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Bulletin 1724E-216 Page ii

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Bulletin 1724E-216 Page iii TABLE OF CONTENTS INSTRUCTIONS WHEN USING THE GUIDE SPECIFICATION FOR STANDARD CLASS SPUN, PRESTRESSED CONCRETE TRANSMISSION POLES …v-viii TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS……………………………………………………………1-25 1. Scope……………………………………………………………………………………....... 1 2. Definitions .............................................................................................................................. 1 3. Codes and Standards ............................................................................................................... 3 4. General Requirements............................................................................................................. 5 5. Inspection and Testing ............................................................................................................13 6. Shipping and Delivery ............................................................................................................15 7. Drawings and Information to be Supplied by the Manufacturer... .........................................15 8. Approvals, Acceptance, and Ownership.................................................................................17 9. List of Attachments to this speicification ...............................................................................17 Attachment A – Structure Dimensions and Pole Framing Drawings .....................................19 Attachment B - Application Requirements .............................................................................21 Attachment C – Standard Class Concrete Pole Bid Summary ................................................23 APPENDIX A - COMMENTARY APPENDIX B - EXAMPLE OF DRAWINGS APPENDIX C - DESIGN EXAMPLES APPENDIX D - SELECTED SI-METRIC EQUIVALENTS ACI ANSI ASCE ASTM AWS Eq.F FOB IFI HSS kip ksi kV LF mph NESC OHGW PCI Psf psi PVC ABBREVIATIONS American Concrete Institute American National Standards Institute American Society of Civil Engineers American Society for Testing and Materials American Welding Society Equivalency Factor Freight on Board Industrial Fasteners Institute High Strength Steel 1,000 pounds kips (1000 lb.) per square inch kilovolt Load Factor miles per hour National Electrical Safety Code Overhead Ground Wire Prestressed Concrete Institute Pounds per square foot pounds per square inch Polyvinyl chloride

lien accommodations or lien subordinations.An entity which borrows or seeks to borrow money from. Form 198 .Bulletin 1724E-216 Page iv DEFINITIONS Borrower . INDEX: MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT: Guide Specification for Standard Class Spun Prestressed Concrete Poles POLES: Concrete SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS: Guide Specification for Standard Class Spun Prestressed Concrete Poles TRANSMISSION FACILITIES: Poles (Concrete) . or arranges financing with the assistance of the Agency through guarantees.Equipment Contract Rural Utilities Service (RUS) – An Agency of the United States Department of Agriculture.

This specification may be expanded to include H-frame structures. Form 198. Terminology used in this specification has been simplified in order to provide consistency. C. Prior to the selection of a standard class pole. Referring to the owner can also mean the owner's representative or engineer.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page v INSTRUCTIONS WHEN USING THE GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS FOR STANDARD CLASS SPUN.1 Documents and general information to be added to the technical specification: The following front-end documents and general information need to be added to this technical specification: a. including general conditions and any supplemental instructions to the bidders. Modifications to this specification may be necessary to consider special applications or preferences of the owner. See Appendix A of this bulletin for a discussion of some of these items. but are not limited to: • • • • • Amount of foundation rotation and deflection to consider for incorporating P-delta moments. The user of this specification should add these documents. it is recommended that the owner use Guide Specification for Spun. Location of point of fixity. Purpose: The intent of this guide specification is to provide Rural Utilities Service borrowers a basis for procuring direct embedded standard class spun prestressed concrete poles. or do not have deflection limitations or other special limitations. inspection. and add or complete the following: D. PRESTRESSED CONCRETE POLES A. It is recommended that this specification be limited to poles which are not guyed. Some examples include. Information to be Completed by the Owner . Equipment Contract (Recommended for competitive bidding) b.Users of these specifications should detach the instructions and the Appendices. D. B. Scope: This suggested purchase specification covers the technical aspects of design. not subjected to unbalanced lateral loads. Load cases to be considered in addition to those required by the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC). This guide specification does not include contract (front-end) documents or specifications for construction. Borrowers or their engineering representatives will need to complete and add to this specification as appropriate. Bulletin 1724E-206. manufacturing. materials. General Conditions . For concrete pole applications which consider these items. Supplemental Instructions to Bidders c. and Deflection limitations. the user should perform the engineering required for these types of issues or employ an engineering consultant to do so. Initial Design Considerations: There are several engineering decisions required of the user of this specification to determine which standard class concrete poles to specify. Embedment depths. Prestressed Concrete Pole and Concrete Pole Structures. and delivery of direct embedded standard class spun prestressed concrete poles. Use of this specification should help eliminate ambiguities that might arise in the evaluation process of competitively bid standard class concrete poles procurements. testing.

For item b above. etc. Quantities. construction and maintenance. . and longitudinal loads with wind on the structure and the dead weight of the structure for any given loading condition applied simultaneously. o Overhead Groundwire (OHGW) support (type. Application Requirements (Attachment B of the Specification to be completed by the Owner). Delivery schedule. and Tabulation of Unit Prices. orientation and height). or dye additive). The engineer in the design process needs to select the appropriate standard class pole. The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Guidelines for Electrical Transmission Line Structural Loading can be used for developing loads produced by climate. c. All loads require appropriate load factors. Embedment depths. D. . address. the user may want to add such items as Bid Submission. and telephone number of the owner's contact. the NESC extreme wind load provisions. Additional requirements. F. Bid Price and Schedule. holes. This specification establishes standard concrete pole sizes. orientation and height). switch operating mechanisms. Proposal. Bid Requirements. and Bid Data. Method of Payment (if Form 198 is not used). This form covers Notice and Instructions to Bidders.2 Requirements to the technical specifications to be added or completed by the owner or owner’s representative and supplied to the bidders include: a. Supplemental Instructions to Bidders. o Underbuild support (type. cant holes.B. NESC extreme ice with concurrent wind and any necessary extreme ice and wind conditions with the appropriate load factors and any local codes. location of bolt holes for other attachment requirements. Minimum design loads have to meet NESC requirements which are appropriate for the loading district. Addenda to the Bid Documents. paint. Interpretation of Bid Documents. grounding requirements. location. including wind on pole and secondary stresses from foundation deflection and rotation. holes. holes. accidents. Configuration requirements and other information (Attachment A of the specification or equivalent): • • • Pole length and class. • • • • Location of climbing and/or working devices and the quantity of each to be supplied with the poles. Calculations need to include the vertical. transverse. it is recommended that Form 198 be used. Pole tests required. Structure dimensions.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page vi When there is competitive bidding. Insurance. A section on General Conditions could include such items as Definition of Terms. Additional items such as special pole color (stain. • • b. Strength requirements and Standard class designations for spun concrete poles. and from vertical loads acting on lateral pole deflection (P-delta effect). Pole Framing showing: o Conductor support (type. and name. orientation and height). and Other hole locations and/or requirements. Bid Acceptance Period. The design loads account for all loading cases.O. and Equipment Contract.

2 The owner should have the following information completed by the successful bidder prior to pole manufacture: a. Type of material of major components (American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) number and grade). Design exceptions. including the ultimate. b. Diameter taper (in/ft). b. and g. Calculated weight of each concrete pole. c. Quantity. f.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page vii E. Pole diameter at top. length. d. bottom. a. Prestress strand . For each standard class pole ultimate loading. provide section and strength properties.1 The owner should have the following information completed and submitted by each bidder (Attachment C of this Specification or equivalent).3 Test reports as requested by the owner. Description of pole including thickness. and taper. e. 28-day compressive strength of concrete.quantity. E. size and dropout location. diameter. c. and groundline. and d. cracking and zero tension moments and deflections. . at maximum five foot intervals along the pole. E. size and grade of prestressing strands or other reinforcement. Information to be Completed by the Manufacturer E. Tip and butt wall thickness.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Page viii BLANK PAGE .

and delivery of direct embedded standard class spun prestressed concrete poles. Electrical . aggregate. Cracking Strength .Any hardware or structural members that are attached to the concrete pole to make a complete structure. testing. DEFINITIONS Admixture . Cant Hole . In-Line Face .The electrical interconnecting of conductive parts. nameplates. shipping. Steel Cable .Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 1 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION FOR STANDARD CLASS SPUN. 2. Embedment . Deleterious Substance . Circumferential Cracks . Factored Load – See ultimate load Groundline .A through hole in the pole which is used in rotating the pole about its axis during setting. Cracking Moment . PRESTRESSED CONCRETE POLES 1.The point at which the concrete just begins to separate due to exceeding the tensile strength of the concrete on the tension face of the pole.The terminating point of any longitudinal steel that is not continuous for the length of the pole. SCOPE This specification covers the design.Any substance that is not desirable in a mixture. .All of the holes in which a single hardware assembly will be attached. Guyed Structure .The formation of a white film on the surface of the pole. usually causing harm in sufficient quantities. Efflorescence . Group of Bolt Holes . designed to maintain a common electrical potential.Cracks that parallel a cross-section of a concrete pole. or cement that is used as an ingredient of concrete and added to concrete before or during its mixing to modify its properties. typically caused by the emergence of chlorides during curing. drawings. Resistance from the supporting soils or other medium begins at or below groundline. The hole is typically 1-1/2” in diameter and located approximately 4 feet above the groundline. materials. Groundline is defined for transmission line design to determining ground clearances and for locating climbing devices. inspection. Bonding. Appurtenance .The point at which the embedment begins. cant holes. manufacture.The face of the pole which “faces” an adjacent structure in the line.A structure in which cable supports are used to increase its lateral load resistance.The moment which is developed in the pole at the time the cracking strength of the pole is experienced.That portion of the pole which is designed to be located in the ground or other supporting medium. etc.Any material other than water. Dropout.

