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Harvard Referencing Guide

Library Services 19.09.11

londonmet.ac.uk/library

Contents
Page What is referencing? What is Harvard referencing? Disclaimer Basics of Harvard referencing One author Two authors Three or more authors Corporate author or organisation as author No author Neither author nor title Two or more works of an author published in the same year Author citing another author No date Multiple sources Referencing different types of sources Books Edited books Book chapters Journal articles Journal articles from a database Open access journal articles Newspaper articles Newspaper articles from the internet Theses and dissertations Theses and dissertations from the internet Published conference papers Conference papers from the internet Unpublished conference papers or presentations Market research reports from a database Company or country profiles from a database Financial reports from a database
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Data obtained from Datastream or Bloomberg Web pages Blogs Forums: entire forum Forums: individual message or thread Emails and other personal communication Emails sent to a discussion list Lecture notes Tutors’ materials on WebLearn Images copied from print sources Images copied from online sources Television programmes Episodes from television programmes Films / movies Films on DVD Radio programmes Radio programmes heard on the internet 14 14 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 18 19 19 20 20 20 21 21 What is referencing? Referencing is the process of acknowledging your sources. newspapers. Failure to reference correctly. magazines. By referencing your sources you are demonstrating to your tutors the breadth of your research and reinforcing your own arguments. legislation. eg. works of art. may lead to accusations of plagiarism (using other people's ideas. lectures. or worse still. words and research as if they were your own). etc. 2 . websites. television and radio programmes. dramatic performances. Plagiarism is a serious offence at university and may lead to disciplinary action. Using a wide range of sources is excellent academic practice and is certainly not a sign of weakness! Referencing enables your tutors and anyone else reading your work to check your sources and follow up information for themselves. Sources include anything you take information from. not to reference at all. books. maps. journals.

this guide provides advice and seeks to offer a consistent approach to the system. eg. Where the author’s name appears in your essay. D. p. Kruger. In-text citation The author and date of publication appear in brackets immediately after the idea. For some. Political reform is needed (Kruger. 2009. 2007). Swetnam (2004. Tips You need to include the page number in your text when you quote directly from a source. you do not need to put the name in brackets. Luke (2008) highlights the importance of business to business pressure. Disclaimer There is no definitive version of the Harvard system of referencing. eg. p118). information or quote you are referencing. eg. Check with your tutor if you are unsure about any aspect of Harvard referencing for your work. A reference list This appears at the end of your assignment giving full publication details for all of the sources you used. eg. 2.95) has argued that consistency is of the utmost importance in referencing. London: Institute for the Study of Civil Society. You also need to include the page number if you re-write an author’s specific idea or sentence using your own words. Tips Your sources should be listed in alphabetical order by author name in your reference list.What is Harvard referencing? Harvard referencing consists of two parts: 1. eg. 3 . ‘going green’ is driven by the prospect of “pocketing substantial government subsidies” (Lawson. (2007) On fraternity: politics beyond liberty and equality.

D. p. Gerig. Basel: Birkhauser. 2008). pp. (2008) Creative industries Switzerland: facts. Three or more authors In-text citation example: Public subsidies awarded to the Swiss film industry are part of a strategy to increase the profile Swiss national film production within an international market (Weckerle et al.Basics of Harvard Referencing One author In-text citation example: From a survey of twenty-four American museums.303-320. M. 4 . ambiguities in the language pose a key challenge (HjortPedersen and Faber.315) observes that ‘almost all the marketing plans failed to emphasize the need to build relationships with the local community with an objective to benefit them’. (2001) Lexical ambiguity and legal translation: A discussion.. M. pp. and Sondermann. M. Chhabra (2009. Reference list example: Hjort-Pedersen. 20 (4). Reference list example: Weckerle.. models. and Faber. (2009) Proposing a sustainable marketing framework for heritage tourism. 2001). culture. 17 (3). Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Multilingua. D. Reference list example: Chhabra.379-392. C. Two authors In-text citation example: When translating legal texts.

