Jungian Analysis Author(s): Carl R. Mueller Source: The Drama Review: TDR, Vol. 22, No. 3, Analysis Issue (Sep.

, 1978), pp. 73-86 Published by: The MIT Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1145189 . Accessed: 28/09/2011 00:49
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Jungian

Analysis

by Carl R. Mueller

The

Approach

There are at least two ways of approaching a literarywork of art from the standpoint of psychology: first, by simply analyzing the characters through their words and actions as real people; and second, by treatingthe workas a dream turned inside out, in which each character is a facet, or refraction,of the dreamer's personality.The virtueof the second approach is that it objectifies the action to the degree that it is easier to treat the problem on a social ratherthan on an exclusively personal level. Outside of therapeutic analysis the aim of a psychological approach to art should not be to read the mind of the artist, but to read the work of art as a societal dream; not as personal pathology, but as social pathology. The second approach is also more profitable in certain works that are manifestly dream-oriented on a societal level-such works, for example, as Faust II, Ibsen's late plays, Strindberg's expressionist works, and Albee's TinyAlice. There is a freedom in dreams that is not a part of external reality.Time and space are arbitrary.Characters "split, double, and multiply;they evaporate, crystallize, dissolve, and reconverge," as Strindberg observes in his author's note to A Dream Play. There are, in short, certain works in which central events cannot be explained except through the application of dream psychology. Surely the most unique aspect of Jungian psychology in its application to art in general is that it views the artist as the dreamer for the social collective of his time. The artist'snature is a mystery, and that may be a good thing, but some partialdefinitionof it is possible: the artist is a supersensitive individualwho suffers the povertyof his culture more profoundlythan any other member of it, and through his work he offers warning and/or compensation for that culture's poverty. At the center of the Jungian pantheon of values stands the concept of the androgyny,the idea that opposites in unionconstitute the strongest possible structure.Itis a belief that is scarcely new with Jung-creative opposition is the basis of all energy. WilliamBlake made it the source of his inspiration.In The Marriageof Heaven and Hell (its title alone implies union) he states it in its most potent form: Withoutcontraries is no progression. Attractionand repulsion, reason and energy, love and hate, are necessary to human existence. Opposition is true friendship. And in the Gospel of Thomas: When you make the two one, and when you make the inner as the outer and the outer as the inner and the above as the below... then you shall enter the kingdom. Itwas Jung's belief that the functionof the human organism was constantlyto strive toward wholeness, toward a union of opposites, and that implicitin the structureof the psyche were images of order, of totality,of geometric perfection (mandalas) that manifested themselves through dreams, visions, works of art, as compensation, when one's conscious life was in a state of imbalance. These images, which he called archetypes, were believed to be inbornin the structureof the brain,and existed on the lowest level of the psyche, which he called the collective, or objective, unconscious. (ErichNeumann calls it the creative unconscious.) The genesis of the collective unconscious has been described extremely well by CalvinHalland Vernon Nordbyin theirA Primerof Jungian Psychology: The collective unconscious can ... be explained by mutation and naturalselection; that is, a mutationor a series of mutations can result in a predisposition to fear snakes. Since primitiveman was exposed to

