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Geography Notes for Class: X [Social Science]

Prepared By:

SOMNATH
SOJAT CITY
INDEX S. No. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Name of Chapter Resources an Development Forest and Wildlife Resources Water Resources Agriculture Minerals and Energy Resources Manufacturing Industries Lifeline of National Economy Page No. 01 04 06 08 11 13 17

CHAPTER 1: RESOURCES AND DEVELOPMENT Remember These Points Anything available in the environment and can be used to satisfy the needs of human being is called as resource, e.g. water, land, air, minerals, wildlife etc. Leaching is a process which takes place in high temperature and rainfall area. In this process minerals of the soil are dissolved into the rainwater and they move down in the soil. Laterite soil is formed by this process. Black soil is also called as regur soil. Manganese nodules are extracted from Indian Ocean. Full form of UNCED is United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. Rajasthan has abundant solar and wind energy potential. Earth Summit was held in Rio de Jeniro [Brazil] in 1992. The book written by Schumacher is Small is Beautiful. Black soil is formed by weathering of lava rocks. Red soil is formed by weathering of igneous rocks. It looks red due to iron-oxide. Land degraded by gully erosion in Chambal River basin is called Ravines or Bad Land.

Types or Classification of Resources On the basis of origin: 1. Biotic: Those resources which has life are called biotic resources e.g. plants, trees, animals etc. 2. Abiotic: Those resources which do not have life are called as abiotic resources e.g. land, water, minerals etc. On the basis of exhaustibility: a) Renewable [Forest, Wildlife, Water] b) Non-Renewable [Metals, Fossils Fuels] On the basis of ownership: a) Individual [land, plot, well, pond] b) Community [Grazing land, burial ground, park] c) National [Minerals, Forest, Rivers] d) International [EEZ Ocean up to 200 km] On the basis of development:

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1. Potential Resources: Resources which are found in an area but not have been utilized. For example, Rajasthan and Gujurat has enough potential to produce solar energy due to cloudless sky and more temperature. 2. Developed Resources: When resources found in a region are surveyed by engineer and their quality and quantity are determine for utilization, it is called developed resource. Technology and capital help in development of resources. 3. Stock Resources: Material found in our environment can satisfy many of our need but they are not used because of lack of appropriate technology. For example, water has hydrogen, a good source of energy, but due appropriate technology water is not being used as fuel. 4. Reserve Resources: Reserve is those parts of stock which can be utilized using existing technology. But these resources are not being used and they have been left for future generation. They are called reserve. Sustainable Development: Development without damaging the environment is called as sustainable development. This development meets the demands of present generation as well as future generations. Earth Summit and Agenda 21 : Earth Summit is an international conference on environment. It was held in Rio de Jeniro [Brazil] in 1992. In the conference leaders of the words discussed about sustainable development and they adopted 21 points policy which is called Agenda 21. Resource Planning and Its Steps Resource planning is method to use the resources in optimum way so that maximum benefit should reach to maximum people. Resource planning also means avoiding wastage, misuse and overuse of resources. There are three steps for resource planning. a) Identification and inventory of resources by surveying and mapping b) Evolving a planning structure to use the resources with appropriate technology c) Matching resource development plan with national development plan Need and Methods of Conservation of Resources Father of the nation Mahatma Gandhi said that There is enough for everybodys need and not for anybodys greed. We should conserve resources for following reasons. a) Resources are not found everywhere. They are unevenly distributed. b) Resources are limited. Many of the resources are non-renewable. c) Resources should be conserved for reducing all kinds of pollution. d) Resources are also conserved for sustainable development. e) Conservation is needed to protect natural heritage. Methods or measurements for resource conservation are as under: a) Wastage, misuse and overuse of resources should be avoided. b) Renewable resources should be used more e.g. solar energy, wind energy etc. c) Older technology should be replaced with newer, modern and efficient technology. d) Awareness should be created among the people. e) Govt. should pass strict laws for establishment and location of industries. f) Used items should be recycled using new technology. Land Use and Its Category Land is used for various purposes in a country. India has vast land resource. Total area of our country is about 3.28 million sq. km. India ranks 7th in the world in term of size. But most of parts are covered by either mountain or plateau. India has only 43% plain where agriculture is possible. Mountains are good sources of biotic resources where varieties of minerals are found in the plateau. There are 5 categories under land use. 1. Forest 2. Land not available for cultivation 3. Other uncultivated land 4. Fallow land 5. Net sown area

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Land not available for cultivation includes barren land, waste land and land which is used for building, roads, parks, factories etc. Fallow land is that land which is left uncultivated by the farmer. Farmer leaves some land to give rest to the land. Lands are also left fallow due low rainfall, lack of capital or seeds etc. Fallow land for one or less than one year is called Current Fallow. If land is left fallow for more than one but less than five years it is called as Other Fallow land. Net sown area is the actual land on which agriculture is done. Some parts of net sown area is used more than one time in a single agricultural season. When this land is added with net sown area, it is called gross sown area or gross cropped area.

Land Degradation and Its Causes Lowering the quality of land up to such an extent that the land become unfit for any use, it is called as land degradation. About 130 million hectare of lands are degraded in India. Following are the causes of land degradation. a) Deforestation cutting of trees and forest b) Erosion by rain water and wind c) Water logging in low lying area d) Increasing salinity [salt] due to over irrigation e) Dumping of urban and industrial waste on valuable land f) Mining and quarrying activities for extracting minerals Soil, Its Formation & Factors Affecting Soil Formation Meaning of Soil: It is an important an renewable resource. It is upper part of the crust which is loose and fragmented. It has air, water and minerals contents and it support growth of plants. Bacteria and other small organisms are also found in the soil which makes it more fertile. Formation of Soil: Soil is formed by weathering and erosion of rocks. Temperature and rainfall breaks down the rock into smaller parts. After mixing of water and minerals in these sediments, it acquires the form of soil. Following factors affect soil formation. Factors Affecting Soil Formation a) Parent Rocks: It determined the colour, texture and mineral contents in soil b) Climate [Rainfall and Temperature]: It determines rate of weathering and erosion of rocks. c) Topography [Slope]: On higher land thin layer of soil is found, while in the lower valley thick deposition of alluvium is found. d) Vegetation [Plants and Trees]: They add organic matter [Humus] to the soil. e) Time: Older soils are generally more fertile than newer soil. Soil Erosion and Methods of Soil Conservation Soil Erosion: Removal of top and fertile layer of soil by the agents like rainwater and wind is called soil erosion. Soil erosion is a acute problem in India. Chambal river basin is so badly eroded that this entire area is called as Bad Land or Ravines. There are three types of erosion, i.e. a) Sheet Erosion, b) Rill Erosion and c) Gully Erosion [Most Dangerous]. Followings are the reasons for soil erosion. Reason a) b) c) for Soil Erosion: Deforestation Cutting down of trees and forests Torrential [heavy] rainfall Overgrazing by cattle d) Unscientific agriculture [Ploughing land parallel to the slope] e) Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and irrigation Measurement to Check Soil Erosion: a) Afforestation Planting trees on degraded land b) Plugging of gullies c) Check on overgrazing by cattle d) Scientific agriculture [Ploughing land at right angle of slope Contour Ploughing]

