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Chapter Twelve The Presidency: Leading the Nation

Multiple Choice 1. The president’s constitutional roles, such as chief executive and commander-in-chief, a. are based on very precise constitutional grants of power. b. are rooted in tradition only; they have no basis in the language of the Constitution. c. are not subject to check by Congress. d. have expanded in practice to be more powerful than the writers of the Constitution intended. e. are absolute powers under the Constitution. 2. The Whig theory holds that the presidency a. is a shared office where the president and the cabinet are equally powerful. b. is a limited office whose occupant is confined to the exercise of expressly granted constitutional powers. c. is the office most representative of the people. d. should provide strong leadership in the area of foreign policy but not in domestic policy. e. is subordinate to the Supreme Court. 3. The president’s role in foreign policy increased largely because a. Congress proved so inept in foreign affairs that the American people demanded a change. b. America became more of a world power. c. of the need to coordinate national economic policy and foreign policy, a task to which the presidency was well-suited. d. of the desire of U.S. business to expand into Latin America and Asia, which required executive action at the highest level. e. of attitudes held by the American public. 4. Congress has formally declared war _____ times in U.S. history. a. 2 b. 5 c. 55 d. 200 e. 6,500 5. From roughly 1900–1960, a strong showing in presidential primaries a. did not improve a candidate’s chances of gaining the nomination. b. enabled a candidate to demonstrate popular support, but did not ensure nomination. c. guaranteed a candidate’s nomination. d. guaranteed a candidate’s place on the ticket, although sometimes as the vice presidential

8. and contributed much-needed expertise to the process of presidential decision making.nominee rather than presidential nominee. the endorsement of the mass media. e. None of these answers is correct. has been used more extensively in recent decades. b. d. Candidate strategy in the early presidential nominating contests (such as New Hampshire’s primary) is designed chiefly to gain a. the presidential nominee’s choice of a running mate. The selection of the vice presidential nominee at the national convention is based on a. the results of public opinion polls taken just before the convention begins. enabled presidents to extend their authority beyond what would otherwise be possible. allowed a candidate to write the platform for her/his political party. e. 7. the results of the primaries and caucuses: the candidate who places second in these contests is nominated as the running-mate of the candidate who finishes first. challenged presidents’ ability to control action taken under their authority. e. was introduced during the Cleveland era. 6. both challenged presidents’ ability to control action taken under their authority. 1865. c. b. b. e. The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in a. All these answers are correct. the support of the party’s organizational leaders. the support of the party’s congressional leaders. c. The staffing of the modern presidency has a. d. 1939. d. the convention delegates’ judgment as to the candidate who would make the best vice president. e. 1804. d. . such that the candidate who dominates the primaries can usually expect to receive the nomination. 1789. is used in Europe as well as in the United States. c. 1888. is designed to strengthen the political parties. momentum. was introduced during the Jacksonian era. e. c. 10. c. the support of partisan rivals. The primary election as a means of choosing presidential nominees a. 9. b. contributed much-needed expertise to the process of presidential decision making. b. d.

Senate b. Hayes c. the people. National Security Council. a. the Supreme Court e.S. The presidential advisory unit that declined most in relevance as a policymaking forum during the twentieth century is the a. III d. administration of the laws c. if no one candidate receives a majority vote of the Electoral College. _____ ended the practice of nominating presidential candidates by party caucuses in Congress. a. VII 14. command of the military e. Andrew Jackson e. Constitution.11. Benjamin Harrison d. statesmanship in foreign affairs d. All these answers are correct. Bush . b. John Quincy Adams b. Cabinet. both the Senate and House in joint session d. the U. but still won the presidency? a.S.S. the U. Martin Van Buren 16. I b. IV e. national leadership b. House of Representatives c. who chooses the president? a. George W. According to the U. Office of Management and Budget.S. d. Constitution. Which of the following presidents lost the popular vote. George Washington b. White House Office. James Madison d. Council of Economic Advisers. 13. 12. c. II c. The presidency was created by Article _____ of the U. Thomas Jefferson c. Which of the following did the Framers want from a president? a. in a runoff election 15. Rutherford B. e.