You should carefully assess the credibility of any source which does not have an identifiable author. Corporate author or organisations as author In-text citation example: Meeting data protection requirements demands good practice in records management (Crown Prosecution Service. (this is Latin for “and others”) in the in-text citation.Tips For three or more authors. Reference list example: Crown Prosecution Service (2008) Data protection: legal guidance [Online]. No author Referencing newspaper articles where no author can be indentified: Title of newspaper (Year) Title of article. Available at: URL (Accessed date). Instead. Use the organisation as the author if there is not an individual author named – this is often referred to as a corporate author. In the reference list. 5 . use the title of the work (or URL if a website) and date in your in-text citation. day and month. Tips Sometimes an organisation or company is responsible for the work. 2008). Tips If the author/editor is anonymous or cannot be identified. list the first author’s surname followed by et al. do not use the term ‘anon’.uk/legal/d_to_g/data_protection/ (Accessed: 25 June 2009).gov. Referencing websites where no author or organisation can be indentified: Title (Year) [Online]. you must list all of the authors’ names.cps. Neither author nor title Referencing websites where no author or organisation or title can be indentified: URL (Year) [Online]. (Accessed date). Available at: http://www.

M. H. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. European Journal of Political Theory. Two or more works of an author published in the same year In-text citation example: Vighi and Feldner (2007a. Reference list example: McCarthy. pp. No date Tips If there is no publication date then use the term ‘no date’ instead of the year. you should only include these details in your reference list. 6 (2). 2003.1-22. (Smith. 6 . no date. F. 2007.141-159.2). Remember to think about the reliability or any undated information you use for your assignments. P.Tips If a resource has no identifiable author or title you should be cautious about using it for your academic work as you must be able to trust the credibility of all your sources. (2007b) Zizek: beyond Foucault. Vighi. If you have done so you should then cite and reference both works fully. find and read the cited work. Tips If you have only read the work that cites the original author. p. H. Journal of Food Products Marketing. and Feldner. (2007a) Ideology critique or discourse analysis? Zizek against Foucault. eg. Author citing another author In-text citation example: Children influence family purchases through ‘pester power’ (Evans and Toth. cited in McCarthy and McCarthy.52). and McCarthy. (2007) Parents’ perceptions of pork sausages as a meal solution. pp. and Feldner. Reference list example: Vighi. F. If possible. 13 (4). 2007b) examine Zizek’s critique of Foucault’s discourse analysis. p.

to clearly separate multiple sources in your in-text citation. 1998). if the book is the second edition. Tips Use the semi-colon . the publisher and the place of publication. 2004). Tips To find the date of publication. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher. 2009. 2009). Place of publication: Publisher. London: Wallflower. In-text citation example: Research shows that television has a huge impact on social behaviour in many parts of the world (Asamen and Berry. 7 . after the title in your reference list. Reference list example: McCabe. write 2nd ed.) (Year) Title of book. Sims.Multiple sources In-text citation example: Recent studies have discussed the concept of authenticity within the tourism industry (Chhabra. Referencing different types of sources Books Author (Year) Title of book. Condevaux. In-text citation example: The history of feminist film theory can be seen in the context of its relationship to the wider theoretical fields of post-structuralism and psychoanalysis (McCabe. You only need to mention the edition if it is not the first edition. 2010. Edited books Editor (ed. For example. look on the back of the main title page. (2004) Feminist film studies: writing the woman into cinema. You can also find this information on the library catalogue. J.

Remember to include the page numbers of the chapter in your reference list. J. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Book chapters Chapter author (Year) Title of chapter. In-text citation example: Clarke (2006.Reference list example: Asamen. London: Sage Publications.) Analysing social policy: a governmental approach. C. Reference list example: Pintrich. G.) (1998) Research paradigms.L. Journal articles Author (Year) Title of article. (eds.91) argues that ‘the transformation of citizens into consumers diminishes the collective ethos and practices of the public domain’. pp.K. In-text citation example: Pintrich (2003) translates generalised statements on motivation into a list of principles to consider when structuring student learning.) Title of book. 8 . Journal of Education Psychology. pp. and social behavior. Enter these details after the journal title in your reference list. page numbers. 95 (4). P. p. (2006) Consumerism and the remaking of state-citizen relations in the UK. in Book editor (ed. Place of publication: Publisher.89-106. Reference list example: Clarke. page numbers. Tips When citing a chapter. and Berry. in Marston. volume (issue). or just a number instead of the volume and issue numbers. (2003) A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Tips Some journals use the month or season of publication. (eds. G. and McDonald.667-686. J. Title of Journal. use the publication date of the book. television.