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e) Crop rotation f) Terrace farming g) Preparation of shelter belt Short Note on Alluvial Soil It is the most fertile and extensive soil in India. It is found in the river valleys of Ganga, Yamuna, Indus and Brahmaputra. This soil has been formed by deposition of sediments in the northern plain. This soil is found from Punjab up to Assam. It is also found along the coastal areas. Coarse soil near the mountain foothill is called duars, chos and tarai. In the plain area, lower parts are called khadar and upper parts are called banger. This soil is ideal for the agriculture of rice, wheat, sugarcane, pulses and many other crops. Short Note on dry. Black Soil This soil is formed by the weathering of lava rocks. It looks black due to presence of magnesium in it. It is found mainly in Maharastra, Gujarat and Karnataka [Deccan Trap]. Black soil has high capacity to hold moisture. It become sticky when it is wet and develop crack when it is It is best for the cultivation of cotton. Hence, it is called as Black Cotton Soil. It is also known as Regur Soil.

CHAPTER 2: FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES Remember These Points Biodiversity: Variety of plants and animals found in an area is called biodiversity. Flora: It refers to grasses, plants, trees etc of an area. Fauna: It means birds, animals, reptiles, insects of an area. IUCN: It full name is International Union for Conservation of Nature. Biosphere Reserve: It is vast area having great biological diversity. In these areas, natural plants and animals are protected for future generation. Example Nandadevi Biosphere Reserve in Uttranchal. Biodiversity [Flora & Fauna] in India India is very rich in biological diversity. There are variety of plants and animals found in our country. India has nearly 8% of the total number of species found in the world. About 81,000 species of fauna [animals] and 47,000 species of flora [plants] are found in India. India is famous for rhino, elephant, tiger, lion, monkey, snakes, peacock etc.

Biodiversity and Its Importance Meaning of Biodiversity: Various species of plants, trees, animals, birds, reptiles etc. found in an area is called biodiversity. They are good natural resources. They are important because: a) Plants and trees give us oxygen. b) Woods for furniture and construction are provided by forest. c) Some plants are of medicinal use e.g. tulsi, neem, sarpgandha, aawla etc. d) Leaves, roots, fruits, lac, rasin etc are collected from forest. e) Animals provides us meat, fur, skin, bone etc. f) Combine, plants and animals maintain food chain in the ecosystem. Importance of Forest in Our Lives a) Forest provides timber for furniture and construction work. b) It absorbs CO2 and provides us with oxygen. c) Branches, leaves and roots of trees protect soil from erosion. d) Forests are natural habitat for variety of wildlife. e) Forest maintains ecological balance and food chain. f) It provides fuel wood to rural people. g) Lac, honey, herbs etc are collected from forest for commercial use.

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Classification of Species by IUCN Many species of plants and animals are under threat due to over exploitation by the human being. International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN] has classified the species into following category: a) Normal Species: There is no threat to these species, their population is sufficient in the environment. b) Rare Species: Species with small population is called rare. They are rarely seen in the forest. Example Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox etc. c) Vulnerable Species: Population of these species decreases to such an extent that they may become endangered. Example blue sheep, Asiatic elephant etc. d) Endangered Species: Population of these species become so small that they come under danger of extinction. If negative factors continue, they may become extinction. Example Indian rhino, black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass etc. e) Extinct Species: These species are not found anywhere in the world. They have gone from our earth for forever. Example Asiatic Cheetah, pink head duck etc. R easons for Depletion of Biodiversity [Flora and Fauna] Human activities are mainly responsible for depletion of biodiversity. Followings are the reasons or causes behind loss of flora and fauna. a) Deforestation, illegal cutting of trees, and forest fire b) Hunting and poaching of wild animals for skin, tusk, bone etc. c) Construction of dam, road, railways in the forest d) Pollution and global warming leading to climatic change e) Increasing human population pressure on the forest resources Methods or M easures to Conserve Biodiversity a) Deforestation should be totally stopped. Instead, trees should be planted on degraded land and on land where was forest earlier. b) People should start movement against tree cutting such as Chipko Movement. c) Vanmahotsava and similar kind of events should be celebrated to conserve forest. d) Mass media, e.g. TV, radio, newspapers etc, should used for creating awareness. e) Govt. should pass and implement [Indian Wildlife [Protection] Act 1972] strict laws against illegal cutting of trees, hunting and poaching. f) Various project like Project Tiger; Project Rhine etc should be started. g) More National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserve should be identified. h) There should be frequent survey and census to count population of different species found in the forest. Role of C ommunity [local people] in Conserving Forest and Wildlife Community or local people are very helpful in conserving biodiversity i.e. plants and animals. Many communities live in the forest. Forest is home of many traditional people. a) In Rajasthan, local people came forward to stop mining activities to protect Sariska Tiger Reserve. b) People of Alwar District of Rajasthan have declared 1200 hectares of land as Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri in which they dont allow hunting. c) In Jharkhand, Munda tribe worship Mahua and Kadamb trees and they protect them from cutting. d) Famous Chipko Movement in Himalaya was started by local community only. Beej Bachao Andolan and Navdanya movements have also been started in Himalaya. e) Joint Forest Management [JFM] stated in India is good method of involving local community in forest conservation. Types of Forests in India

a) Reserved Forests: These forests are earmarked only for production of timber. Grazing of animals and cultivation of
crops are not allowed in these forests. About 54% forests are grouped under reserved forests.

b) Protected Forests: These forests are protected from further depletion. Right of grazing and cultivation is allowed
with certain restriction. About 29% forests come under protected forests.

c) Unclassed Forests: There is no restriction in these forests. These forests belong to government and private
individuals. About 16% forests are unclassed forests. Distribution of Forest in India

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About 33% land must be under forest for ecological balance. But, only 23% land is under forest in India. Distribution of forest in India is not uniform. Andman and Nicobar has about 87% [Highest] land under forest while in Haryana only 4% land is under forest which lowest in India. Most of the north-eastern states like Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh etc. have more 60% land under forest. But in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi and J & K have less than 10% land under forest. Southern states have moderately covered with forest. About 20-30% land is under forest in these states. Short Note on Project Tiger Tiger is one of the most important species among fauna. It was estimated that population of tigers has decreased rapidly in the last one hundred years. Major reasons identified behind depletion of tiger were hunting and poaching, deforestation, depletion of prey etc. Project Tiger was started in 1973 to protect them from extinction. There are 27 tiger reserves in India. Project Tiger has successfully improved the condition. Population of tigers increased from 1800 to about 3600 in the last 30 years. What is Sacred Groves? In India, it is believed that everything livings and non-livings, have been created by god. Old tribal and traditional societies have protected certain species from time immemorial. Munda tribes of Jharkhand protect Mahua and Kadamb trees and worship them. People of Bihar, UP worship Peepal, Banyan, Mango, Tamarind etc. Not only that, rivers, mountains, forests etc are considered as god and goddesses and they are worshipped and protected in India.

