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Islamic Shariah NORTH AMERICA, SHARIAH, SOCIAL TIES, SOCIETY | When the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him

, first began to receive revelations from God in 610 A.D., little did he know that they were the foundational stones for the formation of a future state to be refined piecemeal over the next 23 years. Complete with divinely-ordained laws, a blueprint for societal balance, and individual and mutual sense of accountability, this ‘way of life’ called Islam was presented to the general public through the medium of the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him. Compiled into one text, these revelations not only represent the holy book of the Muslims, the Quran, but are also the foremost source for Shariah, Islamic law. Shariah, quite literally, translates to a path leading to a water hole; figuratively, it refers to a clear, straight path. It is a body of laws derived mainly from the Quran and the example of the Prophet Muhammad, along with interpretive, analogous, and/or consensus rulings for cases where no evidence could be sought from primary sources. The laws as present in the Quran are binding on Muslims and range from prohibition of alcohol consumption and gambling to setting punishments for such grave offences as adultery and theft. Due to their divine origin – directly conveyed to the Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, via the Archangel Gabriel – these laws are considered timeless and perfect, geared towards the success, welfare and peace of humans in this world and in the hereafter. Shariah: Commitment to Justice While many people, both Muslim and non-Muslim, vocally and vehemently oppose Shariah law today in favor of western legal systems, this disenchantment tends to stem from either an unclear understanding of Shariah or instances of misuse of justice ‘back home’ in the name of Shariah. In fact, the establishment and internalization of justice is the supreme purpose of Shariah. The Quran states, “Thus we have made you a just nation, that you be witnesses over mankind, and the Messenger be a witness over you.” *2:143+ Further, God commands His believers: “O you who believe! Stand out firmly for justice, as witnesses to Allah, even though it be against yourselves, or your parents, or your kin, be he rich or poor. Allah is a better Protector to both. So follow not the lusts, lest you avoid justice; and if you distort your witness or refuse to give it, verily Allah is Ever Well-Acquainted with what you do.” *4:135+ This emphasis and primacy of justice was not at all introduced with Islam. In Ch. 57, verse 25, God reminds humankind of the fact that a similar code was brought by each previous Messenger so that “mankind may keep up justice.” Therefore, it is no surprise that the Code of Hammurabi and the Law of Moses also contain retributive laws, similar to the famous “an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.” Islam, however, adds the following corollary to such retribution: It is better to forgive. Today, such laws are considered by the vast majority to be medieval, barbaric, and primitive. Shariah, likewise, is intractably coupled with merciless executions, chopping off of hands and honor killings. To accept such a generalized picture of an intensely complex legal system is not only a disservice to divinely

Common tazir crimes include bribery. usury. For any punishment to actually take place. While hadd punishments have been fixed in the Quran (such as retributive killing for murder and the chopping off of a limb for theft) there are many safeguards which are important to mention. finances. apostasy from Islam. and matters such as common defense and peacemaking Shariah encompasses all areas of life. the ratification of the National Prohibition Act in the U. such as dietary laws. adultery. human rights. robbery and consumption of alcohol.ordained laws but also to one’s own sense of integrity. and economic choices to the preferences of individuals Shariah: Dispelling Myths The Shariah consists of hadd punishments and tazir punishments. flogging. to forgive when one has the right to take revenge is the . in 1919 and its official rejection in 1933) Shariah Law and Common Law both espouse the establishment of a federal government. theft. Islamic law requires the hadd crime to be treated as a tazir crime. which is always considered to be the higher road to take in Islam. confinement. (Some of the tazir penalties include counseling. hadd crimes overstep God’s set boundaries whereas tazir crimes are committed against the society. common law leaves matters such as dietary considerations. selling tainted or defected products. proof must be provided. Shariah Law & Common Law Similarities Differences Both are committed to facilitating basic values such as freedom. the right to privacy. prohibition of alcohol) whereas laws and amendments can change at will within a democracy (for example. the declaration of freedom of religion. etc. along with a confession of the crime or witnesses testifying against the criminal.) Similarly. relationships between consenting adults.S. The following hadd crimes have been mentioned in the Quran: murder. justice. selling obscene pictures. then the Muslim society would be held at fault and made to supply that need and there would be no hadd punishment. and equality Shariah has its roots in the divine writ. defamation. If any of these is not sufficiently presented. Here is an attempt to dispel some of the prevalent myths and to bring clarity to the matter. On the other hand. A retributive punishment may be averted if the aggrieved party is willing to accept blood money or to forgive. if a thief could prove that he/she only stole because of need. the abolishment of guilt by association. the couple had to be actually witnessed performing the physical act by four people who were in a position to identify both parties without doubt. etc. Likewise. to be penalized for adultery. Indeed. treason. and social aspects. fines. whereas common law has been founded by human beings Consultation and participation in the process of decision-making (shura) is common to both laws Certain laws and restrictions are timeless under Shariah (for instance. dress code. dress code.