The company responsible for the fabrication of the poles.A measure of how perpendicular the finished surface of the pole butt is to the longitudinal axis of the pole. and deformed reinforcing bars. Spiral Reinforcement . spiral reinforcement.The minimum concrete strength that is necessary before the pretensioned strands can be released.A pole which is manufactured by placing prestressed steel strands and spiral reinforcement in a mold. Reinforcing Steel . that encloses the longitudinal steel.Any steel for the purpose of reinforcement of the concrete. Spun Concrete Pole . Release Strength .The measure of deviation from straightness along the length of the pole.Cracks in concrete that are parallel to the long axis of the pole.The reinforcing steel which is installed along the long axis of the pole. including longitudinal reinforcement.The point on the pole at or below groundline where the maximum moment occurs. The manufacturer makes the poles based on the design drawings developed by the structural designer. Prestressed Concrete .A multiplier which is applied to each of the vertical.Reinforced concrete in which internal stresses have been introduced to reduce potential tensile stress in concrete resulting from loads. transverse and longitudinal structure loadings to obtain an ultimate load. Pretensioned Steel Strand .Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 2 Load Factor . Post-Tensioned Steel Strand . Manufacturer . Failure usually occurs with crushing of the concrete or permanent deformation.The additional moment created by vertical loads acting on the structure which deflects from its unloaded position. Pyrite Staining .The longitudinal reinforcement that has been tensioned after the concrete has hardened. Longitudinal Reinforcement . continuously wound in the form of a cylindrical helix.A pale brass-yellow colored stain in the concrete caused from the concrete mixture containing an excess amount of iron disulfides. Owner .The longitudinal reinforcement that has been tensioned before concrete is placed. Pole Sweep . which is the engineer responsible for the structural design of the poles and is usually employed by the manufacturer. Also referred to as prestressed steel strand. Location of this point is dependent on the characteristics of soils around the embedded portion of the pole Pole End Squareness .The Rural Utilities Service borrower procuring the concrete poles. . Pole Failure .Steel reinforcement. The multiplier takes into account the variability of climatic events as well as the importance of the structure.The point at which the maximum strength of the pole is realized. Longitudinal Cracks . Point of Fixity . P-Delta (P-∆) Moment . adding fresh concrete and spinning the mold to form the pole.

a. this is considered to be the point at which the pole fails. Under this condition.The minimum stress at which a material will start to physically deform without further increase in load or which produces a permanent strain. and Connections in Reinforced Concrete Construction . If a conflict between several referenced documents occurs.A direct embedded spun concrete pole which is designed according to a standardized strength and loading criteria established by the Owner.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 3 Standard Class Pole . Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete b.The moment at which a crack that was previously created by exceeding the cracking moment strength will open again. the more stringent requirement shall be followed. Recommended Procedures for Welding. CODES AND STANDARDS Codes. and shipment of spun. Metal Inserts. Reinforcing Steel. The most recent editions of the following codes and standards shall be followed in the design.The horizontal load which is applied to the standard class pole at a distance of 2 feet from the pole tip. or other documents referred to in this specification are to be considered as part of this specification. usually with crushing of the concrete. American Concrete Institute (ACI): ACI 318. Ultimate Strength . inspection.The moment which is developed in the pole at the time the ultimate strength of the structure is realized.The maximum design load which includes the appropriate load factor. Ultimate Load . manufacture. this specification shall be followed. prestressed concrete poles. testing. For the pole. Yield Strength . This is known as the elastic limit of the material. American Welding Society (AWS): AWS D1. If clarification is necessary. contact the owner. In the event of a conflict between this specification and the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC). Prestressed Concrete Institute (PCI): MNL 116. Tip Load . Ultimate Moment Capacity . an applied moment will not cause any tensile stress in the concrete. the NESC shall be followed. 3.1. In the event of a conflict between this specification and all other referenced documents.The maximum strength in the stress-strain diagram. It will always be less than the cracking moment strength. standards. Zero Tension Strength . Manual for Quality Control for Plants and Production of Precast Prestressed Concrete Products c.

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM): ASTM A82 ASTM A416 ASTM A421 ASTM A496 ASTM A615/A615M ASTM A617/A617M ASTM A641M ASTM A706/A706M ASTM C31 and 39 ASTM C33 ASTM C131 Steel Wire Plain. National Electrical Safety Code g. For Concrete Reinforcement Steel Strand. American Society of Civil Engineers/Prestressed Concrete Institute (ASCE/PCI) Joint Committee on Concrete Poles: Guide for the Design of Prestressed Concrete Poles. Industrial Fasteners Institute (IFI): Fastener Standards f. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C2. latest edition . Uncoated 7-wire For Prestressed Concrete Uncoated Stressed Relieved Steel For Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire. Deformed For Concrete Reinforcement Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars For Concrete Reinforcement Axle-Steel Deformed and Plain Bars For Concrete Reinforcement Zinc Coated (Galvanized) Carbon Steel Wire-Metric Low Alloy Steel Deformed Bars For Concrete Reinforcement Specifications for Sampling Concrete and Testing Concrete Cylinders Concrete Aggregates Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of SmallSize Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine Portland Cement Sampling Freshly Mixed Concrete Testing Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity of Aggregates Chemical Admixtures For Concrete Epoxy-Resin-Base Bonding Systems for Concrete Standard Specification For Spun Cast Prestressed Concrete Poles ASTM C150 ASTM C172 ASTM C289 ASTM C494 ASTM C881 ASTM C1089 e.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 4 d.

The reinforcing steel required at the point-of-fixity shall continue to the pole butt. and c. tolerances.(b) (Tip Load X D) Owner Defined Groundline Point-of-Fixity Strength Governed By Section 4.2. Poles shall be designed by the ultimate strength method as explained in ACI 318. The reinforcing steel shall begin at the pole tip and the pole shall develop the minimum ultimate moment capacity required in Table 1 at a distance of five feet from the pole tip. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The design. fabrication.2 Using the corresponding values in Table 1.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 5 4.1.1 Design Requirements: 4. The pole shall be symmetrically designed such that the strength required in any one direction shall be required in all directions about the longitudinal axis. processes.2.1.1. b. the poles shall be designed for the following requirements as illustrated by Figure 1: a. FIGURE 1 Minimum Ultimate Moment Capacity Diagram along the Pole 5' 2' Tip Load Strength Governed By Section 4. and inspection of poles shall conform to the following: 4.(a) D Strength Governed By Section 4. The poles shall be uniform taper from tip to butt. 4. design loads and strength requirements for the standard class poles.1.(c) Pole Butt .2.1 Pole designs shall be prepared from the attached configuration drawings. The pole shall develop the minimum ultimate moment capacity along the pole to the point-of-fixity which is calculated by multiplying the tip load in Table 1 by the distance from the tip load. The point-of-fixity shall be considered to be located at a distance from the pole butt which is equal to 7% of the pole length.3 The poles shall be designed to withstand the specified tip loading without exceeding a pole deflection of 15 percent of the pole height above the point of fixity when tested under short term loading conditions in accordance with the horizontal test procedures described in the Guide for the Design of Prestressed Concrete Poles (ACSE/PCI Joint Committee on Concrete Poles).1. 4.1.

1. 4.4 The poles shall be designed to withstand 40 percent of the specified tip loading without exceeding a pole deflection of 5 percent of the pole height above the point of fixity when tested under long term loading conditions in accordance with the horizontal test procedures described in the Guide for the Design of Prestressed Concrete Poles (ASCE/PCI Joint Committee on Concrete Poles).0 Minimum Ultimate Moment Capacity At Five Feet From Pole Tip(Ft.000 9.510 2.160 3. TABLE 1 Strength Requirements Standard Class Designations For Spun Concrete Poles C-12. 4.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 6 4.0 C-10.500 5.000 10.1.1.7 Poles shall be designed to withstand a one-point (tilting) pickup during erection.1) 4.-Kip) 96 88 80 72 64 57 50 44 38 32 27 23 19 15 Tip Load (Lbs.2 C-03. 4.1.925 2.5 Poles shall be designed so that the cracking strength of the pole exceeds 40 percent of the required ultimate strength.8 The pole design shall include allowances for loads from handling. or damage to the pole when handled according to the manufacturer’s instructions.4 C-06.000 8. 4.7 C-04.410 6. (See Section 6.655 4.0 C-08.4 C-02.5 C-05. permanent deformation.875 4. .1.0 C-07.6 Poles shall be designed so that the zero tension strength of the pole exceeds 28 percent of the required ultimate strength.5 C-02.0 C-09.10 Pole design and design calculations shall be the responsibility of the manufacturer. transportation and erection without failure.9 C-04.0 C-11.405 1.) 12. Poles shall be designed for the loads generated from handling and erecting without exceeding the cracking moment capacity of the poles.9 C-02.1.950 4.1. The poles shall be designed for two-point pickup for horizontal handling.000 11.9 The design of each pole shall be performed using the applicable codes and standards listed in Section 3 of this specification.000 7.

The aggregate shall be well graded from No. and all specifications included therein.2. If the manufacturer considers lifting devices necessary or desirable.11 Concrete mix design requirements listed above can be altered with the owner's approval.2.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 7 4.2. 4.2. III. 4. 4 to No.40. Absorption shall be less than 4 percent or aggregate shall be saturated with water prior to use in concrete.000 psi with a maximum water-cement ratio of 0.6 Coarse aggregate shall be clean. 200 sieve. Resistance to abrasion shall not exceed 40 percent as tested in conformance with ASTM C131. 4. The aggregate shall be well graded from a 3/4 inch to a No. crushed stone conforming to ASTM C33. Cadmium-plated and aluminum material shall not be used. acids.10 Prestressing steel mechanical properties.4 pound per cubic yard.1 The pole shall be circular in cross section and the diameter. alkalis. 8 sieve.2 The pole shall have a uniform taper from top to butt. tough. 4. 8 sieve with no more than 5 percent of the sample passing through a No. or other deleterious substances. Deleterious substances shall not comprise more than 5 percent of the sample.3 Workmanship: 4.8 Water shall be clean. consisting of clean.3.1 The chemical properties of materials used in the manufacture of the poles shall meet the requirements of the applicable ASTM specification and be such that noticeable pyrite staining or efflorescence due to sulfates and/or chlorides does not occur.2. . 4. II.2. shall not vary by more than 1/4 inch from any other measurement taken on that cross section. 4. 4.2.2 Materials: 4. 4. durable uncoated particles conforming to ASTM C33.5 Fine aggregate shall be a natural sand. strong. and all specifications included therein. reinforcing steel and spiral reinforcement shall be in accordance with the applicable ASTM specifications listed in Section 3 of this specification.9 Admixtures shall conform to ASTM C494.4 The cement shall be either Type I. Crushed rock or partially crushed rock shall be the source of the aggregate. or V Portland cement conforming to ASTM C150.2. 4. organic materials.3 The concrete shall have a minimum 28-day compressive strength of 5.2. 4. All inserts shall be noncorrosive materials designed and manufactured for the intended purpose and used according to manufacturer's recommendations. Deleterious substance content shall not exceed 5 percent of the sample. as measured at any location on the pole. 4. hard. salts.2 All anchors and inserts provided by the manufacturer shall be hot dip galvanized or noncorrosive material. Admixtures shall not contain chloride ions in quantities that would cause the total chloride content of the concrete to exceed 0. Higher strengths and lower water-cement ratios are encouraged and may be necessary to offset steel cover requirements.3. Air entraining admixtures can be used if approved by the owner.2. suitable flush inserts may be cast into the pole with removable lifting attachments.7 Aggregate shall be tested in accordance with ASTM C289 to determine an alkaliaggregate reaction.2. free from undesirable amounts of oils. 4.

