. . . .
Translated by
David Templeman
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Part One-The Life
Early Life and Relationship with his
Guru 3
Feats in Various Parts of India 20
Events Surrounding Death 37
Principal Male Disciples 51
Principal Female Disciples 62
Other Disciples 68
Part Two-The Supplement
Supplementary Material Concerning 81
Stories of Subsequent Yogis of the Carya Lineage 85
Notes 107
List of Works by Found in the Tanjur 142
Bibliography 147
Index of Sanskrit Terms 156
Index of Tibetan Terms 172
Index of English Terms 17 6
Jonang Taranatha is one of Tibet's most repmed
historians, whose writings are regarded as par:ticularly
authentic and reliable. His work is of special interest with
respect to the history of Buddhism in India. With the
decline of Buddhist culture in the land of its birth,
whatever historical records and oral traditions may have
existed have largely been lost. Here lies Taranatha's great
value, for, assembling material from both written and oral
sources, he provides us with a remarkably clear picture of
the later, specifically tantric, period of Indian Buddhism.
His Life of presents a portrait of one of the
more colourful siddhas or tantric adepts, who was an active
participant in many of the tantric lineages later brought to
Tibet. The life of this charismatic yogi is typical of the
unorthodox and free-wheeling siddha tradition to which he
We are happy to be publishing David Templeman's
third trar).slation from Tarapatha's works. Once again he
has brought great enthusiasm and thoroughness to the task
of making the great historian's writings accessible to
non-Tibetan readers. In so doing he contributes to a
growing understanding of the Indian roots of Tibetan
Buddhism and an appreciation of Tibet's role as a
repository ofliving Buddhist culture.
Gyatsho Tshering
Director, LTW A
The historical and biographical works of Jo-nang
Taranatha (1575-1634) are some of the most important
sources for information on the growth and development of
Buddhism in India. His historical works which were first
translated into European languages in the last century and
the early part of this century, namely Schiefner's
translation of his History of Buddhism in India
Griinwedel 's work on his seven transmissions\ have been
extremely widely used by Scholars working in the field of
Indian history and culture since that time. Although
Taranatha's works must be used with some reservations
when they refer to royal genealogy and political events, in
general they are often able to shed light on the growth and
diffusion of Buddhism in this confusing and little - known
era. At times Taranatha's views on lineages of saints differ
from the generally accepted view, and not infrequently he
takes exception to other scholar's statements where they
conflict with his own findings based on the direct evidence
of his own teachers' statements. This should not suggest
some obscurantist attitude, but rather that his particularly
thorough mind was wen· able to evaluate and synthesise
information from a particularly wide variety of sources,
many of them unknown to other scholars, and .to draw
them together into a cogent narrative. Some of those
unknown sources make reading his works a most
tantalising affair as one cannot, in any way, get an idea of
their nature except for the snippets Ta:ranatha gives us as
evidence of his case. When one considers that his History
of Buddhism in India was written at the extraordinarily
young age of thirty-four years, one can do little but marvel
at the colossal amount he had digested in those few years.
Indeed in his early erudition he ranks with Bu-ston whose
History of Buddhism
was composed at thirty-three years
of age. Sum-pa wrote his History• at forty-four years old,
Padma-dkar-po composed his Historf at forty-eight years
old, dPa'-bo-gtsug-lag-'phreng-ba commenced his History
at forty-two, completing it at sixty-one years and 'Gos-lo-
tsa-ba wrote his Blue Annals
between the ages of eighty-
four and eight-six. All of the above is eloquent testimony
to iaranatha's prodigious ability, both as a historian and as
a direct partaker in many of the linea,ges he wrote about.
Apart from the vast number of his writings on
liturgy and specific doctrinal points, Ta:ranatha excelled in
studies related to India, particularly siddha biographies,
works relating to the lineages of the Indian masters and
accounts of the diffusion of certain doctrines. It appears
that in many of these later doctrino-historical works he was
greatly aided by his close contacts with Indian masters
within whose lineage he became established. They
provided him with rare and invaluable oral records which
he frequently testifies to in his writings.
The sadhanas, homas etc., for Cakrasarp.vara were a
very important part of the teaching Ta:ranatha had received
and throughout his writings works on this practice are
often found. Indeed, in the seventh volume of his Collected
are found two sadhanas and a mar:t"alavidhi for
Cakrasarpvara according to the tradition of =
= Kar:tha etc.)
