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A SPECIES OF CAULERPA TAXIFOLIA COLECTED FROM THE COAST OF KARACHI, PAKISTAN

The genus Caulerpa belonging to the Bryopsidophyceae consists of about 75 species, which are distributed worldwide in tropical and temperate regions (Fama et al., 2002). Caulerpa spp. Are siphonous green algae with a unique cellular organization. Despite the fact that members of this genus can reach several meters in length, the organisms are unicellular with giant differentiated cells (Menzel, 1988). A species of genus Caulerpa was collected from Buleji, during the month of March 2012. The species was identified as Caulerpa taxifolia.

INTRODUCTION:
Karachi has the coastal line of about 100km which lies along the North Arabian Sea. It includes beaches and island. The sea shore mostly comprises of scattered pebbles and boulders rocky ledge plate forms and hills with sandy patches dissipated among them. The coastal water around Manora, Sand spit, Hawks bay, Buleji, and Paradise point, Pacha, Nathia Gali and Cape Monze inhibit the variety of marine benthic algae (Shameel and Tanaka, 1992). These algal forms are exposed during low tides. The green seaweed occupies a large portion of our sea shore and often reveals a large variation in type and species. During specific season the entire plate forms and rocks ledges to be covered by a beautiful green carpet due to the presence of algal green vegetation. Caulerpa racemosa (Forsska˚l) J. Agardh, a pan-tropical to temperate-warm water species widely distributed throughout the world, was collected for the first time (1926) in the Mediterranean Sea by Hamel in the Sousse harbor, Tunisia (Hamel 1926, 1931 a).

MATERIALS AND METHOD: • Position and description of collected sites;

Pakistan is situated at Northern part of Arabian Sea. It has coastal line of about 1300km which is well known for phenomena of upwelling and reversal of current (Thomson and Trmizi 1988). It also includes important Karachi harbor and adjacent coastal areas like Manora, Hawks bay, Buleji, and Nathiagali e.t.c. collection was made during the month of March at Goth Haji Ali at Buleji. Material was collected in attached form from, rocky ledges and platforms. • Algal Material; Collection was made during the low tide time period and between 3pm to 5pm in then month of March during study trip. Collect healthy completed thalli were brought to department laboratory and wash thoroughly with tap water to remove sand particles, debris, animal castings, epiphytes, epizoons and attached detritus. The specimen was preserved in 4% formaline and seawater solution for taxonomic studies.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION:
Caulerpa racemosa

— G I l b e r t.3 ± 0. the production of only one gamete phase in the same thallus is a rare exception.—Saraya and Trono.6 µm long and 3.—Cordero. racemosa var cylindracea reproduction in Greece where both gametes were found. 1961:439. In situ gamete release started 12–18 min before the sunrise. 9 [var.Fucus clavifer Turner 1808. 3. Some of the shorter assilimators are covered by peltate ramuli. cylindrical up to 19c high and 5mm in diameter. 9: fig. During the ten years of research only female gametes were observed.Reyes. 1976c:8. Upright branches arise from a runner (stolon).—Cordero.—Trono. 1981:21. 2) Basionym: Fucus racenosus Forsskal 1775: 91 • Taxonomic enumeration: 1) synonym: 3) References: Ortega. typical]. 2:K. 1980:15. cylindracea from the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea was followed in field and laboratory conditions.—Trono and Fortes. The ramuli are radially arranged. Assimilators are erect. 1975:131. bladder-like Branches (ramuli) arise upwardly in a radial or irregular pattern from the Upright branches (axes) 3. peltata (Lamouroux) Eubank. 5. fig. 1984b:121.Ganzon-Fortes. pi. caulerpa clavifera (Turner) C.3 ± 0. Gametes had a distinct eyespot and were 9.—Cordero.3 µm wide. 1980:96. 2 [var. 1946:421. Gamete formation occurred when seawater temperature was above 20°C. 1984c:5L—Marcos-Agngarayngay. . 2 [var. 1975:33.—Liao and Sotto. apices up to 2mm in diameter. In Caulerpa. 1977a:8. Alcala.—Cordero. fig. Plants green.—Trono and Fortes.—Taylor. 2 M. 1977b:33. Caulerpa racemosa (Forsskal) J. typical]. Our observation also differs with previous research of C.Velasquez. a typically monoecious genus. concave or discshaped apices. 187. 1979b:280. with convex. and Doty. Chauvinia Clavifera (Turner) Bory de Saint-vincent 1829. 1982:8. 1976a:84. 1982:144. They are attached by much branched rhizoids. 1981:383. 1980b:23 pi. and Reyes. Agardh 1817. Rmuli up to 6mm long and round. 1974:186. pi. rapidly forming tangled mats in shallow water and amongst Sea grass meadows. 2.—Cordero. The plant is capable of rapid propagation from fragments even when partly Covered by sediment. II: fig. Trono. Club-shaped. pi. 1980:63. 1978b:45. typical]. Agardh 1817. Mostly apices are seen to be rounded. Caulerpa uvifera C. 6) REPRODUCTION: Gamete formation and release in Caulerpa racemosa var. 4) Morphological Characters: 5) Anatomical characters: 1. Agardh var. 1984a:77.—Mefiez and Calumpong. 1978:156. Plants erect the prostrate or horizontal axis is cylindrical up to 3mm broad. fig.