CHAPTER 3: WATER RESOURCES Important Terms

Dam: It is a concrete wall constructed across the river to stop the river water. The storage of water behind the dam is called reservoir. Perennial River: A river having water throughout the year is called Perennial River. Their water source is melting glaciers, e.g. Ganga, Brahmaputra etc. Reservoir: Large collection of river water just behind the dam is called reservoir.

Water Resources in India Annual rainfall in India is about 117 cm. Cherapunji receives highest rainfall in the world. India has many perennial rivers e.g. Ganga, Yamuna, Indus, Brahamputra etc. Seasonal rivers of southern India e.g. Godawari, Krishna, Kauveri, Narmada etc are also good source of water. India has long seacoast. It is more than 6000 km. Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and Indian Ocean surround southern India from three sides. India is also rich in groundwater resources. There are many natural and man-made lakes, ponds, hydraulic structures etc found in our country.

Water Scarcity and Its Causes Water Scarcity: When water is not available in sufficient quantity and quality for all the people in an area, it is called water shortage or water scarcity. Water scarcity leads to drought and famine and claims thousand of lives every year in India. Followings are the causes of water scarcity. a) Amount of rainfall less than the normal b) Over exploitation of ground water by tube wells in the cities c) Excess use of water for irrigation to grow more crops. d) Water pollution by dumping of waste from city and industries e) Flood [Water is polluted and become unfit for use] Multipurpose Projects and Its Advantages and Disadvantages

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Meaning: A river valley project having many dams, barrages, canals etc is called as multipurpose project. It is called multipurpose because it serve many purposes and solve many of our problems. Example: Bhakharan Nangal Project, Damodar Valley Project etc. Advantage of Multipurpose Projects a) Multipurpose projects provide water for irrigation of crops. b) They control the flood in the river. Damodar River was called Sorrow of Bengal. Now, it is a blessing for that region. c) Multipurpose projects also provide facility for afforestation and conservation of soil from erosion. d) Hydroelectricity, the cheapest source of emery, is produced from multipurpose projects. About 22% electricity comes from this source in India. e) Canals and reservoir can also be used for water transportation and fisheries. Disadvantage of Multipurpose Projects a) Fertile agricultural land submerged under the river water. b) Large no. of people are displaced. They have to leave their own houses and properties. c) Forest land are either cleared or submerged under water. It is great loss for environment. d) Siltation in the dam reduces the life span of the project. e) Big multipurpose projects can result into minor earthquakes. Rainwater Harvesting and Its Objectives and Methods Meaning: Capturing and storing the rainwater for recharging the ground water is called rainwater harvesting. Rainwater can also be used for domestic and agricultural purpose. It is a good method of water conservation in water scarcity areas such as Rajasthan. Rainwater is collected on the roof of house and it is stored in dug well or underground tank. This water is used for washing, animal drinking, irrigation etc. Objectives of Rainwater Harvesting a) To reduce surface run-off which cause flooding on the roads. b) To meet the increasing demand of water. c) To recharge the groundwater. d) To reduce groundwater pollution and improve the quality of water. e) To supply water during dry season. Methods of Rainwater Harvesting a) Collecting rainwater on roof top and diverting it into a dug well to recharge groundwater. b) Collecting rainwater on roof and bringing it underground tank in the house for domestic use. c) Making small check dams to stop surface run-off and allow the soil to absorb more moisture. d) Using bamboo as pipe to bring spring water from far away place for irrigation like in Meghalaya. D ifferent Methods of Rainwater Harvesting in India In Rajasthan, rainwater is collected on the roof tank to store drinking water. Farmer of Rajasthan collects rainwater in their agricultural fields to increase the soil moisture. It is called Khadins and Johad in Rajasthan. People of Rajasthan, also built underground tank [Called as Tankas] to store drinking water for at least a year. In West Bangal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. In the hilly and mountainous areas, people build diversion channel called as Guls and Kuls for development of agriculture. Collection of rainwater is also done in Shillong for household requirement. In Meghalaya, people use bamboo [Bamboo Drip] as pipes to bring water spring water located hundreds of meters away from the houses. Tamil Nadu is the first state to make rooftop rainwater harvesting compulsory in every house across the state.

Watershed Development: An area drained by an tributary is called watershed. All round development of this area is called watershed development. Sukhmajri Village in Haryana is the best example of watershed development. Attempt made under watershed development are: Conservation of soil and moisture, Afforestation and forest upgradation, Water harvesting,

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Development of horticulture Pasture development Supply of drinking water CHAPTER 4: AGRICULTURE

Important Terms

Agriculture: Cultivation of crops and domestication of animals is called agriculture. Cash Crops: The crops which are cultivated for trade and commerce and selling them in the market to earn money, like tobacco, spices, fruits, sugarcane etc. Animal Husbandry: Domesticating animals for production of milk and meat is called animal husbandry. Green Revolution: Sudden rise in the production of crops by using HYV seeds, irrigation water, chemical fertilizers etc. is called green revolution. It took place during 1960s in our country. Horticulture: Cultivation of fruits and vegetables is called as horticulture. Sericulture: Rearing of silk worm and producing silk is called sericulture. Jhumming: Shifting agricultural in the north east is called as jhumming. It is also called slash and burn agriculture because tree are cut and burnt to clear the land for agriculture. PDS: It means Public Distribution System. It is a program which provides foodgrains and other essential items [Rice, Wheat, Sugar, Kerosene Oil etc.] to rural people at subsidized rate [low price]. Minimum Support Price [MSP]: It is a lowest price announced by the Govt. at which foodgrains are procured by FCI [Food Corporation of India]. Genetic Engineering: It means developing new and hybrid seed by using modifying the gene of the crops. Shifting Agriculture: It is also called as slash and burn agriculture. In this agriculture forest land is cleared and they are burnt. Agriculture is done using very old tools on very small scale. After one or two year new land is selected and same process is followed. This method of agriculture is very old; and gives very low production; and also it degrade forest. In the north-east this agriculture is called as jhumming or jhum cultivation. Important Crops in India: o Cereal Crops: Rice, Wheat, Bajra o Millets: Jowar, Bajra and Ragi o Pulses: Tur [Arhar], Urad, Moong, Masur, Peas, Gram o Oilseeds: Mustard, Coconut, Groundnut, Coconut, Sunflower, Soyabean o Beverage: Tea, Coffee o Fiber Crops: Cotton, Jute, Hemp and Natural Silk o Cash Crops: Sugarcane, Rubber, Tobacco, Spices Operation Flood: It means sharp rise in the production of milk. It is also called as White Revolution.

