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Co operative movement in india

The history of co-operative movement in India is broadly divided into two phases. That means co-operative movement has passed into two phases. They are1) Co –operative movement in pre-independence era. 2) Co-operative movement in post–independence era. These two phases are briefly discussed below: i) Co-operative Movement in pre-independence era: The pages of Indian history cite many evidences of co-operative activities from earliest times. However, the first recorded activity began in 1904 when this movement was officially set up by the British Government. Before that in the year 1892, Derrick Nicholson, tried to find out ways and means to establish institutions so as to help the agricultural sector. He gave the suggestions for setting of co-operative societies. Within that decade, India faced a terrible famine in 1899. The Government appointed the Second Famine Commission 1901 to suggest measures for the victims. The commission recommended for a number of development activities and setting up of new institution. The most important among them was the strong recommendation for organisation of co-operative societies. The Government had accepted many of the recommendations and in 1904 “co operative societies Act” were passed. The aim was to help the rural farmers and artisans by providing short term and long term loans. These credit societies were organised on the basis of two models, one for rural area and other for urban area. For the former these were organised on Reinfusion Model while for the latter it was Schulze Delitzsch Bank Model. Due to this Act a number of Cooperative Societies grew up in rural area, but they could not function effectively. The major defects were. i) There was no provision for setting up of Non credit Co-operative Societies in rural area. ii) No special Central agency was created for financing and supervising the activities of these societies. iii) The division of the Credit Co-operative Societies into two types rural and urban stood as a barrier since no specific arrangements could be done for either due to the overlapping nature of such classification. The year 1928 saw a world wide economic depression. The prices of agricultural commodities fell down to a great extent and unemployment along with other economic crisis grew up. The creditors had no way to repay the loan. This brought many cooperative societies in to a stand still position. In year 1933, the Reserve Bank of India was set up. The bank took some initiative to recognise the co-operative movement. It had a separate department for a co-operative credit. It helped to keep the movement alive which was gradually decaying. In 1937, the popular Congress Government came to power in several states. The popular leaders took much more initiative in organising and extending this movement. But much progress could not do due to outbreak of Second World War. During this time, the ministry resigned. It was left in the hands of British Government again. But the war itself gave a boost to co-operative societies. The war brought a sudden increase in the prices of agricultural products and other food grains. The rural farmer got extra economic gains. Non credit societies grew up. The working capital of co-operative societies also increased. The number of different credit and non credit co-operatives increased rapidly. The co-operative movement gathered momentum. The all India Co-operative planning Committee in 1945 also worked al lot in this direction. ii) Co-operative movement in Post independence Era: After independence for the first 3 years i.e. up to no significant development could be made. It was mainly due to the problem created by partition and absence of concrete programme for national re-organisation. However, the leaders of free India could the importance of co-operative movement for a successful democracy importance was given to strengthen co-operative structure of country and various provisions were made through different Five Year Plan.

The Sixth Plan laid down a point programme for co-operative societies. based on the recommendations of the Gadgil Study Group. ii) To extend co-operative activities to the fields of food processing. The Fourth Plan emphasised for consolidation of co operative system. As a consortium leader. concluded that districts would be the units for area approach and each district could be allotted to a particular bank which will perform the role of a Lead Bank. To transform the Gadgil’s groups recommendation into reality. re organising marketing as well as consumer societies. The Fifth Plan made special provisions for improvement of Central Banks and no viable primary agricultural societies. Different credit societies were organised to serve these programmes. milk supply was proposed. It gave special emphasis on the warehousing co operatives at the State and Central level. The Seventh Plan has also given more importance on the growth and expansion of co operative societies to ensure public participation to achieve its main objective i. Some concrete steps were taken to train the personnel's. It aimed at transforming the primary village societies to multipurpose societies. S. poultry farming. This made the people feel the importance of such a movement. The new programme for high yielding crops was started.The co-operative movement completed its 50 years dump the first plan. dairy farming. the Lead Bank would 1. cotton. What is Lead Bank Scheme? 9 Votes What is Lead Bank Scheme? The origin of the LBS in India can be traced to the late 60’s. co-ordinate with government office’ s. It also recommended for establishment of Farmer’s Service Societies. The First Plan also recommended for training of personnel's and setting up of Co-operative Marketing Societies. headed by F. undertake planning and formulation of Annual District Credit Plans through Block and District Consultative Committees and .Nariman. iii) To give necessary training and guidance for developing skilled the efficient personnel's. 2. spinning. to fine tune the details. LBS was introduced in 1969. This banker’s committee. fishery and many other related fields. The Gadgil group has recommended “Area Approach” for the development of financial structure through intensive efforts.e. The co operative society for sugarcane. The co operative training College at Pune and many regional centers were established to train the workers.S. Attention was given to utilise the credit in productive activities. Nariman. RBI set up a committee under F. The Third Plan brought still new areas under Co operative societies. The Golden Jubilee was celebrated throughout the country with much excitement. banks and other stakeholders. i) To reconstruct the policies and of co-operative so that it can bring about economic development of people. the movement towards social justice has to be faster and there must be a sharper focus on employment and poverty alleviation. The Second Plan laid down proposals for extending co operative activity into various fields.