_____ has the most votes in the Electoral College in presidential elections. One must be a white male. e. One must be a resident in the United States for at least 1 year. a. John Kerry did not accept federal matching funds in the primaries. One must be at least 40 years of age. b. Florida 19. 22. Bush did not accept federal matching funds in the primaries. John Kennedy d. New York d. Bill Clinton c. Which of the following is a formal constitutional requirement for becoming president? a. Bush e. 17. One must be a Protestant. . Which one of the following did not serve as a state governor prior to being president? a. d. c. Ronald Reagan b. c. Which of the following is not true of the 2004 presidential election? a. 21. Texas b. Which of the following is part of the Executive Office of the President? a. Office of the Vice President e. 1960 c. Jimmy Carter 20. All these answers are correct. George W. b. Pennsylvania e.e. All these answers are correct. 1992 18. 1984 e. National Security Council d. After which party convention did the Democrats force major changes in the presidential nominating process? a. George W. 1948 b. California c. Howard Dean did not accept federal matching funds in the primaries. National Economic Council c. 1968 d. Office of Management and Budget b. One must be a natural-born citizen.

Most presidential campaign money during the general election is spent on a. Which of the following is a reason that the nation did not routinely need a strong president during most of the nineteenth century? a. 1976 (Carter-Ford). Grant. e. government’s small role in world affairs. Abraham Lincoln. an extraordinarily strong office with sufficient powers to enable the president to control national policy under virtually all circumstances. 27. d. Al Gore received 550. . None of these answers is correct. mass mailing of campaign literature. All these answers are correct. e. c.S.d. the sectional nature of the nation’s major issues c. Richard Nixon. What happened in the presidential election of 2000? a. 1984 (Reagan-Mondale). government’s small role in world affairs d. d. Andrew Jackson. maintaining a campaign staff. e. d. Franklin Roosevelt.S. c.S. c. Bush. the sectional nature of the nation’s major issues. direct-mail fund raising. The presidency has been a consistently activist office since the administration of a.000 more votes nationally than George W. 28. The presidency is a. George W. George W. e. 24. b. 26. b. b. the U. None of these answers is correct. the small policy making role of the federal government b. 1968 (Nixon-Humphrey). John Kerry accepted federal matching funds in the primaries. 1948 (Truman-Dewey). U. c. The first televised “debates” between the two major party presidential candidates occurred in a. Al Gore won the popular vote. 1960 (Kennedy-Nixon). e. b. 25. depending on whether the political support that gives force to presidential leadership exists or can be developed. an office in which power is conditional. 23. b. staging of personal appearances. and the U. an inherently weak office in that presidents have almost no capacity to influence the major directions of national policy. d. Bush won Florida by 537 votes. Bush won 271 votes in the Electoral College. c. All of these factors: the small policy making role of the federal government. advertising on television. e.

The two presidencies thesis holds that a president is likely to be most successful with Congress on policy initiatives involving a. e. 32. The forced removal of a president from office through impeachment and conviction requires action by a. b. 30. economic policy. their skill at balancing the demands of competing groups. 31. the State of the Union address. d. c. e. guide the military in its use of force in field situations where it is impractical to seek direction from the president. b. The honeymoon period occurs during a. e. the first part of a president’s term. allow the president more leeway in committing U. 33. c. the Senate only. e. an office where power depends almost entirely on its occupant. a president’s second term only. foreign policy. 29. troops to combat.S. b.d. tax policy. b. the period of a president’s term immediately following a successful foreign policy initiative. strong leaders are always successful presidents and weak ones never succeed. social welfare policy. the House of Representatives only. b. d. their ability to come up with good ideas. c. weaken Congress in foreign policy matters. regardless of the occupant or the circumstances. the period of a president’s term immediately following a successful domestic policy initiative. e. whether circumstances favor strong presidential leadership. d. an office where power is fairly constant. the House and Senate in a joint session. define the relationship between the United States and its allies. limit the president’s war-making power. A president’s accomplishments have largely depended on a. c. c. The War Powers Act was enacted in order to a. d. environmental policy. . their margin of victory in the presidential campaign. mid-term elections.