Important Features and Characteristics of Indian Agriculture a) Indian agriculture is subsistence in nature. It means produce is consumed by the farmer itself. b) Agriculture is dependent on monsoon rain. Only 1/3rd net sown is under irrigation. c) Consumption of chemical fertilizer, HYV seeds, pesticide etc is very low. d) Size of agriculture fields is very small. e) Machines and modern farm implements are used only in small area. f) Food crops [rice, wheat] are more important than commercial crops. g) There are poor banking and insurance facility available to the farmers. Agricultural Seasons [Cropping Pattern] Agricultural Seasons Kharif Rabi Zaid Period Rainy [Jun Oct] Winter [Nov Apr] Summer [May Jun] Important Crops Rice, Maize, Cotton, Groundnut, Moong Wheat, Barley, Gram, Oilseeds Watermelon, Cucumbers, Vegetables

Difference between Subsistence Farming and Commercial Farming Subsistence Farming Commercial Farming

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1. Subsistence farming is done for self consumption not for market. 2. It is done where population pressure on the land is very high. 3. Size of agricultural fields is very small. 4. Consumption of chemical fertilizers, HYV seeds, insecticide etc is low. 5. Use of machines and modern farm implements are less. 6. Important crops are rice, jowar, bajra etc. Plantation Agriculture

1.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Commercial farming is done for market, trade and commerce. It is done where population pressure on the land is low. Agricultural fields are bigger in size. Consumption of chemical fertilizers, HYV seeds, pesticides etc is high. Modern machines e.g. tractors, harvesters, combine etc. are used. Wheat, cotton, sugarcane, tea, coffee are important crops.

It is a type of commercial agriculture which need huge investment of money. It is single crop farming practiced on large land. Plantation agriculture was started by British in India. Generally it is done in hilly and sloppy area where rainfall is high and water can drain easily. Heavy dose of fertilizers, pesticides etc are required. Efficient and fast transport and communication help this farming to connect with market. Important crops are tea, coffee, banana, spices, rubber etc.

Technological and Institutional Reforms Agricultural in India is thousands of year old. It is subsistence in nature because farmers consume most of the produce by themselves. But because of use of modern technology and institutional reform Indian agriculture is becoming commercial. Green Revolution [Crops] and White Revolution [Milk Operation Flood] is the result of these two reforms. Technological Reforms: a) Wooden plough was replaced with tractors and tillers. b) Drip irrigation and sprinklers are now used for irrigation which irrigates more area in less water. c) Use of chemical and bio fertilizers have increase manifold. HYV Seeds, pesticide, insecticides are also used more. d) Biotechnology has developed much genetically improved variety of seed which are resistant to drought and pest. They give more production also. e) Farmers are now using TV, Radio, Newspapers and Cell Phone to know about weather condition and according they plan agricultural activities. Institutional Reforms: a) Zamindari system was abolished by the Government of India. b) Small fields were consolidated to make large fields. c) Agriculture was the main focus in the first Five Years Plan. d) Kissan Credit Card [KCC], Personal Accident Insurance Scheme [PAIS] was started by Govt. to help the Indian farmers. e) Govt. also announces Minimum Support Price and has abolished the role of middleman in the market. Difference between Dryland and Wetland Farming Dryland Farming

1. It is practiced in low rainfall area where


irrigation facilities are not available. 2. More emphasis is done on conservation of soil moisture. 3. This agriculture faces the problem of drought. 4. Jowar, Bajra and Pulses are grown in this agriculture.

Wetland Farming 1. It is practiced in high rainfall and well irrigated area. 2. It is practiced in north, north-east and some part of Western Ghat. 3. This agriculture faces the problems of flood. 4. Important crops of this farming are rice, jute and sugarcane.

Difference between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture

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Subsistence Agriculture 1. Agriculture is done only for self consumption. 2. More importance is given to food crops like rice, wheat, maize, Jowar and Bajra. 3. Most of the works are done manually. Human labour is used more. 4. Size of the field is very small and they are scattered. 5. Investment of capital for HYV seeds, fertilizers, insecticides etc. is very low. Contribution of Agriculture to National Economy

Commercial Agriculture 1. Agriculture is done for trade and commerce. 2. More importance is given to cash crops like tea, coffee, spices, sugarcane and cotton. 3. Modern machines are used in various activities of agriculture. 4. It is done on large size fields. 5. There is huge capital investment on machinery, fertilizers, labours etc.

a) Agriculture is the backbone of Indian Economy. About 63% people are directly dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. b) About 40% of national income comes for agricultural sector alone. c) Agriculture also provides raw materials to many industries e.g. sugar, textile, food and beverage industries. d) It also has ensured food security. FCI procure crops at minimum support price to stock. It also distribute among people under PDS [Public Distribution System]. e) India export wheat, sugar, fruits, tea to foreign countries and earn foreign exchange. f) Agriculture also brings happy, prosperity and development in rural economy. F ood Security and Methods of Ensuring Food Security Food Security: Food is the basic requirement of all the people in the country. But many people are not able to get sufficient meals at least two times in a day. During natural disaster like earthquake, flood, drought there is shortage of food all over the country. Food security is a method to ensure at least minimum quantity of food for all the people round the year. Food Corporation of India [FCI] procure foodgrains at Minimum Support Price and maintain food security by two ways: a) Buffer Stock and b) Public Distribution System [PDS]. Methods of Ensuring Food Security in India a) More area should be brought under cultivation of foodgrains like rice, wheat, pulses and oil seeds. b) HYV Seeds should be used which gives more production per hectare of land. c) Biotechnology can be used to modify genetics of seed so that it can resist drought, flood and diseases and give more production. d) More multipurpose projects should be undertaken to improve agriculture. e) Modern machines and tools should be used in agriculture like tractor, harvester, sprinklers etc. f) Farmer should be given banking and insurance facilities. g) All forms of soil erosion should be checked and soil should be conserved. Globalization and Its impact on Indian Agriculture Meaning: Integrating the national economy with the economy of other countries of the world is called globalization. It has made cross-border flow of money, technology and people very easy. Positive Impact of Globalization a) Indian farmers will have access to internal market. They can sell their produce at international prices. b) Capital investment from foreign countries will develop the Indian agriculture. c) Globalization will bring competitiveness among farmers which will lead to commercialization of Indian agriculture. d) Indian farmers can also use modern technology and machineries which are now used only in foreign countries. e) Globalization will also help in biotechnology and genetic engineering in India. Negative Impact of Globalization a) Multinational Companies [MNCs] of developed countries will exploit our farmers as Indian farmers are poor and illiterate. b) Small farmers of India cannot compete with farmers of developed nations. c) Indian farmers may not get the international buyers as quality of our crops is not as per the international standard. d) Due to globalization, Indian farmers will try to grow more cash crops and there will be shortage of food in our country.