A straight line joining the edge of the pole at the butt and the edge of the pole at the top shall not be further from the surface of the pole at any point by more than the accumulated value of 0. Inserts shall be 1 inch minimum diameter and shall have a louvered opening. and appropriate provisions are used for maintaining spacing between the prestressing steel strands. In the event that this condition is not met at the pole tip.3.6 Clear distance between prestressing steel strands shall be either 4/3 times the maximum aggregate size or 3 times the strand diameter. and c.3. Areas with moderate or severe spalling shall be cleaned and reformed with an epoxy paste or epoxy concrete per ASTM C881 Type II. . 4. except as specifically necessary to correct errors or omissions and only if approved by the owner. b. 4.5 Spiral reinforcement shall cover the entire pole length.4 Prestressing steel stress limits shall not exceed: a. 70 percent of the ultimate strength for post-tensioned steel at anchorages and couplers immediately after anchorage. 4. 74 percent of the ultimate strength or 82 percent of the yield strength immediately after prestress transfer.3.3.8 The pole manufacturer shall provide preformed inserts at two locations to allow air circulation within the pole. The owner may reject any pole in which the longitudinal steel is cut. 4. The maximum clear spacing for the remainder of the pole shall not exceed 4 inches.9 Holes may not be drilled through the pole wall. 4. whichever is larger.3.3 Deviation of the pole from straightness is allowed in one plane and one direction only. Preformed inserts shall be sized for the specified hole diameter and shall be full length of pole diameter for all through holes. 80 percent of the ultimate strength or 94 percent of the yield strength or the maximum value recommended by the manufacturer of prestressing steels or anchorages for jacking force.3. included as Attachment A. The inserts shall be located within 10 feet of the tip and within 10 feet above the groundline. closer spacing would be permitted provided that the placement of concrete can be accomplished satisfactorily. 4. Unless otherwise noted on the drawings. holes shall be perpendicular to and pass through the centerline of the pole. 4.3. 4.10 The longitudinal steel shall not be cut for any reason unless approved by the owner. All exposed steel resulting from drilled holes shall be covered with an epoxy paste per ASTM C881 Type III.11 The owner shall have the right to reject any pole in which the performance of a bolted connection may be reduced due to the lack of a cleanly preformed or drilled hole. adequate stress transfer can take place.7 The manufacturer shall provide holes through each pole as specified on the pole framing drawing(s). The detensioning operation shall be performed in a manner to keep the prestressing forces symmetrical.3.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 8 4. but not less than one inch.25 inches for each 10 feet of length between the two ends. Preformed holes shall be cast using rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC) inserts (or other suitable material) held firmly in place. The minimum clear spacing of spiral reinforcement in the top 2 feet and bottom 2 feet of the pole shall be 4/3 of the maximum coarse aggregate or three times the strand diameter. Plugs may be used with the owner's approval.3. whichever is larger.

For spliced poles an additional bond shall be provided above and below the splice to a threaded bronze insert within 24 inches of the splice. A minimum of one longitudinal steel strand shall be bonded electrically to a threaded bronze insert at the top and bottom of the pole.5 Grounding: 4. whichever is greater (i. The pole ground wire shall extend one foot above the top of the pole.5.0 inches ±1/8 inch ±1.5.0 inch ±1/16 inch of specified diameter Not to vary from the longitudinal pole centerline of that group of holes by more than 1/8 inch ±2.2 Except for bonding of the steel tendons.e. or ±1 inch ±1/8 inch per 10 feet of length. This bonding ±1/4 inch 1/4 inch or 12 percent of wall thickness. 4. ±2. there shall be no internal pole grounds. Each bond shall be located within the top 2 feet of the pole top and at 4 feet above groundline (See Attachment A). Steel splice sections shall have the appropriate number of grounding attachments.4 Manufacturing Tolerances: Manufacturing tolerances shall be limited to the following: Pole Length ±2 inches. Threaded inserts for attaching ground wire clips that hold the external ground wire shall be sized and positioned per the attached drawings.1 An external pole ground wire shall be used.) ±1/4 inch per foot of pole diameter 1/4 inch per 10 feet of pole length ±10 percent of calculated value +1/4 inch and ±1/8 inch reinforcement placement for the centroid of a group ±25 percent of clear spacing required with total reinforcement placement required quantity per 3 feet of pole length maintained.0 inch .120 foot pole shall have a length of 120 feet ±2½ inches) -6 inches or +12 inches for assembled spliced structure Pole Diameter Wall Thickness Pole End Squareness Pole Sweep Pole Weight Location of Longitudinal Reinforcement Location of Spiral Reinforcement Location of Group of Bolt Holes from Top of Pole Location of Bolt Holes Within a Group of Bolt Holes Location of Centerline Between Groups of Bolt Holes Bolt Hole Diameter Bolt Hole Alignment Location of Identification Plate 4. (Note: this requirement may be waived provided that the structural adequacy and durability are not impaired. .Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 9 4.

7.8. 4. These loads shall be supported without permanent deformation.6. . 4.2 There shall be a minimum specified wall thickness of 2. removable steps.2. It is not intended to replace the worker's fall arrest system.2 Load Factor: A load factor of 2. b. 4.1 An actual wall thickness of less than 2. The insert shall not be made of materials that will corrode and stain the concrete. and removable ladders shall be hot dipped galvanized.6.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 10 system shall be noncorrosive and shall be approved by the owner.1 are met in the spinning process and provided the pole can meet all other requirements of the specifications.4 Finish: Step bolts.2. manufacturer shall provide ground wire clamps for all ground wire attachments.5.2.6. Step Bolts and removable steps: The step bolts.3 Location: Climbing devices shall start 8 feet above groundline and extend to the pole top unless specified by the owner. 4.6. Poles not meeting this requirement shall be rejected except as allowed by Section 4. 4.5 Intent of steps/ladder: This system is intended for climbing the pole and working on the structure. 4.6.8. Removable Ladders: The ladder and each attachment to the pole shall be designed to support a minimum of a 300 pound worker and equipment multiplied by a load factor as defined in paragraph 4.1 There shall be a minimum of 3/4 inch of clear concrete cover over all longitudinal reinforcement and all spiral reinforcement as a result of the concrete spinning process. 4. The insert shall be made of materials that will not react unfavorably with the concrete or fasteners. The climbing device shall be spaced such that each step is 1 foot 6 inches apart and orientated to provide maximum ease of climbing. 4.3 If required by the owner.8. The load shall be at the outer edge of the step or bolt. 4. The load shall be at the outer edge of the step or bolt. unless permitted by the owner.1.0 shall be applied to the design loads in 4.6.5 inches of spun concrete may be allowed from the pole tip to 3 feet below the pole tip provided the cover requirements of Section 4.6. They shall be located to avoid interference with other attachments.5 inches of spun concrete at all points along the pole.8. 4.8.8 Cover: 4.6 Climbing Devices 4. removable steps and attachment to the pole shall be designed to support a minimum of a 300 pound worker and equipment multiplied by a load factor as defined in paragraph 4.7.7 Inserts: 4. 4.1 Design Loads: a.2 Inserts shall not fail before the pole reaches ultimate strength.2.1 Inserts shall be made of materials which will not deteriorate in the environment in which they are placed.6.

shall be cleaned thoroughly.2 The owner shall. the owner may reject the pole or may allow the pole to be repaired by swabbing the interior with an epoxy liner (per ASTM C881 .9. 4.9. The owner shall also provide the manufacturer of the connectors and/or members with the locations. and strength capacities of the appurtenances. chamfered corners. The pole tip cap shall be a suitable epoxy-aggregate mortar securely bonded to the pole. 4. or by V-notching the crack on a 1:1 slope to a minimum depth of 1/4 inch.1 The surface of the pole shall have a smooth finish with no unsealed cracks.5 The center void at the top end of the pole shall be sealed with a minimum 6 inch thick 1000 psi strength concrete plug and the pole tip capped.9 Splices: 4.11.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 11 4. Cracks shall be sealed either by use of an epoxy injection system following the epoxy manufacturer's specifications. 4. then the pole shall be rejected.2.4 The manufacturer shall seal both ends of the pole and protect the steel strands from corrosion using a suitable epoxy. When required.8. Covering the crack with an epoxy coating is not allowed. honeycomb spots.11. saturated with water and then carefully pointed with a cement mortar.10. 4. Sharp edges shall be tooled to form smooth.3 The axis of the pole shall not be distorted after the pole is mated. 4. types. Shims shall not be used to straighten the pole unless approved by the owner.2 Small cavities caused by air bubbles. The pole shall be designed to fail before the splice fails by yielding of the splice steel.2 The reinforcing steel and connection apparatus comprising the splice shall be properly anchored as part of the pole. 4.2 The concrete pole manufacturer is responsible for the proper design coordination and fit up of all appurtenance connections and members to the pole(s). as soon as possible. concrete to the owner's satisfaction to a distance of 42 inches from the tip. flange-bolted type splice shall be used at guyed structures. A small cavity is defined as one not larger than 1/2 inch in diameter or deeper than 1/4 inch.9. At the owner's sole discretion.1 Flange-bolted or slip-joint type of splices are permitted.3 If any cavities or voids absorb water which indicate the void extends into wall of the pole.10 Appurtenances: 4.1 Appurtenance material shall be supplied by the owner. The owner reserves the right to reject a pole based on the improper mating of a pole splice.11. or shall be a metal or polymer cap securely held in place with set screws. be notified of any poles with less than 3/4 inch of spun concrete inside cover within 3 feet of the pole tip. 4.11.10. The manufacturer shall notify owner if any appurtenance material supplied by owner will not result in properly designed structure.Type V. 4. or other small voids. sizes. orientations.000 psi. then filling the V-notch with an epoxy seal per ASTM C881 Type IV.11 Finishing: 4. Class B or C) and plugging with 3. The system used shall be approved by the owner. 4. No pole shall be plugged or considered for acceptance by the owner unless assurance is made by the manufacturer that the repaired pole can meet all requirements of this specification. 4.11. .

