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SECOND LAW BASED OPTIMIZATION OF REFRIGERATOR AND AIR CONDITIONER EVAPORATOR

AMAN KUMAR (2K10/ME/019) ANKIT GUPTA (2K10/ME/027) ANKIT HIMMATRAMKA (2K10/ME/028) ANURAG (2K10/ME/033)

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL, PRODUCTION & INDUSTRIAL AND AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING DELHI TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY

DEC, 2012

1

Oct, 2012

SECOND LAW BASED OPTIMIZATION OF REFRIGERATOR AND AIR CONDITIONER EVAPORATOR

AMAN KUMAR (2K10/ME/019) ANKIT GUPTA (2K10/ME/027) ANKIT HIMMATRAMKA (2K10/ME/028) ANURAG (2K10/ME/033)
SUPERVISOR NAME: - K.MANJUNATH, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL, PRODUCTION & INDUSTRIAL AND AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING DELHI TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
2

DEC, 2012

Oct, 2012

either in part or in full. K.MANJUNATH Assistant Professor Dept. Delhi Technological University as their Minor Project -1. is a bonafide work carried out by them under the supervision of the guide. of Mechanical Engineering. The results obtained will not be submitted to any other university or institute. Ankit Himmatramka and Anurag to the Department of Mechanical Engineering. Ankit Gupta. being submitted by Aman Kumar.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project entitled “Second Law based optimization of refrigerator and air-conditioner evaporator”. Delhi Technological University TEAM MEMBERS: AMAN KUMAR (2K10/ME/019) ANKIT GUPTA (2K10/ME/027) ANKIT HIMMATRAMKA (2K10/ME/28) ANURAG (2K10/ME/033) 3 .

9. 24 4 . 7. 21 12. 13. 8. 10.INDEX S. 22 23 14. 3. 2. 5.NO 1. 4. TOPIC COVER PAGE INNER COVER CERTIFICATE INDEX LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION REVIEW OF LITERATURE SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW AND GAPS IN THE LITERATURE AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PRESENT WORK METHEDOLOGIC MODELING EXPERIMENTAL SETUP RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK REFERENCES PAGE NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 20 11. 6.

Comparison of COP of various refrigerant with R22 8. Brass tube with corrosion traces in it (Wikipedia. Exergy v/s efficiency 6. Functional architecture of ISHED – 1 7.org) 5 . Exergy v/s flow rate 5. Entropy generation number v/s Number transfer unit 3. Entropy generation number v/s Reynolds number 4.LIST OF FIGURES 1. Frost formation 9. Entropy generation number v/s Reynolds number 2.

LIST OF SYMBOLS A AL AV As Cmin cp d ds f fi Fr g G Hlg Htph Hs k lo m Ns Pr ΔP Q r Re Sgen T To Tsat Tw u U We x L m o sph tph Cross-sectional area of tube (m2) Cross-sectional area of tube occupied by liquid (m2) Cross-sectional area of tube occupied by vapour (m2) Surface area of two phase tube (m2) Minimum of heat capacity of fluid (W/K) Specific heat (J/(kg K)) Internal diameter of two phase tube (m) Internal diameter of outer tube (m) Friction factor (–) Interfacial roughness factor (–) Froude number (–) Acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) Total mass velocity of liquid and vapour (kg/(m2 s)) Latent heat of vapourisation (J/kg) Two phase heat transfer coefficient (W/(m2 K)) Refrigerant heat transfer coefficient (W/(m2 K)) Thermal conductivity (W/(m K)) Length of the tube (m) Mass flow rate (kg/s) Entropy generation number (–) Prandtl number (–) Pressure drop (n/m2) Rate of heat transfer (w) Internal radius of two phase tube (m) Reynolds number (–) Entropy generation rate (W/ K) Thickness of two phase tube (m) Reference temperature (k) Saturation temperature (k) Wall temperature (k) Mean velocity (m/s) Overall heat transfer coefficient (w/(m2 k)) Weber number (–) Vapour quality (–) Liquid Material Outlet Single phase Two phase 6 .