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CHAPTER 5: MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES Important Terms to Remember

A rock having high content of a particular mineral is called as ore. Coal, petroleum, natural gas are called as fossil fuel. Manganese is used for making iron-steel, alloys, bleaching powder, insecticides, paints and batteries. Aluminium is extracted from mineral called bauxite. Lignite coal is mined from Neyvali in Tamil Nadu. Solar energy is producing using photo-voltaic cell which made of silicon. Uranium and thorium are used to produce nuclear or atomic energy. Copper is good conductor of electricity. It is used for making utensils, electric wires, utensils and alloys. Copper is found in Jharkhand [Singbhum] and Rajasthan [Khetri]. Lead is used in cable covers, ammunition, paints, glass and rubber making. Aluminum is obtained from bauxite. Aluminum is used in manufacturing of aeroplane, utensils, house-hold items, wires etc. Mica can withstand very high temperature. It is resistant to high voltage. It is bad conductor of electricity. It is used in electrical and electronic industries. Mica is found in Jharkhand [Hazaribag, Kodarma, Gaya]. Limestone is used in making cement and smelting iron ore in the blast furnace. Thermal electricity is produced from fossil fuel like coal, petroleum and gas. Nuclear or atomic energy is obtained from uranium and thorium. These minerals are found in Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Kerala. Electricity from sunlight is produced using photovoltaic cells. Largest solar plant in India is located in Madhapur [Gujurat]. Largest wind farm cluster in India is located in Tamil Nadu from Nagarcoil to Madurai. Biogas is produced from shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste. It is better then cowdung and charcoal. Gobar Gas Plants are now being installed in rural areas of our country. Gulf of Kuchchh has ideal condition for producing tidal energy. Heat of the earths interior is used to produce geothermal energy. Hot water coming from depth [geysers] produced steam which runs terbines to generate electricity. Geothermal energy is produced from Manikarn in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley in Ladakh. Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur [HBJ] Pipeline is longest in India [1700 km]. Nuclear Power Plants in India: 1. Naraura [UP] 4. Tarapur [Maharastra] 2. Rawat Bhata [Rajasthan] 5. Kaiga [Karnataka] 3. Ukai [Gujarat] 6. Kalpakkam [Tamil Nadu]

Mineral and Its Classification Meaning: Minerals are natural substance which has certain physical and chemical properties like colour, hardness, texture, crystals etc. Minerals are very important as most of the things we use in our lives are made of one or other minerals. Minerals are mined from earth surface. There are about 2000 types of minerals identified so far but few of them are very important like iron, cooper, mineral oil, bauxite etc. Minerals can be classified as under: 1] Metallic Minerals: Metals are obtained from them. a) Ferrous [Contain Iron]: Iron Ore, Manganese, Nickel, Cobalt b) Non-Ferrous [No Iron]: Copper, Lead, Tin, Bauxite c) Precious [Costly]: Gold, Silver, Platinum 2] Non-Metallic Minerals: Metals are not obtained from them. Mica, Salt, Potash, Limestone, Marble, Sandstone 3] Energy Minerals: These minerals provide us energy. Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas Mode of Occurrence [Where are minerals found?]

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Minerals are found in the earth surface [crust]. They are extracted by mining activities. Minerals take millions of year to form; therefore they are called as non-renewable resource. h) In the veins and lodes of igneous rock and metamorphic rock important metallic minerals are found like cooper, zinc, tin, lead etc. i) Energy minerals such as coal, petroleum and natural gas are found in the beds and layers of sedimentary rocks. j) Alluvial deposits [also called as placer deposits] contain very precious minerals like gold, silver, tin, platinum etc. k) Ocean water also contains many minerals like salt, magnesium, bromide etc. l) Weathered materials of the rocks contain bauxite [aluminum]. Iron Ore, Its Types and Distribution It is a ferrous mineral and backbone of any economy. Industrial development of any country depends on availability of iron ore. Iron is used in making from needle to big ship. India is rich in good quality of iron ore. There are four types of iron ore. a) Magnetite [Contains 70-80% Iron Best Quality] b) Hematite [Contains 50-60% Iron] c) Siderite d) Limonite Iron ore found in the peninsular plateau of India. a) Orissa-Jharkhand Belt: Iron ore is mined from Mayurbhanj, Kendujhar, Singbhum, Gua and Noamundi Districts. b) Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt: Good quality hematite ore are found from Bastar and Durg districts. Iron ore is exported to Japan and Korea. c) Bellary-Chtradurga-Chikmaglur Belt: This belt is in Karnataka. Iron ore mined from Kudremukh [Largest deposit in the world]. Ore is exported to USA and Europe. d) Maharastra-Goa Belt: Goa and Ratnagiri are important mining place of iron ore. Coal, Its Types and Distribution Coal is a type of fossil fuel and the most important source of energy in our country. Coal is formed by burial of plants and animals in the rocks for million of years. Coal is used for generating thermal electricity and for smelting iron ore. Coal in India is found mainly in Gondwana Rocks series of river Damodar, Mahanadi, Godawari etc. There are four types of coal as per carbon content. a) Anthracite [Best Quality] b) Bituminous [Mainly found in India] c) Lignite [Low grade coal found in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu] d) Peat Gondwana coal is found in West Bengal and Jharkhand. Important mining centres are Raniganj, Jharia, Dhanbad, Bokaro. River valleys of Damodar, Mahanadi, Son, Wardha have many mining centres. Tertiary coal [new coal] is found in northeastern part of the country like Assam, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh. Difference between Conventional and Non-Conventional Energy Sources Conventional Source 1. These energy sources are being used since a long time, hence they are called conventional source. 2. Wood, coal, petroleum and gas are conventional sources of energy. 3. These sources are nonrenewable. They will finish one day. 4. Use of these sources pollutes the enrolments. They are not ecofriendly. Difference between Metallic and Non-Metallic Minerals Non-Conventional Source 1. These sources are new and modern, therefore called as non-conventional source. 2. Wind, tides, solar, biogas are nonconventional sources of energy. 3. These sources renewable and can be used for longer period. 4. They are eco-friendly and clean sources of energy.

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Metallic Minerals 1. These minerals are melted to obtain metals. Metals can be beaten into sheet or wire. 2. Iron, copper, bauxite, manganese are example of metallic minerals. 3. These minerals are generally found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. 4. These minerals are used in metallurgical industries. 5. They are hard, ductile and malleable. 6. When hit, they are not broken.

Non-Metallic Minerals 1. These minerals do not contain metals. Sheet and wire can be made from them. 2. Sandstone, limestone, marble etc. are example. 3. These minerals are generally found in sedimentary rocks. 4. These minerals are used generally in construction and building. 5. They are not so hard and do not shine. 6. When hit, they break into pieces.

Difference between Commercial and Non-Commercial Energy Commercial Energy 1. Commercial energy has great economic values. 2. This energy pollutes the environment badly. 3. Commercial energy sources are limited in the nature. 4. It is used mainly in the towns and cities. 5. Coal, petroleum, gas, nuclear energies are its examples. Non-Commercial Energy 1. Non-commercial energy sources are cheaper. 2. They are pure and keep the environment clean. 3. They are abundant [unlimited] in nature. 4. It is mainly used in rural areas. 5. Cowdung, charcoal, firewood, agricultural waste are its example.

Need for Conservation of Minerals a) b) c) d) Minerals should be conserved because they are limited in nature. Minerals are also not found at every place. They occur at certain place only. Most of the minerals are non-renewable and finish one day. Use of mineral produces waste and pollute environment. Mineral should be conserve to make the environment clean. Minerals should be conserved for sustainable development.

e)

Measurement [Methods] for Conservation of Minerals a) b) c) d) Judicious use of our mineral resources. It means misuse and overuse of minerals should be avoided. Public transport system [Bus, Train, Metro Train etc] should be used instead of personal transport like car and bike. Switching off electricity when it is not in use. Power saving devices should be used. Modern technology which consume less energy and give more output should be adopted [like CFL Bulb]. e) Non-conventional sources of energy like solar, wind, tidal, geothermal energy should be used in the place of coal, petroleum and gas. CHAPTER 6: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES Important Terms

Manufacturing: Processing of raw material to make another valuable product in large quantity is called as manufacturing. Light Industries: Industries which uses light raw material and produces light goods are called as light industries e.g. electric fans, bulb, button, toys etc. Integrated Steel Plants: It is a large steel plant which handle everything under one complex from smelting, rolling and shaping of steel. Ex Durgapur, Bokaro, Jamshedpur etc.

