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In April May 2011 "ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000" L.t.d. performed the geotechnical geological survey of the area where will be built the Qafa Buallit tunnel, part of the road Arberit during construction time request by “GJOKA KONSTRUKSION” . In order to clarify the geological and geotechnical conditions of the area where this tunnel will pass, we made the following works: Preliminary design: 1. A detailed geological survey in the zone where passes the tunnel. 2. A study of all previous works performed from the geological and mine enterprises at the zone of tunnel, at both sides of tunnel, Plani Bardhe and Bulqiza. Detailed design: 1. Two boring hole depth 35-60.00m 2. Laboratory testing 3. Detailed geological survey at apruved axis of the tunnel 4. Geological section During construction time: 1. Four borehole depth 27.00-60.00m 2. Geological section 3. Borehole logs 4. Laboratory testing

1.2 Purpose of Investigation
The destination of this investigation is the determination of the physical and mechanical properties of the rocks encountered in the area where the new Qafa Bualli Tunnel passes. The data taken from the field and laboratory works will be useful to the designers to choose the best coating of tunnel with an optimal cost and a long resistance. For the realization of this investigation there were exploited previous works prepared by the authors of this investigation, such as: 1. Geological, engineering and geotechnical investigation performed by the Department of Geology and Geodesy for the crom factory in Bulqiza 1960 – 1980. 2. Geological study for the ultrabasic massive of Bulqiza region made by geological enterprise Bulqiza1969-1980. 3. Geological and geotechnical study for the Bulqiza zone by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” 1996-2011 4. Geological and geotechnical investigations for rural roads performed by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” at Bulqiza Zone1997-2011. 5. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” for Bulqiza Ura Cerenecit road 2005.

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6. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” for Bulqiza Ura Vashes road 2008. 7. Geological and geotechnical invesgtigation performed by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” FOR Qafa Buallit tunnel during design time 2008

In this chapter we will discuss the description of the area where Qaf Bualli Tunnel is located; the shapes of today and earlier relief, the geological conditions of the formation of this relief. The description of the geological and geodynamical phenomena will be discussed. - The mountain of Qaf Bualli (the summit called Qafa e Buallit) represents a big Mountain. This mountain has been created following a volcanic and tectonic activity. It is composed of ultra basic rock (peridotite ,pyraxenes, dunite and olivinite). The biggest part of this mountain is deforested of the plants, but there are also parts covered with plants and high forest. - The valley of Plani I Bardhe stream. It is composed of two branches and close to their point of intersection, in the middle of them there is the Western face of tunnel. These streams form deep valleys with sharp slopes. At the entrance of tunnel the rocks are covered with a colluvium deposits. There in both sides of the valley is developed the village of Plani I Bardhe, away from the entry of tunnel. - The valley of Bulqiza stream. This valley is very narrow under the shape of the “V” letter. It has very tilted slopes which, to the most elevated quotas, become soft. The slopes of the valley are deforested, but in their tops they are covered with wood. In the two sides of the valley, the geological physical phenomena are very developed, but there are not massive slips of land that could threaten the stability of the body of the Eastern face. 2.2 Physical, geological and geodynamical processes For the investigation of the geological phenomena of this area we are based on the existing investigations and on the new information taken from the actual investigation. Based on these data we are making the description of the geological phenomena that are present in the geological formations that are seen in this area. The most visible geological and geodynamical phenomena observed in this area are: 1. Erosion 2. Weathering phenomenon 3. Debris flow of the superficial part of rocks 4. Tectonic fault zones(geodynamic phenomenon) These phenomena are explained one by one below:

