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CADD (Computer Aided Design & Drafting) Computer-aided design (CAD), also known as computer-aided design and

drafting (C ADD) is the use of computer systems to assist in the creation, modification, ana lysis, or optimization of a design. CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer, improve the q uality of design, improve communications through documentation, and to create a database for manufacturing.[4] CAD output is often in the form of electronic fil esfor print or machining operations. CAD software uses either vector based graph ics to depict the objects of traditional drafting, HISTORY Designers have long used computers for their calculations. Initial developments were carried out in the 1960s within the aircraft and automotive industries in the area of 3D surface construction and NC programming, most of it independent o f one another and often not publicly published until much later. Some of the mat hematical description work on curves was developed in the early 1940s by Robert Issac Newton from Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Robert A. Heinlein in his 1957 novel The Door into Summer suggested the possibility of a robotic Drafting Dan. Howeve r, probably the most important work on polynomial curves and sculptured surface was done by Pierre Bézier (Renault), Paul de Casteljau (Citroen), Steven Anson Coo ns (MIT, Ford), James Ferguson (Boeing), Carl de Boor (GM), Birkhoff (GM) and Ga ribedian (GM) in the 1960s and W. Gordon (GM) and R. Riesenfeld in the 1970s. It is argued that a turning point was the development of the SKETCHPAD system at MIT in 1963 by Ivan Sutherland (who later created a graphics technology company with Dr. David Evans). The distinctive feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to interact with his computer graphically: the design can be fed i nto the computer by drawing on a CRT monitor with a light pen. Effectively, it w as a prototype of graphical user interface, an indispensable feature of modern C AD. The first commercial applications of CAD were in large companies in the automoti ve and aerospace industries, as well as in electronics. Only large corporations could afford the computers capable of performing the calculations. Notable compa ny projects were at GM (Dr. Patrick J.Hanratty) with DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computer) 1964; Lockheed projects; Bell GRAPHIC 1 and at Renault (Bézier) – UNISURF 1971 car body design and tooling. One of the most influential events in the development of CAD was the founding of MCS (Manufacturing and Consulting Services Inc.) in 1971 by Dr. P. J. Hanratty, [14] who wrote the system ADAM (Automated Drafting And Machining) but more impor tantly supplied code to companies such as McDonnell Douglas (Unigraphics), Compu tervision (CADDS), Calma, Gerber, Autotrol and Control Data. As computers became more affordable, the application areas have gradually expand ed. The development of CAD software for personal desktop computers was the impet us for almost universal application in all areas of construction. Other key points in the 1960s and 1970s would be the foundation of CAD systems U nited Computing, Intergraph, IBM, Intergraph IGDS in 1974 (which led to Bentley Systems MicroStation in 1984) CAD implementations have evolved dramatically since then. Initially, with 3D in the 1970s, it was typically limited to producing drawings similar to hand-drafte d drawings. Advances in programming and computer hardware, notably solid modelin g in the 1980s, have allowed more versatile applications of computers in design activities. Key products for 1981 were the solid modelling packages -Romulus (ShapeData) and Uni-Solid (Unigraphics) based on PADL-2 and the release of the surface modeler CATIA (Dassault Systemes). Autodesk was founded 1982 by John Walker, which led t o the 2D system AutoCAD. The next milestone was the release of Pro/ENGINEER in 1 988, which heralded greater usage of feature-based modeling methods and parametr ic linking of the parameters of features. Also of importance to the development of CAD was the development of the B-rep solid modeling kernels (engines for mani pulating geometrically and topologically consistent 3D objects) Parasolid (Shape Data) and ACIS (Spatial Technology Inc.) at the end of the 1980s and beginning o f the 1990s, both inspired by the work of Ian Braid. This led to the release of

and tolerances. includ ing automotive. prosthetics. advertising and technical manuals. and aerospace industries. such as ma terials. CAD is also widely used to produce comp uter animation for special effects in movies. and many more. CAD often involves more than just shapes. CAD has been a major driving force for research in computational geometry. and to create a database for manufacturing. according to application-specifi c conventions. dimensions. Solid Edge (then Intergraph) in 1 996 and Autodesk Inventor in 1999. suc h as: Computer-aided engineering (CAE) and Finite element analysis (FEA) Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) including instructions to Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machines Photo realistic rendering Document management and revision control using Product Data Management (PDM). The modern ubiquity and power of computers means that even perfume bottles and shampoo dispensers are designed using techniques unheard of by engineers of the 1960s. improve communications through documentation. which