Day. The following information shall be stamped into the plate with letters not less than 1/4 inch in height: • • • • • • • Manufacturer's name. nonstaining metal such as bronze. month. and pole framing guide number on the butt of the pole. 4.5 Each pole shall be marked with the information listed below.3 The identification information listed above may be cast into the surface of each pole. before the mortar is applied. brass. Pole length and class. if required by owner. Two-point pickup location for handling the pole in the horizontal position. 4. Structure number. Ultimate moment capacity at groundline. or an aluminum alloy that will not react unfavorably with concrete. the surface of the pole where the mortar is to be applied shall first be coated with the epoxy coating. The plate shall have suitable anchor or anchors welded to the back of the plate to permit bonding to the pole. Series 300 stainless steel. and e.6 The center void at the bottom end of the pole shall be sealed with a minimum 12 inch thick 1000 psi strength concrete plug.12. c. The plug shall be securely bonded to the pole and shall be tooled to form a smooth. but not hardened state. shall be applied over the mortar and the surrounding area of the pole. structure number.7 Where application of epoxy-aggregate mortar is specified.2 The manufacturer's identification plate shall be fabricated from a noncorrosive. 4. and Owner's name. . d. Support points.12 Marking: 4. uniform bearing surface. a top coat of epoxy coating. Length and class of pole.12.12. Pole framing designation (per framing guide) or pole type. b. each section shall be marked as below: a. and year of manufacture. One-point pickup location for use in raising the pole to a vertical position and handling during the setting operation. 4.12. Cant hole locations. 4. After the mortar has been applied and allowed to cure for 24 hours.12.11. fabrication number. For spliced poles.11. This coating shall be allowed to cure to a tacky. A permanent marker shall be used and the writing shall be small but legible.1 Each pole shall be identified with the manufacturer's identification plate. 4. 4. A PVC formed hole shall be provided in the center of the plug to allow for drainage.4 The identification plate or cast in-place markings shall be located on an in-line face of the pole in the direction of the transmission line. 5 mil thick.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 12 The manufacturer shall assure that the capping method will prevent weather intrusion into the pole and prevent pole tip deterioration. The bottom of the identification plate or last line of the cast in-place markings shall be located five feet above the defined groundline. These marks shall be at least 3/4 inch in height and 1/8 inch deep.

upon request.2.2 Inspection: 5. transit. At the request of the owner. 5. but in no case shall this be interpreted as releasing the manufacturer from the manufacturer's responsibilities for delivering poles that meet the requirements of this specification.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 13 5. examination.1 General: 5. Proper hole and insert locations and sizes. Date of manufacture and inspection(s). 5.2. 5.5 Tests shall be in accordance with all applicable standard specifications and codes. Condition of pole interior and evidence of exposed rings or reinforcement steel.4 The manufacturer shall furnish certified test reports to the owner. Minimum and maximum tip wall thicknesses and steel coverages (to inside and outside) measurements shall be made at 3 inches from the tip.2. 5. the manufacturer shall submit a quality assurance report to the owner prior to the shipment of each pole and shall include the following minimum information: • • • • • • • • • • Fabrication number and owner's structure number.2.3 Concrete and Aggregate Testing: 5. 5. Minimum and maximum butt wall thicknesses and steel coverages (to inside and outside) measurements shall be made at 3 inches from butt. the manufacturer shall furnish the owner with certified test reports for the steel and concrete used.1 The manufacturer shall make adequate tests and inspections to determine that each of the poles furnished is in strict accordance with this specification. and tests may be waived by the owner.3 The owner shall have free entry. and test for conformance to the requirements of this specification by the owner. 5.2 Upon request.1 Concrete used on owners' poles shall have the quality to meet the design strength and other requirements included in this specification.1. The manufacturer shall afford the owner reasonable facilities. The inspection.6 Failure of the manufacturer to comply with these specifications will be sufficient reason for rejection of any or all poles which do not comply with these specifications. and Inspector's seal. to satisfy the owner that the poles are being manufactured in strict accordance with this specification. showing the results of all of the tests required by this specification and applicable reference specifications. Actual manufactured pole weight. or at the pole destination. while work is being carried on. or testing could be done at any time during material procurement. 5.3. at all times. Report of any repairs made to the pole. without charge.2.2. INSPECTION AND TESTING 5. manufacturing. Inspection. examination. Evidence of cracking during or after two-point handling.1 Manufacturing and testing procedures shall be in compliance with applicable codes and standards listed in Section 3 in this specification. to all parts of the manufacturer's plant where manufacture of the owner's poles is being performed. storage periods. examinations.1. .2 All material and workmanship shall be subject to inspection. 5.

4. and increments of the test loads along with the number.3 The design load testing of any specific pole shall be on a full-scale basis. Samples shall be taken at minimum intervals of one per day.4. 5. shall be separated from the manufacturer's bid.4. measuring and recording the test loads. 5. Costs for such testing shall be the responsibility of the owner. 5. 5.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 14 5.4. location. test cylinders shall be taken from each truck load of concrete and tested in accordance with this specification.3 For manufacturers that acquire concrete from outside sources. shall be provided.4 The number. location.4 Test cylinders shall be prepared.4 Structure Testing: 5.2 For manufacturers that batch their own concrete. substantiated by test data. and Minimum of one at 28 days. The test cylinders for each day's concrete that is batched shall be tested for compressive strength as follows: • • • • Minimum of one for determining release strength. and direction of deflection readings for an individual pole test shall be approved by the owner prior to pole testing. 5. 5.6 A full report listing results shall be submitted to the owner after completion of all testing.4. direction. and measuring and recording the deflections shall be approved by the owner prior to pole testing. and The pole tester shall issue the owner three (3) copies of the Pole Test Report.3. one per 25 cubic yards of concrete batched. Method of full scale testing: upright or horizontal.3. the manufacturer shall take a minimum of 8 concrete test cylinders per representative sample. applying the test loads.5 Upon request from the owner. sequence. and drawings describing the above test. Minimum of one at 14 days. 5. Minimum of one at 7 days. 5. . the manufacturer shall provide the owner with the following testing data: • • • Location of testing. holding time. the manufacturer shall provide owner statistical data on concrete strength quality in accordance to applicable ACI and ASTM specifications. If required. A correlation factor between rodded cylinders and the spun concrete. Copies of mill test reports shall be included in the load test report.1 Details of all test procedures contained herein and methods of measuring and recording test loads and deflections shall be specified by the manufacturer and approved by the owner prior to manufacture. tools. then cured in the same curing environment as the pole itself or cured per the applicable ASTM specification.4.3. This report shall include descriptions.2 Material procurement for test poles shall be identical to material procurement procedures for regular production run poles.7 Use of any factory tested poles to meet order requirements shall be determined by the owner.5 The method of attaching the test loads to the pole. 5. and with each change in raw material supplier for batches used to make the owner's poles.3. and shall be negotiated in advance of any test preparation. The report shall also include a complete description of the load tests with diagrams and photographs. 5.4.

equipment.1 Each shipment shall be accompanied by a list of all parts. and 4. Pole diameter at top. 4. and materials for the unloading of poles at the project site.1.4 Transportation and site handling shall be performed with acceptable equipment and methods by qualified personnel. name of common carrier used. f.1.6.1. DRAWINGS AND INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED BY THE MANUFACTURER 7.1.1 Shipping: 6.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 15 6. and the owner reserves the right to postpone a shipment. unless otherwise agreed to by the owner. and construction.1. e. 6. or both. 6. 6. Bolts and miscellaneous hardware shall be identified by the list for match up with the respective pole shaft.6 Handling instructions shall be included with the pole shipment. 6. Calculated weight of each concrete pole.2.5 Poles shall be sufficiently cured before shipment to resist forces from handling. Prestress strand .1. identifiable by structure type and number.quantity.1.1. The owner will provide all labor. A pole is considered delivered when the pole is lifted from the trailer or semitrailer of the delivery carrier by the owner. as designed by the manufacturer. For each standard class pole.5. and expected time of arrival. SHIPPING AND DELIVERY 6. 7.3 and 4. stockpiling.1. d. have the poles transported to the installation locations with the carrier's equipment. cracking.4. The manufacturer shall coordinate and cooperate with the owner to ensure smooth and efficient delivery of poles. and groundline. c.2 The owner and owner's representative shall be notified prior to shipment that such shipment is to take place. For each standard class pole.1. provide pole deflection calculations at maximum five foot intervals along the pole using the specified tip loading in order to demonstrate conformance with the requirements of Sections 4. and zero tension strengths at maximum five foot intervals along the pole to demonstrate conformance with the requirements of Sections 4. Tip and butt wall thickness. 6. and transporting only at the lifting or support points.3 Poles shall be lifted and supported during manufacturing.1. All parts required for any one structure shall be in one shipment. 6. The notification of a shipment shall give quantities. bottom. provide section and strength properties. b. weight.2 Delivery: The owner (or the owner's construction contractor) may take delivery at a designated location or with the delivering carrier's cooperation and consent. .1 Information to be Supplied with the Proposal (See Attachment C of this specification): a. transportation. size and dropout location. and the ultimate. The owner has the right to inspect the components prior to shipment. The manufacturer shall exercise precaution to protect poles against damage in transit.

2. h. Complete dimensional information. 7. Steel strand prestress loads. Pole identification plate location and details. Description and location of all steel reinforcements. Location of climbing devices and grounding inserts. two sets of revised prints shall be resubmitted to the owner. 7. description. The review of such drawings by the owner shall not relieve the manufacturer of this responsibility. if dropout system is used. and location of all holes and hardware that is a part of the pole. One set of these drawings will be returned to the manufacturer with indication of review corrections. f.2 Information and Drawings to be Supplied for Owner’s Approval Prior to Fabrication: 7. quantity. d.2 Final fabrication drawings for each different framing pattern and pole calculations for each load case shall be submitted to and approved by the owner before release of order for manufacture.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 16 g. Location of groundline. Location of pickup points and storage points. and l. Diameter taper in/ft. k. .3 All design and detail drawings shall be reviewed and approved by the owner before pole manufacture. Where a correction is required.2. Twenty-eight day strength of concrete and strength of concrete at time of release of pretensioning strands.2. Design strength of concrete (28 day compressive strength). Both pickup locations and recommended storage locations shall be shown. The ultimate moment and cracking moment capacities at the groundline. Drawing titles shall clearly indicate the owner's name and pole-type identification. 7. 7.1 After the manufacturer's proposal has been accepted. g. i. h. j.4 Information to be Provided on Drawings: The manufacturer shall be responsible for the correctness of dimensions and details on the drawings. the manufacturer shall submit to the owner two prints of each fabrication drawing.2. b. Each detail drawing shall include the following minimum information: a. Any other special information deemed necessary by the manufacturer and owner. Weight and location of the center of gravity of the pole. Size. These prints shall be marked "Revised" and dated. the location of each steel cable dropout. e. c. and.