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1. Erosion phenomenon is visible in the hilly part of the area, starting from Plani I Bardhe Village up to Bulqiza, close to the end of the tunnel section project. The currents of the surface water, which gather during heavy rainfall, erode the weathered part of the core formation and transport the material to the lowest points of the relief. The body of the entrance of the tunnel is in the middle part of the valley. It is exposed to this phenomenon. Regarding this, attention must be paid to the protection of the road track being under excavation and filling from the danger of erosion. For this we recommend the removal of the water in its both sides by means of ditches. During excavations the entrance of tunnel must be protected in the upper part in order not to allow the surface water create currents and erode the material of the slopes. 2. Weathering phenomenon is visible at the core formations that are composed of upper part of rock. The water penetrates the fissures of the rock and during melting or frostiness the rock become destroyed because of increasing and decreasing its volume. Weathering phenomenon is happening also because of the passage of the hydrothermal waters that come from the depths with high temperatures. These waters pass through the fissures of the rocks and alter them chemically and physically. When hydrothermal waters pass through the fissures of ultra basic rocks (peridotite and olivinite) alter the rock into serpentinite which has weak physical – mechanical characteristics. In the zone of ultra basic rocks are encountered such zones of 8-14m thick. 3. Debris flow of the superficial part of rocks. In the deep valleys of the torrents of the zone, especially in the valleys of the torrent of Plani I Bardhe, the debris (parts parceled out of the rocky formations) are detached and fall quickly of the most elevated quotas in the lowest quotas. To protect the entrance of the tunnel by the debris flow, we recommend taking protective measures with metallic mesh. 4. Tectonic fault zones (geodynamic phenomenon). In Albania there is a developed regional tectonic activity which is mainly horizontal with a low angle overthrust. From the studies of the Albanian and foreign authorities it has been noticed that all the eastern areas have moved with a low angle overthrust towards west. This phenomenon has caused the complete destruction of the rock masses. This big regional tectonic activity is associated with with a lot of other regional tectonics which are present in the area where the tunnel of Qafe Bualli passes. From the structural point of view, all different petrographic kinds are in a structural continuity with a general orientation North East-South West. Generally, the deep of the structures are 45-50o towards North and North West. Tectonic Fault is very developed at the massive rock, mainly at the part of ultra basic rocks. It is represented by two kinds: Tectonic zone of a thickness 20-25m. In the studied area is encountered a fault that pass at Qafa e Buallit which is oriented West East –South West. The deep is almost vertical. The zone was transformed from a strong rock into a clayey mass with pieces of rock because of the movement of rock

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Page 4 of 39 . it is changed into clayey mass with pieces of rocks. years (A.C.3.00m. 506. 1273. which was struck in 1601 by strong earthquakes.). 334.C. years 1833 – 1866. the rock is altered.3 Seismic hazard 2.1 Seismic activity in Albania The complex structural environment of Albania belongs to the central Mediterranean Region. Tectonic zone of a thickness 5-8. The earthquake of March 1273 totally destroyed the city with 25 000 inhabitants. Here African and Eurasian plates collide. These are concentrated mostly along active faults. We recommend paying attention to the tunnel project especially for that interval. • Tepelena town – was struck by strong earthquakes in March 1701 and April 1868. giving origin to some seismically active belts. It has weak physical mechanical characteristics. The tectonic zones in surface are identified in the geological map but also the streams of the zone are developed mainly in the tectonic zones. In particular Albania is at the junction between the Adriatic micro plate and the Eurasian plate and is characterized by intense micro-earthquake activity and small and medium-sited earthquakes and only seldom by large events.C. Some historic data are: • Durres city – was struck by strong earthquakes at 177 year (B. In these intervals. • Vlora town – was struck by some strong earthquakes with the intensity IX degree (MSK – 1964) during the XIX century. • The ancient city of Apollonia – was struck by strong earthquakes in the II – III century B.massive. • The ancient town of Butrint – was struck by a strong earthquake in 1153 that destroyed it. During tunnel opening is foreseen to encounter small tectonic faults of 5-8. In the chronicle are given some data about Vlora city.). • Konispol town – was struck by strong earthquakes in July 1823 and February 1872. but not in big quantity. In this fault is foreseen flow of underground waters. • Himara town – was struck by strong earthquakes in October 1858. • Berati Town – was struck by strong earthquakes in March 1551 and December 1851. August 1869 and July 1893.00m which have different orientations. • Elbasan town – was struck by strong earthquakes in 1380 and September 1842. 2. 1869.

2) represents the expected intensities for average soil conditions for the next 100 years. M = 6. 8 1911. 1979.6. M = 6. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64). Io = VIII – IX degree (MSK – 64). 1967 M = 6.0. Seismic Zonation Map of Albania Page 5 of 39 .2 Seismic design parameters in the project area. 1959. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64). 26 1920. with a 70% probability rate. M = 6. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64). 2 – 89”. • Llogara Zone – November. M = 6. • Dibra region – November 30. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64). • Shkodra town – was struck by a strong earthquake in June 1855. • Boundary zone Montenegro – Albania – April 15. M = 6. Ms = 6. • Korca town– May 20. (1980). The current and official documents concerning seismic design parameters of Albania are the Seismic Regionalization Map of Albania by the Seismologic Institute in Tirana and the “Design Seismic Norm KPT – No. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64).6.7. • Shkodra town – July.3. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64).9. 2. 1960 M = 6. This map (Fig. • Lushnja town – September 1. edited in 1989 by the Seismological Institute of Tirana and Construction Ministry. M = 6. • Durres town – December. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64). 17 1926. 21 1930.2. • Ohrid Lake – February.2. 1 1905.4. Io = IX degree (MSK – 64). Based on historical and instrumental records the Map of Seismic Zoning of the country (scale 1: 500000) has been compiled by Sul Starova et al.• Delvina town – was struck by strong earthquakes in June 1854 and January 1897. • Tepelena town – November. The Seismic Regionalization Map shows that all the project area is evaluated with an oscillation intensity of VII degree.4.