are either integrated modules or stand-alone products. improve the quality of design. CAD is an important industrial art extensively used in many applications. USE OF CADD CAD software is used to increase the productivity of the designer.mid-range packages such as SolidWorks in 1995. Because of its enormous economic importance. and discrete differential geometry. the output of CAD must convey information. and as such is used together wi th other tools. TYPES OF CADD SOFTWARE Here the some examples of CADD S0ftwares which are in usedCATIA(CAD/CAM/CAE) Pro/ENGINEER(CAD/CAM/CAE) SIEMENS NX(CAD/CAM/CAE) Solid Edge(CAD/CAE) Solid Works(CAD/CAE) Inventor (CAD/CAE) MASTERCAM (CAD/CAM) DELCAM (CAD/CAM) Edgecam (CAM) Work NC (CAM) Pro/Toolmaker (CAM) GibbsCAM (CAM) ANSYS(CAE) NX Nastran (CAE/FEA) SIMULIA (ABAQUS) CADian (CAD) ZwCAD (CAD) Turbo CAD (CAD) T-Flex (CAD/CAM) Visi CAD (CAD/CAM/CAE) AutoCAD (CAD) IRONCAD (CAD) METHODS OF USING IN CADD 2D Drafting . computer graphics (both hardware and software). As in the manual drafting of technical and engineering drawings. processes. shipbuilding. CAD is one part of the whole Digital Product Development (DPD) activity within t he Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) processes. industrial and architect ural design.

________________________________________ 3D Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) Solid Modeling Programs that are capable of solid modeling can be much more powerful than simpl e wireframe modelers. The ch oices made developing these models are very important. the model. This is partly due to the translation difficulties entailed with wireframe and surface models when trying to incorpora te models in analysis or manufacturing software. The computer can calculate many physical properties of these parts. especially for industrial design. Most advanced modelers utilize surfacing for creating free-form surfaces (surfaces that simultaneously curve in 3 directions). Each of these methods has its limitations. through a sewing operation. for which manual calculat ions would be extremely difficult. splines.) and Boolean operations (unions. the f eature operation moves along with it. ________________________________________ 3D Feature-based Solid Modeling Featured-based modeling is quickly becoming the preferred modeling method of mec hanical engineers everywhere. and if given a density can have a weight and mass as well. and create a solid model by extruding. sph eres. Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) uses solid primitives (rectangular prisms. keeping the original relationships. They should provide: a complete library of geometric ent ities. cones. such as center of gravity and moments of inertia. subtractions. they may not end up in the correct place if the model is reg . revolving or skinning these profiles. If there is a change in the design. and parts which are v ery difficult to create using just one or the other method can be created much m ore easily using a combination of both methods. to create the body of an aerodynamic vehicle such as an airplane. support for Bezier curves. for example. This can be used. bosses. will have to be reconstructed. most commercial s olid modeling systems are hybrids using both CSG and Brep methods. The Boolean opera tions can also be used on the profiles themselves and the solids generated from these profiles. When the edges or faces move because of regeneration. inte rsections) to create the solid model. Feature-based modelers allow operations such as cr eating holes. These calculatio ns can even be performed for irregularly shaped parts. Thus. ________________________________________ 3D Boundary Representation (Brep) Solid Modeling Brep methods start with one or more wireframe profiles. These programs are used to build parts that are actually s olid objects instead of simply a wireframe outline of the part. fillets. perform hatching within complex boundaries and perform associ ative hatching and provide complete dimensioning ability. etc. Since these part s are represented as solids. cylinders. chamfers. ________________________________________ 3D Wireframe/Surface Modeling 3D wireframe and surface modeling are beginning to fall out of favor with the in troduction of inexpensive solid modelers. If the features aren't re ferenced correctly. Each of these methods has its limitations. the ability to define hatching patterns. they have volume. sweeping. Finite Element Analysis techniques can also b e used to perform stress analyses of these parts. Solids can also be created by combining surfaces. Bill of materials gene ration is a nice added feature for any CAD package. and parts wh ich are very difficult to create using just one or the other method can be creat ed much more easily using a combination of both methods. in most cases. with its careful ly designed wing profiles. which often ha ve complex shapes. and polylines. The main drawback to this type of modeling is the lack of editing or re-dimensioning capabilities.In Mechanical Design. Most commercial solid modeling systems are hybrids using both CSG and Brep metho ds. and pockets to be associated with speci fic edges and faces. ________________________________________ 3D Hybrid Solid Modeling CSG and Brep solid modeling methods can often be combined in order to create the desired parts. These two methods can often be combined in order to c reate the desired parts. there are a few specific options to look for when choosing a 2D drafting package.