Remember These Facts

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First cement plant was set in the year 1904 in Chennai. Chemical industry produces fertilizers, synthetic fibers, plastic, adhesive, paints, dye, glass, soap, acids, detergents etc. Smelting of bauxite to produce aluminium needs very high electricity [18,600 Kwh for one ton of ore]. Therefore, aluminium smelting plants are located near the source of hydroelectricity. IT Industry and Electronic Industry includes manufacturing of television, telephone, mobiles, computers, IC, radars etc. Bangalore is called Electronic Capital of India. It is also called as Silicon Valley of India. Sugar industry is located in the sugarcane producing area because sugarcane is a perishable item. It cannot be transport for longer distance and time. First Cotton Mill was started in 1854 in Mumbai. Four famous variety of Indian silk are: a) mulberry, b) tasar, c) eri and d) muga. Four well known synthetic fibers are: a) rayon, b) nylon, c) terelene and d) decron. Three types of fertilizers manufactured in India are: a) Urea, b) Phosphatic Fertilisers, c) Ammonium Phosphate [DAP].

Importance of Manufacturing Industries a) Manufacturing industries are the backbone of our economy. Economic strength of any country depends on manufacturing industries. b) Manufacturing industries help in modernization of agriculture. Tractor, harvester, thresher, irrigation pipes, sprinklers, fertilizers etc are made in these industries. c) It is a great source of employment. Millions of people are directly engaged in manufacturing. These industries also help in eradicating unemployment and poverty. d) Export of manufactured items help trade and commerce and our country earn foreign exchange. e) Manufacturing meet the basic need of the people i.e. food, cloth and shelter. f) Highest contribution to our national economy comes from manufacturing industries. It brings prosperity, social and economic development. Types or Classification of Manufacturing Industries A] On the basis of Raw Materials [Input] 1. Agro Based: Those industries where raw materials come from agriculture, e.g. Cotton, Wollen, Jute, Silk Textiles, Sugar, Tea, Edible Oil 2. Mineral Based: Those industries where minerals are used as raw materials, e.g. Iron & Steel, Cement, Aluminum, Machine Tools etc. B] On the basis of their Main Role 1. Basic Industries: Those industries which provide raw material to other industries are called basic industries. These industries help the development of other industries, e.g. Iron and Steel, Copper and Aluminium Smelting 2. Consumer Industries: Those industries which produce goods for consumers are called consumer industries. Finished goods of these industries are directly sold in the market for consumers, e.g. Sugar, Toothpaste, Soap, Bread, Paper etc. C] On the basis of Capital Investment 1. Small Scale Industries: Those industries where investment of capital in less than rupees one crore is called as small scale industries, e.g. Mat, Furniture, Toys, Bread, Tools etc. 2. Large Scale Industries: Those industries where investment of capital is more than rupees one crore is called as large scale industries, e.g. Iron & Steel, Petrochemicals, Cotton Textiles etc. D] On the basis of Ownership 1. Public Sector: These industries are owned, operated and maintained by Govt. e.g. BHEL, SAIL, IISCO 2. Private Sector: These industries are owned, operated and maintained by individual or group of individuals, e.g. TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd. Dabar India. 3. Joint Sector: These industries are jointly run by Govt. and group of individuals. It is mixture of public and private sector, e.g. Oil India Ltd. [OIL].

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These industries are owned, operated and maintained by supplier of raw materials and workers of the industries, e.g. Sugar industries in Maharastra, Coir industries in Kerala. E] On the basis of Finished Goods [Output] 1. Heavy Industries: Those industries which use heavy and bulky raw materials and produced heavy goods in large quantity are called heavy industries, e.g. Iron and Steel, Copper Smelting. 2. Light Industries: Those industries which use light and small raw materials and produced light goods are called light industries, e.g. Electrical, Toys, Tools, Utensils etc. Which factors affect the location of an industry? Industries are not found everywhere. They are located at certain places only where they get favourable condition. Location of an industry is governed by mainly by the following two factors. 1. 2. 3. 4. Raw Materials Source of Energy Source of Water Availability of Capital and Finance 5. 6. 7. 8. Demand in Market Skilled Labourers and Workers Banking and Insurance Transport and Communication

4. Cooperative Sector:

Cotton Textile Industry and Its Problems

It is an agro-based and the oldest industry in India. First cotton mill was established in 1854 in Mumbai. At present, it the largest industry in our country. There are about 1600 cotton textile mills in our country. Cotton textile mills are mainly concentrated in Maharastra and Gujarat due to favourable conditions. Important centres are Mumbai, Pune, Ahmedabad, Suar, Rajkot etc. Other centres are Agra, Kanpur, Hugli, Chennai, Madurai etc. Cotton textile is produced by three methods in India: a) Handloom, b) Power-looms and c) Mills Cotton textile industry involves ginning, spinning, weaving, dyeing, designing, tailoring and packaging to produce readymade garments. India export yarn and readymade garments to USA, Japan, UK, France, Nepal, Sri Lanka etc. Cotton textile industries are facing many problems such as: a) scarcity of good quality cotton, b) main cotton growing area went to Pakistan, c) old machinery, d) erratic power supply, e) low productivity of labour, f) tough competition from synthetic fibers.

Iron & Steel Industry and Its Problems

This industry is called as basic industry because it provide raw material to many other industries such as machine an tools, transport equipment, construction material etc. It is also called as heavy industry because raw materials [iron ore, coal, limestone] are bulky in nature. Iron ore mixed with limestone is smelted in the blast furnace using coking coal to produce pig iron. The ratio of iron ore, limestone and coking coal used in 4:2:1. Pig iron is mixed with manganese, chromium and nickel which make it more stronger steel. Most of the steel plants are located in Chotanagpur region due to its favourable conditions. At present there are 10 integrated iron and steel plants and many small and mini plants. Important integrated steel plants are Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Bokaro, Bhilai, Burnpur etc. India produces about 33 million tons of steel every year even though per capita consumption of steel is very low i.e. 32 kg. It is low because India has low economic and industrial development. Today steel industries in India are facing many problems: a) High cost of production, b) Limited availability of coking coal, c) Low productivity of labour, d) Irregular supply of energy, e) Raw materials are found in a certain pocket of India only, f) Poor infrastructure like transport and communication etc.

Jute Industries and Its Problems India is largest producer of raw jute and jute goods. There are about 70 jute mills in our country.

