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Understanding Fuel Economy and NVH trade-offs with Effective Use of Rotating Machinery Analysis

LMS International

Peter Schaldenbrand, LMS North America 2008 Testing Expo

Outline Engine design challenges and NVH trends The NVH testing process Advanced NVH engine analysis techniques: Order tracking Crank angle analysis Torsional vibration analysis Conclusion 2 copyright LMS International .2005 .

2005 .Engine Development Challenges Emissions and Power are priority design drivers Cost High fuel efficiency / power Better combustion Lower size/weight Improve durability Structural integrity Compliance to legislation Exhaust emissions Noise legislation Comfort NVH Drivability Emissions Engine Design Polygon Durability Is expected to be designed for infinite life Power Noise & Vibration Drivability Are differentiators (and market entry requirements for low end engines) Investments driven by Emissions and Fuel Consumption 3 copyright LMS International .

NVH Calibration …while meeting emissions and fuel consumption targets Noise: Certification to PBN Sound quality Vibrations Relate to mechanical phenomena • Piston dynamics • Valve dynamics • Torsional vibrations Relate to Combustion process • Combustion profile • Misfire Durability testing Endurance test of components Infinite life check Simultaneously taking into account: Controls and ECU strategies Transmission and drivability objectives Core engine fuel consumption.2005 Noise Vibrations Durability Core engine Specificaitions Electronics Transmission . performance and emisions objectives 4 copyright LMS International .

2005 .NVH basic model Receiver = Transmission x Sources Test Process Flow Receiver Operational Performance ▪ Noise ▪ Vibration ▪ Stress ▪ Fatigue = Transmission Structural Properties x Sources Operating Loads ▪ Forces ▪ Moments ▪ Modal characterisitcs ▪ Intertia/Mass ▪ Fluid (Air) Properties Noise = Structural Modes x Combustion Mechanical dyn. Fluids flow Unbalance… 5 copyright LMS International .

Powertrain NVH Mechanical & combustion noise. structure & air-borne 2nd order excitation level & linearity Air Borne Accel SPL dB/dB spectrum shape Transmission Loss dB SPL SPL Accel discrete frequencies SPL discrete frequencies Structure Borne Σ 2nd order excitation transfer function spectrum shape Accel Accel harmonic pattern mount characteristics Dynamic stiffness chassis dynamics Body Noise TF dB/N harmonic pattern Isolation Transfer Excitation Vehicle Interior Noise 6 copyright LMS International .2005 .

Engine Testing Process Methodology Phase 1: Benchmark current status Harmonic analysis – ODS Psycho-acoustics – Source localisation Phase 2: Engineering cycle .Diagnosis Contribution of sources to receiver Structural characteristics Mechanical dynamics Combustion analysis Phase 3: Engineering cycle – Evaluation of alternatives Evaluate contributions (sources and paths) Evaluate structural modifications Evaluate mechanical changes Evaluate combustion changes Phase 4: Validation of design modification Same tools as in phase 1 7 copyright LMS International .2005 .

0 0 2 0 .3 e .5 4 6 18 326e-6 Tacho1 (T1) Amplitude rpm 1 8 0 0 .Fast identification of harmful noise & vibrations Order tracking Traditional approach – gives good overview of NVH issues No need for high pulse per revolution tacho signal Identify normal and abnormal engine vibrations in different operating conditions Differentiate between Orders and Resonances A u t o Po w e r C y lin d e r s :1 : .0 0 0 .2 8 9 1 .2005 g .Y W F 1 1 0 [ 1 8 0 0 .9 .Y ( C H 8 ) 1334 1 5 0 0 .0 0 3 7 . 3 r p m ] 2 9 0 0 .9 8 copyright LMS International .0 0 Hz C y lin d e r s :1 : .