000%. RPCD Department. dt.     1955 : Nationalisation of State Bank of India. 1959 : Nationalisation of SBI subsidiaries.               Central Bank of India Bank of Maharashtra Dena Bank Punjab National Bank Syndicate Bank Canara Bank Indian Bank Indian Overseas Bank Bank of Baroda Union Bank Allahabad Bank United Bank of India UCO Bank Bank of India Befor the steps of nationalisation of Indian banks.HLC.10/2010-11.BC.3. It nationalised 14 banks then. Reserve Bank of India. The LBS has been able to achieve great success in the rural areas. These SLBC Meetings are a great tool for networking and driving the Annual District Credit Plan. addressed to all CMDs of all SLBC Convener Banks. The nationalisation of banks in India took place in 1969 by Mrs. in the right locations with appropriate content in order to make it interesting and relevant for District Magistrates and other stakeholders.No 15 /02. The second phase of nationalisation of Indian banks took place in the year 1980. approximately 80% of the banking segment in India were under Government ownership. 1969 : Nationalisation of 14 major banks. It serves 90 million customers through a network of 9.19.19. 2. is to be read in conjunction with PCD.LBS.000 branches and it offers -.BC. 2010. is RBI/2010-11/136 RPCD. the branches of the public sector banks rose to approximately 800% in deposits and advances took a huge jump by 11. in order to revitalize the SLBC Meetings has today (26/07/2010) issued a Notification. only State Bank of India (SBI) was nationalised.56/02. .10/2009-10 dated February 26. 1980 : Nationalisation of seven banks with deposits over 200 crores. 3.26th July. 2010. Till this year. These banks were mostly owned by businessmen and even managed by them. SLBC’s have been requested to arrange workshops for district administration on the recommendations of High Level Committee to review Lead Bank Scheme. State Chief Ministers may be encouraged to attend at least one SLBC meeting in a year. and also it has aided in building up a cadre of Bank Officers devoted to Rural Banking. 1960. help in synergizing all efforts to fulfill Plan priorities and district-specific requirements. A central component of LBS is the SLBC’s (State Level Bankers Committee) Meetings.either directly or through subsidiaries -. Nationalisation of Seven State Banks of India (formed subsidiary) took place on 19th July.a wide range of banking services.No.July 26.CO. It took place in July 1955 under the SBI Act of 1955. 2010. Indira Gandhi the then prime minister. The highlights are: 1.LBS. The State Bank of India is India's largest commercial bank and is ranked one of the top five banks worldwide. After the nationalisation of banks in India.CO. Seven more banks were nationalised with deposits over 200 crores. The Notification No. The circular dt.