Marl (not weathered) I Page 6 of 39 . II. (as described in Table 1) Table 1 Soil Classification Soil category Description .Compact gravel .In the “Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.All kinds of rock (excluding weathered rocks) . the influence of local ground conditions on the seismic action shall be accounted for by three subsoil categories I.2-89”. III.

semi-stiff and stiff –plastic .Silty sand compact and semi-compact .15 g is adopted. 2. g : gravity acceleration Table 2 Seismicity Coefficient kE Page 7 of 39 . coarse and medium grained sands compact and semi compact . the value of which are dependent on the free vibration period (see Fig. Seismic Center and Geology-Engineering Department in the Bulqiza region. This is based on the studies carried out by “Enterprise GeologyEngineer”. the construction ground of the Bulqiza zone is classified as follows: .2-89”): Sa = kE x kr x y x β x g where: kE : seismicity coefficient depending on seismic intensity and soil category (see Table 2) kr : building importance coefficient (see Table 3) y : structural coefficient (see Table 4) β : dynamic included in category I.Fine grained sand-compact .Clay from medium stiff to soft plastic III Based on this table. in the case of horizontal seismic forces.2 ). the spectral acceleration design values Sa are defined by the following (based on “Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.Clayey sand and sandy clay from medium stiff to soft plastic .Stiff plastic clay . For slope stability estimations the maximum value of design ground acceleration a = 0.Weathered rocks and marls .Fine grained sand semi-compact .Gravel sands.Clayey sand and sandy clay-stiff.II .3 Design Response Spectrum For calculation of buildings and different structures with spectral method.3.

5 Category Description of building and structures Buildings and Structures of Extraordinary Importance a) Buildings and structures where small damage may cause catastrophic damage like: poisoning of the population. c) Buildings and Structures where the interruption of the technological process is allowed.22 0.Category of soil I II III Seismic intensity (MSK-64) VII 0. like: museums. fire explosions.14 VIII 0. d) Buildings and Structures of special cultural and monumental value. kindergarten.26 IX 0.11 0.42 Table 3 Building Importance Coefficient kr Importance coefficient kr 4 1. hotels. b) Buildings and Structures whose damage may cause big causalities. cinemas. schools. I 1. b) Buildings and Structures of a very big economic or strategic importance. stadiums.36 0.16 0. different factories and Page 8 of 39 . big hospitals..27 0. different institutions. etc.08 0. and other objects like these where there are big concentration of peoples.0 Buildings and Structures that are not included in other categories. libraries. hotels. like: schools. fire station. like: residential buildings. big flour factories etc.2 1. c) Buildings and Structures whose damage may cause losses for the economy.5 1. cinema. etc. nursery schools. like: telecommunication network. which have a special importance for post earthquake recovery.75 1. Buildings and Structures of Special Importance a) Buildings and Structures.3 1.2 II III Buildings and Structures of Ordinary Importance 1.

water towers and others.5 1.3 1.0 Page 9 of 39 . Railway or road bridges with light bay (HD): a) 30m < HD < 50m b) 18m < HD <= 30m c) HD <= 18m Railway or road tunnels with length (L): a) L >= 500m b) 100 <= L < 500m c) L < 100m 1.2 1.plants.3 1.0 II III IV Retaining walls. engineering structures like: retaining walls. IV Buildings and Structures of Secondary Importance Buildings and Structures whose damage does not cause big losses 0. No calculation is needed V Transport structures Category Description of building and structures Importance coefficient kr I Railway or road bridges with special importance and all other bridges with light bay HD: 1. Temporary Buildings and Structures Buildings and Structures whose collapse does not risk the people’s life. big warehouses.5 of human life or interruption of technological process. 1.0 1.5 HD >= 50m.

0.45 Page 10 of 39 . antenna. Constructions with reinforced concrete walls. Note: For the different storey’s height ψ value is determine on the average value of the rapport h/b.4 column’s dimension in the seismic force direction.3 Structural coefficient ψ 0. Combined structures with reinforced concrete (frames combined with vertical structural walls).45 VII 0. as chimney.Table 4 Structural coefficient ψ Category Description of building and structures I Constructions with metallic frame. Constructions with reinforced concrete frames when is not consider frame-wall interaction: a) h/b <= 15 b) h/b >= 25 II c) 15 < h/b < 25 where: h .20 0.28 V 0.3 0. III Constructions with reinforced concrete frames when considering frame-wall interaction. water tower and other high constructions like them: 0.38 VIII a) metallic b) concrete and reinforced concrete c) masonry 0.25 column’s height b .38 interpolated IV 0.3 VI Buildings with masonry walls not reinforced with concrete columns Buildings with masonry walls reinforced with concrete columns High constructions with small dimensions in plane.