ANALYSIS 75 JUNGIAN

harm frompoisonous snakes, his fear of them would cause him to take precautions against being bitten. Thus, the mutationor mutations that cause the fear and hence the precautions would increase man's chances of survival so that the changes in the germ plasm would be passed on to succeeding generations. In other words, the evolution of a collective unconscious can be accounted for in the same way that the evolution of the body is explained. Because the brain is the principal organ of the mind, the collective unconscious depends directly upon the evolution of the brain. By means of the collective unconscious man is linked not only with the past of the human species, but withthe long stretch of organic evolution, a deduction borne out by the fact that contained within the present human brain are three distinct brains: the reptilianbrain;the paleomammalianbrain;and our present brain,the neomammalian. Contained within this lowest level of the unconscious are what Jung called the archetypes, primordialimages than can be best described as instinctual patterns of response inscribed in the brain by the method described above. The number of such archetypes is beyond calculation, but the most constantly recurringof them are: birth, death, rebirth, power, the hero, the child, the trickster, the earth mother, God, sun, moon, to name only a few. The function of the archetype when it appears in the personal unconscious of an individual is to foster survival. If a male unconsciously protects himself from a fear of women by elevating woman onto a pedestal and by revering her as a goddess, the collective unconscious will activate in that individual's personal unconscious, through dreams, images of the opposite kind of woman-a virago or, in mythicterms, the TerribleMotherfigure-in an attemptto balance-out the exaggerated exalted image of woman that presides in his consciousness. Its aim is to establish a balanced image of woman, woman as she is in reality, neither all good nor all bad, but something in between. Itwould requirevolumes even to make a dent in describing only the most recurrent of archetypes. For practicality'ssake I willdeal withjust four:the anima, the animus, the shadow, and the self. The anima is of inestimable importance in Jungian psychology. Very simply, it is the totality of the male's experience of the female throughout human existence. Inasmuch as the male's experience of the female has been both positive and negative, the anima archetype contains both positive and negative characteristics.The same is true of all archetypes, they encompass their opposites. Whichever aspect of the archetype is needed for compensation, that is the side that will be activated and will produce the needed symbols in the personal unconscious. From another standpoint, each of the sexes harbors contrasexual factors-the male contrasexual genes and contrasexual hormones, and the female contrasexual hormones-that biologicallycreate in each sex a contrasexual opposite. Jungian psychology makes much of the fact that in the patriarchalculture of the Western world the female has been rejected in favor of the male. It believes in the matriarchalbeginnings of social organization,when the primitiveindividualconnected the life-giving capacity of the earth with the life-giving capacity of woman. Since the primitiveknew nothing of the male's role in the life process, the miracle of birth lay exclusively in the sphere of the feminine. And since numbers were vitalto the survivalof the early primitive,woman, inasmuch as she added to the tribe's number,was exalted to the near-divine, hence the earliest of figures of worship in the form of the earth mother.

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As a result of this state of sexual imbalance, the male suffered from a sense of inferiority-more specifically from pregnancy envy-that eventuallyled to the overthrow of the matriarchyand to the establishment of the patriarchysome 35,000 years ago. The effects of this social upheaval are reflected in creation myths the world over, the myth of the male genesis of the universe, and in the patriarchalrevision of matriarchal myths. Eve, once a part of Adam, is expelled from Adam's original androgynous unityof being and given a secondary birthfrom a very minor part of Adam's anatomy, a rib. Thomas Aquinas called Eve "a misbegotten female... made in the image of man, not God." Pandora, as her matriarchalname testifies, was originallythe giver of all gifts, but in the patriarchalrevision she becomes the giver of all human ills and sufferings. Inscribedon the most sacred shrine of Greek antiquity,Apollo'ssanctuaryat Delphi,the seat of the oracle of prophecy seized from the matriarchyby the patriarchy,is the phrase: "Keep women under rule."And according to The Koran,"Menare superior to women because of the qualities in which God has given them preeminence." The catalog is endless even into our own day and this morning'snewspaper. The point is that the male still has not learned to cope with the much more active and involved relationship of the female to the life-giving process. The result is his continuing sense of inferiorityin the face of woman and his continuing need to repress her into an inferior position. The penis envy that the misogyny of Freud placed on the female mightwell be revised into the more plausible pregnancy envy of the male. If woman in her physical aspect is rejected by a male social structure, it stands to reason that that same social structure will force (condition, brainwash)the male into repressing the feminine side of himself, the anima, the source of potential that is resisted more often than it is accepted as a coequal inner partner.This acceptance is the basis of the concept of the androgyny:a union on an inner plane of one's manifest sexual identityand one's innercontrasexual factor.The patriarchal social pressures that militateagainst this union are legion. And the psychoses that arise in the male caught in this vice of repression are everywhere to be seen. The contrasexual factor of the female, both on an archetypal and on a biological plane, is called the animus. Her problems are the same as the male's: union with her inner opposite. Women must be women, and men must be men, or so we are told. For her to unite with her inner masculine factor, her animus, would result, among other things, in a female who would have no compunctions against competing with men in their own sphere, while at the same time never resigning her identityas a female, for in doing so she would simply be expressing her natural human totalityon both an inner and outer plane. But women, just like men, are brainwashed from the cradle on into becoming sexual stereotypes. And therein lies the greatest tragedy of Western society. It is not the feminine alone that is creative; it is the feminine factor in unionwiththe masculine factor. The degree to which the male accepts his feminine side, and the degree to which the female accepts her masculine side, determines the degree to which each individual achieves balance, a state of wholeness. And by the same token, the homosexual, male or female, has the same capacity as the heterosexual for achieving the inner state of balance with his or her contrasexual opposite. The shadow archetype is of primary importance in Jungian psychology. In the simplest terms, the shadow is the repository, the bearer, of all one's repressions. What in myself I do not want, or am forced by society not to want to face and deal with, I repress into my personal unconscious (the subjective level of the unconscious where one's personal experiences are stored). That act of repression deprives my conscious state of a sum of energy, and that formerlyfree energy is now, as it were, locked out of sight, out of mind, and therefore it begins to rankle in my personal unconscious. To free myself of this pain, I projectthat repressed factor onto a logical human carrierof it. If it is