If corrections are required in the final pole designs due to manufacturer's errors. but shall not share them with other concrete pole suppliers. poles with exposed steel. AND OWNERSHIP 8. 8. They also shall be smooth. Bid Summary . details on the drawings. attractive. Approval of the drawings and calculations by the owner does not relieve the manufacturer of responsibility for the adequacy of the design. 9. the quoted price shall not change.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 17 8. Application Requirements Attachment C. unscarred and in new condition. the manufacturer shall notify the owner of the actual weight before pole delivery. poles shall be free of defects and blemishes which would have a detrimental effect on the structure capacity and/or longevity of the pole. Poles not meeting these requirements shall be repaired or replaced by the manufacturer at no additional cost to the owner. Award of the contract to the manufacturer does not constitute acceptance of design calculations submitted with the bid.1 Final designs must be approved by the owner before material ordering. or misinterpretations of the specifications. Any pole whose delivered weight exceeds or is below 10 percent of its calculated weight may be rejected by the owner.4 If the delivered weight of a pole will exceed the calculated weight by 5 percent. Pole Framing Drawings. poles failing to meet manufacturing tolerances or cover requirements. and spliced poles that do not fit together properly or are distorted after mating shall be rejected by the owner and replaced by the manufacturer at no cost to the owner.3 Poles failing to meet strength requirements. 8. ACCEPTANCE.5 All final drawings shall become the property of the owner. APPROVALS. 8.) • • • Attachment A. or the proper fit of parts. Material ordering and fabrication prior to approval of the owner will be at the manufacturer's risk. Attachment C to be completed by the manufacturer.2 Upon delivery. and Details Attachment B. who shall have full rights to reproduce and use them. 8. poles with circumferential or longitudinal cracks. Structure Dimensions. LIST OF ATTACHMENTS (Attachments A and B to be completed by the engineer. poles with cavities that absorb water. correctness of dimensions. omissions.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 18 BLANK PAGE .

pole framing drawings.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 19 Attachment A Structure dimensions. and details .

Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 20 BLANK PAGE .

) 4. Delivery schedule 3. Free on board destination (F. Additional requirements (below) _________ _________ _________ . sizes. owner shall provide manufacturer. and strength capacities with this Attachment.O. orientations. connector and/or member locations.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 21 Attachment B Application Requirements For appurtenance material supplied by the owner. Climbing device desired by owner 2.B. 1. types.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 22 BLANK PAGE .

AND PRICE INFORMATION (INFORMATION TO BE SUPPLIED WITH THE PROPOSAL) .WEIGHTS.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 23 Attachment C Standard Concrete Pole Bid Summary (Information to be supplied with the bid) Pole framing drawing Pole Class Pole Length POLE DESCRIPTION Top Diameter Groundline Diameter Bottom Diameter Taper (in/ft) GENERAL Pole Wt/ each Tip Load Point of Fixity Loc Steel (ASTM/yield ) Cross section shape Splice joint type CALCULATIONS AT THE GROUNDLINE (includes LF) Moment Shear Axial Cross Sectional Area CALCULATIONS AT THE POINT OF FIXITY (includes LF) Moment Shear Axial Cross Sectional Area WALL THICKNESS Top Groundline Bottom DEFLECTION (Top) COST/POLE NUMBER OF POLES TOTAL COSTS DESIGN INFORMATION COST SUMMARY COMMENTS: TRANSMISSION LINE POLES ATTACHMENT C BID SUMMARY – DESIGN INFORMATION.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 24 BLANK PAGE .

5.1. provide pole deflection calculations at maximum five foot intervals along the pole using the specified tip loading in order to demonstrate conformance with the requirements of Sections 4.1.2. and the ultimate.. and 4.6 of this specification.3 and 4. 4.4 of this specification). .1.1. and for each standard class pole.Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 25 Attachment C (continued) (The Manufacturer shall also supply the following information with the proposal: (a) for each standard class pole. provide section and strength properties.1. cracking and zero tension strengths at maximum five foot intervals along the pole to demonstrate conformance with the requirements of Sections 4.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Page 26 BLANK PAGE .

The owner should recognize when the design of a concrete pole may be more prudently accomplished using the Guide Specification for Spun.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 1 APPENDIX A COMMENTARY A. General The necessity of a clear bid specification for the purchase of standard class concrete poles is very important to the bid evaluation process and the acquisition of structurally adequate poles. Since it has become a widespread practice in the industry to design and manufacture poles which are based on the wood pole classification system of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI 05. The owner must be sure that combined bending and buckling analysis is performed. All appropriate loading criteria are considered in the analysis. In utilizing standard class spun concrete poles. The specification should contain sufficient requirements and information so that all bids can be evaluated equally and so that the manufacturer clearly understands what is expected of the manufacturer. the owner may design a transmission line based on wood pole classifications as . the concrete pole classifications have a unique naming system. In using RUS Bulletin 1724E-206. the concrete pole classifications developed in this specification generally follow the wood pole classification system. A design example is shown in Appendix C. that cracking strength and zero tension strength is evaluated. with the proper understanding and usage of some computerized structural analysis and transmission line design programs. Wood Pole Equivalency In some cases. the manufacturer assumes full responsibility in designing and manufacturing a structurally adequate pole. Standard Class Pole In some cases. to avoid confusion with the wood pole classifications. the owner must be prudent in this type of application. However. and that deflections are properly modeled. much like the standard classifications for wood poles. utilities prefer to specify certain spun concrete poles to be designed according to a standardized loading criteria. Prestressed Concrete Pole and Concrete Pole Structures. it is possible to select a standard class concrete pole which might otherwise be beyond the scope of this specification. which requires the actual loading conditions to be specified. a standard class spun concrete pole which meets the actual loading conditions can be selected.1). This guide specification attempts to eliminate ambiguity in specifying and purchasing standard class concrete poles. Once the required concrete pole strength is determined. Scope While this standard class concrete pole specification does not prohibit the application to poles which are guyed. RUS Bulletin 1724E-206. which are subjected to unbalanced lateral loads. a complete structural analysis is still required for all structures. This specification was developed to establish a standard classification system and to assist the owner in procuring a standard class concrete pole which is properly designed for the intended loading criteria. It is recognized that. or which have deflection or other special limitations.

secondary moments. It is impossible to completely equate the concrete pole and wood pole at all points along the pole. for NESC Grade B district loading. The equivalency factor is a useful concept to understand as the owner requires a wood pole equivalent under various loading conditions and load factors. For example. As such. Several examples of equivalencies are listed in the following sections.65 to be applied to a load on a wood pole. The equation is made by a ratio of the strength factors applicable for each pole type and loading criteria.00 = 0. the manufacturer will not be involved in the equivalency process and the ambiguity should be eliminated. the differences in material and section properties of the wood pole versus the concrete pole will result in differences in buckling analysis.65 and the concrete pole strength factor is 1.500 pounds by . For example. the owner must consider factors other than the equivalent groundline moment. Wood Pole Specifications and Dimensions. and so forth.65/1.65 TO 1.500 pounds at 2' from the pole tip based on a simple cantilever. the owner wishes to select a concrete pole meeting the same NESC district wind loading conditions.65 Eq.650.2. and then wish to order concrete poles which meet the wood pole equivalent loadings. For example.1. The wood pole equivalency is based on the required ultimate moment capacity of the pole at the groundline based on embedment depths shown in ANSI 05. the ultimate strength requirement for the concrete pole will be less than the ultimate strength of the wood pole for the district loading conditions. In doing this.F) The equivalency factor (Eq. To do this.1. Because of the differences in strength factors applied to wood poles in comparison to concrete poles. the owner will multiply the required tip loading of 4. the equivalency factor will be 0. the Class 1 wood pole groundline strength is derived by applying a horizontal ultimate load of 4. The owner wishes to purchase a concrete pole which is equivalent to a Class 1 wood pole.F) For the NESC Grade B district loadings.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 2 described in ANSI 05. Since the owner had classed the wood pole based on an NESC strength factor of 0. Wood Pole Equivalency – 0. pole deflections. As such. the wood pole strength factor is 0. “Wood pole equivalent” is a term that may be defined in a number of ways. the term “wood pole equivalent” is defined as a standard class prestressed concrete pole which is equated by required ultimate loading to an ANSI 05. Once the equivalency is determined. In obtaining a suitable equivalency. Based on ANSI 05. Thus. The design and purchase of concrete poles as an equivalent to wood poles can be vague even with clear instructions.1. Equivalency Factor (Eq. the owner should specify the standard class concrete pole based on the classifications detailed in Section 4. For purposes of this commentary. the owner designs a transmission line for wood poles based on NESC district wind loading conditions. the owner must be sure that the strength factors are properly accounted for in the design of the concrete poles.00.F) is defined as the ratio of the wood pole strength factor to the concrete pole strength factor for a given loading condition. the owner should be sure that the equivalency is properly determined. the NESC allows for a strength factor of 1.00 Ratio (0.1 standard class wood pole. The owner must be certain that the concrete pole selected by equivalency methods will have a strength sufficient for the actual application. applied wind forces.00 to be applied to a load on a concrete pole while it requires a strength factor of 0.1.65.