common publicity and marketing efforts etc.Recapitalisation of RRBs As a part of comprehensive restructuring programme. which had sponsored the RRB contributed to the share capital of RRBs in the proportion of 50%.3 Deposits Deposits of RRBs increased from 145035 crore to 166232 crore during the year registering growth rate of 14. The share capital and share capital deposits together amounted to 4273 crore of total owned fund while the balance amount of 9566 crore represented reserves. The area of operation of the RRBs is limited to notified few districts in a State. the number of the RRBs has been reduced from 196 to 82 as on 31 March 2011.REGIONAL RURAL BANKs Overview Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established in 1975 under the provisions of the Ordinance promulgated on the 26th September 1975 and the Regional Rural Banks Act. Performance of RRBs during 2010-11 ( 1 April 2010 – 31 March 2011) 2.1.1. The implementation is already underway and is expected to be completed during 2012-13. Gurgaon GB reported the highest deposit growth rate of 37%. The Chakrabarty Committee reviewed the financial position of all RRBs in 2010 and recommended for recapitalisation of 40 out of 82 RRBs for strengthening their CRAR to the level of 9%. computerization. 2. There are Sixteen (16) RRBs having deposits of more than 3000 crore each. the GOI along with other shareholders decided to recapitalise the RRBs by infusing funds to the extent of 2200 Crore.1. Sponsor Banks and other sources including SIDBI and National Housing Bank.0%.8% as against 22. 2. 1976 with a view to develop the rural economy and to create a supplementary channel to the 'Cooperative Credit Structure' with a view to enlarge institutional credit for the rural and agriculture sector. 2. registering a growth of 13. The GoI initiated a process of structural consolidation of RRBs by amalgamating RRBs sponsored by the same bank within a State. enhanced credit exposure limits for high value and diverse banking activities. the remaining RRBs are in a position to achieve the desired level of CRAR on their own.2. 2. agricultural labourers . with a view to provide better customer service by having better infrastructure.7% in the previous year.6 %. the concerned State Government and the bank. The number of branches of RRBs increased to 16001 as on 31 March 2011 covering 620 districts throughout the country. As a result of the amalgamation. 2. The RRBs mobilise deposits primarily from rural/semi-urban areas and provide loans and advances mostly to small and marginal farmers. The Government of India.1 Owned Funds The owned funds of RRBs comprising of share capital.2 Uses of funds 2. recapitalisation of RRBs was initiated in 1994-95 and an aggregate financial support of 3984.90 crore was provided to the RRBs by the shareholders by 31 March 2010.1 Sources of Funds The sources of funds of RRBs comprise of owned fund.2. borrowings from NABARD. The amalgamated RRBs also benefit from larger area of operation. experienced work force.1. deposits.1 Investments The investment of RRBs increased from 79379 crore as on 31 March 2010 to 86510 crore as on 31 . Borrowings viz-a-viz the gross loan outstanding constituted 26. 2. The increase in owned funds to the tune of 1592 crore was mainly on account of accretion to reserves by the profit making RRBs. According to the Committee. respectively.Accepting the recommendations of the committee.4 Borrowings Borrowings of RRBs increased from 18770 crore as on 31 March 2010 to 26491 crore as on 31 March 2011 registering an increase of 41. 15% and 35%. rural artisans and other segments of priority sector. share capital deposits received from the shareholders and the reserves stood at 13839 crore as on 31 March 2011 as against 12247 crore as on 31 March 2010.1% .

2 Loans & Advances During the year the loans outstanding increased by 16098 crore to 98917 crore as on 31 March 2011 registering a growth rate of 19. whereas 33 RRBs had it above 5%. 2.2001 to 52.57%.March 2011 registering an increase of 8. Regional Rural Bank Appointment & Promotion Rules 2010 b. The aggregate overdues. 2. the net profit aggregated to 1786 crore.3 Non-performing Assets (NPA) The Gross NPA of RRBs stood at 3712 crore as on 31. increased by 934 crore to 9805 crore as on 30 June 2010. in July 2010.78 crore from 3.The data revealed that 15 RRBs had gross NPA percentage of less than 2%. The profit was marginally lower than the previous year.5 Credit Deposit Ratio The aggregate CDR of RRBs increased over the years from 41.3. CBS for RRBs The RRBs were required to ensure that their branches are put on CBS platform so that they can provide hassle free and any where banking services to their clients.18% as on 30 June 2010.09% as on 30 June 2009 to 81. SLR investments amounted to 45022 crore where as nonSLR investments stood at 41488 crore.3.4 Recovery Performance There has been an improvement in the recovery percentage during 2009-10 from 80. The percentage of Net NPA of RRBs has shown an increase from 1.3.83% as on 31 March 2002 to 59.3. 2.72 crore in 2009-10 with a growth of 12.70 crore in 2009-10 with a growth of 2. 2. 2. however.3. Eight of the RRBs reported CDR of more than 100%.3. staff productivity in 2010-11 increased to 3.9%. The accumulated loss decreased by 243 crore during the year under review.3 Loans Issued Total loans issued by RRBs during the year increased to 71724 crore from 56079 crore during the previous year registering a growth of 27. c.3.03. 2.5% as on 31 March 2011. the GoI issued the RRB Service Regulations 2010.8% to 2. 2.75%).3 Working Results 2.6 Productivity of Branch and Staff The branch productivity increased to 16.2.e.98%. Based on the recommendations of Amaresh Kumar Committee.04% as on 31 March 2011. GoI also notified the RRB Appointment & Promotion Rules 2010. 2. The Investment Deposit Ratio (IDR) of RRBs progressively declined over the years from 72% as on 31.57 crore in 2010-11 from 14. 2.2.05% during the year.1 Profitability 75 RRBs (out of 82 RRBs) have earned profit (before tax) to the extent of 2421 crore during the year 2010-2011.The remaining 7 RRBs incurred loss to the tune of 71 crore.16%. Meghalaya Rural Bank recorded the highest growth rate of 35 % during the year 2010-11.3. Similarly. 80 RRBs have since been fully migrated to CBS . After payment of Income Tax of 635 crore.4 Initiatives during the year Regional Rural Bank Service Regulations-2010 a. 23 of the 82 RRBs continued to have accumulated losses to the tune of 1532 crore as against 1775 crore (27 RRBs) as on 31 March 2010. Samastipur Kshetriya GB reported highest growth rate of 123% during 2010-11 followed by Andhra Pradesh GVB at 112%.4% over the previous year.2011(i.2 Accumulated Losses As on 31 March 2011.