Taranatha's deep interest in and his
teachings extended beyond biography. There exist in
Taranatha 's Collected Works not only the above-
mentioned works on Cakrasarpvara according to the
system of but a commentary on his doha
songs, a work on the four kramas and an explicatory text
on Vasantatilaka according to system, among
many others.
The present biography of would appear
to fit into the group of texts eulogising Cakasarpvara.
Taranatha notes in the colophon of the supplement to the
biography, "This then is the supplement to the account of
the acarya Caryapa, and in order to understand the
origination and spread of Cakrasarpvara, I, rGyal-khams-
pa, Taranatha wrote these words."
himself is said in the biograi?hY to have
been preeminently associated with the cycles of Hevajra,
Guhyasamaja and the Black Yamantaka, but he appears
mainly linked with Cakrasarpvara practice. Although it is
true that all these heruka forms certainly played important
roles in his life, we must remember that in terms of the
absolute truth, this diversity of means to enlightenment
has no real value. iaranatha says of the siddhas," ... because
they understood all the Tantra realisations, such things as a
variety of divinities and a variety of Tantras no longer
existed for them."
is enumerated as one of the eighty-four
siddhas, or Mahasiddhas, and a biography may be found in
Robinson's work on them
• It is however only a brief
hagiography, as is that by Taranatha found in the work of
GrUnwedel referred to in note 2. Notwithstanding his
immense importance in the Buddhist Tantric tradition as
the most renowned siddha of the Carya lineage, I am
unaware of any other biographical material about him, save
for a few passing references in Tibetan works.
comes to the attention of the student of
Buddhism for two main reasons-firstly for his commentary
on the Hevajra Tantra, which was used by Snellgrove in
his translation of that tantra, and secondly for his mystic
songs which occur in the collection of Bengali Carya songs
known as the CaryagHi. These songs received much
interest as far back as 1916, when Haraprasad Sastrt wrote
his pioneering edition of the songs. Much later, that same
interest was displayed in the works of Mojumder
• Precisely because no biographical data had been
presented to us in any of the above-mentioned works, I felt
it worth the effort to try and present a translation of the
biography of by Taranatha (written 1632 A.D.)
and the supplement written some years later. As it turns out
the biography and the supplement shed considerable light
on the Carya trad_ition and role in its
diffusion, the lineages arising from him and his followers,
the development and spread of the CakrasaJ!lvara teachings
and the tradition of Indo-Tibetan biography.
In the Indo-Tibetan tradition works such as the one
at hand had several levels of interpretation and thus
whichever was appropriate to the level of practice of the
reader was the only one he was ultin!ately aware of. Many
'secret' biographies were indeed kept secret, and also
many, such as the present one, were considered 'open', that
is, of open access to all. However, much of the secret
material was incomprehensible to the prurient and
premature reader, who remained completely unenlightened,
precisely because of the nature of the written words which
were allusions rather than overt statements and also
because the Gurus who had charge of the writings
zealously guarded them against just such unwarranted
readers. Although the present work is 'open' it does
contain some sections couched in an enigmatic and hidden
language where certain things are not intended for general
consumption. it sets out a direct and
charming narrative of the siddha's life, and follows this
with biographies of his most renowned disciples and some
who were on the fringe of the Carya sect. mentioned
before, hagiography in the Indo-Tibetan tradition functions
at many levels-such a work may be seen as historical,
inspirational, didactic or initiatic. The present work clearly
has much to offer the reader at all these levels. Historically
if fills gaps in important siddha lineages, gives insight into
Carya activities as well as some hard data on Indian society
at the time. Inspirationally, the tone of the work is
sufficiently reverential to impel the reader to practise here
and now and to grasp, as did and his disciples,
the reality which is in daily situations. As a didactic work
it gives much direct instruction on the practice itself and
the multiplicity of situations conducive to it. For students
of certain practice cycles the data on and the
transmission of those cycles (especially that of
Cakrasaipvara) is of great help in clarifying the
voluminous commentarial literature they are required to
work with. The final level, that of the initiatic, is more
difficult to deal with. Here, the biography of a spiritual
predecessor may, for example, be given to a certain
disciple by the Guru as a means of preparing him for some
fonhcoming teaching or as a way of gently instructing him
in some point of order in his which may be hindering
his practice. It is not particularly necessary for those of
certain Buddhist traditions to be familiar with the
hagiographies of their predecessors, but at times and with
the Guru's blessing such works can certainly take on an
initiatic quality in themselves, becoming powerful teaching
tools. As Western readers, our purposes in reading such a
work will perhaps be quite different to those mentioned
above. I feel that the historical and inspirational qualities
alone in the biography of are very strong and
the merely at these levels it survives magnificently outside
its time and native culture. I further hope that readers enjoy
it as much as I have enjoyed it_ and that in some way it
tends to the alleviation of all suffering.