Althogh C. Aliya 2-10-89. 8) Local distribution: 9) Geographical distribution: Pakistan. 1-12-90). the Philippines. West Indies. India. Coppejans and Beeckman 1989. 26-12-89.7) Ecological notes: Usually found attached to upper littoral and id-littoral rocks. ALiya 11-11-89). The specimens of Karachi are distinguishable in two forms: C. f. a through out taxonomis investigation of all these species is highly needed in recent investigation these three species are found to exhibit remarkable difference in there haemagglutinic activities. Iran. Thiti. r. laetevirens (Montagne) Weber van Bosse and C. r. Indicating that they are distinct species. Agardh) Borgesen (Nizamuddin 1964). racemoss (Weber van bosse 1898. but in Karachi they have been trerated as autonomous species (Nizamuddin 1964 and shmaeel 1978 a) Howerver. Srilanka. Australia. chemnitzia (esper) Lamouroux and C. f. Manora (Leg. Japan. Buleji (Leg. This species is widely distributed in the warmer areas of all the three big ocean f the world. (Amjad and Shameel 1993 b). occidentalis (C. peltata Lamouroux have been placed under the synonym of C. 10) Remarks: . sometimes adhering to edge of pools.

DOI: 10. Absence of successful sexual reproduction of Caulerpa racemosa var. Verlaque 1. Nikolić V. ERNANI G. Nakiaike T. In Cryptogamic Flora of Pakistan. 43. Centre. F. 2012. Meinesz 2 and V. Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology Volume 15. 2010. Boudouresque 1 . Res. Antolić B. Tanaka J. Univ. Despalatović M. Gravez 3. Bot march 6: 204-223 • Catalog of the Benthic Marine Algae of the Philippines (PAUL C.2216/11-22. MOE) • Shameel M. and Cvitković I. pp.. (1990) A preliminary check list of marine alga from the coast and inshore waters of Pakistan. vol 1 I. Kar. Karachi Pakistan. Botanica Marina Vol.1 . 56pp. and RICHARD L. for Biotechnological and Pharmacological Applications (Seaweeds and their Role in Globally Changing Environments Cellular Origin. MENEZ. MAHO Biol.. 49268 g 2000 by Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York) • Nizamuddin M.REFRENCES: • The Potential of Caulerpa spp. 1964 studies of genus caulerpa of Karachi. 1992. cylindracea in the Adriatic Sea. • Žuljević A. A preliminary check list of marine alga from the coast and inshore waters of Pakistan. • Shameel M. pp 385-397) • The Caulerpa racemosa Complex (Caulerpales. Phycologia 51: 283– 286. C. Malik S (eds). Ulvophyceae) in the Mediterranean Sea (M. SILVA. A.. 2000.