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Jocelyn Rodriguez 11-8-12 Period 3 Ionic vs.

Covalent Bonding Lab Investigation

Introduction: Most atoms are never found by themselves; instead they are bonded to other atoms in ionic or covalent bonds. This is because some atoms instead share electrons when they form molecules. Ionic bonding occurs when atoms either gain or lose one or more valence electrons, resulting in the atom having either a negative or positive charge. Instead of losing or gaining electrons, some atoms share electrons and the molecules become more stable. Atoms that form bonds by this method is called covalent bonding, that are usually non-metals. Hypothesis Table 1: The expected results of testing five different chemical substances Compounds to be Chemical Hypothesis 1: Hypothesis 2: Hypothesis 3: Tested Formula Ionic or Covalent High or Low Will it conduct Melting Point? electricity? Distilled (pure) H2O Covalent Low No Water Sodium chloride Sucrose (sugar) Dextrose Sodium sulfate NaCI C12H22O11 C6H12O6 NaSO4 Ionic Covalent Ionic Ionic High Low High High Only when dissolved No Yes Only when dissolved

Procedures: Part I. Melting Point and Strength of Bonds 1. Fold the aluminum foil to be able to fit on the ring-stand then, place the different compounds on the alumium foil at the same time. 2. Place the tray on the ring stand and heat with the Bunsen burner.

Jocelyn Rodriguez 11-8-12 Period 3 3. Begin recording your observations, and keep track of the order the samples melt by, whether they have strong or weak bonds. 4. Let the foil cool down and then wash it off into the sink. Part II. Electrical Conductivity 1. Weigh each compounds. 2. Test the compounds for conductivity, then record your observations. 3. Add water drops to dissolve the compounds. 4. Test the solution and make sure you wash the tester with water after every use. 5. Finally you repeat for the rest of the samples. Results: 2 Name/Chemical Formula: 1. Distilled (pure) Water/ 2. Sodium Chloride/NaCI 3. Sucrose (sugar)/ 4. Dextrose/ 5. Sodium sulfate Conclusion: After this laboratory, it was concluded that Sodium Chloride, Sodium Sulfate were ionic compounds, while water, sucrose, dextrose were covalent compounds. All of the intitial hypothesis were correct except dextrose. From the results, the ionic compounds were those that concluded electricity in water and high melting points (strong bonds). However the covalent compounds had low melting point, and they did not conduct electricity. Ionic Part I: Melting Point Part II: Conducted (1-5; High, Med. or Electricity? (Yes/No) Low?) 1 = low 5 = high 2 = low 3 = med. 4 = high Final Conclusion: Ionic or Covalent Bonds? Covalent Ionic Covalent Covalent Ionic

Jocelyn Rodriguez 11-8-12 Period 3 bonds are formed from metal cations (+) and non-metal anions (-) so when they dissolve in water, electricity can flow through the solution. Additionally, ionic bonds are very strong since is produced when a metal reacts with a nonmetal. When the an ionci is dissolved in water, it dissociate intion cations and anions, which causes it to conduct electricity. It is formed when electrons are transferred from the metal to the nonmetal. The metal has a low ionization energy, so it it loses its electrons, creating a positively charged cation. The nonmetal has a high electronegativity, so it gains electrons, creating a negatively charged anion. This happens when both metal cation and the nonmetal anion have a full valence shell.