ANALYSIS 77 JUNGIAN the feminine part of me that I repress because I fear it (or am taught to fear it), I willin the course of my repression distort my inner anima image, and consequently I willproject my fear of my inner woman onto a woman or onto women in general. My view of those women who are projected onto will, in effect, prevent me from seeing them as they are. Ratherthey will be seen in terms of my emotional projection onto them. The result is a thorough distrust, fear, and animosity towards women. Consequently, I will regard women as inferior, as subordinate, as sex objects, or as destroyers to be avoided entirely. This tragic situation on my conscious level then activates the compensatory archetype of the feminine in my collective unconscious. Since my conscious experience of woman is negative, it is the positive side of the feminine archetype that is activated as compensation. Once the archetype is activated it gives rise to the symbols or female images of a positive nature that then appear through dreams in my personal unconscious. The compensatory symbols both warn and guide me in my actions. It is my responsibility, usually with an analyst, to incorporate the informationrevealed to me through those dreams into my conscious life. In the course of these dreams I will also meet the shadow, the bearer of my repressions. That figure is always the same sex as the dreamer, and yet, if one's inner contrasexual opposite is one of the factors being repressed, that shadow will manifest contrasexual characteristics. The shadow operates in two ways: it desires to be freed from its repressed state and therefore tries to lead me out of these repressions by making me aware of them through dreams and it also, because it is made to suffer under my repressions, willfight against me, tryingto undermine me for my actions against him. In effect, the shadow is ambivalent in its nature. By way of example, Mephistopheles is the shadow of Goethe's Faust. He helps him; he hinders him. The more Faust resists the positive, salvational advise of his shadow, the more negative and destructive Mephistopheles becomes. In conclusion, the self is the archetype of wholeness, of the totally integrated and individuated personality. Jungian psychology believes that the total personality is not something that is constructed from outside, but that it is innate-it is already present in potential in the new individualand must be allowed to develop in time, free of repressions and inhibitions.It is as central to the Jungian pantheon as is the sun to the solar system, and it is most graphically manifested in the image of the androgyne. The archetype of the self is a unitingfactor that appears in a disunited individual,one that gives a sense of security and stabilityto heal the realityof the emotionallysplit personality. Its goal is to aid the individual in developing his or her unique personality in its totality.It is the realizationof self; it is self-realization. The primary enemy of the self archetype is the ego, which is one's conscious aspect that fights integration insofar as the ego is in large part formed by the social collective and by the pressures that attend it. The ego is put upon from every side; it is vulnerable in the extreme, especially since social pressures begin to be exerted early on in a child's life. By the age of seven, a child's ego has most likelybeen fairlywell molded, and most often not for the best. Conformityis the ideal in a repressive society like the patriarchy,and the child of seven is well on his or her way toward conformitywithout ever being aware that once upon a time in childhood it was a free-flowing, open, receptive, and balanced being. The functionof the self archetype is, through dreams, to provide the guidance that society denies. It is the mission of the self archetype to direct the individualthroughout life toward the rejection of stultifyingconformity and stereotypic existence and into the exalted and heady atmosphere of personal individuality and uniqueness-a state of being impossible to achieve without a free and open union of opposites on every level, inside and out-though withoutquestion the inner union must be achieved first. As far as the female/anima problem in our society is concerned,

