs therefore ( 7,6 ) lies below the line. Question # 29 2x  3y + 6 = 0 (a) To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 . 2 x + 3 y  6 = 0 ……. (i) Putting (0,0) on L.H.S of (i) 2(0) + 3(0)  6 =  6 < 0 Þ ( 0,0 ) lies below the line. Putting (  4,7 ) on L.H.S of (i ) 2(4) + 3(7)  6 = 8 + 21  6 = 23 > 0 Þ (  4,7 ) lies above the line. Hence ( 0,0 ) and (  4,7 ) lies on the opposite side of line. (b) 3x  5 y + 8 = 0 To make coefficient of y positive we multiply above eq. with 1 . 3 x + 5 y  8 = 0 ……. (i) Putting (2,3) on L.H.S of (i)
FScII / Ex. 4.3  20
Hence ( 2,3) and ( 2,3) lies on the same side of line. Perpendicular distance of P(x1,y1) from line (Page 212) The distance d from the point P ( x1 , y1 ) to the line l , where l : ax + by + c = 0 , is given by: d = ax1 + by1 + c a2 + b2
Putting ( 2,3) on L.H.S of (i ) 3(2) + 5(3)  8 = 6 + 15  8 = 13 > 0 Þ ( 2,3) lies above the line
3(2) + 5(3)  8 =  6 + 15  8 = 1 > 0 Þ ( 2,3) lies above the line.
Question # 30 l : 6x  4 y + 9 = 0 Let d denotes distance of P ( 6, 1) from line l then d = = 6(6)  4(1) + 9 (6) 2 + (4) 2 36 + 4 + 9 = 36 + 16 49 52 49 2 13
=
Area of Triangular Region Let A ( x1 , y1 ) , B ( x2 , y2 ) and C ( x3 , y3 ) are vertices of triangle then x 1 1 Area of triangle = x2 2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 y3 1 x1 x2 x3 y1 1 y2 1 = 0 y3 1
If A , B and C are collinear then Question # 31
Do yourself as below (Just find the area)
Question # 32 Given: A ( 2,3) , B ( 1,1) , C ( 4, 5) 2 3 1 Area of D ABC = 1 1 1 4 5 1 1 = ( 2(1 + 5)  3(2  4) + 1(5  4) ) 2 1 1 19 = sq. unit (12 + 6 + 1) = (19 ) = 2 2 2 Q Area of triangle ¹ 0 Þ A, B and C are not collinear.
Bilal Ahmad –
Error Analyst
FAZMIC Sargodha. 200406
http://www.mathcity.org