1.0 equivalency factor.9 pole. Based on the method shown in this example.2.5 pole. the owner selects a class C-02.1. The owner will then select a standard class concrete pole which has an ultimate moment capacity based on the horizontal tip loading of at least 2.1.75. As such.875 pounds.F) adjusts for the difference between wood and concrete extreme wind strength factors.75 Eq.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 3 0. To do this.00 ratio (or 0.00.925 pounds.500 pounds at 2' from the pole tip based on a simple cantilever. which has a tip loading of 3. In this case.0.75 TO 1.1.0 Eq. The 0. Based on the method shown in this example. From Section 4. Wood Pole Equivalency – 1 TO 1 Ratio (1. The 0. Table A-3 at the end of this section is a tabulation of wood pole equivalencies based on the ultimate-to-ultimate strength comparison. the owner may wish to order a concrete pole which has the same ultimate strength as a specified wood pole class.9 concrete pole.500 pounds by 0. . For example.F) For the NESC Grade B extreme wind loadings.925 pounds.75 to be applied to a wood pole under the extreme wind load condition.00 (applicable to concrete poles) in the calculations. the Class 1 wood pole groundline strength is derived by applying a horizontal ultimate load of 4.375 pounds. The owner selects a wood pole Class 1 at a specific location.1. the owner will multiply the required tip loading of 4.375 pounds. Wood Pole Equivalency .500 pounds at 2' from the pole tip based on a simple cantilever. the owner will require a concrete pole with an ultimate moment capacity based on the same 4. Therefore. or 1.00 to be applied to concrete poles for the transverse extreme wind load condition while the NESC requires a strength factor of 0.2.75/1. the owner designs a transmission line for wood poles based on NESC district wind loading conditions. which equals 2. The owner wishes to purchase a concrete pole which is equivalent to a Class 1 wood pole.F) Occasionally. which equals 3.500 pound tip loading. Since the owner had classed the wood pole based on an NESC extreme wind strength factor of 0. which has a tip loading of 4.2. the owner wishes to purchase a concrete pole which is equivalent in ultimate strength to a Class 1 wood pole. Thus. knowing that concrete poles will be utilized. From Section 4. the Class 1 wood pole groundline strength is derived by applying a horizontal ultimate load of 4. However.00.75/1.00 Ratio (0.65/1.510 pounds. the owner selects a Class C-04. Based on ANSI 05.65/1. the owner has accounted for the difference in wood versus concrete strength factors during the design of the project. the initial ultimate strength requirement for the concrete pole will appear to be less than the ultimate strength of the wood pole for the NESC extreme wind loading conditions. Table A-1 (at the end of this section) is a tabulation of wood pole equivalencies based on the NESC Grade B district loading. the owner selects a class C-03.65 Eq. Based on the method shown in the this example.F) adjusts for the difference between wood and concrete strength factors for NESC district loads.00 ratio (or 0. From Section 4. The owner will then select a standard class concrete pole which has an ultimate moment capacity based on the horizontal tip loading of at least 3. the owner uses the NESC district wind strength factor of 1. which has a tip loading of 2. Table A-2 at the end of this section is a tabulation of wood pole equivalencies based on the NESC Grade B extreme wind loading. this specification requires a strength factor of 1. One common application of this is when the owner designs a transmission line using wood pole properties.925 pounds. the owner designs a transmission line for wood poles based on NESC extreme wind loading conditions. but utilizing concrete pole strength factors. Based on ANSI 05. the owner wishes to select a concrete pole meeting the same extreme wind loading conditions. For example.75 Eq.

7 C-04.9 C-04.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 4 TABLE A-1 WOOD POLE EQUIVALENCY BASED ON 0.0 C-06.75 TO 1.5 C-02.4 C-02.65 Strength Factor 1.75 Strength Factor 1.2 C-03.00 Strength Factor H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 H1 1 2 3 C-07.65 Equivalency Factor) (NESC Grade B District Loading) (Equivalencies based on approximate groundline strength) Design Select Wood Pole Class Based On Concrete Pole Class Based On 0.7 C-04.9 C-02.5 C-05.5 C-05.00 RATIO (0.4 .00 RATIO (0.75 Equivalency Factor) (NESC Grade B Extreme Loading) (Equivalencies based on approximate groundline strength) Design Select Wood Pole Class Based On Concrete Pole Class Based On 0.5 C-02.4 C-06.00 Strength Factor H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 H1 1 2 3 C-09.9 C-02.0 TABLE A-2 WOOD POLE EQUIVALENCY BASED ON 0.0 C-08.9 C-04.2 C-03.65 TO 1.

construction.1) The primary loads for concrete poles are weather and erection loads. a design of the structure should be performed by the owner’s engineer or structural designer. Load factors for extreme ice and extreme wind should be at least 1. accidents. the ASCE publication. Section 4. medium. B.5 Other Wood Pole Equivalencies Using the wood pole equivalency methods described.7 C-04. Weather. Design Loads (Section 4. and maintenance. It is recommended that a nonlinear structural analysis computer program be utilized to consider the . and heavy loading districts should be at least equal to those given in the applicable edition of NESC for Grade B construction. Once the design loadings have been determined. Load factors for NESC light. “Guidelines for Transmission Line Structure Loading” can be used to provide owners with procedures for the selection of design loads and load factors related to climate.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A page 5 TABLE A-3 WOOD POLE EQUIVALENCY BASED ON 1 TO 1 RATIO (1.0 C-08.0 C-09.1.2 C-03. In addition to using the NESC district loading requirements.0 C-10.9 C-04.5 C-05. the owner can develop equivalency tables for other ratios of wood versus concrete load factors. construction and maintenance loads need to be determined by the owner in order to select the proper standard class pole. Common handling loads are determined by the manufacturer and included in the manufacturer’s design.0 C-06.0 Equivalency Factor) (Ultimate-to-Ultimate Comparison) (Equivalencies based on approximate groundline strength) Design Wood Pole Class H6 H5 H4 H3 H2 H1 1 2 3 Select Concrete Pole Class C-12.

causing additional moments in the pole. The minimum pole tip strength required by this specification should be suitable for most transmission line applications. misunderstood or not considered by manufacturers and others who seek to standardize pole sizes based on the wood pole classification.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 6 loadings. A full nonlinear analysis will consider the change in orientation of the loads relative to the displaced positions of the structural members. The vertical load moves over as the pole deflects. These moments are not accounted for by applying the horizontal ultimate loading alone. an approximate method for determining the ultimate moment capacity should be utilized. As a minimum. However.2) This specification sets minimum ultimate moment capacity requirements near the pole tip for each standard pole classification. according to ANSI O5. and effects of foundation rotations and deflections. the owner must be sure that the tip strength is properly . a Class 1 wood pole must have a circumference of 27" at the tip. the pole weight can place significant secondary moment loads in the pole. it is critical that a minimum ultimate moment capacity be specified near the pole tip. However. As a minimum. have to be calculated for the position of equilibrium of forces in the fully displaced position. Consideration should be given for strength requirements at all points along the pole.1. including the effect of the pole weight. the minimum required wood pole tip size is specified apart from the horizontal loading requirement For example. The solution typically takes many iterations. an approximate method for determining the effect of the secondary moments should be utilized. the pole will deflect in the direction of the load. When applied to the Douglas Fir or Southern Yellow Pine poles with a fiber stress of 8. Many pole designs. Design Manual for High Voltage Transmission Lines. the owner’s engineer or structural designer may select a standard class concrete pole. Pole Tip Strength (Section 4.000 psi.1 requirement is generally overlooked. the owner should determine the effect of the secondary moments due to the vertical loadings. in the design of transmission poles.1 wood pole specification. secondary moments (p-delta effect). Upon a careful study of the ANSI 05. such as the methods given in RUS Bulletin 1724E-200. particularly tall poles. Because the conductors and shield wire supports are typically located on crossarms away from the pole axis. which has the ultimate moment capacity greater than the design loading requirements. The additional stress caused by this secondary moment is dependent on the magnitude of the vertical load and deflected shape of the pole. such as the method given in the RUS Bulletin 1724E-200. Also. Whenever there is a transverse or longitudinal load. during the transmission line design process. the resulting tip strength is calculated as 41.5 ft-kips for the Class 1 wood pole. not just at the groundline.1. The moments are greatly increased whenever a braced pole top assembly is utilized. a concrete pole tip strength can theoretically be negligible. The similar ANSI 05. As a result. significant moments can be generated in the pole near the tip. the vertical load is no longer in its original position. one should understand that the horizontal loading applied at 2' from the pole tip is for the purpose of determining a required groundline ultimate moment capacity for any length pole of the given class. In the absence of a minimum tip strength requirement. P-Delta Moment Prior to selecting a standard class concrete pole. Therefore. Once the structural analysis has been completed.

some allowances can be made for these effects. In a typical transmission line application. Maximum moment is calculated by the pole designer using the loadings provided by the owner and multiplying those loadings by the appropriate moment arms.1. This value seems to work quite well over a range of pole lengths and is approximately the same value as a point of fixity located at 1/3 of the distance below the groundline based on an embedment depth of 10% of the pole length + 2'. especially when working with wood pole equivalencies and braced structures. Otherwise. However.2) The tip loading is used to develop a required ultimate moment capacity diagram at any point along the pole from 2' below the pole tip down to the point-of-fixity. The reinforcing steel required at the point of fixity is required to continue to the pole butt. This ultimate moment capacity is determined by multiplying the tip load by the moment arm based on a simple cantilever. the actual deflection at the conductor under short term ultimate loading conditions can be expected to be less than 10% of the height above ground. For the standard class pole.1. This specification limits the allowable pole deflection to 15% of the pole height above the point of fixity when the tip load specified in Section 4. the actual horizontal loading will be some distance from the pole tip. The location of this point of fixity could be at or below the groundline. The exact location is theoretical and depends on the soil condition and backfill used to support the pole. Since the electrical clearances must be assured in the operation of transmission lines. This specification also limits the allowable pole deflection to 5% of the pole height above the .1. the ultimate moment capacity near the pole butt will be reduced. Typically. Within the scope of this standard class pole specification.2 is applied under a horizontal testing procedure under short term loading conditions. The owner should recognize that the actual pole deflection for an application will be less than the specified deflection limit of 15% of the pole height. the required pole strength could vary as the location of the point of fixity varies.3 and 4. all of the loading is applied near the pole tip.2) Point of fixity for this specification is defined as the location on the pole where maximum moment occurs. which is equal to 7% of the pole length. the point of fixity should remain at the same location on the pole. deflections must remain within an acceptable range. Long term loading will cause continued deflection due to the plastic deformation of the concrete. They should be considered during the analysis of the actual loading conditions applied to the concrete pole. regardless of the embedment depth the owner may specify for a given application. the point of fixity is arbitrarily considered to be located at a distance from the pole butt. This same method may be utilized in structural analysis and automated transmission line design computer programs to develop an array of ultimate moment requirements for standard concrete pole sizes.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A page 7 evaluated. Pole Deflection (Section 4. due to the loss of prestressing steel strength near the pole butt. Tip Loading (Section 4. The existing soil and backfill has to be able to support the pole with these bending moments applied. With the standard class pole. this type of analysis should be accomplished by nonlinear structural analysis techniques. Point of Fixity (Section 4.4) Although significant horizontal pole deflection limitations are considered to be beyond the scope of this standard class concrete pole specification. As a result.1.1. As such. the required ultimate moment diagram is linear in shape.