Notes to the Introduction
1. Schiefner, A. 'Iaranatha's Geschichte des Buddhismus in
Indien St. Petersburg 1869
Schiefner, A. iaranathae de Doctrinae Buddhicae in India
Propagatione Narratie, Contextum Tibeticum
(Tibetan Text) St. Petersburg 1868
2. Griinwedel, A. 1aranatha's Edelsteinmine, das Buch von den
Vermittlem dem Sieben Inspirationen
Bibliotheca Buddhica XVIII St. Petersburg 1914
3. Ot>ermiUer, E.History of Buddhism (Chos-hbyung) by Bu-ston
2 Vols. 0. Harrassowitz. Leipzig 1931/1932
4. Various editions of Sum-pa-mkhan-po's renowned History
have been published, that of Sarat Chandra Das being the fli'St,
but unuseable due to poor editing. A very good hand written
copy was published in Delhi in 1969 in lithograph format, but
has no publisher's name. Dr. Lokesh Chandra published the
third part of it as Vol. 8 of his Satapitaka Series in 1959, and
later it was published as part of the Collected Works of Sum-
pa-mkhan-po by Prof. Dr. Lokesh Chandra in 9 Vols. as Vol.
214 of the Satapitaka Series.
5. As with Sum-pa-mkhan-po's History, so with that of Padma-
dkar-po whose History has been published several times.
Perhaps the most readily available is the Tibetan Chronicle of
Padma-dkar-po, published by Prof. Dr. Lokesh Chandra as Vol.
75 of the Satapita}ta Series. ·
6. The wide-ranging History of dPa'-bo-gtsug-lag-'phreng-ba has
recently been published by the late Karmapa Rang-byung-rig-
pa'i-rdo-rje at Rumtek in Sikkim.
7. A convenient edition of 'Gos-lo-tsa-ba's famous work is
published by Prof. Dr. Lokesh Chandra, as Vol. 212 of the
Series. A translation by G. Roerich, entitled The
Blue Annals has been reprinted by Motilal Banarsidass.
8. The Collected Works of Taranatha are being printed in
seventeen volumes, in Leh, Ladakh, as the Smanrtsis Shesrig
Dpemzod series ... by C.Namgyal and Tsewang Taru. The edition
is from the prints of the rTang-brtan Phun-tshogs-gling copy.
9. Refer to the Bibliography for this work.
10. For example, an attenuated biography consisting of chosen
episodes is to be' found in dPa'-bo-gtsug-lag-'phreng-ba's work
the Chos-byung-mkhas-pa'i-dga'-ston (See Notes to the
Introduction, Note 6), Volume na. Folio 766, line 7-Folio 768,
line 4.
11. Refer to the Bibliography for this work.
12. Refer to the Bibliography for this work.
I wish to express my gratitude to Norbu Samphel of
Melbourne for his assistance in checking my translation
and to Lama Choedak of the Sakya Tenphel Ling Centre in
Singapore, who me with a number of difficult
passages. I also wish to thank Gyatsho Tshering for his
steady encouragement and support of my work. I am
grateful to Tsepak Rigzin and Jeremy Russell for their
careful editing and to Jamyang Dakpa for the fine cover
Part One
The Life
Early Life and Relationship with
His Guru
Namo Vajrasattvaya
I offer these amazing accounts which are like the vast
wisdom-brilliance of ten million young suns, beyond actual
counting, and which illuminate the ignorance-gloom of
sentient beings. These accounts move in billowing
oceans of ascetic practice, totally crush and are completely
victorious over both Mara
and the Tirthikas.
I will briefly
and with great care relate some of these accounts, which
are widely renowned and are completely trustworthy due to
their irrefutable origins.
About one thousand five hundred years after the Fully
Enlightened One appeared on earth, the Sidddvara Acarya
made his appearance.