1824.d. e. b. The most important factor influencing the level of a president’s support is typically a. e. e. the condition of the nation’s public schools. George W. had a 37 percent success rate with Congress. House of Representatives last decided the outcome of a presidential election in a. None of these answers is correct. e. Andrew Johnson. d. d. enjoyed Republican majorities in both houses of Congress. is a former member of Congress. is in office when the economy goes bad. Theodore Roosevelt. c. It is a constant focus of national attention. 1928. It is a constant focus of national attention.S. b. 36. 34. . which creates a demand for stronger leadership. c. is on good terms with other world leaders. 1800. e. d. d. had an 87 percent success rate with Congress. d. A president’s policy initiatives are significantly more successful when the president a. The U. Which of the following is true about the American presidency or president? a. the Supreme Court in a judicial proceeding. the condition of the nation’s economy. has the strong support of the American people. c. 1856. and favorable conditions will make the president seem almost invincible. John Quincy Adams. Presidents nearly always get what they want. 37. None of these answers is correct. Congress authorized an official impeachment investigation of a. broke most of his campaign promises. b. Favorable conditions will make the president seem almost invincible. e. Bush a. 35. c. the House and Senate in separate proceedings. b. 38. None of these answers is correct. the president’s skill in the use of television. the national crime rate. 39. 1892. world conditions. c. c. During his first year as president. b. b.

c. Ronald Reagan b. . 44. Bush c. A parliamentary system of government currently exists in a. air wars. positive and negative presidents. d. Japan. Australia. going public. Republican and Democratic presidents. manipulating the media. spin control. final few weeks in office. 41.S. c. the first and second terms. b.d. e. George H. 1 c. _____ was known as the Great Communicator. Jimmy Carter d. In the modern era. e. history? a. early years in office. d. e. Bush 42. a. The strongest records of most presidents have been established during their a. 2 d. 0 b. c. lobbying the bureaucracy. c. 4 43. George W. Lyndon Johnson e. diplomacy and national security issues. foreign and domestic policies. Great Britain. d. W. Warren Harding. 45. the equivalent practice of using the presidency as a bully pulpit (Theodore Roosevelt) could best be summed up in the phrase a. e. All these answers are correct. b. b. middle years in office. d. b. Israel. How many presidents have been impeached in U. The two presidencies thesis refers to a. final years in office. Calvin Coolidge 40. 3 e.

after reelection to a second term.S. a. limit. 47. c. the U. the U. d. and forceful leader. Essay/Short Answer 50. Franklin Roosevelt. Maine and Nebraska. the Federal Bureau of Investigation e. but is primarily an administrator.S. and Harry . the president b. Senate d. Which is the norm today? Answer: The Whig theory holds that the presidency is a limited or constrained office whose occupant is confined to the exercise of expressly granted constitutional authority. The only two states that are exceptions to the unit rule are a. 48. assertive. e.e. House of Representatives c. during the president’s last year in office. Supreme Court b. Congress c. Congress d. c. during the president’s first year in office. who is charged with carrying out the will of Congress. the U. limit. b.S. House of Representatives chooses to impeach a president. If the U. The highest point of public support for a president is likely to occur a. Proponents of this tradition are Theodore Roosevelt. d. The War Powers Act was primarily intended to _____ the authority of _____. None of these answers is correct. Georgia and Louisiana. There is no temporal pattern to presidential success. and Herbert Hoover were all proponents of this theory. b. In this tradition. Rhode Island and Oregon. the Department of Justice 49. Michigan and Montana. New Hampshire and Vermont. e. James Buchanan. extend. 46. William Howard Taft. who conducts the trial? a. extend. In this tradition the president can do anything that is not specifically forbidden by the Constitution.S. The stewardship theory maintains that the president should be a strong. immediately after Congress enacts a major presidential initiative. Explain the difference between the Whig theory of the presidency and the stewardship theory. the president has no implicit powers for dealing with national problems. the president e. when international conditions are stable.