1. Under this standard class concrete pole specification. initial cracking occurs at about 40-55 percent of the ultimate strength of the pole. While the design of these structure types is generally outside the recommended scope of this specification. The NESC requires that electrical clearances be maintained under a wind loading of 6 psf. For typical concrete pole designs. Under this condition. In doing so. If the owner has special deflection limitations. Cracking Strength (Section 4.5) Cracking strength is defined as the point at which the concrete just begins to separate due to exceeding the tensile strength of the concrete on the tension face of the pole. it is not desirable to do so.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 8 point of fixity when 40% of the tip load specified in Section 4. It is important to avoid open cracks in situations of significant unbalanced lateral loading and in extremely corrosive environments in order to protect the steel reinforcing. By requiring the cracking strength to exceed 40% of the required ultimate strength. Prestressed Concrete Pole and Concrete Pole Structures. an applied moment will not cause any tensile stress in the concrete. the predominant pole loading will be transverse wind loads. the service load will be equal to the ultimate load divided by 2. the requirement for the cracking strength to be at least 40% of the required ultimate strength should not cause the pole to be stronger than when considering ultimate strength alone. but are considered to be 40% of the specified ultimate loads. As such. For situations where the owner wishes to know the deflection for a standard class pole. Guide Specification for Spun. . it is recommended that RUS Bulletin 1724E-206. these service loads are not specified. Typical structures with permanent unbalanced lateral loads are unguyed angle and unguyed deadend structures. there will be little doubt as to what the actual pole deflections will be under all loading conditions. it is desirable to avoid cracking under the unfactored NESC district loading conditions. To minimize the potential for corrosion of the reinforcing steel. this specification does require a minimum zero tension strength for all pole classes. the owner is assured of an adequate cracking strength for the standard class concrete pole. be utilized instead of this specification. The NESC load factor applied to district wind loads is 2. Another option would be to ask the pole manufacturer to provide the analysis. For concrete poles designed within the limits of this specification. Therefore. the owner should use a suitable structural analysis computer program in which the actual design loading conditions and concrete pole properties are input into the program.5. Zero Tension Strength (Section 4.1. This 40% loading approximates the unfactored NESC loading conditions as is discussed in the commentary on cracking strength.6) The zero tension strength is defined as the moment at which a crack that was previously created by exceeding the cracking moment strength will open again. The service load is determined based on the ratio of the transverse load factor.1. or 40% of the ultimate load. Since it may be theoretically possible to have a cracking strength at less than 40% of the ultimate strength. or any other service loads specified by the owner. It is expected that the deflection of a standard class pole under this 6 psf loading condition will be less than 3% of the height above ground.5.2 is applied under a horizontal testing procedure under long term loading conditions.

or other structural analysis program. there may be a reduction in induced moments in a pole under some types of longitudinal loads due to the restraining effect of the overhead ground wires. Traditionally. this specification requires the standard class concrete pole to have a zero tension strength exceeding 28% of the required ultimate strength. it is natural for all spun concrete poles to have a zero tension strength of at least 28% of ultimate. static longitudinal loads are specified due to the complexity of calculating the influence of structure flexibility.). Typically. Guy Wires It is generally beyond the scope of this standard class concrete pole specification to consider guy wires in the design of the structure. As such. such as unguyed or unbalanced lateral loadings. the owner may select a standard class concrete pole which has the ultimate moment capacity greater than the design loading requirements. For situations where the owner wishes to select a standard class pole based on a minimum zero tension strength. It is recommended that RUS Bulletin 1724E-206 be utilized instead. However. p-delta effect. (Refer to the Commentary regarding Zero Tension Strength. the design of the structure based on zero tension strength is emphasized. Thus. Longitudinal Loads It is recommended that RUS Bulletin 1724E-206 be utilized whenever the longitudinal loads may result in a significant unbalanced lateral loading condition. A typical situation where the owner may wish to do this is when the owner uses a transmission line design computer program in which zero tension strength values are input for each pole type. this type of analysis is accomplished by nonlinear structural analysis techniques. the zero tension strength can be as high as 50% of the ultimate strength.) Because concrete poles are flexible structures. The owner should recognize that the zero tension strength for most concrete poles is greater than the minimum required strength of 28% of the ultimate strength. in which minimum strength values are input for each pole type and the program is capable of combined bending and buckling analysis of guyed concrete poles. . some allowances can be made for these effects. They should be considered during the owner’s analysis of the actual loading conditions to apply to the concrete pole. etc. With a minimum cracking strength of 40% of ultimate. it is quite possible for the owner to obtain the concrete pole at a significantly lesser cost by submitting the actual loading conditions to the manufacturer using RUS Bulletin 1724E206. this specification may be utilized. In fact. Thus. In this case. for concrete pole applications which must be designed for the zero tension strength requirements. Once the structural analysis has been completed (including foundation rotations and deflections.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A page 9 It has been demonstrated that the zero tension strength will typically be 70% to 85% of the cracking strength. a typical situation where the owner may wish to use this specification for guyed poles is when the owner uses a transmission line design computer program. 70% of this value would be equal to 28% of ultimate. Foundation Rotation and Deflection Although significant foundation rotation and deflection criteria are considered to be beyond the scope of this standard class concrete pole specification.

name plate. the guy type. (2) hardware can be easily bonded and inspected. In this case. Ranges from 19. While the strength of the standard class pole is not effected by the groundline location. The concrete pole and guy wire(s) must be designed as a system. and spinning causes a large percentage of the entrained air to migrate out of the concrete. Once the wood pole class is determined. The owner should use caution in using this equivalency method and its usage should be prudently influenced by the owner’s experience in similar applications where actual design loadings were utilized under similar guying conditions. to a maximum value.5) and stamped on the pole name plate (see Section 4. the ultimate moment capacity at the groundline is to be noted on the manufacturer’s drawings (see Section 7. the spinning process creates a very dense concrete and counteracts the air entrainment effects. Any time a concrete pole structure is guyed. reduce bleeding and segregation. it is recommended that the 1:1 equivalency ratio be utilized. Grounding (Section 4.000 ksi be used by the engineer whenever it is not specified. The percentage of air entrained in a spun concrete pole after it is spun is unknown. (3) it can be easily repaired or replaced. The general effects of air entrainment are to increase workability. a standard class concrete pole could be selected based on an equivalency. the load in the guy wire should be limited to 65 percent of its ASTM rated breaking strength under actual ultimate loading conditions. ground wire clips. Groundline The location of the groundline for the standard class pole should be specified on the owner’s drawings. it is believed poles that have concrete containing an air entrainment agent will have a higher void ratio than those without this agent. modulus of elasticity and guy slope or angle has to be determined by the owner and properly modeled in the analysis of the concrete structure. the proper placement of climbing devices.2) Air entrainment in spun concrete poles is similar to air entrainment in normal concrete except the fabrication processes of pumping. the selected concrete pole class should be adequate for a situation in which a wood pole would normally be specified.2. decrease density (unit weight). and so forth.000 ksi have been stated. vibrating. As is required by RUS Bulletin 1724E-206. It is generally agreed that a concrete pole has a greater buckling strength than an equivalently classed wood pole. therefore. size. and (4) potentially offers the benefit of suffering less damage from lightning strike . Air Entrainment in Spun Concrete Poles (Section 4.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 10 It may also be possible to specify certain types of guyed concrete poles based on wood pole analysis techniques as detailed in RUS Bulletin 1724E-200. Since pumping occurs prior to the pole being spun. which results from periodic stretching and relaxing during the load cycles.5) The advantages of an external ground wire include the following: (1) it is visible and can be inspected. For a spun concrete pole.12. The owner has to be aware that as the percentage of air entrainment increases the concrete strength decreases. The guy modulus of elasticity can increase from a minimum value at the time of manufacture. depends upon the location of the groundline. vent hole.1). However. decrease strength. In addition. The ASCE steel pole specification (ASCE Manual 72) has suggested a guy wire modulus of elasticity of 23. the air entrainment effects are present during the fabrication of spun poles. and increase durability.000 ksi to 28. cant hole.

Section 5. There have been reports of step lugs and other materials embedded in the concrete. (3) considering the possibility of damage from lightning strike. . which has been designing and fabricating concrete poles with the same processes for a good number of years. If these specifications are alterred to allow internal ground wires. the need for testing of a concrete pole is questionable. then the following should be addressed adequately: (1) requiring grounding lugs at hardware attachments.4 Structure Testing An option is available in the specification for full scale testing of poles. and (4) considering grounding requirements for maintenance workers. Pole testing may be appropriate in cases where there are unusual requirements. This information may be supplied on the preliminary drawings from the Bidder. near or in contact with the reinforcing. C. Using the forms in Attachment C will allow quick review of the information and simultaneous comparison of all bidders' information. For a manufacturer. All internal reinforcing should be bonded electrically to the external pole ground wire. new fabrication techniques or when new suppliers are used to validate their design. D. (2) requiring grounding lugs at pole top and groundline (for external ground electrode). Section 7 Drawings and Information to be Supplied by the Manufacturer In order to properly evaluate bids. This will keep the external ground and internal reinforcing potential voltage differences lower during lightning events. This should lower potential voltage differences of embedded material between each pole section. external ground wires are preferred in this specification.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A page 11 (particularly in areas with high isokeraunic levels). For these reasons. Spliced poles should have reinforcing on each side of the splice bonded electrically to the external pole ground wire. the specification requires certain information to be supplied with the bid. being dislodged as a result of lightning.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix A Page 12 BLANK PAGE .

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix B Page 1 APPENDIX B EXAMPLES OF DRAWINGS (Attachment A of the Specification) .

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix B Page 2

Drawing TPC-115

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix B Page 3

Drawing TPFC-115

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix B Page 4

Drawing TM-C3

15. 2000 LEE'S LANDING. owner shall provide manufacturer. Climbing device desired by owner 2. FL LAYDOWN AREA NEAR PEJMAN SUBSTATION 4. orientations. sizes. connector. and strength capacities with this Attachment. Delivery schedule 3.B. Free on board destination (F. types. 1.O.) STEP BOLTS JAN. Additional requirements . and/or member locations.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix B Page 5 EXAMPLE OF APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Attachment B of the Specifications For appurtenance material supplied by the owner.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix B Page 6 BLANK PAGE .