Shariah permits parents to decide with whom the children will stay.” (Abu Dawood. peace be upon him. Ruqayyah Waris Maqsood. Allah would accept it from them. Forced marriages and honor killings are not at all sanctioned in Islam. for Allah has forgiven you!” The Prophet (pbuh) said to the man. She said that it was the man who did it to her. although this has been done in some cultures. and she told a man what had occurred. “I am the one who did this to her. states: Waa’il ibn Hujr said that a woman. In principle. and a stone or rock that it took two men to lift (i. and the man was asked. if they are in disagreement. He added. penalizing the rapist and exonerating the raped woman. testimony regarding financial transactions.e. mothers are preferred as the primary caretakers for young children. “Stone him”. and took the man to her. “This man has *sincerely+ repented a type of repentance that if the people of Medinah would perform. “The correct Islamic method of stoning according to Sharia was similar to that advised by the Pharisees at the time of Jesus – the person was held fast in a fixed position. treating her as a victim.” Muslim women may seek divorce for grounds such as physical or mental abuse. they may allow the courts to decide for them.e. i. When it comes to inheritance. father. it was to be done swiftly. The man fled. not a complicit. ‘Who is the man who did this to her?’ The man confessed saying. Unfortunate deaths caused as a result of misguided emotions must be dealt by the courts as murders. Rape is a serious offence which is punishable by death. An example from the time of the Prophet Muhammad. A group from amongst the immigrants were told of this and they chased the man down eventually capturing who they thought it was.ultimate form of mercy. Oh Messenger of Allah!” The Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said to the woman.” So he said regarding the man who had raped her. but then she has no obligation to make any financial contribution to the family. explains. while she let out a scream [for help]. adultery. however. with as little torture as possible. Alternatively. It is often claimed that a woman’s testimony is half of a man – the vast majority of scholars view that verse of the Quran [2:282] in the context in which it occurs.. in the life of the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). Canada. They took the man (and the woman) to the Messenger of Allah (pbuh). a British Muslim author. “You can leave. *left her home+ intending to go for Prayer [in the mosque] when a man seized her and had sexual intercourse with her. no such exception has been made. and fathers are required to provide for the children’s maintenance. He is also Most Merciful. Tirmidhi) As for stoning. a woman’s share is half of man. her money is hers to keep because her husband. even if she earns. or brother are required to provide for her. Jamal Badawi. etc. and usually publicly so that no vindictive person could do further nasty things behind the scenes and get away with it. professor at Saint Mary’s University in Halifax. explains that this verse cannot be taken as a general ruling because at another instance [24:6-9]. abandonment. With regards to custody of children. “Your words are sound. was heavier than one man could lift alone) was to be dropped to crush the head – it was not someone tied to a post and rocks hurled at them. and God reminds us over and over in the Quran that while He is Just. Nova Scotia. they may demand a divorce for no specific reason. . The point was that if someone really had to be executed.