XII XIII Hydraulic structures as barriers and other structures like them: a) with site materials b) with concrete and reinforced concrete Other hydraulic structures as tower for water.25 XI a) with reinforced concrete b) with concrete and stone Underground structures.35 XIV 0.28 0.2 0. For first soil category 0.28 0.25 0.7 (4) (Seismic Norm) (5) (Seismic Norm) (6) (Seismic Norm) where: T1: Fundamental period of free vibration which shall be carried out using the methods of structural dynamics.8⁄Ti ≤ 2.2: 1.25 X a) with reinforced concrete understructure b) with concrete understructure Retaining walls: 0.65 ≤ β = 1.65 ≤ β = 0. blockhouse and other constructions like them (supported directly on the ground or on the columns): a) metallic b) reinforced concrete Bridges : 0.65 ≤ β = 0.25 0.IX Tanks.0 3. For third soil category 0. or by means of approximate formulae which are based on the principles of structural dynamics. Page 11 of 39 . 0.25 0.1⁄Ti ≤ 1. equilibrium tower etc. tower for entering in tunnels.3 2.7⁄Ti ≤ 2.35 β : dynamic coefficient which is determined from the below formulas and from Fig. For second soil category 0.

chrome and other minerals.p.6 of the “Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.2-89”.2-89”): E ki = K E ⋅ K r ⋅ψβ 1η ki ⋅ Q k ηki – the coefficient of the seismic load distribution.6. which answer to the “i” forms of own oscillations of the construction at the “k” level. which is concentrated in the “k” level and is determined in base of calculating loads (permanent or temporary) reduced with combination coefficients of the table (3) (paragraph 2. Qk – is the weight of the engineering work.1 Existing Investigations In Bulqiza region there are performed investigations for researches of useful minerals such as copper. Regional investigations for the preparation of the geological map of Albania are performed.2) in conformity with the point 2.3 Dynamic Coefficient 2. 3.3.4 Base Shear Force The seismic base shear force Eki for each direction is determined as follows (based on “Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.k.0 Geological and Hydrogeological condition In this chapter we will treat the geological composition of the area making use of the existing studies and site works performed by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” Sh.2-89. when the hydropower of Page 12 of 39 . this coefficient is determined as per paragraph 2.3.5 or 2.6. 3. Geological investigations were carried out in the civil engineering field.Fig. 3. 4 of the “Design Seismic Norms KPT-No.

Fierza the construction materials that might be used for the construction of the dam were being investigated. Albania is a part of Alpine geosynclines with a tectonic movement development. The divisive boundary between North and South Albanides is the deep Shkoder – Peje tectonic deflection. The structural geology of Albania is divided into big tectonic units. These deposits are found at the tectonic zone of Korabi. North and South Albanides themselves are divided into indoor Albanides and outdoor Albanides as below: Indoor North Albanides Outdoor Indoor South Albanides Outdoor The Indoor North Albanides include only the region of Krasta Cukali. Kruja region. Tectonic development of Balkan is as a result of an interaction between Euroasia plate and Africa plate. Page 13 of 39 . The geostructure that takes part in the Albanian territory is called Albanide and it is the continuation of Dinarides in the North and Helenides in the South. Ionian region and Sazan and Karaburun region. Geological and engineering investigations have been performed for the railway bridges. The Outdoor North Albanides include the region of Alps and Kruja region. Kraste – Cukali. Albanides are divided into North Albanides and South Albanides. From the tectonic point of view. The oldest structures are in Hercinian. which have different characteristics from each other. These are: Albanian Alps. Mirdita. Korabi. The Outdoor South Albanides include Krasta Cukali region. The Indoor South Albanides include Korabi and Mirdita region.