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woman will never be accepted as coequal with the male externally until first she is accepted by the male internally.Tragically,the male for the most part has no idea of what he is doing because his eyes have been societally blinkeredfor so many thousands of years. Perhaps it is woman who must ease those societal cataracts from his eyes to show him what he has been deprived of for so incredible a span of time.

The Application
Cops
Cops, for all of its stark realism, is a metaphor for the state of much of Western society. It presents the vision of a wasteland where power reigns and where any redeeming factor that could possibly alter the picture is anathema. In effect, it serves functionallyas a dream, or better, as a nightmare, where terror, and power, and ego inflation, humiliation, mindlessness, and fear hold the upper hand in a desperate attempt to bolster the basically faltering ego of the terrified and insecure male. The play is a male's play, a male's dream offered as a warning to a society gone terriblyawry. It deals with exclusively male concerns, male preoccupations, male distortions, male self-perversions. It is a work in which the sole female character is in effect a non-character-one with a male-sounding name, Mickey.And yet, it is the female who is the play's central character, and whose non-role dominates the stage at every moment of the work's duration. Mickey, the waitress in this nondescript all-night coffee shop on Chicago's North Side, is, in Jungian terms, an apt representation of the anima in a male dominated society or, in non-psychological terms, of woman in such a social structure. She is woman in the role in which a male chauvinist patriarchal society has cast her: a nonvoting citizen whose function is to serve and to be manipulated as directed. The leading male roles in the play, two plainclothes police officers, a uniformed policeman, and the owner of the joint represent refractions of the dreamer's ego, his conscious state. In a larger sense, however, the author's vision is so bleak and intense and, by implication,condemnatory, that I would preferto see the play not as a reflection of the author'spersonal psyche, but as a societal dream, one of those "big dreams"that Jung speaks of, reflecting the illness of the social collective. Virtually nothingthat is discussed by the three policemen and George, the owner, is of any significance-and that is precisely the point. Their lives are arid, petty, meaningless; it is quite as if they were walking, talkingshells of once-human beings. They lack balance. They lack center. They lack soul. In short, they are the products of a social structure that has for thousands of years whipped out of any functional position its contrasexual factor, its feminine side, its anima, as being suspect, unreliable,fickle, and all the other familiarterms of derogation that have always been leveled at women and, by implication, at the woman in the male. If the male's inner woman is feared and therefore repressed, there is no question that woman in her external, physical manifestation willalso be feared and repressed. The waitress, Mickey, has even been denied a feminine name. It is as if, in order to function in a male world, she must repress her own

feminine identity;as if, in order to serve the male as she has been conditioned to, she must divest herself of all independence of action. Quite apart from the round of the day's events that these men discuss with one another, the only actions of any meaning center around their treatmentof Mickey.Her role as waitress is a perfect metaphorfor the place of the female in a male world,and the fact that these men never once treat her as a human being is a fair sign of their estimation of her:she is dispensable, and yet she is an inevitableappendage that cannot be got rid of and must necessarily be put in its proper place. When one of the officers orders eggs and home fries, and she brings him french fries instead because they are out of home fries, she is treated in the lowest of terms. He insists the french fries be scraped from his plate before he willeat the eggs. "Takethe fuckin'wastebasket, scrape