3-9 [Online]. Check to see if an internet-only journal has been peer reviewed. Reference list example: Loureiro-Koechlin. In-text citation example: User tests are a good way of determining the usability of software applications (Loureiro-Koechlin. 2010). Open-access articles will not usually have page numbers. (2010) Uncovering User Perceptions of Research Activity Data. Available at: Database name (Accessed: date). you should include them in your reference. 42 [Online]. page numbers (if known) [Online].ariadne. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. always include the URL in your reference. Ariadne. Reference list example: Finch. page numbers [Online]. If it is freely available on the internet. but if they do.ac. volume (issue). (2006) A new framework for research leading to sports injury prevention. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). or checked by academic experts. C. pp. 9 (1-2). C. volume (issue). Open access journal articles Author (Year) Title of article. which will ensure it is of good enough quality to use in your academic work. In-text citation example: Finch (2006) proposes a new research framework for evidence-based sports injury prevention. 9 . Title of journal. Title of journal.Journal articles from a database Author (Year) Title of article. Available at: http://www. Available at: Science Direct (Accessed: 15 August 2011).uk/issue62/loureiroKoechlin/ (Accessed: 12 July 2010). Tips You will know a journal is open access if it is freely available on the internet and you do not need to log in to a database to access it.

4. 2010). Theses and dissertations Author (Year) Title of thesis. p. Title of newspaper.Newspaper articles Author (Year) Title of article. page numbers. consider how you can evaluate the article’s accuracy and academic value.co.guardian. Guardian. (2010) UK recession even deeper than first thought. Title of newspaper. day and month [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). consumer spending actually fell during the first quarter of 2010 (Elliott. 10 September. In-text citation example: Despite government hopes for economic growth. Reference list example: Elliott. Available at: http://www. In-text citation example: The allocation of public funding for the UK film industry is still uncertain after the closure of the UK Film Council (Bintliff. 2010). Reference list example: Bintliff. 10 . Newspaper articles from the internet Author (Year) Title of article. Tips When citing a newspaper article. (2010) Industry fears ‘land grab’ after Film Council ends. E. In-text citation example: Evering’s (2007) research shows the benefits of using an adjusted earnings approach for internet brand valuation. day and month. Type of degree thesis. L.uk/business/2010/jul/12/uk-recessiondeeper-than-first-thought (Accessed: 12 July 2010). 12 July [Online]. Institution. The Financial Times.

11 . D. Published conference papers Author (Year) Title of paper. in Editor of conference proceedings (ed. Theses and dissertations from the internet Author (Year) Title of thesis. Loughborough University [Online].. dilemmas. (2007) The valuation of internet brands. Porto: Universidade do Porto. London Metropolitan University. uncertainties. In-text citation example: Gouadec (2001) argued for a more vocational approach to the postgraduate translation curriculum. PhD thesis. S.) Training the language services provider for the new millennium: proceedings of the III Encontros de Tradução de Astra-FLUP. 2009). B. S. M. Reference list example: Petty. (2001) Training translators: certainties. Haller.31-41. J. MSc thesis. Available at: http://hdl. Institution [Online]. (2009) Working-class women and contemporary British literature. Reference list example: Gouadec. Available at: URL (Accessed date). Place of publication: Publisher. Type of degree thesis. In-text citation example: British working-class women’s literature experienced a renaissance during the 1980s era of Thatcherism (Petty. pp.Reference list example: Evering. Universidade do Porto 17 March. in Maia. page numbers.handle. (eds. Location and date of conference.) (if available) Title of conference proceedings.net/2134/5441 (Accessed: 8 August 2011). and Ulrych.