The Acarya
had brought the eight Sri Mahakala Tantras from Sri
and so the text known as the Nag-po-
chen-po-mngon-par- 'byung-ba,
which contained the
essence of the other seven forms, was taught. It contained
the mal)<;falas of the two-armed form, the four-armed form,
the six-armed form, the eight-armed form, the twelve-
armed form and the sixteen-armed form. Here in the Land
o( Snows, Rva-lo-tsa-ba
undoubtedly translated the
following words directly from that Indian text; "It is
certain that he will appear in the land of Uruvisa.
In that
very place will arise one who is most diligent at these very
practices, and he will practise the injuctions of Rama.I)a. He
will be a mighty yogin, completely unique among beings,
and he will gain the eight great siddhis, that is, the sword
siddhi and the rest. Now, as to his name, the first letter of
the first group of letters will be ornamented with the first
of the vowel group, and the fourth letter of the seventh
group of letters will ride a little on the letter 'na'. As
nothing remotely like him has ever arisen in Jambudvipa
he may not even yet arise. He will have six yogin students
and they will attain the Mahamudrau beyond form."
it was proclaimed. In the later Sri Kalacakra Tantra,
according to the old translation,. it is said that he would
hold a kha!vaitga,
wear bone ornaments,
hold a skull
and a beer vessel/' and would bear the name
The first of these prophecies was to do with his
birthplace, and the words, "diligent at these very
practices", meant that he would practise mental asceticism
widely. The words, will practise the injunctions of
meant that he would completely root out all the
evil creatures from the land of Laitka
and from other
lands too. The words, "the first letter of the first group", is
the letter 'ka', and the words, "the fourth letter of the
seventh group", is the letter 'ha'. As for the words, "will
ride a little on the letter 'na' ", it meant that the letter 'ha'
should be placed above the letter 'na'. Thus, his name was
prophesied as "Kanha".
Now, is a name with many meanings, but it is
really Kanha that is the most extraordinary name of this
Acarya. He is also known as In common
parlance he is known as The words, "he will gain
the eight great siddhis
... the sword siddhi and the rest",
meant that due to his proficiency in the eight ordinary
siddhis, he would be able to give them to others. As for the
words, "As nothing remotely like him has ever arisen in
Jambudvrpa, (and) he may not even yet arise", it meant that
such an acarya would be praised through out the three
world ages, and that when this acarya performed deeds for
the welfare of sentient creatures, they would be fully
pervaded by the true teachings. Even lf it were not to be
exactly so, the inhabitants of thirteen great cities, maidens
and youths who had come to look to him for support,
would abandon their worldly activities and become yogins
and yoginrs, and those very cities would become deserted.2D
All of those yogins and yoginrs would gain something.
Those of the very highest ability would gain the highest
siddhis, those of ability would gain the middling
siddhis, and as for those of lower ability, it is said that there
were to be none who would not even perfect the least of
deeds and who would attain no siddhis at all. Moreover, all
of them would attain great states of meditation.
As for his six disciples, they came from among the
retinue which stayed at the feet of this life-supporting
acarya, listening to his preaching. They had heard the
acarya in a previous time and they gained the highest
Mahamudrasiddhi. The six were-Eyalapa, Mahilapa,
Bhadrapa, Dhamapa, Dhumapa and Cimbupa. As for the
words,_"beyond form", it does not mean abandoning the
body at death, it means that while retaining the karmically
ripened body, he would depart in the form of a rainbow
As for the later prophecy, it is said that his
kha!vailga and the other attributes with which he was
ornamented were symbols and that as this acarya was to
perform mainly deeds with elaboration,
he would appear
as a god. His name, is also revealed. Although
is another name for this acarya, there are many
others bearing this name. This acarya is also known as
Kanhacarya meaning the Black Acarya. If caryapa is added
to the short words Kanha and they will become
Kanhacaryapa and or the Black Ascetic. He
is also known as Caryacaryapa or the Ascetic Acarya as
well as Caryavajra or the Vajra Ascetic and Acarya
Caryadharipa or the Acarya Lord of Ascetics. These are all
names by which he is known. '
He was born into the highest of the four castes,
of the Brahrpins, and his birthplace was in the east of India
in Oruvisa, a part of the Kingdom of Gaura, quite close to
Bengal. Some of the old Tibetan accounts say that he was
born into the Ksatriya caste, but in one of the acarya's own
doha songs
it says, "Going on, reaching out and touching,
is the Brahrpin's son."