topic of project work and method of analysis. So far we did the brain storming work to found the authenticate dimensions and working data for different types of evaporators used in domestic/industrial refrigerators and air conditioners. After doing parametric study of the system we will taking up the optimization procedure. we will obtain the geometric and operating parameters which improve the performance of thermal systems and reduce operating cost.ABSTRACT In this project. initially we have worked to choose the area of field. we carried out literature survey and came to know some of scope given below for further work. By using second law analysis we will be able to analyse the irreversibilities taking place in the system easily. Based on the conclusions of literature survey. work that we will be carrying out is problem formation and simulation. Our work is basically to design and optimization of geometric and operating parameters of Direct Expansion Fin-and-Tube Evaporator on the basis of Entropy generation minimization (EGM) Technique. As a part of the initial step. By the entropy generation analysis of thermal system. In the future. 7 . Exergy or entropy generation analysis provides easier way for optimizing the geometric and operating parameters. The first law analysis does not consider the irreversibilities occurring in the system which may lead to poorer thermal design of evaporators. we have defined the problem and started working on it. The future work will consider the analytical calculations and software simulation of system and optimization of geometric and operating parameters of evaporator using genetic algorithm technique.

g. i. in food freezers. It consists of individual hexagonal (peripheral) fin arrangements with radial fins whose bases are attached to the tubes and tips are interconnected with the peripheral fins. The peripheral finned-tube (PFT) is a new geometry for enhanced air-side heat transfer under moisture condensate blockage (evaporators). e. The total heat transfer rate is a fixed constraint.. The analysis is based on three independent parameters. In the evaporator. 8 . experimentally validated semi-empirical models for the air-side heat transfer and pressure drop are combined with the entropy generation minimization theory to determine the optimal characteristics of PFT heat exchangers. it was possible to determine a combination of independent parameters that provided a minimum entropy generation rate. i. the refrigerant is evaporated by the heat transferred from the heat source. a new equilibrium temperature is established. In this paper.e. more vapor is formed through evaporation of liquid. and therefore the liquid temperature drops. equivalent particle diameter and particle-based Reynolds number. the temperature of a pure refrigerant is constant. (1987) presented a closed form analytical method for the second law based thermo economic optimization of two-phase exchangers used as condensers or evaporators.e.INTRODUCTION The evaporator is one of the four basic and necessary hardware components of the refrigeration system. a solid. The second law analysis of two-phase flow heat exchangers has received considerable attention by several investigators. (The refrigerant may be considered as a fifth. During evaporation. This low refrigerant temperature is attained as a result of the reduction in pressure caused by the compressor: When the compressor is started and the pressure reduced.. are calculated for constant heat flux and constant tube wall temperature boundary conditions. In all cases. porosity. The heat source may be a gas or a liquid or. those in which the entropy generation number reaches a minimum. which is a phase change heat exchanger. They demonstrated a method to attach monetary values to component irreversibilities generated in the evaporator of a refrigerator/AC with the purpose of developing various tradeoff factors. As heat starts to flow from the heat source. London and Shah (1983) discussed the thermodynamic irreversibilities that exist in any real system such as evaporator. Second law is an important aspect to improve its performance. most important. In the evaporator there is thus a balance between the heat transferred. The optimal heat exchanger configurations.) Depending on the application the design of the evaporator will differ. Zubair et al. component. The heat of vaporization necessary for this is taken from the liquid itself. Performance evaluation criteria of fixed geometry. To re-establish equilibrium. fixed face area and variable geometry were implemented. as long as the pressure does not change. the equilibrium between liquid and vapor in the evaporator is disturbed.

P U S S O L I . In all cases.e. The analysis is based on three independent parameters. J A D E R R . experimentally validated semi-empirical models for the air-side heat transfer and pressure drop are combined with the entropy generation minimization theory to determine the optimal characteristics of PFT heat exchangers. 1975 M I N I M I S AT I O N (EGM). B R U N O F. fixed face area and variable geometry were implemented. Fluid mechanics. Thermodynamics to modeling and optimization of real systems processes that are governed by finite size and finite time constraints. i. B A R B O S A J R . it was possible to determine a combination of independent parameter that provided a minimum entropy generation rate. In this paper.REVIEW OF LITERATURE E N T R O P Y G E N E R AT I O N ADRIAN BEJAN. The optimal heat exchanger configurations.e. porosity.. equivalent particle diameter and particle-based Reynolds number. are calculated for constant heat flux and constant tube wall temperature boundary conditions. i. EGM combines the basic principle of Heat Transfer. The total heat transfer rate is a fixed constraint. 9 .. and are limited by heat and mass transfer and fluid flow irreversibilities. those in which the entropy generation number reaches a minimum. Performance evaluation criteria of fixed geometry. It consists of individual hexagonal (peripheral) fin arrangements with radial fins whose bases are attached to the tubes and tips are interconnected with the peripheral fins. ( 2 0 1 2 ) The peripheral finned-tube (PFT) is a new geometry for enhanced air-side heat transfer under moisture condensate blockage (evaporators).