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off the french fries, and give me my eggs," he orders her. Then, withina halfdozen short speeches, the officers proceed to make a gullible fool of her with: BARBERSON:You see the joint they opened up on Clark Street? "Clothesfor Plants." MICKEY: Sure, Bob. BARBERSON: no. I'm serious. Over on ClarkStreet where they No, got all those boutique places. "Clothesfor Plants." MICKEY: They'regoing to put clothes on plants. BARBERSON: Not clothes on plants. Clothes for plants. You know, they've got records withmusic plants like to hear. Theygot books with stuff you're supposed to say. Now they got these bright,shiny clothes, you wear them around plants, makes them grow. Clothes for plants. MICKEY: Okay, Bob. I'm BARBERSON: only tellingyou. And somewhat earlier she asked George if he had heard the weather, to which he replies, "Lookout the door, you don't got to hear the weather,"referringto the late-night rain.

Woman is also seen in the role of sex object. Inthe course of the narrationof one of his day's experiences, the policeman refers to a speeding driver's anxiousness to get home because of the woman in the seat beside him:"Icheck out the broad next to him, To got her jugs fallingout, I can see why he's in a hurry." which one of the plainclothesmen shortly adds:

JUNGIAN ANALYSIS 81 I had a partner once. Nielson. Remember Nielson? This guy, he gets hot one afternoon, he's drivingaround in a cage car, picks up some broad. He drives over to Montrose beach, hangs his shirt on the antenna, and jumps in back withthe broad. Thestupid fuck's so hot to get laid, he slams the door, forgets to rolldown the window.So they do a number, he tries to get out, all of a sudden it dawns on him-there ain't no handle in a cage car, he's locked in the cage with the fuckin' broad. Whathappens is a dude's cruising the area, sees the shirt on the antenna, calls in an "officerin distress"just as a joke, right? Ten, fifteen squads pull up, lights, sirens, the whole shot, there's Nielson in the back with this naked broad. Animositytoward women continues to be shown in the policeman's furthernarration. "Mypartner,meanwhile, is so hot with his fuckin'strokebook, he says, 'Whydon't you go in get a cup of coffee, I'mgonna bust me a hooker.'" It is no small factor that during all this MickeyiS never offstage. She sits docilely at the counter, well past two in the morning, drowsilytryingto read a paper, responding only to a summons for service or to be abused verbally. In effect, she is the least

importantmember of this otherwise all-male cast, and yet she, or her sex, is central to the play's every word-even when not woman but, for example, guns is the subject. Preoccupation with guns is typical of the insecure male, not merely for its phallic implications, but because it represents power of an exceptionally violent sort. These men are, for all their sexual references (fuck, fucker, fucking, etc. are interlardedinto