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First jute mill was setup in Rishra [Kolkata] in 1859. Most of the jute mills are located along Hugli River in West Bengal due to favourable condition. Jute is used in making rope, bags, carpets etc. Bihar, UP, Assam and Tripura also have jute miils. Jute industries are facing problems like: a) main jute producing area went to Bangladesh, b) high production cost, c) declining demand of jute in international market, d) tough competition from synthetic fiber industry.

Why cotton industries are mainly concentrated in Maharastra and Gujarat? Cotton textile industries are located mainly in Maharastra [around Mumbai] and Gujarat [around Ahmedabad] because of the following reasons. a) Raw Materials: These areas have easy access to raw material i.e. cotton. Maharastra and Gujarat are the largest producer of cotton in India. b) Favourable Climate: Humid climate is required for cotton textile. Maharastra and Gujarat have humid climate as they are located near to Arabian Sea. This climate is also good for cultivation of cotton. c) Availability of Capital: Mumbai is the financial capital of our country. It provides finance and capital to cotton textile. d) Labour: Maharastra and Gujarat are heavily populated area. Cheap labours are available in this region. e) Transport and Communication: Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, Pune etc are well connected by road and rail with other part of the country. Mumbai port is used to export readymade garments to European Countries. Why iron and steel industries are located mainly in Chotanagpur Region? Most of important integrated steel plants are locate in Chotanagpur region i.e in Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orrisa etc. It is because of the following reasons: a) Raw Material: Chotanagpur area is rich in iron ore. Iron ore is extracted from Singbhum, Mayurbhanj, Kendujhar etc. b) Energy: Coal is used for smelting iron ore in the blast furnace. Coal is available from Raniganj, Dhanbad, Jharia and Bokaro. c) Cheap labour: Bengal, Bihar and Orissa have high density of population. Therefore, cheap labour is available in this region. d) Transport: This region is well connected by road and railway with other parts of the country. Nantional Highway 2, Delhi Howrah and Howrah Mumbai rail route passes through this region. e) Capital: Kolkata is a megacity which provide capital, banking and insurance facility.

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Jute industries are located mainly along H ooghly River. Why? There are 69 jute mills located in a 2 km broad belt along Hooghly River. This area provides many favourable conditions required for this industry. a) Raw jute is available for West Bengal. West Bengal is the largest producer of jute. b) Coal for energy is brought from nearby Raniganj Coalfields. c) Hooghly River provides water for washing and cleaning jute. d) Warm and humid climate is very favourable for cultivation of jute and jute industry. e) Kolkata is a metro city which provides capital and market. f) Hooghly River also provides cheap water transport. Sugar industry is shifting from northern to southern India. Why? Earlier UP and Bihar were the main producer of sugarcane. Therefore, most of the sugar mills were located in these two states only. But now, sugar mills are shifting towards Maharastra and Karnataka because of following reasons. a) Per hectare production of sugarcane is higher in southern India. Black soil is quite suitable for cultivation of sugarcane. b) Sucrose content in the sugarcane is higher in Maharastra and Karnataka. It means more sugar can be produced for less sugarcane. c) Mills and machines are new in southern states. New and modern machines increase the productivity. d) Crushing season for sugarcane is longer in southern states. e) Cooperative sugar mills are running successfully in southern states. Industrial Pollution and Environmental Degradation

a) Air pollution is caused by the emission of CO2, Carbon Monoxide, Sulphur Dioxide etc. Chimneys of the industries
produce heat leading to Global Warming and Green House Effect. Use of CFC in various industrial products depletes ozone layer which filters ultraviolet rays of the sun. b) Dumping of organic and inorganic industrial waste into water bodies pollute the water. Industries which produce paper, pulp, chemical, leather, acids, dyes, fertilizers etc generate lots of toxic waste which kills the aquatic life. c) High intensity sound generated by running machines, siren, drilling, fans etc leads to noise pollution. It causes irritation, hearing impairment, heart attack etc. among the nearby people. d) Mining activity to get raw material for industries also degrade the environment. Land degradation, deforestation, soil erosion, water logging etc. of result of mining activities. Measurement [Methods] for Controlling Environmental Pollution and Degradation a) b) c) d) e) f) g) Industries should be located with careful planning and better design. Quantity of smoke can be reduced by using oil instead of coal. Non-conventional sources of energy should be used instead of fossil fuels. Modern equipment should be used which controls, filters and separate harmful materials from the waste. Waste water should be properly treated before discharging into rivers. Land filling method should be adopted for dumping of waste. Polluting industries should be located away from town and cities.

CHAPTER 7: LIFELINE OF NATIONAL ECONOMY Important Terms

Transport: Movement of people and goods from one place to another place is called transport. Modes of transport are: a) Land [Road, Rail, Pipeline], b) Water [Inland, Oceanic] and c) Air [Domestic, International] Communication: Transfer of idea, message, and information from one place to another place is called communication. Modes of communication are TV, radio, cellphone, newspaper, magazines, internet. Communication has two types: a) Print Media [Newspaper, Magazines] and b) Electronic Media [TV, Radio, Internet]. Harbour: It is an area of sea which provides safe entrance to ships. It also protects ships from waves and storms. Port: It is a point on the coast which provides facility of anchoring of ship. It also provide facilities like loading and unloading, berth, cold storage. A port is connected with its hinterland. Seaports help in international trade and commerce.

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Hinterland: It is an area which serves port for international trade. For example, Maharastra, M P, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana are hinterland for Mumbai seaport. Various things produced in these states are exported through Mumbai port. Express Highway: These are 6 lanes best quality of roads. They have been constructed to connect important cities of India and to provide fast traffic from one place to other place. International Trade: Exchange of goods and services between two or more countries is called international trade.

Remember These Facts

Golden Quadrilateral road connect north with south and east with west. It connects Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. It is 6 lanes good quality super express highway. It total length is 5846 km. East West Corridor connects Silchar [Assam] with Porbandar [Gujurat]. It connects Guwahati, Gorakhpur, Kanpur, Jhansi and Rajkot. North South Corridor connects Srinagar [J & K] with Kanyakumari. It connects Delhi, Agra, Nagpur, Hydrabad and Bangalore. Density of road is lowest in Jammu and Kashmir. It is only 10 km for 100 sq. km. area. Density of road is low in this state because this is a hilly state with very low populaton. Highest road density is found in Kerala. It is about 375 km. for 100 sq. km. area. Longest pipeline in India is H-B-J Pipeline [Hazira-Bijapur-Jagddishpur]. It is about 1700 km. long. Indian railway is divided into 16 railway zones. NH 1 connects Delhi and Amritsar. NH 2 connects Delhi and Kolkata. It is also called as Grand Truck Road. NH 3 connects Mumbai and Agra. NH 7 connects Varanasi and Kanyakumari. It is longest in India.

