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James Truscott Sound design 1

Sound Design 1 (MU316) Coursework 1 Lecturer : Andy Farnell

James Truscott, BSc Music Technology Year 1

James Truscott My FM/Wavetable Synth. 1 .

The Mod index is the number that the modulation frequency is multiplied by. This means that when i play a note in using the midi keyboard. (attack=0-100 . FM counterpart ADSR envelope The ADSR envelope i used was inspired by the one also included in the RCpatches available here. This is because when working with envelopes we are working with automation of amplitude. and release=0-200) these are values in milliseconds which tell the envelope the duration of each stage of its process and the delay between the triggering of the note and when each stage starts. I used the rc-adsr~ as a template for my ADSR envelope and changed the interface. The envelope takes values from the sliders that determine the shape of the envelope. my envelope does not get triggered by the note off value. The FM counterpart is constructed using a “[sin~]” or sign wave oscillator to generate a tone. The patch also includes an amp which will come in handy for blending my two oscillators later. which would create 2 sounds. I think i could have bettered the patch by setting some other relatable values for each frequency by having calculations with bang messages. and sent it to the inlet of my first oscillator (the carrier frequency). It determines what frequency is being sent to it by the message being sent into its left inlet. Now that the envelope is in the chain in the correct place it requires triggering . and one when you released it. the mod frequency is generated by dividing the carrier frequency by 4 (or "[* 0. decay=0-1000. However this is quite a crude way of making sure the modulation frequency is relative to the carrier. as the envelope opens the amplitude multiplication variable goes up and as the envelope closes the multiplication variable decreases. One when you press the note. Once i had my stripped midi number I used “[mtof]” to generate a frequency value from the MIDI note numbers. in this case i used the first outlet and fed the midi number into a [stripnote]” to "strip" the note off signal. (https://github. This means that depending on which MIDI note I trigger the corresponding frequency will be sent to the oscillator. I have done this because it adds timbre to the sound and i think users would appreciate having free reign over the tone they require. The modulation index is user determined. For example you could do a quarter as it is presently and have the addition of doing halves eighths or sixteenth fractions of the carrier frequency.25]"). Once the FM counterpart is complete. I then created another oscillator “[sin~]” to serve as the mod hes/tree/ master/rc-patches). the note in object has three outlets the left one being the MIDI note number the middle being the velocity variable and the right being the MIDI channel number. to create the final modulation frequency. The mod frequency oscillator is connected to the carrier frequency inlet and thereby modulates the frequency of the carrier oscillator. Wavetable synthesis and Frequency Modulation or FM synthesis. sustain=0-100. 2 . In this case i am drawing note values from my MIDI keyboard using a "[notein]" object. it is sent into a multiply box to be brought to a good level and then sent to the [dac~] but to get the envelope to effect the sound it must be routed into this multiply box.The synthesizer uses 2 forms of synthesis to produce its tones. We are sending the multiplication variable into the box to determine how much the amplitude has to be attenuated and when.

) It uses "mtof" to determine the frequency to oscillate at and a [tabosc4~] to allow you to draw in your desired wave shape. I gave the Wavetable oscillator its own envelope so it could move independently from the FM module’s envelope and create a wider more varied texture for the overall sound. In retrospect it would have also been good to find a way of saving and loading the parameters of the wavetable for later use incase you found a particularly sweet sounding wavetable doodle and wished to reuse it later. it only requires one creation argument which is the size of the table. To do this all i did was wire a bang from the left outlet of “[stripnote]” and into the inlet of my ADSR envelope. 3 . the signal being produced by my frequency modulation section is sculpted to follow the envelope of the ADSR. The wavetable also contains a message that stops it from playing notes if the MIDI note value is 0 this means it can be played like an instrument. --> (https://github. To trigger the envelope we must send a bang message to its left inlet. This tells the envelope to start working. As a bit of interfacing for the FM module i began creating the canvas for my project and made a “[vslider]” for the modulation index so the user can play around with the multiplier a little easier. I added a clear table message and a bang for the GUI so people can start fresh with a blank table if they choose. i have chosen this form of synthesis as i think it allows a lot of creativity when creating sounds and also makes each sound unique because it is not possible to draw the same wave twice without sending the wave parameters as a message to the "tabosc4~".com/danomatika/rc-patches/tree/master/rc-patch es. As i want the envelope to trigger as i play my notes in. Like the FM module the oscillator must be sent to a multiply box to manipulate the amplitude with the ADSR controlling the multiplication variable. because at this point in the chain i have a “clean” MIDI message with no note off signal so it will bang as soon as the note is registered. I then arranged my first module with some frequency displays.The Wavetable Oscillator. Now when i play a note on my keyboard and i have set my envelope parameters. The Wavetable counterpart of this synthesizer uses a wavetable oscillator design from "Rc-patches" called rc-wave~ which i found here. i decided to take my bang signal from the “[stripnote]”. which can be any size as long as its a multiple of 4 so that it stays in tune with the frequency it is oscillating at.