Available at: Database name (Accessed: date).. 12 .Conference papers from the internet Author (Year) Title of paper. University of Leeds 9-11 September. (2008) The educational value of studentgenerated podcasts. Reference list example: Secker. why DELILA? Paper presented at DELILA Dissemination Event. Reference list example: Nie. why. Market research reports from a database Corporate author (Year) Title of report. (2008) examined the impact of student-developed podcasts on students’ learning. the publisher will be the organising body of the conference. C. Location and date of conference. In-text citation example: Nie et al. In-text citation example: Secker (2011) demonstrated the repository of learning resources that had been created as part of the DELILA project. Unpublished conference papers or presentations Author or Presenter (Year) Title of paper. Tips If not otherwise stated.net/2381/4120 (Accessed: 18 August 2010). M. Title of conference. Publisher [Online]. Location and date of conference. unpublished. Available at: http://hdl. [Online]. The Association for Learning Technology [Online]. London 26 July. Cashmore. A. Senate House. Association for Learning Technology Annual Conference.handle. unpublished. and Cane. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). J. Paper presented at Title of conference. (2011) Why.

Another reference list example (country profile): Euromonitor (2010) China: country factfile [Online]. Reference list example: Mintel (2010) Luxury holidays – UK – June 2010 [Online]. but not always. Financial reports from a database Corporate author (Year) Document title. Available at: Database name (Accessed: date). Database name [Online]. Reference list example (company profile): Datamonitor (2009) Marks and Spencer Group plc: company profile [Online]. the same as the database name. 2010). Company or country profiles from a database Corporate author (Year) Title of profile [Online]. 13 . Available at: Mintel Oxygen (Accessed: 13 July 2010). Tips The corporate author is the name of the organisation or company responsible for the report.In-text citation example: Luxury holidays have not suffered from the recession as badly as other areas of the holiday market (Mintel. 2009). Look at the copyright information to find the name of the corporate author. Marks and Spencer maintained market leadership in the general merchandise sector in the UK (Datamonitor. Available at: Business Source Premier (Accessed: 13 July 2010). Available at: URL (Accessed date). In-text citation example (company profile): Despite declining sales in the first half of 2009. Available at: GMID: Global Market Information Database (Accessed: 13 July 2010). The corporate author is sometimes.

000 (Accessed: 13 July 2010).gov. Available at: Orbis 200. or the year of copyright (whichever is most recent if they are different). 2010). for ©2007-2010. Data obtained from Datastream or Bloomberg Author (Year) Data derived from: Details of data used [Online].cps. Available at: http://www. In-text citation example: The FTSE100 achieved a ten year high in June 2007 (Thompson Reuters. Use the most recent year if it is a date range (eg. use the year 2010). The copyright statement can usually be found at the bottom of the page. 2008). Available at: Database name (Accessed: date). Tips The year of the web page is either the year of last update. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). Reference list example: Thompson Reuters (2010) Data derived from: FTSE100 daily index time-series data 2000-2010 [Online]. 14 .58 percent for the 2009 financial year (Bureau Van Dijk. In-text citation example: Meeting data protection requirements demands good practice in records management (Crown Prosecution Service.uk/legal/d_to_g/data_protection/ (Accessed: 25 June 2009). Available at: Datastream (Accessed: 13 July 2010). Reference list example: Crown Prosecution Service (2008) Data protection: legal guidance [Online]. 2010). Reference list example: Bureau Van Dijk (2010) Tesco plc [Online]. Web pages Author (Year) Title of web page [Online].In-text citation example: Tesco reported a profit margin of 5.