the interest paid on crop loans by such farmers was effectively at the rate of 5%. Under this approach.06 lakh No Frills accounts. An additional subvention of 2% was announced during the year to those farmers who repaid crop loans promptly within one year of disbursement.e..5% per annum was available to RRBs for deploying their own funds for crop loan upto 3 lakh per farmer. They include the following: (a) District Consultative Committee (b) District Level Review Committee (c) Block Level Bankers Committee (d) State Level Bankers Committee (e) State Level Review Committee and (f) Standing Committee. For the follow-up of implementation of the Credit Plans. District Rural Development Agency (DRDA) and other agencies. The important functions of Lead Bank Officer are (i) Liaison with bank branches. RRBs as a group have become a strong intermediary for financial inclusion in rural areas by opening a large number of “No frills” accounts and by financing under General Credit Card (GCC). As on 31 March 2011 there were 255. The banks have posted an experienced officer as Lead Bank Officer. Annual Credit Plans (ACPs) are prepared at the grass root level. Service area approach Service Area Approach is a modification of the Lead Bank Scheme and is mainly effective insofar as it relate to formulation of credit plans. as recommended by the working group to review the working of the Lead Bank Scheme. district and state levels respectively.Financial Inclusion As envisaged by the Government of India. . Standing Committee of DCC is also formed at district level. i. Interest Subvention to RRBs The continuance of the interest subvention scheme was announced in the Union budget 2010-11.as on 30m September 2011. In addition. district and state levels. He is also a liaison officer between the credit agencies and Government and development agencies in the district. different committees are setup under the scheme. The number of branches of RRBs increased to 16001 as on 31 March 2011 from 15480 as on 31 March 2010. In terms of the earlier scheme. and the review systems. at the level of Service Area Branch of Commercial Banks and Regional Rural Banks (RRBs). banks and other financial institutions were set-up. NABARD is providing financial assistance to identified 28 weak RRBs to the extent of 40% for core banking solution from Financial Inclusion Technology Funds (FITF) and rest of the cost will be shared by the Sponsor Bank (50%) and the RRB (10 %) d. as per RBI guidelines. credit plans were first prepared at the district level and targets were distributed down the line to the branches of commercial banks and RRBs. He is a spokesman for all the banks in the district. Interest subvention of 1. e. Such group as (a) Block Level Bankers Committee (BLBC) (b) District Consultative Committee (DCC) (c) State Level Bankers Committee (SLBC) at block. provided the ultimate borrower get such loans at 7% interest per annum. In order to review the progress made under these plans on an ongoing basis at quarterly intervals. Thus. District Level Review Committee (DLRC) and State Level Review Committee (SLRC) were setup for half-yearly reviews of the progress in the implementation of Annual Credit Plans and to obtain a direct feedback about the success or otherwise of the schemes. comprising of Government officials.