Meanwhile. the late Director General of the The Islamic Foundation. generally. co-operating and assisting.” Indeed. the Legal Adviser of the Department of State under the Obama administration. The individual has been given a free will. called jizya. The individual(s) must take responsibility for his/her action – this is why confessing is so important in the Shariah. now it is up to him/her to realize his/her potential. for the public. He further likened family as the “cradle of the individual and the cornerstone of society. interdependent and in equilibrium. After all. their severity is a preventive measure against lawlessness to begin with. freedom. if s/he commits the crime or is complicit. In fact. Leicester. in certain instances. depending on the crime committed. this is a nominal amount which does not amount to hardship on the part of the taxed. explained that there are there major themes in the Shariah: the individual. United Kingdom.” wrote Khurram Murad. returning over and over again to both the accountability and the inviolability of the human being – for a crime is essentially an act of injustice to one’s own self. person. Shariah: Its Essence Khurram Murad. a moral sense. possessions and honor are sacred and inviolable. the harsh punishments commensurate to the crime (whether hadd or tazir) serve as a definitive deterrent. Muslims believe they are divinely-ordained by the Creator for His creation.Non-Muslims under Sharia are protected so long as they pay the annual tax. . However. While some may continue to deem such punishments as harsh. The various pockets of minorities which continue to exist in Muslim countries are testimony enough against theories which propound forced conversions and persecution of nonMuslims. that does not discount the fact that Shariah laws were sent by God to establish justice on earth. God’s original laws and their intent remain free of human blemishes. it is the larger society which is at stake. At the same time. Unfortunately. the society. authoritative people in the West are recognizing the value of Shariah laws and the right for Muslims to have a choice in legal disputes regarding family and finances: from the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams to Ontario’s former attorney general Marion Boyd to Harold Koh. for the criminal and his/her future actions and. in other words. however. but our accountability to aggrieved members of the society has to be carried out here. Their houses of worship are safe under Islamic rule and they are free to worship their religion. Sharia does not apply any pressure on them to change their existing religion to Islam. a sin against God. because the hadd punishments are already known. Similar levels of justice are expected of her/him. Our accountability with God will take place on the Day of Judgment. and the family. Anyone who transgresses against her/him is subject to punishment. Muslim countries have misused Shariah laws as a tool for injustice. the individual’s life. specifically. non-Muslims may voluntarily accept Islam. And. Shariah places great importance on all three of these “institutions” of life. God wishes for us to internalize His concept of justice so we do not upset the balance of society. “Social order and individual good should stand together – fused and harmonious. and the knowledge of right and wrong.

All-knowing.KALAU XDE LESEN. mengambil bahagian secara tidak langsung( tasabbub). Ketiga: Aiding pula adalah perbuatan membantu seseorang penjenayah dgn cara menyediakan jalan. itu semua dlm undang2 civil. Kedua: Conspiracy (perbuatan bersubahat) adalah pakatan untuk melakukan jenayah yang dilakukan oleh 2 orang atau lebih. Ia lagi dalam dan terperinci. Apa2 pun. and in justice. Manakala dalam undang2 syariah(ICL) pula. dalam undang2 jenayah islam pula. Contohnya. Kita tengok dulu dalam bab undang2 civil. His words cannot be changed. BUKAN SHJ RUMAH PELACUR.. atau Ali menyediakan rumahnya sbg sewa kpd Bakar utk membuka rumah pelacur tanpa lesen (DLM UNDANG2 DI MALAYSIA. TAPI JUAL ARAK DAN BUKA TEMPAT BERJUDI PUN DIBENARKAN. let’s court decide it. KONSERT DAN LAIN-LAIN LAGI.Ia mudah kalau kita kenalinya secara jenayah mengambil bahagian (participation). KALAU ADA LESEN. APATAH LAGI MEMBUKA PUSAT HIBURAN DISKO. TETAP SATU JENAYAH. Datuk Eskay. Conspiracy itu sendiri(per se) adalah jenayah... kalau DSAI gagal membuktikannya. perbuatan mengambil bahagian dalam jenayah dipecahkan kepada dua jenis.) Baiklah.. Dalam ICL. Dato’ Seri Hisyamuddin Tun Hussein(Menteri Dlm Negeri) telah memfailkan saman keatas Dato’ Seri Anwar Ibrahim(mantan Timbalan Perdana Menteri) kerana menuduh beliau bersubahat dalam membuat rakaman video seks yg membabitkan 3 orang. DIKIRA SALAH DISISI UNDANG2. ADA LESEN ATAU XDE. Secara Langsung dan secara tidak langsung.. Peruntukan dlm undang2 malaysia adalah dalam Seksyen 107 dan Seksyen 120A Kanun Keseksaan (Penal Code).“And perfect are the words of your Lord in truthfulness. TAPI DALAM ISLAM. Jadi. perbuatan mengambil bahagian secara langsung (direct). samada abetment atau conspiracy atau aiding.” *6:116+ Saulat Pervez Undang-undang baik undang-undang syariah atau undang-undang civil. Isu terbaru. Anwar kena buktikan bahawa telah berlaku pakatan itu menurut peruntukan2 dlm Seksyen 120 A atau B. cukup sekadar membuktikan ada pakatan utk melakukan jenayah shj sudah cukup utk mensabitkan kesalahan. walaupun jenayah itu belum dilakukan.perlakuan ini dipecahkan kpd 3 bahagian. Dalam undang2 civil. membincangkan perkara ini secara terperinci. . He is the All-hearing. Maknanya.. Iaitu mengambil bahagian secara langsung (mubasyarah) dan kedua. PUB. Pertama: Abetment adalah menolong secara memberikan galakan utk pelaku itu melakukannya seperti mengupah utk membunuh. beliau akan disabitkan kesalahan dibawah defamation atau fitnah dlm undang2 tort. seorang pelacur dan seorang lagi yg di uar-uarkan sebagai Dato’ Seri Anwar. dlm perkara ini. dibahagikan kpd dua bahagian.. saya huraikan secara mudah shj. Ali memberi pinjam keretanya utk memudahkan Bakar merompak. atau mencabar pelaku utk membunuh dan pelbagai kata2 atau perlakuan yg dpt menyebabkan si pelaku melakukan jenayah itu.