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every sentence many times over), basically sexless beings; if they were not, they would not be so obsessed with the topic. Failureto deal with their sexual lives on a satisfying and creative and naturallevel forces them to debase sex into a power ploy. They fear creative, liberating, mutual sexual activity because to them it is suspect, it is a sign of weakness, it is a feminine trait because it reflects love and joy, and therefore it becomes transformed into an exclusively male pastime, in which woman is merely the object. But the sense of inferiority the male in present-day society is another reason for of his use of power as a crutch. In a technological society the individual in general is rendered obsolete. Individualismis discouraged and conformityis praised. Freedom of mind is feared by the establishment and submission exalted-the years of Nazism and the more recent Silent Majoritybeing the most frighteningcontemporaryexamples. To live in such a milieu is to find oneself not free, physicallyor intellectually,with the result that one's uniqueness is buried in the process. Violence and power, even in its petty but no-less-destructive state, as found in Cops, is the product of a repressive and dehumanizing social organization. Power and violence are the most available means of attempting to escape that reality.The males in this play are prime examples. Mickey, then, serves not only as the repressed anima factor, but as the shadow as well. She is all that a patriarchalstructure cannot accept. She is, and has always been, the societal scapegoat, the bearer of many of the projected-because most fearedtendencies of the male of the species. She is seen not for what she is, but for what has been projected onto her in fear. In this play, and in Western society in general, she is joined by the homosexual-by the male homosexual in particular.The two plainclothes officers are in fact "faggot-busters,"or at least that is the implication.We hear the term "faggot"many times over, and "pansy"is used as an alternativefrom time to time. The gay is seen not as a male, but as one who, by virtueof his sexual orientation,partakes of the feminine. Gay sex is female sex, and female sex is suspect in macho terms, because it is not power-oriented but perhaps the most liberated (because socially scorned and feared) expression of the life-force. These officers, then, bolster their insecure masculinityby catching, humiliating,and busting faggots. Theirfunctionas socially acceptable people is uncontested. All this is finally revealed in the play's concluding action, the accidental eruption of a shoot-out between a pusher and the three policemen. In the course of this the uniformed policeman is killed-probably only wounded by the pusher's fire and left to die by the two other officers while they play police games with the killer.But this is the least importantaction of the final scene of the play. Duringthe entire extended scene, with all its attendantviolence, vulgarity,and faggot projectiononto the killer,Mickeylies there dead, accidentally,but unremorsefully,felled by one of the officers'firstshots. Her dead body is sprawled in the center of this shoot-out, bleeding, on the dirty linoleum floor, but no one so much as gives her any notice, whereas much is made of the policeman, whether he is wounded or dead. She might as well not exist. She is, after all, dispensable. Only a servant. No more. This final scene summarizes quite unforgettablythe social position of the play's central character. She is a secondary citizen, an outcast, one feared and distrusted to the core. She is, in the terms of Jungian psychology, the least recognized and most repressed element of the male psyche and of the male chauvinist society in which she exists. Cops is a warning dream trying to break through societal repressions with images of unfalteringhonesty in an attempt to correct a wrong that has dominated the society of the Western world for too many thousands of years.
All Cops photographs are from a dress rehearsal.

Shaggy Dog Animation
For all of its productioncomplexityas produced and realized by Mabou Mines, Lee Breuer's Shaggy Dog Animation is basically a simple work. It consists of an extended monolog by the "shaggy dog" that has been distributed among a host of actors and actresses in a multiplicityof different roles. Only in Act Three does another distinct character emerge to speak for himself, John Greed, the master of the shaggy dog. The play is an elaborate and successful manifestationof a dream. The dreamer is John Greed, though on a larger scale it is the dream of a male chauvinist social structure. John Greed is the master of the shaggy dog whose dreams are offeringup a potent warning regarding the dangerous state of his existence and how it willend if no change is forthcoming. The shaggy dog (read bitch) is the image of woman in that society. She is used, she is abused; she is sex object, she is enchained; she is encouraged to grovel; she is trained to eat her master's "shit,"as she says on a number of occasions. She is the anima of John trying to save him as well as her own creative presence in him before it is too late. The dream is a warning of present danger, and of the devastation that is on the way. The best clue to the play'stheme is a standard dictionarydefinitionof a shaggy-dog story: a long, ramblingjoke, typicallyinvolvingludicrouslyunreal or irrationalbehavior and usuallyhaving an irrelevantconclusion. Indeed the work is long and rambling(some four hours in playing time), but the "joke"is dead serious, and the ludicrouslyunreal or irrationalbehavior is nothing less than ludicrous and irrational, except for the fact that it is utterly real if we strip away the cartoon terms in which it is expressed. The work is divided into three acts. Act One deals with the statement of the problem; Act Two is the shaggy dog's awakening to the problem; and Act Three is her revolt against the problem. The problem is simply the place of the female in contemporary society or, in Jungian terms, the lack of acceptance that the male extends to the feminine in himself as a result of his culturallyimposed fear and distrust of that factor, the anima. Earlyin Act One the phrase "somewhere under the rainbow"serves as a definition of where the play's action takes place: in a land of unhappiness, of discontent, where the morally unjustifiedmanipulationof the feminine principle is the norm. The shaggy dog's name is Rose, a fair indication in symbolic terms of what she could be to the male if only he were to accept her as a functional member of his biological make up and as coequal in external societal terms. The rose is a symbol of not only the feminine in its positive and creative aspect, but of the mystic center as well. Isolated from his feminine aspect, the male ego is an unbalanced, unrealized,one-sided thing. It is only when the male ego joins coequally with its feminine side that the male achieves the life-givingunion of opposites in both the Jungian and the Blakeiansense. It is only then that the center is reached. The anima leads the male, in dreams and in art,to that center of himself where creative wholeness and productivity the highest level lie on slumbering. Ariadne served precisely that function to Theseus in the maze by means of her thread. The author of Shaggy Dog sees Rose in exactly those same terms. In Act Three Rose says: How any fool could fail to see the thread of silk I was unwinding.How any fool could fail to see the permanence of fragility.HowI, like an ion, with an unbalanced charge, bore a bond in the field of force called rapture.