and most of the State Government Departments and allied agencies are members of the DCC. (xi) Identification of unbanked centres for opening of branches and reviewing the progress in the opening of branches. The Lead District Manager (LDM) of the Lead Bank is the convener of DCC. (iv) Monitoring the overall progress in physical and financial terms in the implementation of ACP. (iii) Playing a leading part in the Standing Committee. identifying problem areas and dividing suitable remedial steps. Important functions of DCC are as under: (i) Identification of potential bankable schemes for inclusion in the Annual Credit Plan (ACP). (ii) Finalization of DCP/IRDP block plan. The follow-up of the decisions of the DLRCs are discussed and necessary steps are taken by the DCCs. Broadly. Lead District Officer (LDO) of RBI also is a member of this forum. (iii) Allocation of shares of DCP/ACP outlays. (xii) Evolution of the ground level implementation of various schemes and benefits accruing thereunder to the identified beneficiaries. (v) Review/Monitoring of the support forthcoming from government departments. . BLBC attends to all items of work connected with a credit plan including government sponsored programmes and allocation of villages under service area approach. co-operative banks including DCCB and SLDB. etc. NABARD.. Non-officials like local MLAs/MPs and representatives of groups of beneficiaries of rural lending are also included as members of the DLRC. (iv) Take active role in the preparation of credit plans and annual action plans. (ix) Overseeing and ensuring smooth release of subsidies. IRDP. (vi) Analysing the problems identified and seeking better solutions for them through the co-ordinated actions of the various agencies. (vii) Identifying problems/bottlenecks in the flow of credit as also of infrastructure inputs. District collector is the Chairman of this committee.(ii) Convening and effective conduct of DCC and DLRC meetings. (c) Block Level Bankers Committee (BLBC): BLBC is fallout of the Service Area Approach and endeavors towards achieving co-ordination between credit institutions on one hand and field level development agencies on the other and it helps in the effective implementation of credit plans at the block level. The membership of BLBC consists of bankers and government extension officers at block level. (vi) Reviewing the progress in disposal of loan applications and ensuring that applications are sent in a phased manner and not in bunches in the last quarters of the financial year. Its membership is restricted to 20-25 for effective and meaningful discussion in the meeting. etc. etc. All the commercial banks. Also other important matters concerning DCC which require urgent attention are discussed in this forum. A small functional sub-committee of the DCC is constituted in the district and it meets every month for regular monitoring of IRDP and other government sponsored schemes. and taking steps to overcome them. (vii) Providing information about these matters to the Lead Bank Manager and seeks his guidance Let us discuss the important forums set-up under the Lead Scheme (a) District Consultative Committee (DCC): DCCs were constituted in the districts as a common forum for consultations among financial institutions like banks and the concerned Government Departments. lack of infrastructural support. Monitoring the recovery position of financial agencies and rendering necessary help for recovery of over dues. (b) District Level Review Committee (DLRC): One meeting of DCC every half year is being held as a District Level Review Meeting with a view to evaluate the progress made in the implementation of schemes included in DCP/ACP. (x) Taking up with state government/SLBC/SLCC. BLBC at the block level is the counter part of DCC at the district level. RRBs. (v) Studying the field level problems. items/issues which cannot be tackled at the district level and ensuring proper follow up thereof including security arrangement. etc..

