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`territorial issues and border conflicts with India, the socio-economic differences within the country, the struggle

for a share of power between the provinces and the early death of the founder of Pakistan Mohammad Ali Jinnah, are some of those realities which not only politicized the policy making elites and their willingness in introducing the fair democratic procedures but also encouraged the non-democratic elements in the country including the army. Even after 63 years, as a corollary, the country could not get cleaned from feudal, tribal, punchayt system and sectarian segregation. In this grim situation the public has been left untutored in the kind of vigilance usually needed to hold political leaders accountable. Pakistan failed to establish a stable democratic government due to constitutional conflict. Due to political instability, Pakistans economic and social growth has been curtailed. The root cause of Pakistan political woes lies in its feudal and the winner-take-all approach to governing that has been practiced by successive civilian and military leaders. The Muslim League that brought independence to Pakistan, lacked internal democracy. Once partition and statehood had been achieved, provincial and local political parties confined Muslim League just a paper-party. There were no opposition party to counter Muslim League initially, but latter on, Muslim league itself was disappeared. Coupled with the political legacy of Muslim League, the civil and military bureaucracy, that was of much importance due to its scarce number, gained so much power that they depressed the political institution. The constitution-less 10 years-history from 1947 to 1956-was an ill exercise of the political actors, which invoked the military to interfere in the politics. Absence of a complete constitution, allowed the peoples with power to manipulate the political and constitutional institution, as they wanted. Different powerful civil and military bureaucrats played blasphemy of constitution, parliament and political parties. Political parties in Pakistan are not working fairly. The intra-party election is no to be seen. The leaders, consequently, are autocrats. Political parties are famous in the name of leader of the parties. Personification has harmed extremely the true essence of democracy. The third pillar of the state, the judiciary has also dual strategies all over the history. Mostly the role of the judiciary has been vulnerable. It has always provided a so-called legal way to the dictators to assume the power. The constitution has been abrogated many a time with the help of the judiciary. Beside the judiciary and Armys role in politics, the intelligence agencies have become a major actor on the national political scene. Military intelligence and Inter-Services-Intelligence (ISI) are widely believed to have had a major hand in shaping the candidates and the choices available to voters at least since General Zias general election of 1985. In these situation how a true democratic government would be formed to realized the dreams of the great Quaid?

In addition to all above given anti-democracy factors, the dynamic structure of the state is also not in the favour of democratic values to be flourished. For most of its history Pakistan has been divided into provinces drawn basically on ethnic lines. Political loyalties and attitude have a strong ethnic dimension to them, and the central governments desires to manage Pakistans ethnic diversity can have a major impact on resource allocation foreign policy decision, and the game of politics. Another elements which has vitiated the democracy in Pakistan is violance in politics. The patience require for a democratic system is highly tacking in almost all the parties and theirs drivers. Democracy accommodate the presence of dissent party. Democracy is the product of wishes of the people and not of the desires of an elite few. But political prayer of Pakistan could not do so. Illiterate voters, family ties a among politicians and feudalism has constrained democracy in Pakistan. Since March 2007, tensions in Pakistan have been rising: the political instability surrounding both the presidential and parliamentary elections is commingling with the increase in militant activity within Pakistan proper, which led to around 60 suicide attacks in Pakistan in 2007. Following Benazir Bhutto's assassination on December 27, the extremists have upped the ante, perhaps hoping to disrupt the February 18 elections. Is Pakistan becoming the world's "most dangerous nation"?

BACKGROUND Since gaining independence in 1947, Pakistan has veered back and forth between democratically-elected and authoritarian military leaders, coupled with an unstable relationship with neighboring India and Bangladesh. From 1988 to 1999, following Zia ul Haq's death, democracy - albeit an unstable one - reigned; power alternated between Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif, with neither completing a full term as Prime Minister. Finally, in October 1999, a Chief of Army Staff, Pervez Musharraf, led a coup against Sharif and took over as President.

CURRENT SITUATION Over the past eight years, President Musharraf has done many good things for Pakistan, most notably building a relatively stable and fast-growing economy (GDP growth in 2006 was 6.5%). However, he has made no effort to create independent institutions, improve the provision of education and other social services, or establish local governance systems and networks. The situation has worsened significantly over the past year: the judiciary is now thoroughly politicized, the media is restricted by a "code of conduct", and the interim government is biased. Meanwhile, Musharraf's approval ratings have

almost halved from 51% in late 2006 to 28% in early January 2008. Musharraf continues to prioritize his own political survival; however, he is no longer trusted by either the Pakistani people or the international community, leaving him in an untenable situation. The recent deterioration of Pakistan's political situation has been driven by the following events:

In March 2007, Musharraf suspended Chief Justice Iftikhar Mohammed Chaudhry for misconduct, triggering a public outcry. Four months later, Chaudhry was reinstated in a ruling by his own Supreme Court; however, the incident sparked an enormous grassroots movement for change. In July, security forces raided Islamabad's Red Mosque, a center for radical and militant thought, killing cleric Abdul Rashid Ghazi and an undetermined number of followers (estimates range from around 100 to over 1000). Consequently, Musharraf lost the support of the mullahs, who wield enormous social and moral power in Pakistan. On October 6, Musharraf was overwhelmingly reelected President while still acting as Chief of Army Staff. The majority of opposition delegates boycotted the election, and the Supreme Court began assessing the legitimacy of the results. On November 3, Musharraf declared a state of emergency and dismissed Chaudhry once again, staffing the caretaker government and judiciary with loyal supporters. As a result, his already-wavering public support plummeted. In late November, Musharraf removed his uniform, appointing General Kiyani as the new Chief of Army Staff, and a day later was inaugurated in a new term as president. On December 27, nearly two weeks after Musharraf ended emergency rule, Benazir Bhutto was assassinated at a campaign rally. Her 19-year-old son, Bilawal Bhutto Zardari, and her husband, Asif Zardari, were appointed in her stead. In light of the violence that ensued, the parliamentary elections were pushed back to February 18. In January 2008, there were at least four major suicide attacks within Pakistan proper; more have followed. Violence and military activity in the tribal areas has risen significantly.

The lack of predictability and transparency through both the presidential and parliamentary elections has amplified the confusion, the instability, and Musharraf's loss of credibility. Recently, these political fights have been compounded by a concurrent rise in militancy, which has fed into the ongoing sectarian violence throughout Pakistan and the fight for more autonomy in Baluchistan. Security in Pakistan is fading; this fact was made clear in January when refugees flooded into Afghanistan from Pakistan, the former being perceived as providing a safer environment.