Westminster blog. you should question the reliability of an undated website as the information on it may be out of date. 15 . day and month posted [Online]. (2010) The scrapping of the Food Standards Agency.com/thorntree/ (Accessed: 13 July 2010).When no date of copyright or update can be identified you should put (no date) instead of the year. In-text citation example: The Lonely Planet Thorn Tree (2010) is one of the popular forums for obtaining travel information. Available at: http://www. Pickard (2010) discuses the recent media coverage of plans to abolish the Food Standards Agency. Available at: http://blogs. Reference list example: Pickard.lonelyplanet. Reference list example: Lonely Planet Thorn Tree (2010) [Online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: date).com/westminster/ (Accessed: 12 July 2010). Available at: URL (Accessed: date). The author of the page can often be found in the copyright statement at the bottom of the page or in the ‘About’ section. Blogs Author (Year) Title of blog message. It is good practice to keep a copy of the front page of any website you use. Forums: entire forum Forum name (Year) [Online]. 12 July [Online].ft. Sometimes an organisation or company is responsible for the web page. However. Title of blog. In-text citation example: On the Westminster blog. J. Use the organisation as the author if there is not an individual author named – this is referred to as a corporate author. It is important that you include the date you accessed the page because web pages can change and be updated regularly.

Personal communications including letters. tweeting and ethics. ‘Conversation with .. Available at: http://communities. use the screen name for the author. If only a screen name is available. face-to-face or telephone conversations.. In-text citation example: Smith (2011) states that initial findings from his unpublished research indicate. Emails and other personal communication Author of email (Year) Email to recipient name. day and month posted [Online]..’. Tips If the author’s full name is available. 2010). text messages or faxes can be referenced using the same format.. K. 5 May [Online]. in place of ‘Email to . In-text citation example: Responses to a post on the CILIP Communities forum highlight the professional debate over the ethics of using Twitter during conference presentations (Cook. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). S. Reference list example: Cook. Title of discussion group or forum. state the medium of communication (eg: ‘Letter to ... CILIP Communities forum. (2010) Twitter. date and month.cilip.. Tips It is good practice to obtain permission from the author of the email before citing him or her in your work..’. etc). (2011) Email to Timothy Jones.Forums: individual message or thread Author (Year) Title of message or thread.’ ‘Text message to .. use the surname and first initial.aspx (Accessed: 18 August 2010).org. Reference list example: Smith.. 16 .uk/forums/t/11951. 12 June.’.

Jones (2011) pointed out that both mathematical and non-mathematical methods are used for estimating future costs. Available at: lis-business@jiscmail. In-text citation example: The Zanran. (2011) Cost estimation [Lecture to Management Accounting Fundamentals AC1002]. Available at: email list address.uk Tips It is good practice to obtain permission from the sender of the email before citing him or her in your work. (2011) Search engine for data and statistics. 5 May. 10 May [Online].com search engine has been highlighted as a good means of locating data and statistics on the internet (Thompson. The Business Librarians Association Mailing List. T.ac. date and month sent [Online]. E. Reference list example: Jones. In-text citation example: In his lecture on cost estimation.Emails sent to a discussion list Author of message (Year) Subject of message. Available at: WebLearn URL (Accessed: date). Lecture notes Lecturer (Year) Title of lecture [Lecture to module name]. Name of module [Online]. Reference list example: Thompson. Tutors’ materials on WebLearn Tutor (Year) Title of item. Date and month. 2010). Email list name. In-text citation example: The case study explained how King’s Lynn NHS Trust in Norfolk achieved the new NHS gold standard in people management (Bloisi. 17 . 2011).

cited and attributed. (Potts.). Journal article. (Source publication in Author. The reference should also include illus. (1959) Last Ladder [Wood] (Tate Gallery London) photographed by Hollis Frampton. Figure caption example: Fig 1: Andre. (2000) The sculptural imagination: figurative. illus. Copies of images must be numbered as Figures in the order they appear in your work and must include a caption directly under or next to the image.23. see Fig 1. Any image discussed in your work should be cited and attributed in your text with the name of the artist. page number format). W. after the page number to indicate that you are citing an illustration of the original artwork. 2000.. Tips Any image used in your written or studio work should be carefully referenced. etc. C.. using the appropriate format (eg. minimalist. insert the words Author’s own image before the creator’s name in the Figure caption.uk (Accessed: 9 November 2010).ac. see Fig 1). photographed by. using salvaged materials. London: Yale University Press. Reference list example: Potts. Year. (2010) The culture of change in the NHS case study. Organisation and Management MNP021N [Online]. p. Book. p. Images copied from print sources Figure caption: Fig number: Creator’s name (Year) Title of image [Medium] (Collection details) Secondary creator. title of the work and year of the work and should refer to the corresponding Figure number (eg. In-text citation example: . If you have taken your own photograph of the work. Your reference list should include the book or other print source from where you copied the image.londonmet. eg. for example. 18 . Carl Andre’s Last Ladder (1959).Reference list example: Bloisi. A.23). modernist. Available at: http://weblearn.