Olivinite. This entire tectonic region is overlaying Mirdita region. But in the region where the road passes are present the deposits below: a) Ultra basic rock (Olivinite. - - Bulqiza tunnel zone is part of Mirdita region. At their contact area there are found tectonically destroyed rocks. Peridotite. бJ 2-3 Ultra basic rocks. which is called Shkodra-Peja disjunction. in Macedonia and Greece. This region is in contact with south regions through a deep tectonic line. The Alpine geosynclinals during Triassic period has made large tectonic changes. According to the studies done in this zone. The majority part of this tectonic zone extends over the borders of Albania. In these hollows granular formations have been deposited. In this region there are present Basic and Ultra basic rocks. Burreli hollow. The geological advancement has started with the deposits of Permian (P) and it goes on with the geological deposits up to Oligocene (Pg3). Albanian Alps Region – This region continues from the territory of Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia.- Kruja. during Neogene period there are created some hollows of tectonic and erosion origin such as Kukes hollow. Korabi Region – This tectonic unit lays on the East of Albania at border with Kosovo and Macedonia. limestone deposits and granular deposits. In these cases the serpentined zones are encountered in the tectonic contacts. and magmatic and volcanic -sedimentary rocks are found. In some parts of this region. Through this valley with tectonic origin Drin River flows. Sazani and Karaburuni. Geological history of Korabi region has started in periods of Silurian and Devonian (S – D) and has continued up to quaternary. Ionian. Librazhd hollow. In this region there are present mostly calcareous rocks. Mirdita Region – This region is called internal region. The superficial part of these rocks is fissured intensively and Page 14 of 39 . In this region we have an advancement of volcanism. Pyroxenite) c) Quaternary Deposits Q4 a. The other regions are not important for the road segment. having many cracks. but only tectonic lines and the destroyed zone is maximally 5-10m in its two sides. Korca hollow and Kolonja hollow. Pogradec hollow. These rocks are sometimes serpentined and their physical and mechanical characteristics weaken a lot. There is a great advancement of the Carst phenomenon in these rocks. for this reason we are not discussing them. form stable slopes. Peridotite and Pyroxenite with grey to olive color. there are not tectonic zones of big width.

therefore. From the performed tests it comes out that they are neutral waters and not aggressive against steel and concrete. c) Quaternary Deposits According to the way of formation these deposits will be divided into torrent deposits and colluvium deposits. ortho-pyroxenes. In accordance with the existing studies.2 Hydrogeological Conditions From the performed investigations in Bulqiza area (from the measurements taken at the boreholes and exploratory holes) it results that the underground water level.00 m.0 – 2. boreholes and the materials accumulated of the site visits. Quantities of Pyroxenes rhombic are bigger than those of pyroxenes monocline.Torrent Deposits are represented by the formations of some streams around the region such as Thirra up to Kolsh. In some cases these deposits intertwine with alluvial deposits. . These rocks are nearly met toward the middle of the tunnel until the Plani I Bardhe village and Bulqiza city. Page 15 of 39 . Olivine is gradually increased up to 15% and is serpentined. In some cases these deposits are unstable.0-5. These works possess several meassurements made during the investigation period and it results that in the majority part of the region the underground water level is very deep during all seasons except the period when the surface is full of snow.50m. 3. They have a thickness of 4. are moderate consolidated and are found at the beds of the streams. Emphasizing that the road passes through stable zones and these deposits do not affect its stability. they slide in the direction of relief downfall. . 4. Pyroxenes monocline is the main part of the rock having grains 1-3mm up to 5-6mm. in the valleys of the different torrents. and other smaller streams. we are making a general description of the geological engineering and geotechnical conditions of the zone where pass the tunnel. in some cases it is noted the passage from pyroxenes to pyroxenes and olivine. sands and silty sands. These deposits rest on the core formations and have a thickness of 1. there are always falls of stones of different size.Colluvium Deposits are represented by silty clays and gravelly silty clays. The authors of the investigation have made use of all existing and the new works. They are composed of silty clays. The main minerals of this zone are: Pyroxenes are represented by clino-pyroxenes. peridotites and olivine. They are moderate consolidated and are found in the valley slopes. The quantity of pyroxenes monocline and rhombic is different. in some other cases they contain plagioclase. With the new alignment these areas will be completely eliminated.0 The geological conditions of the zone where will be constructed the tunnel. From the Entrance until the exit of the tunnel are met the ultra basic rocks that are composed of pyroxenes.