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No better description of the function of the male's anima has ever been expressed. It explodes upon the dark, deadly sickness of the play's final moments like a tower of fire rising out of a benighted mindscape. InAct One Rose's innervoice lays out for her a vividdescription of Rose's condition in an attempt to waken her to reality: Here's where I'mobjective, Rose. Here's where I visualize us as object. Hey, Rose, wake up, Rose. Come on. Think "love object," Rose.... Rose, wake up. We'vegot to go out. Nobody's going to walk us, Rose. All our best friends are dead to the world.Rose, wake up. It's twelve. It's cold. The closet is bare. We've nothing to wear. Soon after this call for rebellion, Rose responds with:"Ipaid the only way I could in my position. I ate shit." The voice again prompts Rose to rebellion against her master, John Greed: Now I'mgoing to give you some directions.... I'mgoing to ask you to deal withtraditionalmaterial. Yourstupidity,and its transmutation.... I'm a prompter, love. I have a book in front of me. That's all the difference.... Don't be a dummy. This is a golden opportunityto fix the mechanism of your life. Rose as a psychic factor resides in the dreamer's personal unconscious. Rose's inner voice represents a factor from the collective, or objective, unconscious. She represents archetypal woman, and the book she prompts from is the knowledge of the totalityof woman's experience as encoded in the development of the human brain. As a result of this objective information,Rose's awareness is heightened when she realizes that "Iwas not a lap dog, which meant, I was baggage." Towardthe end of Act One Rose has a vision of oneness, a union of opposites, with her master, whom she sees as a dog like herself, as one of her own species. Itis a vision because it has never happened, and because it probably never will. Then we'll wander rightoff the edge of the mountain, onto clouds that lie against it like a glacier of dreams. And there, at last, you'llslip down my back and turn around, liftingyour hind leg over. And we'll stand dog butt to dog butt in a tie so tight our heat will steam the clouds away. At the end of the first act Rose is finally roused to a peak of anger against John: The time has come to tell the world that you fuck dogs, man. Youfuck them over, and over, and over. Act Two concerns itself withthe breakup,the desertion of John by Rose. But before that breakup we see Rose in the guise of a number of differentdomestically, socially, and sexually enslaved women, men, and even a very young girl dressed up as a vulgar sex object. As a result of the indignities that these refractions of Rose are made to endure, Rose finallyvoices her utter discontent with her dog's position and expresses the desire to rise to the position of a human being. All along I had these yearnings. I confess now, I had upwardlymobile yearnings. A backyard, a little life insurance. All along I dreamed of life, somewhere, where I could hold my head up. All along I dreamed