Unit A was a 100 RT water-cooled screw liquid chiller. and Unit C was modified from Unit B by exchanging the compressor for a more efficient one. The results indicate that the compressor has the largest potential to improve energy efficiency. The second law analysis may help engineers to focus on the components with higher exergy destruction and quantify the extent to which modifying such components can influence. 10 .• There is an optimum NTU associated with a minimum entropy generation number for both types of heat transfer boundary condition • The heat exchanger effectiveness is not a suitable performance parameter to evaluate the heat exchanger performance because it increases monotonically with the NTU and does not take into account the fluid pumping power through the heat exchanger TZONG-SHING LEE (2010) This work applies the second-law analysis of thermodynamics to quantify the exergy destruction of the components of screw liquid chiller. the performance of other components of the screw liquid chiller. favorably or unfavorably. and to identify the potential for each component to contribute to improve the overall energy efficiency of the system. Three screw liquid chiller units were built to demonstrate the feasibility of the model presented herein. and then the evaporator. Unit B was modified from Unit A by switching the old condenser for a new one with a greater heat transfer. followed in order by the condenser.

followed by the condenser associated with 22% to 27% thereof.The results support the following conclusions. • A component associated with a higher proportion of exergy destruction may more dramatically contribute to improve energy efficiency of a screw liquid chiller. compressor associated with 38% to 47% of the total system irreversibility. Second-law analysis may help us to identify components with higher exergy destruction. 11 . Reducing the exergy destruction associated with components may increase the system COP and the second-law efficiency. modifications to which have greater potential to increase efficiency. followed by the evaporator associated with 17% to 23%. • The exergy destruction or irreversibility associated with each component in a screw liquid chiller taken from the testing unit follow the sequence.

T. S . E.26 mm tube.X . K a r a y i a n n i s . B . Y. S h i f e r a w. Kenning (2008) Fundamental data on two-phase flow boiling pressure drop are essential for the design and operation of heat exchangers. D . G . The pressure drop gradients in 2. T i a n a n d D .01 mm tube are about 3 times higher than those in the 4. H u o . The experimental pressure drop results of these study show that the pressure drop along the test section increases with mass flux and exit quality but decreases with system pressure. R . Granryd (2010) 12 .

which integrates knowledge-based evolutionar y computation with symbolic learning that guides the 13 . Piotr A.Ta e k O h . A i r. REFRIGERANT Any substance capable of absorbing heat from another substance. 1 4 . Domanski. t h e s y s t e m o p t i m i z e s t h e r e f r i g e r a n t c i r c u i t r y i n t h e e v a p o r a t o r. Freon(fluorinated h y d r o c a r b o n s ) f a m i l y l i k e F r e o n . • Incorporating in algorithms for optimal systems with variable speed compressors. heat flux. e t c . I S H E D 1 . Kenneth A. S p e c i f i c a l l y. R290 (propane). SO2. A z e t r o p e s . T h e novelty of this approach is in applying the recently developed learnable evolution model. R600a (isobutane).g Ammonia. P e g a H r n j a k ( 2 0 11 ) Experimental investigation on 2 phase flow heat transfer of 5 refrigerants in horizontal small tubes of various inner diameter The effects of mass flux. R22. S . 1 3 .Tu b e E v a p o r a t o r s U s i n g t h e Learnable Evolution Model We d e s c r i b e d a n e x p e r i m e n t a l s ys t e m . M i c h a l s k i ( 2 0 0 4 ) Ya s h a r. R134a. and R32 etc. They may be liquid/gas and are the source of cooling the gas ( r e f r i g e r a t o r ) o r a i r ( a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g ) . R410A. Ethylene. 1 2 . A . g i v e n i n p u t p a r a m e t e r s a n d t e c h n i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s . Kaufman.I l C h o i . e.11 . P a m i t r a n . K w a n g . d e v e l o p e d t o assist a design engineer in optimizing finned-tube evaporators. N O 2 e t c . They have h i g h l a t e n t h e a t o f vaporization. A n O p t i m i z e d D e s i g n o f F i n n e d . David Ry s z a r d S . Wa t e r Va p o r.Analytical expressions for optimum flow rates in evaporator of refrigerating system The expression derived can be used for • Design purposes • Checking suitable flow velocities in existing plants. operation of J o n g . saturation temperature and inner tube diameter on the heat transfer coefficient are reported. CO2. Ethane.