orthopyroxenes represent 35%. carbonate. with cracks and traversed by tectonic separating line. we will show the two principal kinds of rocks as follows: For Ultra basic rocks Specific gravity Gs = 2.85T/m3 Bulk density γ = 2.Peridotites are composed of serpentined olivine. in ultra basic rocks there are tectonic separating lines and zones having a thickness from some cm until 20m.serpentine. Another factor that reduces the stability of the rocks is the system of the primary cracks which in ultra basic rocks is very developed. oxides of iron.52 Rock Quality Designation RQD = 35-45% Modulus deformation E = 2.65-2. pyroxenes monocline and rarely plagioclase.82 T/m3 Void ratio e = 0.2. Tectonic lines serve also as channels for the passage of the underground waters. pyroxenes rhombic and pyroxenes monocline increase and decrease in rapport with each-other. Their upper part is weathered. those are present in torrents.103 MPa Poison’s ratio μ= 0. Contacts between them are mostly tectonic.78. Dunite (olivinite) These rocks are scattered from the contact with gabbros until to the exit of tunnel.6. whereas the rest is serpentined olivine. pyroxenes Physical mechanical characteristics of the rocks met in the zone of tunnel Based on several field works and laboratory tests performed for the rocks met in the zone of tunnel.10-0. clino-pyroxenes represent 25-30%. 4. Their main mineral is olivine and they contain little pyroxenes. From the contact with gabbros at the direction of North-East. Ortho-pyroxenes is represented under grains 3mm very deformed (kind-band). Chrome is met as an accessory mineral.10-6 cm/sec Velocity index (VF/VL) Iν= 0. Olivine is replaced from serpentine and magnetite secondary.10-0.10-2 – 5. In dunite rock there are observed even layers or strata of pyroxenes falling towards South up to Southwest with an angle of fall 40-60o. as accessories minerals there are met chrome whereas as secondary minerals there are met magnetites. small valleys and hillsides.45-0.102-2.20 Uniaxial compressive strength Rc = 60-70 MPa Growth of temperature with the advancing of the depth in the rock = 2.4.5o Celsius for 100m depth from the ground surface. Page 16 of 39 . They have a layer texture with a fall toward South up to South-West angle of falling 50-60o. Quantity of olivine.4-2. In these rocks there are some minerals of chrome possibly displaced from each other because of tectonic movements.06 Permeability k=5. Olivine in some cases is represented serpentined. Frequent interlacing of these kinds of rocks reduces much the stability of these rocks.

(those works have been perforations up to 300-400m deep.20 of the precipitations quantity that penetrates mainly during tectonic detachments. The coefficient of infiltration in those rocks is 0.010Mpa φ = 26o 4. The snow thickness is 2.66T/m3 γ = 1.00m.15-0. As far the big depth. The infiltration of water into mineral works during showers and snow goes from 30% to 130% in comparison with the annual average flow.3 Hydrogeological conditions of the zone of tunnel. which have a big fissuring and goes until 50m deep. From the surveys made in the zone of Qaf Bualli.90-1.62. 2.18 T/m3 e = 0. The upper zone: corresponds with the weathering zone. There are met waters without pressure and free fall. Page 17 of 39 . in serpentinite. The observations done during several years for the purpose of the mineral works of the zone of tunnel have shown that the quantity of the waters is bigger in tectonic detachment.10-2 – 6.69T/m3 γ = 2. different galleries of a few hundreds meters long).2. In those rocks are distinguished two kinds of aquiferous zones: 1. In the deep cuts of the torrent of Plani I bardhe are not met sources of water. like geological works for the discovery of the mines of chrome and cooper that are present in the basic and ultra basic rocks.10-2. The lower zone: is characterized by the gathering of water in tectonic detachments in depths 700-800m from the surface of ground.For Tectonic fault Specific gravity Bulk density Void ratio Permeability Rock Quality Designation Modulus deformation Uniaxial compressive strength For Colluvium Deposits Specific gravity Bulk density Void ratio Modulus deformation Cohesion Shearing resistance Gs = 2.10-3 cm/sec RQD = 0-10% E = 20-30 MPa Rc = 3-4 MPa Gs = 2.72 E = 7-8 MPa C = 0. The annual average of showers is 952-1523 mm/year.68.2.60-0. the quantities of water as a result of showers will come after some months.23-0. which demonstrates that their permeability is very small.96 T/m3 e = 0. it has been noted that the underground water are mainly the waters of the cracks of the rocks gathered from the showers and the snow.35 k=4. The sources of waters are in the high quota or in the middle of the mountain sides. The quantity of water in those sources is 1-2 liter/sec. like the road tunnel. The snow cover lasts 110 days / year.

They surge in high quota 800-850m. From the data of boreholes opened for the research of minerals of the zone of tunnel at the summit of Runje.T.50o Celsius in 100m depth. 3. Deep South-South West 45-56o. Tectonic fault are present in the zone of tunnel. From the geological point of view in the zone of tunnel are encountered the ultra basic rocks composed of peridotite. The quality of the Rock of the tunnel classified class 4-5 according Engineering Rock Mass Classifications Z. 2. They have a general orientation North East – South West. Summarizing the hydrogeological material these rocks have a small permeability with a filtering coefficient of order 10 -4 cm/sec. Disponible data show that during the excavation of the tunnel nearly 60% (of the work) will be in fractured rock and 40% will be in tectonic zones or weakened as a result of the process of chlorination or serpentinisation of the primary rocks.00m and rare 2025m. it results that the geometric scale various from 2. which shows that the phenomenon of fissuring is reducing towards the depth expect the tectonic fault that must be considered at the tunnel project. 5. From the hydrogeological point of view the zone of tunnel is poor in underground waters.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1.Based on the above mentioned data and on the Bieniawski classification the quantity of water in 10m long of tunnel will be 2-10 liter per minute. Thickness of the zone of breaking is 5-8. It is foreseen that the underground waters will be waters without pressure. 7. olivinite and Pyroxenes.40-2. In the studied area are encountered some sources with a flow 2-10l/hour. The rocks structure in the zone of tunnel has a continuity of a general orientation North East-South West. According to the Seismic Regionalization Map the area where will be built the tunnel is evaluated with an oscillation intensity of VII degree scale MSK-64 6. Page 18 of 39 . General mineralization less than 300-350mg/l and hardness smaller than 10o German grade. 5. The water is hydrocarbonate of magnesium. 4. In the zone Qaf Bualli the new tunnel will pass through a hilly and mountainous relief. Bieniawski.