Medium. or Heavy Loading District Loads Vertical Loads 1.500 lbs Design Span Information: Vertical Span Horizontal Span Line Angle 900 ft.65 Angle Longitudinal Loads 1.800 lbs Drake (795 26/7 ACSR) R.50 Transverse.5 ft Bottom arm 9.S = 31. Ft. Assume top of the pole has a 10 inch diameter. 750 ft. The above dimensions assume a 10.B.00 COND-3 21.25 COND-1 9.10 Extreme Wind Loads 1.5 ft Overall pole length is 80 feet. Wire Tension Load at Line 1.10 TUC-1 Conductor and OHGW Data: OHGW: 161 kV Conductor: 3/8”HSS R.50 Transverse.10 Extreme Ice with Concurrent Wind Loads 1. Wind Loads 2. and the groundline diameter is 20 inches.00 Crossarm Dimensions: Top arm 8. Line-assumed 70.S = 10.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix C Page 1 APPENDIX C DESIGN EXAMPLES Example 1: For the TUC-1 concrete pole structure and loading conditions given below.0 foot embedment depth for the concrete pole (using standard rule for wood poles of 10 percent pole length plus 2 feet).00 At Gd.00 Pole-End 80. OHGW 0. 0 degrees .5 ft Middle arm 9. Load Factors (LFs) used in this example: For NESC Light. determine the standard class concrete pole: General information: Line voltage: Design by: Structure type: 161 kV ACME Engineers TUC-1 Concrete Pole Structure (concrete pole with upswept arms) Geometry of the structure and location of loads: Distance from Pole Top.00 COND-2 15.B.

402 .1 LF applied) Loading Information (summary): NESC Medium Loading Data Drake –795 26/7 ACSR OHGW – 3/8 HSS Cond.5 61. Tension (kips) 7.e.2 203.215 . 1.7154 1.402 .4532 Calculate forces and moments at the groundline: (assumes no pole rotation) • NESC Medium District Loading Load Due to Wind on Wire kips .00 55. Tension (kips) 6.5360 .00 0.005 1.1 LF applied) 30 mph with 1 inch ice load (1. i./ft.23 Extreme Wind with Concurrent Ice (30 mph wind and 1” ice) Transverse Cond./ft.91 2.6210 Vertical lb.9 OHGW COND-1 COND-2 COND-3 Groundline Total Shear Loads for Wire Loads 3.5967 OHGW – 3/8 HSS 5.538 1./ft.5 -279.15x203./ft.5162 .9 30./ft. Tension (kips) lb. kips @ Groundline 37.4 ft kips) Total Transverse Shear @ Groundline 4. 1.005 1. . 1.9390 .4626 Vertical lb.4 27.54 .00 49.56 Transverse lb. based on 15 percent of the static moment from wire loads.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix C Page 2 Load Cases: Load Case A: Load Case B: Load Case C: NESC Medium District Loads 90 mph Extreme Wind Load (1. M=.9642 Extreme Wind Loading Data (90 mph) Drake –795 26/7 ACSR OHGW – 3/8 HSS Cond.57 Wind on the Pole 0.2730 Vertical lb.005 Moment Arm Feet 69.54 1.75 61.27 .88 Moments due to unbalanced vertical Wire Load (8.2 18.2867 Transverse lb.5 ft arm or 9 ft from conductor attachment to center of pole) Moment due to deflection for weight of pole and for wires (p-delta moment) Approximated.45 Total Moments @ Groundline -- .3 49.402 Load Due to Line Angle (kips) 0 0 0 0 Total Transverse Load W/LF (kips) . 3.3 55.0940 .0 Ultimate Moments Ft. Drake –795 26/7 ACSR 12./ft.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix C Page 3 TOTAL GROUNDLINE MOMENT FOR MEDIUM LOADING DISTRICT = 279. Design Manual for High Voltage Transmission Lines.0’ = 68' Load 2’ from the top to cause a 332 ft. When using span factors and height adjustment factors. Discussion: Based on the results above.= 165.-kip moment at groundline: = 417 ft-kips/68’ = 6140 lbs. Determine which “standardized” concrete pole design to use: Distance 2’ from top to groundline = 70’ – 2. “Design Guide: Embedment Depths for Concrete and Steel Poles”. The results from manual calculations and the computer analysis using finite elements are close. ft kip moment (non linear analysis and span and height adjustment factors) = 4930 lbs Based on the above calculated tip load and from Table 1 of the specification. From the summary below.-kips • Extreme Wind Load and Extreme Ice with Concurrent Wind Load Similar calculations are performed for the extreme wind load and extreme ice with concurrent wind loads: TOTAL GROUND LINE MOMENT FOR THE EXTREME WIND LOAD = 418 ft-kips TOTAL GROUNDLINE MOMENTS FOR EXTREME ICE WITH CONCURRENT WIND LOADS……………………………………………. the use of span factors and height adjustment factors will impact the design reactions.5 pole Perform a quick check to verify the assumed embedment depth using RUS Bulletin 1724E-205. use a C-06.9 ft. Based on the above calculated tip load and from Table 1 of the specification. Results from a computer program which uses finite element analysis are summarized in the table below. the major difference occurring with the estimate of secondary moments in the manual calculations. Also. use a C-05. the selected ‘standardized’ concrete pole would be: Load 2 ft from the top to cause a 334. several conclusions can be made.7 pole .ft-kips • Conclusions: The Extreme Wind Loading Case controls design. The results compare manual linear calculations with an estimate of secondary moments to the results from a computer program which performs a nonlinear analysis. The NESC allows the use of span factors and height adjustment factors when considering extreme wind loads (refer to RUS Bulletin 1724E-200. the extreme wind load case controls the design. Chapter 11).

The existing damaged poles are 80 ft class 1 wood poles with the TUS pole top assembly. NESC heavy district loads with an strength factor of . the unit load is 1.9 would have been selected as the replacement pole. the standard size class concrete pole will be reduced by one class.7567 lbs/ft with a 2.1 LF and for the NESC heavy district load. indicates that the extreme wind load will control the design of the concrete pole. Example 2: An existing 161 kV single pole line is composed of Douglas Fir wood poles. 334 N.5 may be used. Load Case A NESC Medium Loading Load Case B Extreme Wind Load Load Case C Extreme Ice with Concurrent Wind In this example. Table A-2 indicates that for a class 1 wood pole. This example.7 psf (90 mph). a quick comparison of the unit loads for the extreme wind and the NESC heavy district load with load factors and strength factors for concrete.5 controlled the design of the original wood pole line. If the engineer had assumed that the NESC heavy district load controlled design of the concrete pole replacement since it controlled the design of the wood pole when initially installed. There may be other issues in matching classes of wood poles to concrete poles that the engineer may need to consider. . shows the importance of determining the loading condition that controls the design of the concrete pole. Note 1: Unit loads for extreme wind is 1.5 LF. or 2. The conductor is 795 ACSR Drake and the overhead groundwire is 3/8" HSS. However.A. if span factors and height adjustment factors are applied in calculating the unit loads.A. the engineer may use Table A-2 for convenience.65 and a load factor of 2. concrete poles are to replace wood pecker damaged wood poles.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix C Page 4 Load Case Groundline Moments based on manual calculations with an estimate of the secondary moments (15% of static moment) 279 417 163 Groundline Moments based on a nonlinear analysis 276 401 176 Groundline Moments based on a nonlinear analysis and using span and height adjustment factors N. a C03. The line is located in the heavy loading district.102 with a 1. Extreme wind design load is 20. In several locations. Determine which standard size concrete pole should be used to replace the wood pole. then Table A-1 would have been mistakenly used and a S02.1 Because the extreme wind case controls design of the concrete replacement pole.9113 lbs/ft. however.

Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix D page 1 APPENDIX D SELECTED SI METRIC CONVERSIONS .

To meter meter meter meter (m) (m) (m) (m) Multiply By 3.589988 by E-10 E-04 E-02 E-04 E+06 E+06 FORCE To Convert From kilogram force (kgf) kip pound force (lbf) To Newton (N) Newton (N) Newton (N) FORCE PER LENGTH To Convert From To Multiply By kilogram force per meter (kgf/m) Newton per meter (N/m) *9.000 2.609344 E+03 Multiply By 2.000 *9.767990 1.459390 E+01 DENSITY To Convert From pound per cubic inch (lb/in3) pound per cubic foot (lb/ft3) To kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) LENGTH To Convert From foot (ft) inch (in) kilometer (km) mile (mi) *Exact Conversion.448222 E+03 4.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix D page 2 APPENDIX D SELECTED SI-METRIC CONVERSIONS AREA To Convert From circular mil (cmil) square centimeter (cm2) square foot (ft2) square inch (in2) square kilometer (km2) square mile (mi2) To square square square square square square meter meter meter meter meter meter (m2) (m2) (m2) (m2) (m2) (m2) Multiply 5.44822 .601846 E+04 E+01 Multiply by *9.806650 pound per foot(lb/ft) Newton per meter (N/m) 1.806650 4.000 E+03 *1.290304 *6.451600 *1.540 E-02 *1.067075 *1.048 E-01 *2.

030696 4.000 4. LOAD CONCENTRATION To Convert From pound per square inch (lb/in2) pound per square foot (lb/ft2) ton per square foot (ton/ft2) To kilograms per square meter (kg/m2) kilograms per square meter (kg/m2) kilograms per square meter (kg/m2) PRESSURE To Convert From kip per square inch (kip/in2) kip per square foot (kip/ft2) Newton per square meter (N/m2) pound per square foot (lb/ft2) pound per square inch (lb/in2) To Pascal (Pa) Pascal (Pa) Pascal (Pa) Pascal (Pa) Pascal (Pa) BENDING MOMENT To Convert From kilogram force meter (kgf-m) kip-foot (kip-ft) pound-foot (lb-ft) To Newton meter (N-m) Newton meter (N-m) Newton meter (N-m) VELOCITY To Convert From foot per second(ft/s)meter kilometer per hour (km/h) meter mile per hour(mi/h) meter meter per hour(m/h) meter *Exact Conversion.370300 2.788026 *1.894757 E+01 E+03 E+06 E+04 Multiply By 7. Cont.355818 1.788026 9.777778 4.894757 4.788026 6.777778 E-01 E-01 E-04 Multiply By *9.048 E-01 2.355818 E+02 Multiply By 6.806650 1. To per second (m/s) per second (m/s) per second (m/s) per second (m/s) Multiply By *3.Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix D page 3 Selected SI-Metric Conversions.071847 E+02 E+02 .

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Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix D page 5 .

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Bulletin 1724E-216 Appendix E page 1 .