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WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN

Influent Wastewater Treatment

Effluent

Raw sludge, grit, cleanings

Sludge Treatment
What goes here depends on the method of final disposal: • Solids concentration • Pathogen reduction

Processed sludge
Sludge treatment and disposal may account for up to 80% of the total wastewater treatment cost.
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Sludge Disposal
• Land application • Landfill • Incineration
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Preliminary

Primary Treatment

2º Treatment

Disinfection

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Jae K. (Jim) Park

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WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN

Sludge •A mixture of organic and inorganic solids in water •Color : from brown to black Treated sludge •Incineration, landfilling •Contain low levels of toxic compounds
Typical Sludge Concentration Source Primary sludge, without thickening Waste activated sludge Waste trickling filter sludge Digested sludge
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Typical concentration, % 2-7 0.5-1.5 1-5 4-10 12-50
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Dewatered sludge

Sludge Types
Primary sludge
3 to 8% solids About 70% organic material

Secondary sludge
Consists of wasted microorganisms and inert materials About 90% organic material WAS: 0.5 to 2% solids Trickling filter sludge: 2-5% solids
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Jae K. (Jim) Park

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this sludge will also contain chemical precipitates (more difficult to treat) Denitrification sludges .similar to WAS sludge Sources of sludge Primary sedimentation tank Aeration basin or secondary clarifier Screening and grinder Filter backwash water 11/30/2008 5 Sludge Treatment Reduction Ash Sludge Thicken Condition Dewater Sanitary Landfill Stabilize Condition Dewater Soil Incorporation 11/30/2008 6 Jae K.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Sludge Types Tertiary sludge If secondary clarifier is used to remove phosphate. (Jim) Park Page 3 .

Methods Gravity thickening : using an additional clarifier to remove more water Dissolved air flotation (DAF) Used to concentrate secondary sludges Sludge is pressurized and injected with air releasing into a settling tank (when the pressure is released.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Sludge Thickening Reducing the water in primary and secondary sludges. attaching to the sludge particles as microscopic bubbles) the sludge is floated to the surface in a concentrated form the underflow returns to the head of the plant. 11/30/2008 7 Gravity Thickener 11/30/2008 Flotation 8 Jae K. (Jim) Park Page 4 . the extra air comes our of solution.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Thickening Gravity thickening Flotation Especially effective on activated sludge Increases solids content from 0. Max. 11/30/2008 10 10 Jae K.5 .1% to 3-6% Primary Sludge Secondary Sludge 11/30/2008 Best with primary sludge Increases solids content from 1-3% to 10% Gravity Thickening Further processing Flotation 9 Gravity Thickening Accomplished in circular sedimentation basins Degree of thickening: 2~5 times the incoming solids conc. achievable solids concentration: < 10% Chemical and waste activated sludges are difficult to thicken under gravity. (Jim) Park Page 5 .

000 200~1.2~1. captured TSS. loading. % 1~7 1~4 0. mg/L 3/m2·d 3/m2·d m .000 200~1..WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Gravity Thickener Design Criteria Type of sludge Primary Trickling filter WAS Combined primary + WAS Inf. secondary effluent is often blended with the sludge fed into the thickener.000 300~800 m3/m2·d × 24.. % 5~10 2~6 2~4 4~6 Hydraulic Solids Solids Overflow loading. equipment installation. 11 11/30/2008 Gravity Thickener Equipment Generally circular concrete tanks with bottom sloping toward the center. and operation and maintenance Rectangular concrete and steel tanks 11/30/2008 12 Jae K.5 0.% m 24~33 2~6 2~4 4~10 90~144 35~50 10~35 25~80 85~98 80~92 60~85 85~92 300~1. • The sludge-blending tank may utilize mechanical mixing or air mixing. solids conc. Equipment Rotating bottom scraper arm Vertical pickets Rotating scum-collection mechanism with scum baffle plates Overflow weir Other configurations Circular steel tank: Generally cheaper because of simplicity of construction. (Jim) Park Page 6 .2048 = 1b/ft2·d • Gravity thickener side water depth: 3 m (10 ft) • Detention period: 24 hrs • Hydraulic loading rate: 10~30 m3/m2·d = 250~740 gpd/ft2 • To achieve the hydraulic loading rate.5~2 Thickene d conc.57 = gal/ft2 ·d kg/m2 ·d × 0.