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of holding my head up, about five foot five, withheels. But all along I'd been dead wrong. It was pure madness.... I was saving myself for a chance at the big time, a chance to change, master, in one lifetime, from your dog into your mistress. Act Three sees John deserted by Rose who is now in an asylum. As rejected anima she has now been repressed by John into a state of limbo or, in the play'sterms, into an asylum for the insane. We now see Rose as a puppet, old and grey and drawn (she earlier appeared as a young puppet). It is an apt image for one stripped of will and independence duringall of her life. Now, however, she possesses an objectivitythat she largely lacked before. Lines like, "I'mlost to you, John Greed. More'sthe pity.You'relost to yourself,"express the realitythat as a result of her "departure"under his repression of her, John is now a mere shell of himself, which is not to say that he was ever anything more than a sexually and socially stereotyped male. It is only that now his life force is gone, one half of him is lost. This is made vividlyclear when we see John, for the first time in the play, as a puppet. His strings, too, just like Rose's, are societally manipulated; he is caught in the same trap as she. John is on the street making a series of phone calls to various women, but he fails totallyto connect. He is, in fact, penniless, having to borrowdimes for the calls. One of the calls John makes is to the infirmpuppet Rose in the asylum. But her phone is never answered. In the course of the phone conversations, John receives vital information. "Whatdo you mean I'm in bad shape?" he asks. "What?Work in? You don't know what you're asking." The whole problem is that John has never looked into himself, never tried to find and release the self that lies dormant in his mystic center. To ask him to do so is to ask too much. Itwould not only have violated the rules of a patriarchal social structure,it would have demanded unspeakable struggle for him. But to "work in" is the only solution. In the course of these phone conversations, John comes to some startling selfrealizations. My life had escaped my notice. I was such a nothing.... I perceived that I, myself, was not a self-supporting system.... Well,frankly,I had a creative crisis. That crisis was nothing less than his inabilityto come to terms withthe other side of his biological equation: his anima. John describes trying to center himself, to "work in," but he found himself perverting the process. Instead of zeroing in on self, he became self-centered, self-indulgent, one seeking self-satisfaction. He concludes with,"here I am, man, on the edge. I'mon the edge of being a self-made man."His last call, a long distance collect call to a foreign state, is refused: "You'resaying she rejects. Man, she don't understand. I'mon the edge." On the other side of the stage, puppet Rose is reading from Maldororabout dogs howlingat the universe "and at man who makes slaves out of dogs." As a result of their enslaved condition, the dogs go berserk, run wild, madly attack strangers, and finally tear one another into a thousand pieces. The line that concludes this description is: "They do not behave thus from cruelty." The passage, as used by the play's author, is a metaphor for what has happened to Rose at the hands of the society of which John Greed is simply a representative:Rose enslaved; Rose driven insane; Rose in asylum (insanitybeing mental dismemberment).

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"They do not behave thus from cruelty," says that Rose's nature was distorted by societal pressures, from positive to negative, from Good Motherto TerribleMother.Just as the dogs do not behave thus from cruelty, neither does she. She is forced by repression into measures that she has no likingfor, Not only is she John's anima, but a major portion of his shadow as well, inasmuch as she is a feared and therefore repressed factor. Perhaps because of puppet John's fragmentaryself-realizationon the phone, Rose reappears as the shaggy dog for a final monolog of intense and burningurgency. Rose again faces John with his guilt:"Thetruthputs you to sleep." She questions whether she should "get fixed for good"-which is to say, destroy her creativityand capacity to feel pain and suffering-and perhaps live with him in quite formal but unemotional terms, like the living dead. Inthe end, however, she realizes that to capitulate,to cut herself free of her roots of love, to put herself back into a losing game, is no longer desirable or possible. Her closing lines speak for themselves. They are addressed not only to John Greed, the dreamer-himself now howling at the moon because of the agony of being only a half person, a shell, a puppet-but to a social structure, to a patriarchal world where acceptance of its most feared and suspect factor, the feminine, is still, in overwhelming measure, on the bottom of the human spectrum or, in terms of this play, gone to the dogs. The implicationis that no matter how much progress has been made in the last two decades, it is still only skin deep, sheer tokenism; and that no resolution is possible untilJohn succeeds at "workingin." Jack smack, I hear you knocking. But you can't come in. Sing me a chorus of CherryPie. Wronglife, baby. Next time, maybe. I tell you the truth.Only sleeping dogs lie.

Carl R. Muelleris a professorof Theatre Arts at UCLA a translator Brecht,Buchner, and of etc. Wedekind,

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