Pertama: Jenayah yg dibuat secara beramai-ramai secara serentak. Dalam kes ini. tiap2 seorang bertanggungjawab terhadap kesalahan yg mereka lakukan masing2. atau membutakannya. Satu peristiwa dizaman Saidina Umar al-Khattab. lalu mereka beramai2 pergi ke rumah Bakar dan memukul Bakar sehingga mati.dan beramai-ramai memukul Bakar sehingga pengsan. cthnya: Ali bersalah sebab patahkan kaki Bakar. Ahmad dan Abu sign kontrak untuk membunuh Bakar. Termasuk mengupah untuk membuat jenayah. Dalam hal ini. [Niat + xde pakatan = salah mengikut perbuatan masing-masing] Contohnya. 2) Apabila salah seorang memberikan galakan atau mencabar supaya jenayah dilakukan. kalau x dpt dikenalpasti. perkara bersubahat secara tidak langsung (indirectly).Dalam perkara Subahat atau mangambil bahagian secara langsung. Sama ada: 1) Apabila mereka bersetuju untuk bekerjasama dalam melakukan jenayah yang sama. Dalam permasalahan ini. tanpa memukul atau menyentuh Bakar. apabila 4 org penjenayah drp Kampung Sin’ah telah berpakat dan membunuh seorang pemuda. terbahagi kepada dua jenis. Mereka dalam masa yang sama pergi ke rumah Bakar. 3) Apabila mereka tolong-menolong dalam melakukan jenayah. Siapa yg mematahkan tangan mangsa. “kalau sekiranya kesemua penduduk kampung Sin’ah telah berpakat dan membunuh. Ali. Kedua: Jenayah yang dibuat secara beramai-ramai. Lalu Saidina Umar menjatuhkan hukuman bunuh kepada kesemua mereka. maka dia akan bertnggungjawab terhadap perbuatan mereka masing2. atau hanya mengambil pisau dan diberikan kepada Abu..” Manakala. Kalau dalam kes membunuh. contohnya. Ahmad dan Abu. tak pernah kenal antara satu sama lain dan xde pakatan utk membunuh Bakar. contohnya. kesemuanya wajib membayar diyat 100 ekor unta. *Niat + ada pakatan = semua salah] Contohnya Ali. Abu menyediakan rumahnya untuk Bakar melakukan zina. kalau contohnya Ali hanya memegang tangan. Fuqaha’ berbeza pendapat dalam penetapan hukuman keatas mereka. dan Abu bersalah sebab mencederakan Bakar pada kepala sehingga dia pengsan. Tapi. dan mempunyai niat yang sama (tamallu’). atau mematikannya. mereka akan diadili mengikut perbuatan masing2. akan aku bunuh mereka kesemuanya. Ali. kesemua mereka bersalah dan wajib dibunuh. Ahmad bersalah sebab butakan mata. . terdapat 3 keadaan yang boleh diklasifikasikan sebagai indirectly participation atau ishtirak bittasabbub. tanpa ada kesepakatan (tawaafuk). Ahmad dan Abu bersepakat utk membunuh Bakar. Kata Beliau.

pembuat secara tidak langsung pula dikenakan hukuman takzir.Jumhur berpendapat bahawa pembuat jenayah secara langsung akan dikenakan hukuman sebagaimana yg diperuntukkan utk kesalahan itu. Maliki pula berpendapat. manakala. . InsyaAllah kita akan teruskan perbincangan kita selepas ini mengenai perkara2 yg boleh menjatuhkan pensabitan undang2. Bakar yang berzina dan perempuan tu. Ali yang menyediakan rumah. Wajib dikenakan hukuman yang sama. kesemuanya dikenakan hukuman hudud.. kesemua mereka sama ada melakukan secara direct atau tidak direct.