etc. SC /ST Development plans. NABARD. Co-operative Department. This committee acts as a task-force of the District Consultative Committee under the Lead Bank Scheme. the Commercial Banks having a large number of branches in the district (other than Lead Bank). The main functions of the committee are: (a) To make in-depth studies of development potential in the block. the Districts Planning wing. spatial and functional disparities in the country and thereby correcting the pectoral imbalances in the economy. (e) State Level Review Committee (SLRC): Similar to DLRC at district level.(d) State Level Bankers Committee (SLBC): SLBC is a state level forum comprising representatives of commercial banks including (RRBs). government sponsored programmes. This scheme helps in reducing regional. as also. (b) To review the progress under special programmes such as IRDP. (id) To finalize the financial limits for various crops cultivated in the district. . The proceedings of the DLRC meetings form the basis of discussion at SLRC meetings. SLRC exists at the state level and meets at half-yearly intervals. (e) To act as the effective machinery for the district consultative committee and carry out its tasks more effectively and in right time. It is chaired by the Chairman/Executive director of the convener bank. . particularly the small borrowers and by uplifting the weaker sections of the society. The Lead Bank officer is its convener and the meetings are convened under the chairmanship of the District Development Commissioner or Collector. RBI. flow of credit to priority sector. SLBC reviews the banking developments in the state with special reference to Annual Credit Plans. In addition to those representatives. economic. etc. DRDA. Land Development Bank. and other development agencies have representatives in the committee. With a view to speed up the work and also to provide an expert technical assistance the RBI felt that a standing committee should be constituted. Representatives of Lead Bank. The Lead Bank Scheme improves the tempo of economic growth of the country by providing gainful employment to the people. RBI. Gramina Bank are the members of this committee. The committee meets once a month and its main objective is to monitor the implementation of IRDP at the district level. (c) To study and identify the basic operational problems in implementing various schemes. branch expansion. State Co-operative Bank. DCC Bank. (f) Standing Committee: This is a sub-committee of the District Consultative Committee. NABARD.

though SHGs can also be found in other countries. Members make small regular savings contributions over a few months until there is enough capital in the group to begin lending. In India. many SHGs are 'linked' to banks for the delivery of microcredit . Funds may then be lent back to the members or to others in the village for any purpose. especially in South Asia and Southeast Asia. the free encyclopedia Mobile self-help group banking in Uttar Pradesh. Most self-help groups are located in India.Self-help group (finance) From Wikipedia. India. A self-help group (SHG) is a village-based financial intermediary usually composed of 10–20 local women.

"By aggregating their individual .[2] This can hinder their development as sources of village capital. borrow from banks once they have accumulated a base of their own capital and have established a track record of regular repayments. as was historically accomplished by credit unions. taking loans from the money collected by that group and by making everybody in that group self-employed. especially in India. mutually agreeing to contribute to a common fund and to meet their emergency needs on the basis of mutual help. developing leadership abilities among poor people. as well as their efforts to aggregate locally controlled pools of capital through federation. widely used by micro finance institutions. Self-help groups are seen as instruments for a variety of goals including empowering women. It typically comprises a group of micro entrepreneurs having homogenous social and economic backgrounds. This model has attracted attention as a possible way of delivering microfinance services to poor populations that have been difficult to reach directly through banks or other institutions. rather than as a primary objective. under NABARD's SHG-bank-linkage program.Contents [hide]       1 Structure 2 Goals 3 NABARD's 'SHG Bank Linkage' program 4 Advantages of financing through SHGs 5 References 6 External links [edit]Structure A Self-Help Group may be registered or unregistered. They pool their resources to become financially stable. This system eliminates the need for collateral and is closely related to that of solidarity lending. and improving nutrition and the use of birth control. increasing school enrollments. [edit]Goals Self-help groups are started by non-profit organizations (NGOs) that generally have broad anti-poverty agendas. Financial inter mediation is generally seen more as an entry point to these other goals.[1]To make the book-keeping simple enough to be handled by the members. flat interest rates are used for most loan calculations. all voluntarily coming together to save regular small sums of money. [edit]NABARD's 'SHG Bank Linkage' program Many self-help groups. The group members use collective wisdom and peer pressure to ensure proper end-use of credit and timely repayment.

[5] [edit]Advantages of financing through SHGs An economically poor individual gains strength as part of a group.2 million SHGs in India. . This does not include SHGs that have not borrowed. Through self-help groups the bank can serve small rural depositors while paying them a market rate of interest. financing through SHGs reduces transaction costs for both lenders and borrowers.savings into a single deposit. self-help groups minimize the bank's transaction costs and generate an attractive volume of deposits. representing 33 million members. Kerala and Karnataka.[4] "The SHG Banking Linkage Programme since its beginning has been predominant in certain states."[3] NABARD estimates that there are 2. While lenders have to handle only a single SHG account instead of a large number of small-sized individual accounts. showing spatial preferences especially for the southern region – Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu. These states accounted for 57 % of the SHG credits linked during the financial year 20052006.". borrowers as part of an SHG cut down expenses on travel (to & from the branch and other places) for completing paper work and on the loss of workdays in canvassing for loans. that have taken loans from banks under its linkage program to date. Besides.