solids concentration: 4~5% DAF Variations Pressurize total or only a small portion of the incoming sludge Pressurize the recycled flow from the flotation thickener – preferred because it eliminates the need for highpressure sludge pumps.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Gravity Thickener 11/30/2008 13 Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) Primarily used to thicken the solids in chemical and WAS Separation of solids is achieved by introducing fine air bubbles created under pressure of several atmosphere into the liquid. 11/30/2008 14 Jae K. (Jim) Park Page 7 . attaching to solids to cause flotation of solids Degree of thickening: 2~8 times the incoming solids concentration Max.

Condensation 2. Easy to clean and maintain. Low retention time from wastewater stream to effluent ejection. Installation cost is low for low flows. Higher density sludge with low water content. (Jim) Park Page 8 .WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) The released air bubbles become attached to the suspended particles by one of the following mechanisms: 1. 11/30/2008 16 Jae K. Capability to treat a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and dissolved waste streams.Entrapment 11/30/2008 15 Advantages of DAF Space requirements are minimal. The unit is typically delivered fully prefabricated. Superior clarification of most waste streams. Normal concrete pad installation.Collision 3.

the airto-solids ratio ranges from 0. air is injected in a range of two percent to eight percent (2% to 8%) by volume. depending upon the application. It should be noted that any chemical additives used to promote coagulation and flocculation are generally included as solids determining the surface loading since the chemicals used are removed with the float from the system. m3/m2·d 90~250 90~250 60~180 90~250 Polymer added (mg/kg) 1000~4000 1000~3000 1000~3000 1000~4000 Solids captured . m3/day. m3/d. mg/L.7 (US customary units). Air-to-Solid Ratio: Generally.03~0. depending on the application and the type of solids involved.07 0. Solids loading rate.0 to 2. (Jim) Park Page 9 . mg/L 100~600 100~600 100~600 100~600 18 Type of sludge Air/solids ratio 0. Solids Load: Design points for solid loadings range from 0.020 to 0.35 (SI units) = (p + 14.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Design Parameters Hydraulic Loading: Effective design ranges from 1. 11/30/2008 17 Air/solids ratio.8 P = pressure in atmosphere = (p + 101. kPa (lb/in2). mg/L. Sa = solids in incoming sludges. Depending upon the type of solids and application.04~0. usually 0.5 lbs/hr/ft2.5 gpm/ft2.1.5~0. f = fraction of air dissolved at pressure P. kg/m2·d 90~200 50~120 50~90 60~150 Hydraulic loading.35)/101.02~0.7)/14. and Q = sludge flow to the thickener. A/S sa= solubility of air at the required temperature. p = gauge pressure. q = recycle flow or a portion of incoming flow pressurized.5 to 3.05 0.05 0.% 85~95 90~98 80~95 90~95 TSS in side stream.05 Primary Trickling filter WAS Combined primary 11/30/2008 + WAS Jae K.02~0.

Lime stabilization 3. TKN. (Jim) Park Page 10 . total-P) Treated sludge is 3% solids Anaerobic Digestion 2 stage: acid fermentation followed by methane production Advantages: produce methane do not add oxygen As with aerobic digestion. supernatant goes to headworks 19 11/30/2008 Sludge Stabilization Stabilization alters the characteristics of sludge so it can be returned to the environment with a minimum of environmental and health risks. Anaerobic digestion 3. Chlorination 4. Biological Treatment 1. Lagoons 4. Composting Chemical Treatment 1. Irradiation 11/30/2008 20 Jae K.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Sludge Stabilization Aerobic Digestion Extension of activated sludge Accomplished by aeration of sludge then followed by sedimentation Supernatant goes back to head of plant (high in BOD. Aerobic Digestion 2. Heat stabilization 5. Wet combustion 2.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Stabilization Aerobic Digestion Extension of activated sludge Accomplished by aeration of sludge then followed by sedimentation Supernatant goes back to head of plant (high in BOD. supernatant goes to headworks 21 11/30/2008 Stabilization Aerobic Digestion 11/30/2008 Anaerobic Digestion 22 Jae K. total-P) Treated sludge is 3% solids Anaerobic Digestion 2 stage: acid fermentation followed by methane production Advantages: produce methane do not add oxygen As with aerobic digestion. TKN. (Jim) Park Page 11 .