14 . a n d a n a l y z e s t h e i m p a c t o f evaporator effects on the s ys t e m coefficient of performance(COP). D o m a n s k i . K a u f m a n a n d M i c h a l s k i ( 2 0 0 4 ) F U N C T I O N A L A RC H I T E C H T U R E O F I S H E D 1 P i o t r A . R22.t u b e e v a p o r a t o r. D o m a n s k i .process of generating new designs. R290 (propane). w h i c h s i m u l a t e s t h e designs. Ya s h a r. D a v i d Ya s h a r. • They optimized evaporator circuitry for each refrigerant using a non-Darwinian evolutionary scheme. Generated designs are e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h e E VA P e v a p o r a t o r m o d e l . R134a. R410A. and performed simulations of the optimized evaporators. M i n s u n g K i m ( 2 0 0 5 ) This paper presents a comparable evaluation of R600a (isobutane). and R32 in an o p t i m i z e d f i n n e d .

D o m a n s k i . Selected parameters are the number of gaps. • The optimal parameter set is determined as 3.465. D a e s i k O h . T h e m a x i m i z e d h e a t t r a n s f e r coefficients are 0. the lateral gap size. Ta e w o n S e o a n d J o n g w o n K i m ( 2 0 0 7 ) This paper presents an optimal design of a micro evaporator to maximize the heat transfer coefficient for an active micro cooler • They designed optimal parameters to maximize the heat transfer coefficient. 15 . 2 5 m m r e s p e c t i v e l y.• Better COP for low-pressure refrigerants (having a high critical temperature) versus high-pressure refrigerants (having a low critical temperature).430 W/cm2K for the h e a t e r p o w e r s o f 4 0 .5 mm and 1 .457 and 0. 0. • The high-pressure refrigerants provided higher evaporator capacities than the low-pressure refrigerants. Ya s h a r a n d K i m ( 2 0 0 5 ) C o m p a r i s o n o f C O P o f v a r i o u s R e f r i g e r a n t s Wi t h R 2 2 Ta i j o n g S u n g . 0. the channel width. 6 0 a n d 8 0 W. r e s p e c t i v e l y.

When retrofitting R22 with R407C. 16 . • Steady state simulation is done successfully by using ‘ f s o l v e ’ s o l v e r i n M AT L A B s o u r c e c o d e f o r t h r e e f e e d i n g sequences backward. Vi v e k K u m a r. • The effect of variation of various input parameters on steam economy is studied. Kwan-Shik Cho (2010) This paper presents experimental results of the heat transfer p e r f o r m a n c e o f N e w Tr i .64%) IHE. Ta e . 1 T R ) w i t h a n d w i t h o u t h e a t exchanger(IHE). along with performance comparison of R22 and R407C in the same AC. • The overall heat transfer coefficient of tri-tube type evaporator is increased about 120% comparing of finned t u b e t y p e e v a p o r a t o r.86%) and R407C(6. a n d V. J a n g . COP is found to drop with(6.26%) and without(6.H u n H a m .R Vi j a y a n a n d P S S S r i n i v a s a n ( 2 0 0 9 ) T h i s p a p e r p r e s e n t s e x p e r i m e n t a l p e r f o r m a n c e a n a l ys i s o f a w i n d o w a i r c o n d i t i o n e r ( c a p a c i t y. P. mixed and splitting. • T h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t m i x e d f e e d i s a l w a ys o p t i m a l f o r e n t i r e range of each parameters. S i n g h ( 2 0 1 0 ) This paper describes a steady state model of a multiple effect e v a p o r a t o r s ys t e m f o r s i m u l a t i o n a n d c o n t r o l p u r p o s e s . • The defrosting heater power of tri-tube type evaporator is d e c r e a s e d a b o u t 5 0 % c o m p a r i n g o f f i n n e d t u b e t yp e e v a p o r a t o r.3%). S e .S e o k L e e . S e o n g .Yo o n O h . D e e p a k K u m a r.H e e L e e .t u b e t y p e e v a p o r a t o r s • The low temperature evaporator test facility was developed to closely simulate refrigerator-freezer conditions. • Use of IHC has increased coefficient of performance(COP) when running on R22(5.