Here the majority of national convention delegates are chosen through primary elections and open caucuses. The fourth system has been in use since 1972 and is the party primary/open caucus system. even though other factors are involved. the candidate gets 100 percent of its electoral votes. even though a candidate wins narrowly in a state. The second system involved the used of the party convention.Truman. 52. Identify the four systems of presidential selection that the United States has had during its history. as even weak presidents are expected to act assertively. which allocate one electoral vote to the candidate who places first in a congressional district. This arrangement works to the disadvantage of independent candidates because they are unlikely to win a state. and the foreign or domestic nature of the policy issue. The stewardship theory is the norm today. partisan support in Congress. and thus the key factor is support of rank-and-file voters. Here party nominees were chosen in national party conventions by delegates selected by state and local party organizations. Support for presidential initiatives tends to be highest during the honeymoon period of a presidential term. regardless of their personal inclination. In a sense. and whether the majority is sizable or weak. Why is it normally the case that the electoral vote margin in a presidential campaign is proportionally greater than the popular vote margin? Why might this work to the disadvantage of an independent candidate? Answer: The electoral votes of each state (except Maine and Nebraska. The third system was the party convention/primary system. 54. Discuss the circumstances that contribute to the success or failure of presidential influence on national policy. Answer: Whether a president succeeds or fails in getting her/his policies enacted depends on the force of circumstance. their entire popular vote is wasted when the electoral votes are cast. the stage of the presidency. 53. Thus. Circumstances such as the decisiveness of election victory and the emergence of a compelling national problem often create conditions that affect the president’s influence. and yet are beyond her/his control. Party nominees were recommended by congressional caucuses. Each succeeding system was justified as being more legitimate in that it granted ordinary citizens a greater voice in the selection of a president. although electors were somewhat independent in their voting. presidents tend to receive more support from Congress on foreign policy issues than on domestic policy issues. 51. This system was the same as the second except that a minority of national convention delegates was chosen through state primary elections. and was in place from 1832 to 1900. and two votes to the statewide winner) are allocated on a winner-take-all basis. Success rates for presidential initiatives are strongly related to whether or not the president is of the same party as the majority in Congress. Discuss the relationship between the president and Congress. What has been the overriding reason for the changes that have taken place? Answer: The first system was used from 1788 until 1828 and centered on the Electoral College. used from 1904–1968. Finally. Why does the president need .

public support gives force to presidential leadership.congressional support? What conditions affect the success of the president with Congress? ongress is a presidential constituency in that the president must serve the interest of members of Congress if she/he expects their support. Discuss the relationship of presidential power to public support for the president and explain why this relationship is both an asset and a liability for the president. Without congressional authorization and funding. including the president’s ability to work with Congress. when national conditions are favorable. Answer: The president’s election by the whole nation and her/his position as sole chief executive makes the presidential office the primary focus of Americans’ policy and leadership expectations. which gives added strength to her/his efforts. there is a decline in public support. a weakening of the president’s claim to lead Congress and others. and the party composition of Congress (presidents are more likely to succeed when a congressional majority is of the same party). In turn. On the other hand. and with that. most presidential proposals do not get implemented. However. In the American system of separated powers. she/he cannot always meet the public’s expectations. In this situation. On the other hand. the president gets a disproportionate share of the credit from the American people. because the public expects so much of the president. which provides him/her the opportunity for successful policy making. . the circumstances of the period (whether there are urgent national problems that most people agree requires a policy response). the president must work for the backing of Congress on many issues and policies. 55. members of Congress look to the president for policy leadership. Whether congressional backing is forthcoming depends on several factors. The president needs congressional support to enact her/his policies.