relatively easy operation. higher removal of biodegradable fraction (up to 80%) at very short detention times (3~4 days) 11/30/2008 23 Aerobic Digestion . (Jim) Park Page 12 .WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Aerobic Digestion Primary sedimentation tank Aeration basin RAS Aerobic digester Decant Sludge Secondary clarifier Aerate until O2 uptake < 2 mg O2/g VS/hr Sludge age = 10~20 days at 20°C Loading = 0. and sensitive to temp. location.14 lb of alkalinity as CaCO3 lost/lb ammonia oxidized Primary sludge: direct oxidation of organic matter Biological sludge: endogenous oxidation of the cell tissue 11/30/2008 24 Jae K.. and type of tank material. poor mechanical dewatering characteristics of sludge.continued Advantages: VS reduction similar to anaerobic digestion.02~0.+ 3H2O + H+ pH drop 7. and loss of CH4 recovery potential. Process description C5H7NO2 + 7O2 → 5CO2 + NO3. lower BOD in supernatant liquor. recovery of more of the basic fertilizer values in the sludge. and lower capital cost Disadvantages: high power cost.15 lb VS/ft3·day Thermophilic aerobic digestion: 77~122°F (25~50°C). production of an odorless. humus-like biologically stable end product.

expected liquid operating temperature.9 lb O2/lb destroyed DO > 1 mg/L under all operating conditions Energy requirements for mixing Mechanical aerators: 0. and fv = volatile fraction of digester suspended solids.1~0.continued Conventional Aerobic Digestion – continued Oxygen requirements Biological sludge: 2.continued Conventional Aerobic Digestion Digester liquid temperatures: dependent on weather conditions and thus can fluctuate extensively → use concrete instead of steel tanks.5 at long HRT → filamentous bulking Provide decanting facilities so as to use to thicken the digested sludge solids before discharge to subsequent operations. Consider operator control and visibility of the decanting operation. or use subsurface instead of surface aeration Design at the lowest expected liquid operating temperature and provide the max.5 hp/103 ft3 Diffused-air mixing: 20~40 ft3/103 ft3·min Solids loading: 0. provide insulation. Tank volume Q (X + YSi ) V= i i X(K d f v+1/θ c ) where Y = fraction of influent BOD5 consisting of primary sludge Kd = reaction rate constant.3 lb VS/ft3·min VS reduction: 40~50% Process operation pH may drop to ~5. 11/30/2008 26 Jae K.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Aerobic Digestion . (Jim) Park Page 13 .75~1. 1/day. place tanks below grade instead of above grade. oxygen requirements at the max.3 lb O2/lb of cells Primary sludge: 1.6~1. 11/30/2008 25 Aerobic Digestion .

Old process : unmixed. heating (3545℃). unheated. Fermentative organisms (50% of viable organisms in anaerobic digester) Cellulose Acetate.↑ } 11/30/2008 27 Anaerobic Digestion Anaerobic digestion of sludge decrease the volatile organics by 40-50% and reduce the numbers of pathogenic organisms in sludges. (Jim) Park Page 14 . NH3. Enterobacteria → Proteins H2. HSChlostridia 2. Strepto cocci Lipids other organic acids. organics) → Acetate 3.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Anaerobic Digestion 1. Accomplished by holding the sludge in closed tanks for periods of 10 to 90 days. alcohols. sol. long detention time (30-90 days) Recent process : complete mixing. detention time 10-20 days 11/30/2008 28 Jae K. CO2. Methanogenic bacteria (methane formers) Get energy from forming CH4 Need low redox potential O2 toxic Need temp. Acetogenic bacteria (acid formers) Simple organics (except acetate) (fatty acids.