CFC. Non-corrosive. R744 etc. O v e r a l l r e s i s t a n c e o f conduction path depends on thermal resistance of material used and the width & length of the conducting channel. Having favourable thermod ynamic properties. The decrease in performance can be attributed to decreased heat transfer in case of non-uniform distribution of air f l o w. efficiency of a multi-circuit evaporator decreased by 7. Freons. Safe (nontoxic.78% in case of non-uniform distribution of air flow as compared to uniform one. R22. ecofriendly).Large contact area allows more heat transfer per unit time for a given temperature difference between the evaporator coils and refrigerant. L i u & C h e n ( 2 0 1 2 ) f o u n d t h a t f o r e q u a l f l o w r a t e s . h a r s h a n g l e s o r r o u g h s u r f a c e s i n c o i l s should be avoided as they disrupt the normal flow pattern. ) a n d m a i n t a i n s ys t e m s t a b i l i t y. Air Flow Distribution The air flow distribution should be uniform for maximum e f f i c i e n c y. Area in contact with refrigerant Area in contact with refrigerant vapour should be large. R410A. 17 . nonflammable. Conduction Path Resistance C o n d u c t i o n p a t h r e s i s t a n c e s h o u l d b e l o w. To m i n i m i s e t u r b u l e n c e . they should be accordingly varied to get lowest resistance. Examples – Ammonia. Tu r b u l e n c e Tu r b u l e n c e i n e v a p o r a t o r s h o u l d b e m i n i m i s e d t o p r e v e n t u n w a n t e d l o s s e s ( i n v i b r a t i o n e t c .FA C T O R S A F F E C T I N G P E R F O R M A N C E O F A N E VA P O R AT O R Pr i m a r y Fa c t o r s : • Re f r i g e r a n t u s e d • Air Flow Distribution • Turbulence • A re a i n c o n t a c t w i t h re f r i g e r a n t • C o n d u c t i o n Pa t h Re s i s t a n c e a n d P i p i n g G e o m e t r y • Re f r i g e r a n t P re s s u re D r o p a n d S u p e r h e a t i n g Va l u e Refrigerant Used It should be. So.

f l o w i s p a r t c o u n t e r. f l o w i s p u r e l y p a r a l l e l . I f m o i s t u r e s t a y s on the fins too long. S o . the water can freeze and begin to coat the blades. the performances of above mentioned coil arrangements d e p e n d o n p r e d o m i n a n t m a n n e r o f f l o w. 2004). PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED Major problems in the working of an evaporator : • Frost Formation • Fouling and unpleasant odour • Corrosion and leakage • Dirt accumulation • Foaming F R O S T F O R M AT I O N The evaporator coils tend to be naturally cold. performance of parallel flow evaporator is more than the counter flow arrangement. • Wi t h o u t S u p e r h e a t i n g . and generally h o v e r r i g h t a r o u n d t h e f r e e z i n g p o i n t o f w a t e r.Pressure drop and Superheating value In case of refrigerant pressure drop along coil length (Hermes. p a r t p a r a l l e l . 18 . • Wi t h S u p e r h e a t i n g . This is typically caused b y blocked coils or failed expansion valves. and the frost layers can seriously inhibit the p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e a i r c o n d i t i o n i n g s ys t e m . S o .