When the model is regenera ted. or perpendicular.x_t) In my opinion. at vertices. or the radius of a fillet. using the new parameters. TYPES OF CADD FILES 3D Solid Model Files SolidWorks Part (. This is part of the work product that I send to the client on conclusi on of a project. Parametric modeling is most efficient working with designs which only undergo di mensional changes rather than gross geometric ones such as removal of a feature. width and height of a rectangular prism. Parametric modelers use a history-based method to keep a record of how the model was built. When the operator changes parameters in the model and regen erates the part. They can also be located at a distance or at the end of a vector from these points.sldasm) At LTS. Some parametric modelers also allow constraint equations to be added to the mode ls. for example. these relationships are maintained. a line or arc i n a wireframe. the program repeats the operations from the history. ________________________________________ 3D Feature-based. These can require that entities be. tangent. I do most of my CAD work in SolidWorks. Some systems will also allow geometric constraints between entities. This . it allows creation of features that are not fully dimensionally constrained. Parasolid ( . A supplier generally does not need the source file to manufacture parts. at the origin of curves. each entity. without focusing on the mod els' underlying history.sldprt. The . or a certain parameter depends on the values of several others. p arallel. for example. There are many uses for this type of mo deling including testing various sizes of parts to determine which the “best” part i s by simply adjusting the model parameters and regenerating the part. These can be used to construct relationships between parameters. These modelers allow other methods of relating entities as well. which is one of the most versati le and capable CAD programs. such as a Boolean primitive. Entities can be located. Dynamic Solid Modeling Dynamic Modeling uses flexible model creation and refinement concepts to allow d esigners to capture ideas and detail models quickly. such as the length. These parameters can be changed by the operator as necessary to create the desir ed part. this is the best way to ensure that these relationship s are always correct. Parametric Solid Modeling In a parametric model. .sldasm is a SolidWorks assembly file. and is fully editable in Sol idWorks. The y also control the locations of these entities within the model.enerated. Basically. because it contains all of the important IP of the design. A feature that is located at an X and Y offset from a corner of the fa ce instead of at the center of the face will not remain at the center of the fac e when the model is regenerated unless constraints are added to the model that w ill change the X and Y offsets to keep the feature at the center of the face. It is generally NOT recommended to send the .sldprt is the raw source file that SolidWork s creates. or at the midpoints of lines and faces. has parameters associated with it. at the end of lines or arcs. the parasolid file is the best Solid Model file type to send to a . or a filleting operation. It contains all of the feature history. Thes e parameters control the various geometric properties of the entity. If several parameters always require the same value. ________________________________________ 3D Feature-based.sldprt file to a supplier. to create the new solid.