Road Transport and Its Types India has one of the largest road networks in the world. Total road length in India is about 2.3 million km. There are various types of road in India. Golden Quadrilateral: It is a 6 lane super highway. This connects four mega cities of our country i.e Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata. East-West Corridor connects Silchar [Assam] with Porbandar [Gujarat]. North-South Corridor connects Srinagar [J & K] with Kanyakumari [Tamil Nadu]. National Highways: These roads are most important in India. National Highways are constructed by CPWD. Important National Highways are NH-1, NH-2, NH-7 etc. These highways connects important cities, railways stations, port, mining areas, capital towns etc. State Highways: These roads connect state capital with district headquarters. They are constructed by SPWD [State Public Work Dept.]. District Roads: These roads are found in rural areas. They connect district headquarter with village and blocks. Other Roads: It includes village roads. They are mainly non-metalled roads. Many roads have been constructed under Pradhan Mantri Grameen Sadak Yojana. Border Roads: Border Roads are constructed by Border Road Organisation [BRO]. These roads are constructed along the borders which are used to connect isolated parts with main country. These roads are very important from strategic point of view.

Merits or Advantage of Roadways a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Construction and maintenance of road is much lower than railways. Roads can be constructed on hills, plateaus, forests and desert also. Road can negotiate high degree of slope and can take sharp turns. It provides door-to-door service facilities. Roads can be constructed in the hills and forest also. It is economical for few passengers and small amount of goods. Transportation of perishable items e.g. milk, fish, vegetables are more reliable by roads. Cost of loading and unloading of goods is much lower. Road transport provide link between other mode of transport such as rail, airport, seaport etc.

Indian Railway at a Glance

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Indian railway is about 150 years old. First rail was started in 1853 between Mumbai and Thane. It connects State Capital with Capital of India. It also connects major towns and cities, tourist places, mining centers, seaports, airports etc. There are about more than 7,000 stations on 63,000 km. long railway tract. Indian railway is divided into 16 zones for proper administration. Railways in India have three gauge system: a) Broad Gauge [1.676 m] b) Meter Gauge [1.0 m] c) Narrow Gauge [0.762 and 0.610 m]. There are various types of train running in India such as Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Mail and Express, Local and Special Trains which carry passengers. About 80% of freight [goods] and 70% of passenger traffic is carried by railways. Konkan Railways is built in Western Ghat Mountain. It is an example of best railway engineering in India. It has hundred of tunnels and bridges. There is marked improvement in Indian railways. They are: a) Computerised Reservation System, b) Waiting Room Facilities on Stations, c) Catering Facility, d) Electrification of Tracks, e) Uni-Gauge System [Conversion of all gauges into broad gauge], f) Replacement of Steam Engine with Electric Engine, g) Special Trains like Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Jan Shatabdi, Summer Special etc. Merits or Advantage of Railways Good for transportation of bulky and heavy materials It is cheaper for transporting goods for longer distances. Best for transportation of raw materials e.g. iron ore, manganese, coal etc. It is fast mode transportation. Large number of passengers can be transported. Railway provides various facilities such as night berth, catering, computerized reservation etc.

Pipelines in India and Its Advantages Pipelines are used to transport gas and liquid materials such as mineral or refined oil, natural gas, water or even milk. Solid items can also be transported after making it slurry. Pipelines are found from oil producing centers to oil refinery plants and from oil refinery plants to the market [city]. Minerals oil from upper Assam is transported to Barauni and Allahabad oil refinery through pipeline. Pipeline from Salaya to Jalandhar via Mathura and Delhi is also very important pipeline. The longest pipeline in India is H-B-J pipeline which connect Hazia, Bijapur and Jagdishpur. It is about 1700 km. long. Advantage of Pipeline Transportation Pipeline is best for transportation of gas and liquid materials e.g. oil, natural gas, water and milk. Construction of pipeline is cheaper than road and railways. Pipeline can be constructed in forest, swampy area, hills and desert. It can also be laid down under river and ocean water. Pipeline can ensure regular, quick and on-demand supply of liquid and gaseous materials. Pipelines can be operated at low energy cost and it does not pollute environment.

Water Transportation in India Water transportation is cheapest among all mode of transportation because there is no need to construct any route. They are cheaper for transporting bulky and heavy raw materials. India has many perennial and seasonal rivers which offer transport facility. India has about 14,500 km long inland navigation waterways. India also has long sea coast on which there are many ports like Mumbai, Goa, Kochhi, Chennai, Vishakhapatnam, Haldia etc. India has three National Waterways: o National Waterways 1 Ganga 1620 km. Allahabad Haldia o National Waterways 2 Brahmaputra 891 km. Sadiya Dhubri o National Waterways 3 West Coast Canal 205 km. Kollam - Kottapuram

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There are some problems in using waterways like: a) Peninsular rivers are seasonal, b) Many rivers make waterfalls in their course, c) Water transportation is slowest among all transport modes, d) Construction of dams and barrage also blocks waterways, e) Many rivers flow in uninhabited area, f) Indian coast are shallow and we have less natural ports.

Distinguish between Ports on West and East Coasts West Coast Ports 1. West coast ports are located in the west along Arabian Sea. 2. Important west coast ports are Mumbai, Mangalore, Marmagao, Cochin. 3. Cotton, spices, coffee, rubber, iron ore, manganse etc are exported to USA and European countries. 4. Mumbai is the largest port on west coast. East Coast Ports 1. East coast ports are located in the east along Bay of Bengal. 2. Important east coast ports are Kolkata, Vishakhapatnam, Chennai and Tuticorin. 3. Hinterland of these ports are rich in resources like iron ore, bauxite, manganese, mica. 4. Kolkata is the largest port on east coast.

Airways in India and Its Advantages It is fastest and most comfortable mode of transport. It can cover long distance within hours. River, hills, forest, oceans etc. do not come in the way of air transport. Air transport play very important role in rescue operation during natural disasters like flood and earthquake. It also connects isolated and far away places with main stream of the country. It is best for north-eastern states and Jammu and Kashmir. In India, domestic service is provided by Indian Airlines. It covers major cities of India and neighboring countries. International air transport service is provided by Air India. Pawanhans provides helicopter facility. Private companies like Sahara, Kingfisher are also operating air transportation in India. Problems: a) Air transport is very costly and not suited for common people, b) Construction of airport needs huge capital and technology, c) Airports cannot be constructed everywhere.

Difference between Personal and Mass Communication Personal Communication a) Personal communication takes place between two people or among very few people at a time. b) Means of personal communication are letters, postcards, telephone, mobile, telegram etc. c) It is handled mainly by Indian Postal Network and telephone companies. Mass Communication a) Mass Communication takes place among many people at a time. Many persons can interact with each other. b) Means of mass communication are TV, radio, magazines, newspapers, internet, films etc. c) Mass communication includes print media and electronic media.

India Trade and Its Types Meaning of Trade: Exchange of goods and services among people is called as trade. In other words, buying and selling goods and services is called trade. The place where trade takes place is called as market or trading center. Trade takes place because all parts of world do not have same resources and they do not produce same commodity. Higher amount of trade indicate higher economic development of a country. Balance of Payment: The ratio between value of export and import is called balance of payment. If export is higher than import, it is called favourable balance of payment. If import is higher than export, it is called negative balance of payment. Export from India: Petroleum products, engineering goods, gems and jewellery, computer software, chemical products and agricultural products are exported by India to other countries. Import to India: Petroleum, pearls and precious stones, coal, inorganic chemicals, fertilizers, electronic consumer durables are imported by India from other countries.

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