(Jim) Park Page 15 . or high-rate. anaerobic digester 11/30/2008 29 Advantages High degree of waste stabilization at high organic loading rates Very little sludge production (< 5% of biodegradable organic matter being converted to cell material) (10% of aerobic sludge production) Easy dewatering of the excess sludge Low nutrient requirement (10% of aerobic process requirement) No aeration equipment Methane production – very low energy input (if the methane gas is used to heat the digester) 11/30/2008 30 Jae K. Digested sludge Digester gas Digestion Separation Complete mix.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Digester gas Gas storage Gas storage Scum Heater mixer Supernatant Settled.

Temperature. toxic sensitive Inherent process instability High capital costs Complex operation requiring skilled operators 11/30/2008 31 Anaerobic Digestion . requiring longer start-up period (8 to 12 weeks).Theory Complex organics 100% 60% Intermediates 20% Acetate 72% 28% CH4 50% 15% Propionate 13% 10% H2 Fermentation & hydrolysis 5% Acetogenic phase 2% Methanogenic phase Methanogenic phase Rate limiting steps Conversion of propionic and acetic acid to CH4 Hydrolysis of organic solids (cellulose) 11/30/2008 32 Jae K.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Disadvantages Low bacterial yield prolonged periods of biomass build-up. pH. (Jim) Park Page 16 .

thereby separating sludge age from HRT.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Anaerobic Digestion: Reactions CH3COOH → CO2 + CH4 CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O CH3COOH + 2O2→ 2CO2 + 2H2O * CH4 has high energy 11/30/2008 33 Anaerobic Contact Process Recycle increases biomass levels and sludge age. A degasifier is required to aid in solids settling. (Jim) Park Page 17 . 11/30/2008 34 Jae K. Difficult to obtain efficient settling of the biomass.

compress gas and then discharge through confined tubes..WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Egg Shape Digester 35 Mixing Device Gas injection Unconfined: collect gas at the top of the digesters. suitable for fixed covers 11/30/2008 36 Jae K.. suitable for fixed or floating covers Mechanical pumping: propeller-type pumps mounted in internal or external draft tubes or axial flow or centrifugal pumps and piping installed externally. (Jim) Park Page 18 . and then discharge the gas through a pattern of bottom diffusers or through a series of radially placed top-mounted lances. Confined: collect gas at the top of the digesters. Mechanical stirring: low speed turbine or mixers.. compress the gas..

floor. and ∆T = temperature drop across the surface in question. Jae K. BTU/ft2·hr·°F (W/m2·°C). to compensate for the heat losses through the walls.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Mixer Types Unconfined gas injection systems Confined gas injection systems Mechanical stirring systems 37 Digester Heating To raise the incoming sludge to digestion tank temperatures. °F 11/30/2008 38 (°C). U = overall coefficient of heat transfer. A = cross-sectional area through which the heat loss is occurring. Internal or external heat exchangers Heat requirements q = U A ∆T where q = heat loss. (Jim) Park Page 19 . and to make up the losses that might occur in the piping between the source of the heat and the tank. BTU/h (W). ft2 (m2). and roof of the digester.

or alum Can also add polymers Chemicals are added just prior to de-watering stage Heat Treatment High temperatures (175230 oC) High pressures (10 to 20 atmospheres) Advantages bound water is released and sludge is easily dewatered Disadvantages complex process highly concentrated liquid stream 11/30/2008 39 Heat Treatment Heating sludge under pressure to temperatures in the range of 200-300℃ for a few minutes can effectively sterilize it and convert it to a form that is easily dewatered.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Sludge Conditioning Chemical Conditioning Add lime. ferric chloride. Disadvantages Its high energy requirement The production of a high-strength return liquid form the dewatering process Heat treatment is used only in a few large POTWs 11/30/2008 40 Jae K. (Jim) Park Page 20 .

larger POTWs The sludge is applied to a metal. 11/30/2008 42 Jae K. cloth. welltrained operator is required.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Dewatering & Drying Sludge Drying Beds Most popular method Simple Low maintenance Effected by climate Filtration Apply vacuum to pull out water Force out water by essentially squeezing water between two moving filter belts 11/30/2008 41 Dewatering and Drying By applying the sludge to sand drying beds Consist of a layer of sand with an underdrain system The sludge is pumped onto the bed The sun and wind dry the material further Used at smaller POTWs By using mechanical dewatering equipment Used medium size plants. (Jim) Park Page 21 . or systhetic rubber surface This equipment is automated but and experienced.