Think of it as the “TXT” of CAD files. This means that you can't open the file and ‘edit' features. and the package itself is revis . Most CAD software can open and ‘view' a STL. an STL file is useless for everything except making a Rapid Prototype. etc.sldasm. t hat can be further manipulated…but this usually generates read errors for all but the simplest geometry. but contain all of the 3D geometry.easm. ________________________________________ 2D Drawing Files SolidWorks Drawing (.pdf) If you own a computer. Further. I only send th ese files to the client at the end of a project. It is also the typical output file of a 3D laser scanner. if there is a spe cific need. It is technically a ‘faceted surface body'. The program will read many different kinds of CAD files including the eDrawings spec ific files. For instance. I insist on making combined ‘Print Packages' that have the entire product prints in a single document.slddrw. It can be found here. Essentially. you can rotate the model on your screen.sldprt/. used by various CAD software. Others ( . . Realistical ly. With the eDrawings viewer. chan ge fillet radii. as well as p erform many other useful productivity tasks. dimensions and tolerances. and create new features. At LTS.eprt. which I high ly recommend to my clients to download and install. read it into your CAD software. This is not the same as an actual surfa ce body. r evision controlled document that contains all of the critical information necess ary to make a part. such as cuts or bosses that me rge with the existing body. SolidW orks does have some basic abilities to ‘mesh' a STL into surface and solid bodies. you can't even select edges or points to take measurements!…(because t here aren't any edges and points.slddrw) When an engineering drawing is made in SolidWorks. ie. and for that reason I tend not to use them when working with clients and suppliers. . you can take a base parasolid file. I convert all engineering drawings to PDF format when sending them to the client for revie w. . . You can however. It contains all of the geometric data. but in my experience this is often unnecessary. Adobe Acrobat (. it is nothing more than a printable. this is the file to send them. They are generally smaller fil e size than the source file. heat treat. including material. The engineering drawing has many names. the source file is a . I like to send eDrawings files to my clients throughout a project so that they can review the design and provide c ritical feedback. but very little else can be done with it.dwg. eDrawings (. However. and I never send them to a supp lier.stl) The STL file is most commonly used by Rapid Prototype (3D printing) suppliers. but is stripped of all f eature history. For the same reasons. a nd other part specific technical information. It is referred to as a ‘dumb' solid. Think of it as the ‘PDF' of CAD files. at least as they relate to 3D geometry). Stereolithography ( . or to suppliers. It is universally accepted by al l CAD software. which basically means this file is compo sed of a series of points in space that form triangular facets that generate the approximate outside surface of a part.supplier. similar to the generated . non-editable.prt) There are many other file types. and is sometimes referred to as a ‘manufacturing drawing'. ‘schematic'. furthe r modify a parasolid.STEP. These tend not t o be universally accessible by all CAD software. For instance.IGES. SolidWorks can create and work with all of the major CAD files.edrw) eDrawings is a free CAD file viewing program offered by SolidWorks. you probably know what a PDF file is. or ‘print'¼or even ‘blue print' (which is very much th ng term to use these days). If your supplier is going to machine a part with CA D/CAM software based on your CAD model. .

Still. It is my preferred format for sending 2D geometry data to suppliers that will use it to program certain CNC manufacturing processes. Virtual prototype s are reality in high tech environments.). Similar standardization eff orts for 3D and CAD related formats are represented by X3D.ion controlled.dxf) The DXF file was 1st introduced with AutoCAD as a 2D drawing file format. Companies and developers will start to implement X3D import/export as default wa y for data exchange. and weak. There are general purp . but in my experience it has more compatibility issues with certain CAD software. This way. In the fu ture.a fully immersive 3D environment where modelling tools include special gloves and goggles. Up to now. and mouse. Developers of industrial CAD will increasingly integrate 3D modeli ng with analysis tools like FEM. In some cases prototyping and tests will be skipped altogether. there is less confusion for the supplier as to what r evision is most current for a given part…they can simply be referred to the curren t revision print package. such as laser cutting. Full virtual prototypes Increasingly 3D models are defined with physical properties. This continues. 3D models created in CAD could be immediately presen ted in web browsers that will be able to display 3D models (and to zoom. and stamping. In future this principle will sp read even to low end 3D applications. and will become more precise on high end o nes. CAD format standardization based on XML CAD formats will follow development in Office applications. they will behave as in reality. and most designers prefer using a keyboard. stylus..dwg) The DWG file is similar in use to the DXF file. CAD specialization CAD systems will continue in the trend of specialization. Drawing (. CAM. It is also quite common that receive DWG files produced by other programs (mainly AutoCAD) for the purpose of re-mak ing the parts in SolidWorks. rotate . The following speculations are separated into strong probability of adoption. today. kinematics or flow simulations.. Gap between 3D model and real objects will further narrow. so I prefer to not create DWG a s output formats for sending to suppliers. the more likely course is that the future changes will evolve in ways we do not see now. 3D models will look realistically an d what is even more important. ADVANCE TECNOLOGIES OF CADD The past of CAD has been full of unmet expectations. Drawing Interchange Format (. 3D goggles cause nausea.. designing will be closer to sculpting than painting. immersive technologies are expensive and com plex. especially material and optical. Some antici pate 3D modelling without flat screens or mouse pointers -. me dium. While some of these optimistic predictions may come true. water jet cutting. plasma cu tting.. some t rends seem more likely to succeed and be widely adopted than others. This will enhance interoperability between CAD and related applications like CAE. where XML based ODF (Open Document Format) format is becomming standard.