21 A L / -50.25 Octave 1/3 Hz 22387.00 Combustion pressure profile g dB dB 141.00 0.00 Relate measurements to crank angle 9 copyright LMS International .00 -50.2005 g .Crank-angle analysis . IMEP) Immediate estimation on sound characteristics based on combustion pressure and structural characteristics Combustion P 1/3 Octave content Engine/ear transfer function Driver ear noise 0.Relating to root-causes Combustion N&V Analyse combustion-stability Engine knock Non-or irregular ignition Synchronised measurement of ECU parameters Cross-check modification impacts on combustion performance (P-V.

Crank-angle analysis . ticking. Valve dynamics Torsional vibrations Requirements Angle domain 1-720 pulses per rev Relate measurements to crank angle 10 copyright LMS International .Relating to root-causes Mechanical N&V Investigate irregular impacts and timing Piston slap.2005 . croak.

diesel like hollow sound Freq range: 1.2.5 .5 kHz Croaking Speed range: 1000-2200 rpm Angle range: 0 – 30 degrees Load range: 10-50% Sound: Dull.Example of piston mechanical noise Rattling Speed range: 2500-3500 rpm Angle range: -2 to 3 degrees Load range: 20-40% Sound: clear metallic pattering Freq range: 2.5 kHz 11 copyright LMS International .2005 .2 .

Parallel frequency and angle domain analysis Gated processing Wavelet or Short time Fourier transform Relating angle position events to frequency content Cylinder to cylinder comparison Cycle to cycle comparison Gate 1: After TDC 12 copyright LMS International .2005 Gate 2: Before spark Tracked evolution of maximum and angle of max versus RPM .

theoretical & float vs. time or crank angle float (measured vs. angle) angular position for dynamic valve open angular position for dynamic valve close pre-lift loss apparent pre-lift loss kinematic closing lift total lift loss valve seating velocity 13 copyright LMS International . theoretical & bounce vs. 720 ppr) Motored operation Track design target metrics: valve opening duration valve lift. and strain High speed encoder (e. angle) bounce (measured vs. Mics.g. acceleration vs.2005 . velocity.Valve dynamics Use laser vibrometer or induction probes for displacement Accelerometers.

acceleration (between 2 shafts) Gears: Visualisation of angular looseness / clearance between gears Gear flank testing/certification Transmission error % calculation Torsional vibrations if not managed can lead to higher fuel consumption and decreases in performance as well as rattle & whine NVH problems 14 copyright LMS International .Torsional vibrations Belts & pulleys analysis. velocity. acceleration shaft angular displacement. velocity. Gear train rattle & whine. velocity. acceleration shaft relative angular displacement. Transmission error Multiple tacho channels Online torsional vibration calculation Online calculations: belt slip % stretch transmission error belt/chain linear displacement.2005 .

Predictive analysis of Engine/Driveline Torsional Vibration Model and Verification Torsional vibration in driveline with automatic gearbox will create increased fuel consumption and lower comfort Full engine/driveline was modeled for predictive analysis using MBS Verification measurements were done to validate approach 15 copyright LMS International .2005 .

Predictive analysis of Engine/Driveline Torsional Vibration Verification Measurements • • • 4 microphone signals 120 acceleration signals 9 torsional vibration signals Campbell torsional vibration pulley 3rd order torsional vibration at flywheel measured vs. predicted 16 copyright LMS International .2005 .

2005 Noise Vibrations Durability Core engine Transmission Electronics .Conclusion Following the Green trend Systematic/ Efficient methodologies Multi-attribute Testing systems Engineering challenges Complex systems “Eco-friendly” market requirements are driving major engineering challenges Clean sheet redesign or improvement of existing platforms Increasing need for efficient multi-attribute testing Systematic engine testing with Advanced NVH analysis technology platforms like LMS Test. transmission dynamics 17 copyright LMS International . blets.Lab provide a means to accurately capture and understand the processes influencing fuel consumption as well as NVH Order tracking for overview picture Crank-angle analysis for multiple root-causes identification Torsional vibration measurement for gears.

Thank you Peter Schaldenbrand. LMS North America 2008 Testing Expo .