The ram continues to apply pressure of sufficient force to counteract the high internal compaction pressures. (Jim) Park Page 22 . The filtrate typically contains less than 15 ppm suspended solids. thus opening the press. As pumping pressure is increased. the filtrate is forced through the accumulated filter cake (C) and cloth. leaving the chambers full of solid filter cake. The head stock (G) and tail stock (H) are held in place by specially engineered side rail supports bars (I). The hydraulic ram (D) moves the follower (E) against the stack of filter plates (F) closing the press. The filtrate passes through the filter cloth and is directed by channels in the plates and drain ports (J) to the head stock for discharge. The filter cake is easily removed by simply reversing the hydraulic ram. The chambers in HEI presses are formed by two recessed plates held together under hydraulic pressure.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN De-watering Sludge Drying Beds 11/30/2008 Vacuum Filtration 43 Filter Press Dewatering is accomplished by pumping sludge into chamber (A) surrounded by filter cloths (B). Jae K. The lightweight plates may then be moved apart permitting the compacted cake to fall from the 11/30/2008 44 chamber.

When the slurry enters the interior of a rotating centrifuge. The centrifuge is a cylindrical drum that rotates to develop the separating force. 11/30/2008 46 Jae K. and hug the interior wall of the rotating machine. it is thrown out against the bowl wall. The denser materials are separated first.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN 11/30/2008 45 45 Centrifuges Centrifugation is the process of separating solids from liquids by the use of centrifugal force. (Jim) Park Page 23 .

where it is discharged to screw conveyors located below.continued A helical screw conveyor fits inside the bowl.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Centrifuges . Larger and heavier particles are most easily captured by the centrifuge. Rotating at a slightly lower rate that the bowl. (Jim) Park Page 24 . it conveys solids from the zone of settling to the dewatering beach. The main bowl is turned by an electric motor while the screw conveyor inside is controlled or slowed down using a hydraulic backdrive. 11/30/2008 47 Sludge Volume Reduction Wet Oxidation Incineration Complete evaporation of water from sludge Requires fuel Solid material is inert Exhaust air must be treated prior to discharge Treated sludge is wet Requires energy Solid material is inert Exhaust air must be treated prior to discharge 11/30/2008 48 Jae K. Fine particles that cannot be settled separately must be agglomerated by chemicals (polymer) to a size that will settle. Prior to entering the centrifuge. sludge would have been conditioned with polymer.

11/30/2008 50 Jae K. so that excessive concentrations of heavy metals or other toxic materials do not accumulate in the soil Incineration : lager municipalities Maximum volume reducing. and the continuing need for trained operating personnel. scrubber sludge generation). and energy recovery Capital and operating costs are high There are environmental effects (air discharges. (Jim) Park Page 25 . operation problems. detoxification.WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Volume Reduction: Fluidized Bed Incineration 11/30/2008 49 Sludge Ultimate Disposal Ultimate disposal the return of the material to the environment. Landfilling Land application & Land Spreading: • • • • gardens agricultural land forest land golf courses and other public recreational areas Incineration Other methods Care must be taken in applying sludge to land.

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Wastewater Sludge and Biosolids 11/30/2008 51 Wastewater Sludge and Biosolids 11/30/2008 52 Jae K. (Jim) Park Page 26 .

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN Wastewater Sludge and Biosolids 11/30/2008 53 Wastewater Sludge and Biosolids + Biosolids = 11/30/2008 54 Jae K. (Jim) Park Page 27 .

WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGN 11/30/2008 55 Jae K. (Jim) Park Page 28 .