The Slop of Stability 2nd Edition Author E. 9. Principi di geomeccanica. Geological Hazards Author Fred G.Ing. de Freitas 2007 11. Mauro FORNARO. tachnical University of Turin 2006. Masayuki kouda Gyaneswor Pokharel Teulor & Francis 2006 8. Day.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Foundation Engineering Handbook Design and Construction with the 2006 International Building Code edited 2006 by Robert W.6. Geotechnical Engineering. Engineering Geology edited by F. 3. Prediction and Countermeassures Author Tamotsu Takahashi Consulting Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 7. Foundation Design Codes and Soil Investigation Authors Yusuke Honjo. Deep Excavation Theory and practice Chang –Yu Ou National Taiwan Principles of Geotechnical Engineering Fifth Edition by Braja M.H. Debris Flow Mechanis. Author Renato Lancellota Department of structural Engineering. Osamu Kusakabe. Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables Author Burt Look Consulting Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 4. Otello DEL GRECO.Ing.N.G. Prof. Bell Consulting Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 5. Kenji Matsui. Bell Second Edition 2007 10. Bromhead Geotechnical Engineer Teulor & Francis 2006 Consulting 6. 2. 2006 12. Autori Prof. Engineering Geology (Principles and Practice) Edited and Compiled by M.Das University of Science and Technology Taipei Taiwan 2009 Page 19 of 39 .

Goosen University of Turabo.W. 2009 17.Scotland. Foundation on rock Duncan C.Sarby (University of Wolverhampton. Geotechnical and Environmental Aspects of Waste Disposal Sites R. Taylor & Francis 2009 19. Graeme Bell Consulting Dams Engineer 2009 16. Geotechnics of soft soil Focus on ground Improvement Minna Karstunen (University of Strathclyde. Experimental Rock Mechanics Kiyoo Mogi Profesor of university of Tokio 2009 14. United Kingdom) 2009 18.or and Francis 2009 20.Panaghiotis C.Puerto Rico USA 2009 15.13. Kotzias 1985 A Wiley Interscience Publication 22. Wyllie and Christopher W. Stamatopoulos .Mah. Patrick MacGregor Geologis. Robin Fell (University of New South Wales Australia).J. Gregorich Canadian Society of Soil Scence.UK) Martino Leoni (University of Stuttgart Stuttgart Germany ) 2009 Page 20 of 39 . Consulting Engineers Vancouver. Inxhinieria Sizmike Prof Doctor Niko Pojani Botimet Toena 2003 Soil Improvement By Preloading Aris C. Taylor & Francis Group.G. Canada Tay. Rock Slope Engineering Civil and Mining Duncan C. Wyllie Principal . Geotechnical Engineering of Dams. Expansive Soils Recent advances in characterization and Treatment edited by Amer Ali Al-Rawas & Mattheus F.Gloagow.Felton (University of Wolverhampton. David Stapledon Geologist. Carter & E. United Kingdom) & A.R.A.Golder Associates. 21. Soil Sampling and Method of analysis Edited by M.

engineering and geotechnical investigation performed by the Department of Geology and Geodesy for the crom factory in Bulqiza 1960 – 1980. Paris 1980. Rock Characterization Testing and Monitoring ISRM Suggested Methods Editor ETBROWN 31.d.ROISIN. 33.NUYENS 27. 37. Les essais in situ en mécanique des sols (Réalisation et interprétation) Maurice CASSAN Eyrolles Paris 1978. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed GEOSTUDIO 2000” for Bulqiza Ura Cerenecit road 2005. Dunod Paris 1961. Geological. R. Geological study for the ultrabasic massive of Bulqiza region made by geological enterprise Bulqiza1969-1980. sulla 24. Report on a Ground Investigation at Jaguar Racing Wind Tunnel.Unuversity of Southampton. Soil Mechanics: Concepts and Applications William powrie Profesor of geotechnical Engineering . Norwst Holst Soil Engineering L. La mécanique des sols. 28.Southampton SO17 1BJ E & SPON London 1996 29. MECANIQUE DES SOLS APLIQUEE aux travaux publics et au bâtiment. 34. V. 26. PECK. 35. J. Dunod. by “ALTEA & Page 21 of 39 .Hinfield. 30. Geological and geotechnical study for the Bulqiza zone by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” 1996-2011 36.t. Cestari FERRUCIO 1990. J. Associazione Geotecnica Italiana (raccomandazioni programmazione ed esecuzione delle indagini geotecniche).23. Geological and geotechnical investigations for rural roads performed by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” at Bulqiza Zone1997-2011. 2001 32. Gaydon. 25.VERDEYEN. K Terzaghi.B.7005 Paris 1979. Fondation et Ouvrages en Terre Gerard PHILIPONNAT Editiond Eyrolles 61 Boulevard Saint-Germain. Prove geotecniche in sito. Ground Engineering the Magazine of the British Geotechical Associations February 2002. Warwickshire.