This will b ring high definition. Dynamic Physical Rendering DPR . where 3D protein complex structures are based on only 20 bui . electronic circuits and a ntennas. more realistic scenes to CAD. Improvement s of hardware like 3D printers. It will be based on some eng ine. Examples of specialized CADs goes from Or CAD. GP technique will be used for design of complex products which consists of many parts. However general purpose CADs will not disappear. probably Open CASCADE.Dynamic Physical Rendering is collaborative research project between Carne gie Mellon University and Intel. In the future we will see more task oriented and highly specializ ed CADs.ose CADs. GP has bee n successfully used for development computer programs. so after modeling and drawing comes programming CNC machines to ma ke designed models as solid objects. yet they will be easi er to use. MS Office and Open-Office. Instead of 2D representations of 3D objects there will be real 3 D models build in bottom-up manner. kinematics and simulations). there are some open source CADs like BRL-CAD. This project will evolve into new representatio n of 3D models. they will have more fu nctions (integrated analysis. Yes. CAE and visualization progra ms running on affordable computers. textile. but these are not widely adopted and used in industry. This concept is also known as Claytronics. Development of open source CAD Many commercial and proprietary programs have their strong open source alternati ves. It's also use full as special software for transfering CAD's files (as PRO-E. Allplan for architects or ArtCAM for j ewelry design. But there is no viable strong open source competitor to commercial CA D systems like AutoCAD or SolidWorks. Later will come new manufacturing processes similar to protein cr eation in ribosome. used by electronic design engineers. There is Windows and Linux. Other probable scenario is that CAD company will sta rt open source project to boost its more profitable products based on same engin e (for example CAM or CAE). Many versatile little building blocks will f orm larger objects like car model according to computer program. SolidWorks ) to CNC machines. CAD based on genetic programming Genetic programming (GP) is machine learning technique that uses an evolutionary algorithm to optimize a population of designs according to a fitness landscape determined by a design ability to perform a given computational task. marketing and business processes. ceramics or metal. that can be enhanced for specific purpose and specialized CADs build u pon generic engines like Open CASCADE. Small scale and rapid manufacturing Development of hardware and software for both rapid prototyping and rapid manufa cturing will change manufacturing. For example one second of high resolution movie scene takes one day and many computers. Time needed for delivering product to market will be further decreased. Real time ray tracing Real time ray tracing is a resource intensive process. Oracle and Firebird and so on. New hardware espe cially GPUs with parallelized 3D model processing. In future there will appear strong open source CAD. and software based on new alg orithms can increase the speed by more than two orders of magnitude. Products will be bought in the form of lic ense. 3D model will be downloaded from Internet and manufactured on hardware con nected to computer in local store or even at home. laser and metal sintering will enable to produce complex parts effectively even in small series and from various materials like plastics. improve and speed up design of hydraulics and fluid control sy stems or MEMS. CAD packages will incorporate GP methods to ease. but limited in number of types.

Computer program will serve like DNA. CADD is a “LIFE-LINE” of modern engineering & without help of CADD so ftwares we can't imagine our future inventions. . manufacturing hardware will serve as ribosome and one machine will be able to manufacture wide range of different products. So to read this small description I hope that it is increase our knowledge about CADD & make us understand that ho w it's important for field of modern & future engineering. FINAL COMMENTS So these are some information which tells about the History. Present & the futur e of the CADD.lding blocks (amino acids).