dirt and lint. 2 0 0 0 ) • Corrosion can occur when acidic solutions such as citrus juices are concentrated. • Air conditioning systems are flushed to remove these odours. but they can still stop the evaporator from performing correctly and inhibit the e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e e n t i r e s ys t e m .FOULING AND PECULIAR ODOUR (Gerlach and Newell. • Excessive corrosion can lead to leakage of the refrigerant from the evaporator coil. 2010) • In the normal process of operation. S u & Wa n g . 19 .org)) D I RT A C C U M U L AT I O N A N D F O A M I N G (Byuan and Lee. the evaporator coil and fins can become coated with normal dust. w h i c h i s o f t e n a t t r a c t e d b y w a t e r. • Foods. (Brass tube with corrosion traces in it (wikipedia. CORROSION AND LEAKAGE ( S h e n . and sometimes the fins are coated with a moldicide protectant. The fouling material can consist of either living organisms or a non-living substance (inorganic or organic). T h e s e l a y e r s o f d i r t a r e not as dangerous as frost. The surface damage caused can shorten the long-life of evaporators. 2001) • Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function. proteins and polysaccharides can create such d e p o s i t s t h a t r e d u c e t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f h e a t t r a n s f e r. thus hampering its operation and performance because of loss of heat circulation. • Due to fouling there is a build-up of mold and bacteria on t h e e v a p o r a t o r f i n s w h i c h p r o d u c e f o u l o d o u r.

Antifoam agents are to be used. SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW AND GAPS IN THE LITERATURE AND OBJECTIVE OF THE PRESENT WORK T h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s c a n b e d r a w n f ro m l i t e r a t u re re v i e w :  The heat transfer between refrigerant and air/gas is t w o p h a s e h e a t t r a n s f e r.  Refrigerant undergoes phase change with different flow patterns.  The pressure drop between refrigerant and air/gas is two phase pressure drop.• Foaming can also create a problem since dealing with the e x c e s s f o a m c a n b e c o s t l y i n t e r m s o f t i m e a n d e f f i c i e n c y. 20 . but only a few can be used when food is being processed.  Performance parameters can be optimized using E n t r o p y G e n e r a t i o n M i n i m i z a t i o n ( E G M ) Te c h n i q u e .

efforts to lessen them can be made.  Exerg y analysis can be further carried out to optimize the performance parameters. S T I L L T H E R E I S A S C O P E T O O P T I M I Z E A N E VA P O R AT O R O N T H E B A S I S O F S E C O N D L AW O F T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S Objective  Optimization of evaporator  Entropy generation minimisation  E x e r g y a n a l ys i s  T h e r m a l d e s i g n a n a l ys i s  To analyze performance factors  Identify & minimize the problems  Analytic formulation  Software simulation  Genetic algorithm METHEDOLOGIC MODELING EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 21 . Common problems in evaporator operation have been identified and thus.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS From literature survey. we conclude the following results 22 .

• The future work will consider the analytical calculations and software simulation of system and optimization of geometric and operating parameters of evaporator using genetic algorithm technique. So far we did the brain storming work to found the authenticate dimensions and working data for different types of evaporators used in domestic/industrial refrigerators and air conditioners. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK 23 . Exergy or Entropy generation analysis provides easier way for optimizing the geometric and operating parameters. By using second law analysis we will be able to analyse the irreversibilities taking place in the system easily. By the entropy generation analysis of thermal system we will obtain the geometric and operating parameters which improve the performance of thermal systems and reducing energy cost.• • The first law analysis does not consider the irreversibilities occurring in the system which may lead to poorer thermal design of evaporators.

Future scope • T h e f i r s t l a w a n a l ys i s d o e s n o t c o n s i d e r t h e i r r e v e r s i b i l i t i e s occurring in the system which may lead to poorer thermal design of evaporators.Conclusions • In this work initially we have done brain storming work to choose the area of field. B y t h e entrop y generation analysis of thermal system we will obtain the geometric and operating parameters which i m p r o v e t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e r m a l s ys t e m s a n d r e d u c i n g energ y cost. • As a part of initial step we carried out literature survey and came to know some of scope for further work. be carrying out problem • A f t e r d o i n g p a r a m e t r i c s t u d y o f t h e s ys t e m w e w i l l t a k i n g up the optimization procedure. • B y u s i n g s e c o n d l a w a n a l ys i s w e w i l l b e a b l e t o a n a l y s e t h e i r r e v e r s i b i l i t i e s t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e s y s t e m e a s i l y. • Based on the conclusions of literature survey we have defined the problem and started working on it. topic of project work and method of analysis. • In the future work we will formation and simulation. REFERENCES 24 . • E x e r g y o r E n t r o p y g e n e r a t i o n a n a l ys i s p r o v i d e s e a s i e r w a y for optimizing the geometric and operating parameters.

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