M J Tomlison. Bieniawski June 1989 Mekanika e dherave dhe e shkembit Autore Luljeta Bozo. Geological and geotechnical investigation performed GEOSTUDIO 2000” for Bulqiza Ura Vashes road 2008. Aashto Standard 2006. 42. 48. Geological and geotechnical invesgtigation performed by “ALTEA & GEOSTUDIO 2000” FOR Qafa Buallit tunnel during design time 2008 40.Neço GORO N. Engineering Rock Mass Classifikations Z. 46.38. British Standard (BS1377) 1990. Code Of Practice For Site Investigations (BS 5930:1999) Astm Standard 2003. Vetite fiziko mekanike te dherave dhe shkembinjve Autore Foundation Design and Construction. 41. 47. viti 1983 43. Fourth Edition.T.KONOMI viti 1989 44. 49. Kushtet teknike te projektimit KTP-78 Libri I 1 KTP-5-78 International Building Code 2006 Page 22 of 39 . 45. by “ALTEA & 39.

00-5.2: The sample from BH-1 depth 0.Photo No.00 m Page 23 of 39 .1: The place where is done the borehole Photo No.

Photo No.00 m Page 24 of 39 .00-15.4: The sample from BH-1 depth 10.00-10.00 m Photo No.3: The sample from BH-1 depth 5.

0 m Page 25 of 39 .00-25.6: The sample from BH-1 depth 25.5: The sample from BH-1 depth 20.0-27.Photo No.00 m Photo Nr.

00 m Page 26 of 39 .00-5.8: The sample from BH-2 depth 0.7: The place where is done the borehole Photo Nr.Photo No.

0-15.9: The sample from BH-2 depth 10.Photo Nr.0 m Page 27 of 39 .0-20.0 m Photo Nr.10: The sample from BH-2 depth 15.

0 m Page 28 of 39 .0-30.12: The sample from BH-2 depth 25.0-25.11: The sample from BH-2 depth 20.0 m Photo Nr.Photo Nr.

14: The sample from BH-3 depth 5.0 m Page 29 of 39 .Photo Nr.0-10.13: The place where is done the borehole Photo Nr.

16: The sample from BH-3 depth 15.0 m Page 30 of 39 .0-15.0 m Photo Nr.Photo Nr.15: The sample from BH-3 depth 10.0-20.

0-30.Photo Nr.0-25.0 m Photo Nr.18: The sample from BH-3 depth 25.0 m Page 31 of 39 .17: The sample from BH-3 depth 20.

19: The sample from BH-3 depth 30.20: The sample from BH-3 depth 35.Photo Nr.0-35.0 m Photo Nr.0-40.0 m Page 32 of 39 .

21: The sample from BH-3 depth 40.0 m Photo Nr.Photo Nr.0-45.22: Pamje nga sheshi i punimit Page 33 of 39 .

0 m Page 34 of 39 .0-5.0 m Photo Nr.Photo Nr.0-10.24: The sample from BH-3 depth 5.23: The sample from BH-3 depth 0.

26: The sample from BH-3 depth 15.0-20.015.0 m Page 35 of 39 .0 m Photo Nr.25: The sample from BH-3 depth 10.Photo Nr.

0-25.0 m Photo Nr.0-30.28: The sample from BH-3 depth 25.0 m Page 36 of 39 .27: The sample from BH-3 depth 20.Photo Nr.

29: The sample from BH-3 depth 30.0 m Photo Nr.30: The sample from BH-3 depth 35.0-35.Photo Nr.0-40.0 m Page 37 of 39 .

31: The sample from BH-3 depth 40.0 m Page 38 of 39 .32: The sample from BH-3 depth 45.Photo Nr.0 m Photo Nr.0-45.0-50.

34: The sample from BH-3 depth 55.0 m Page 39 of 39 .33: The sample from BH-3 depth 50.0-60.0 m Photo Nr.Photo Nr.0-55.