The second inlet takes the frequency at which the peak of the band is in the filter envelope.Bandpass filter The bandpass filter i used is the “[bp~]” object. To this i connected a knob with a range of 100 Hz . Im using send and receive boxes to send the signal from the output of the bandpass filter into an envelope to show the change in amplitude over time and then subtracted 100 from the signal to scale it to the “[VU]”. However if you wanted more accuracy you could reduce the number of milliseconds thus increasing the amount of samples per second are being 4 processed. From there it is then fed in to the inlet of “[tabwrite~ wave-display]” this means that when the note is played the “[tabwrite~ wave-display]” samples the waveform every 125 milliseconds and outputs the data visually in the array. it has 3 inlets. I used a knob to set this parameter size so its easy for the user to adjust by hand. an output channel strip display. I then routed that into another bang and sent that into my “[tabwrite~]” sending data to “wave-display”. Another thing which i love to see in a synthesizer. I then wired the output of my filter into a subtraction box where 0. Wave Shape Display. The way i went about this is as follows. in this case i am using a “[VU]” object. So i could not call my synth complete without one. is a nice view of the oscillating wave so i can see how my tinkering is affecting the sound. . Also the knob itself allows the user to sweep through the frequency range easily and more freely.5 is subtracted from the signal to bring it down in the array. To this inlet i connected the output of both the multiplication boxes that the oscillators and envelopes are connected to. I then took a bang signal from the “[stripnote]” and fed it into a “[metro]” i set the metro to trigger every 125 milliseconds. The left inlet takes the audio signals to be processed . The right inlet is the “Q” variable which determines the size of the band that is being passed. Graphic Displays [VU] Display To create a more controlled feeling GUI i decided to add a few extras which i like to see in Synths that i use.3000 Hz as this is the frequency range that i thought sounded best being effected. i found that 125 milliseconds is often enough to take a sample to get a smooth representation of the wave. First i created an array called “wave-display” that is 1000 milliseconds long. the first of which and an essential in my eyes.

Depending on what the value of the parameter you are trying to control you will have to multiply or divide the maximum value by something so you have full control of the parameter. i am now able to choose the directory to make the sound file and decide what to name it each time.g “[open . Once i have my “[ctlin 9]” wired to a number box and multiplied by the correct amount it is sent to the “[vslider]” to control its movements. “[writesf~]” requires 3 messages an “open” message a “start” message and a “stop” message. the Filter Frequency and the Q size to midi controllers .e open. The left is the value of the control 1-127 and the right the MIDI channel number. i found this useful when working out which controllers i wanted to use. in order to have full control of my “[vslider]”.start./desktop/sample1]” As it requires you to press the messages in the order they are listed (i.) i routed some bangs to the GUI and made them traffic light colors to make it more obvious to new users . 5 . “[ctlin 9]”. however i had trouble getting the recorded files to end up in the correct directory so i added a little extra object which makes life a lot easier in this situation. When it is set this way you only get 2 outlets.Record function For the recording section i have used “[writesf~]” the variable is the amount of channels in this case 2 as we are in stereo. MIDI Controlls As i had a few fun parameters mapped to my final GUI for the user to get creative with i thought it would be good to map the modulation index “[Vslider]”. When i had decided which knobs on my controller i wanted to map to each parameter on the synth i added the controller number to the “[ctlin]” object eg. This is much more useful than having the file named the same every time as is the case with incorporating the file name and directory within the open message e.stop.. By introducing a “[savepanel]” object and a bang following to trigger the “open” message. This fixes “[ctlin]” on the controller number that you want to use . If you just use “[ctlin]” without a number it will have 3 outlets the middle outlet tells you what number controller you are moving. For example for my Mod index controller i have a range of 02000 on the output range of my “[vslider]”. Each controller that i wanted to use is set by the “[ctlin]” object. For this purpose all we need is the control value.74 which is the number i must multiply the MIDI control value by. so if i divide that by 127 i get 15.

i. so one of the features i will be adding is an oscillator that combines the two forms of synthesis in this patch in one. throws and catches to neaten thing up a bit but i have had a lot of fun building this instrument and i am sure i will have much more fun in the future fixing things. would be the option to mix back in the unfiltered signals from both of the oscillators as well just to add to the array of sounds that it can make. Needless to say this would add a lot more to the sound and capabilities of the synthesizer. 6 . In a way its a shame i am thinking of this now in hindsight as it would have been good to include in this first version. Of course you can never have too many oscillators i expect as i develop it further it will gain many more and grow considerably in size. and of course going back into the parts of the code that are borrowed from external sources and making them more my own as i get more confident with my skills and some more crazy ideas start coming into my head.Conclusions And Developmental Ideas. and i am quite capable of doing it by simply replacing the carrier oscillator in my FM module with an editable wave table oscillator such as the “[tabosc4~]” used in the wavetable module in this version. but i will indeed keep developing this patch as there are a few thing i would like to see included as and when i discover how to do them. Another thing i would like to add. Firstly i would like to include multiple voices so it is possible to play chords. I found this quite a conundrum as i could not work out how to get multiple oscillators to for example.e Wavetable and Frequency modulation synthesis. all take the drawn wave shape that the user has inputed into the “[tabosc4~]” table and mirror it in other hidden tables to create multiple voices. I am quite happy with how this project has worked out so far. I am very interested in creating synthesizers that combine various methods of synthesis. Overall i think my patching could do with a few more sends and receives and.

(Patch window) 7 .Under The Hood.