time of transmission. Television programmes Title of programme (Year) Name of channel. [Textile] [Online]. Available at: specific URL of image (Accessed: date). Reference list example: VADS (2008) Design Council Slide Collection [Online]. 3 August. Reference list example: Newsnight (2011) BBC Two.html (Accessed: 10 May 2011).ac. Available at: http://www. (Source in Author or Organisation.vads. see Fig 2). Tips Right-click on the image or Control+click on a Mac to view the image properties and image URL. Available at: http://www. In-text citation example: New allegations of phone hacking by British newspapers were discussed on Newsnight (2011). date and month. 19 . Year format). 23:30. cited and attributed. (VADS.uk/collections/DCSC.vads. Figure caption example: Fig 2: Day. Any image copied from the internet and used in your written or studio work should be carefully referenced.uk/images/DCSC/large/4869. Any image discussed in your work should be cited and attributed in your text with the name of the artist.ac. (1965) Nova 3. title of the work and year of the work and should refer to the corresponding Figure number (eg. 2008). L.Images copied from online sources Figure caption: Fig number: Creator’s name (Year) Title of image [Medium] [Online].jpg (Accessed: 10 May 2011). Your reference list should include details of the website from where you copied the image. Images must be numbered as Figures in the order they appear in your work and must include a caption directly under or next to the image.

Name of channel. time of transmission. In-text citation example: 1970s movie-making culture is blended with science fiction in the film Super 8 (2011). Place of distribution: Distribution company. month and time from your reference. Series. Place of distribution: Distribution company. 18:00. 2011). Reference list example: The impossible astronaut (2011) Doctor Who. In-text citation example: Orson Welles explored a range of innovative visual and narrative techniques in his 1941 film Citizen Kane (2003). episode number. Films on DVD Title of film (Year) Directed by director name [DVD].Tips If you are making a general reference to a television show in your work and not to a specific broadcast. Episodes from television programmes Title of episode (Year) Title of programme. Reference list example: Super 8 (2011) Directed by J. date and month. 23 April. 20 . Los Angeles: Paramount Pictures. you can omit the date. Series 6. BBC One.J. episode 1. Abrams [Film]. In-text citation example: The Doctor time-travels to the Whitehouse to help President Nixon in the sixth series of Doctor Who (The impossible astronaut. Films / movies Title of film (Year) Directed by director name [Film].

In-text citation example: Examination of the history of the beauty industry reveals the longstanding pressure on women to look young (Women’s hour. 21 . time of transmission. Reference list example: Women’s hour (2011) BBC Radio 4. 9 August.co. date and month. In-text citation example: The connection between Leipzig’s Baroque architecture and music is explored Musical migrants (2009). not those of the original film. 10:00. Radio programmes heard on the internet Title of programme (Year) Name of channel. Tips You should use the year the DVD was distributed (not the year the film was made) in your reference.bbc.uk/iplayer/episode/b00kctm0/Musical_Migrants_Series_2_Germany/ (Accessed: 9 August 2011). You should also use the distribution place and company of the DVD. date and month. time of original transmission [Online]. Radio programmes Title of programme (Year) Name of channel. 15:45 [Online]. London: Universal Pictures. 2011). 19 May. Available at: URL (Accessed: date). Available at: http://www. Reference list example: Musical migrants (2009) BBC Radio 4.Reference list example: Citizen Kane (2003) Directed by Orson Welles [DVD].