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In solving for the over-all heat transfer coefficient, if there is a convective heat transfer, recall that, its resistance is given by the equation-

Where R = resistance, h = film coefficient/ convective heat transfer coefficient and A = heat transfer area. Now, to solve for the resistance, we need to have the film coefficient. Compared to the conductive heat transfer, where the value of the thermal conductivity, k, only depends just on temperature and the type of material used, the convective heat transfer coefficient is not just a simple constant. It actually depends on certain factors, depending on the conditions of heat transfer. Geankoplis (2003) had given us the equations for the h where it depends on different factors. The table given below will summarize the equations for h in different scenarios. Scenario/Conditions Equations Used --->Nusselt number ( Laminar flow Inside a pipe ( <2100) ) ( ) Illustration

Where: D = pipe diameter in m L = pipe length before mixing occurs in the pipe, m = fluid viscosity at average temperature = viscosity at the wall temperature = Reynolds number = = Prandtl Number = k = thermal conductivity, W/m K ha = average thermal conductivity, W/m2 K

Turbulent Flow Inside a Pipe or a Tube ( > 6000, = between 0.7 and 16000 )

Where: = fluid viscosity at average temperature = viscosity at the wall temperature = Reynolds number = = Prandtl Number =

Scenario/Conditions Air at 1 atm (Turbulent Flow) Inside a Pipe or a Tube (English System)

Equations Used

Illustration

For fully developed turbulent flow with uniform heat flux and is between 100 and 10000 Liquid-Metals Heat Transfer Coefficient Where: = Nusselt number = Peclet Number = For constant wall temperatures and >100-

Scenario/Conditions

Equations Used

Illustration

Here, in a flat plate, instead of diameter, we will use the length of the flat plate. This equation is valid for Flow Parallel to Flat laminar flow. Plate

This equation is valid for turbulent flow or at a Reynolds number above 30000 and Prandtl number greater than 0.7 .

Wherein, to solve the Reynolds number, D is the outside tube diameter and all the physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature Tf. The values for C and m are as follows: If = 1-4, m = 0.330, C = 0.989 If = 4-40, m = 0.385, C =0.911 If = 40-4000, m = 0.466, C = 0.683 If = 4000-40000, m = 0.618, C = 0.193 If = 40000-250000, m = 0.805, C = 0.0266

Wherein, all the physical properties are evaluated at the film temperature Tf.

These are some of the equations used to solve for the film coefficient, h. As we have seen, most equations are expressed in terms of the Nusselt number. We will prove that the Nusselt number is the one that is related to the value of h, by the use of dimensional analysis by Buckingham Pi-Theorem.

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