Although the meaning of those
words must be explained according to the
what they symbolize must be in
accordance with conventional existence
Thus, that
(quotation) substantiates the prophecy that he was to be of
the Brahrpin caste. From the far past, right up to the
present time in India, this acarya has been widely
renowned by both Buddhists and non-Buddhists, and with
one voice they all proclaim that he was of the Brahrpin
caste-it is therefore as a Brahrpin that he is famed among
all. Furthermore, this acarya did not come from Tibet, but
was from India, and as is fitting all in India are familiar
with this acarya's caste. Now, those people of Tibet who
are ignorant of the details, and yet speak out against the
fact of his caste may find this to be true and say, "These
things are spoken by good people." However, simply
saying this is not good enough, since careless speakers will
only gain victory over rumour-mongers.
From his you·th he was quick witted and was learned
in rhetoric, medical examination, and all kinds of arts, and
crafts. All his previous karma had come to fruition. Several
wisdom-holding dakinis manifested themselves to him, and
he came in to a part of Magadha,
to Srt Nalanda,
where five hundred pandits lived, and where the monastic
colleges were flourishing. He took full monk's ordination
there and stayed for many years. Through hearing and
pondering on the Tripitaka
and the four Tantra
he purified his mental continuum. He also
perfected various mantras and meditations.
Once while he was meditating in a lonely spot,
fully perfected Mahayogini Princess
showed herself to him and with her blessing he was
enabled to discover unique levels of meditative absorption.
In that same place vajra-<;lakinis
gave him permission
from the heavens saying, "In the northern kingdom of
is the Guru known as Jalandharipa. If you serve
him, then the siddhis you desire-will be yours." After they
had told him this he went alone to the land of Jalandhara,
and there he met the Siddha Jalandharipa. That self-arisen
acarya, who was from the outset greater than the most
accomplished yogin-mahesvara, could manifest his body in
many places at the same instant, and lived in many bodily
forms in various, widely-separated lands at one and the
same time. ·It is certain that many of his students attained
siddhi. Jalandharipa appeared in that land in the form of a
certain sudra yogin who was always begging alms,
pretending to be ordinary, as it was time for the conversion
of that land. Having abandoned all pride in his learning,
Kar:tha bowed low at Jalandharipa's feet, and touching
them he begged to become one of his followers.
Jalandharipa knew that he was a fortunate being and so he
gave him full and c;omplete empowerments, teachings and
the follow-up teachings in their entirety. Then while Kar:tha
was staying in a certain area of Jalandhara pondering the
meaning of the Vajrayana, he found that he could go
through brick walls unhindered if he wanted to, and that if
he walked on boulders his feet sank into them and that he
could reduce them to dust. In the morning when he was
meditating, he saw with great clarity, the maJ).<;iala of Srt
and all the gods belonging to it. He heard the
questions and answers they put to each other and all the
acarya's doubts were allayed, and when he sang vajra
songs and paeans, the earth quaked, a shower of flowers
fell, sounds radiated and lights blazed forth. When he
thought, "Is it not now time to perform my carya
several vajra - c;fakinis manifested
and they prevented him from performing them. When he
was seated in a certain spot where young cattle herds often
played, he found several swords they had made out of an
a5oka tree and which they ·had left behind. He took one of
them in his hands and put it down in front of himself.
When he went into meditation, fire blazed forth from the
sword of its own accord, and when he clasped it in his
hands he soared into the skies and gained inner spiritual
vision. He thought, "I really should not use these siddhi
powers without the direct permission of the Guru or of the
As soon as he had this thought, the sword
became invisible and was hidden from his sight.
Once while he was travelling on a certain road in the
midst of rocky mountains, he saw a mine of quicksilver
which was of use in attaining the siddhis. The mine's door
opened of its own accord and when he saw a treasure trove
inside, the door opened further.
There was a certain sadhaka
who frequented forest
glades where he thought there were no other people. When
he felt he was in total isolation, he wrapped his siddhi
in three types of metal and secreted them beneath the
roots of a tree. Now there was a certain trickster who also
lived in that forest and he saw them hidden there between
the roots of the tree. When the sadhaka went off to town,
the trickster stole the pills and also went off to the town
where he tried to sell the pills. When he found that there
was no demand for them he thought, "As they are of no use
at all to me, who can I possibly give them to?" At that
very time he came across the acarya who was meditating at
a road junction and he laid them at his feet and fled. The
acarya saw them and steadied his mind. About an hour
later sounds and light spontaneously arose from the pills.
When the acarya put them intQ his mouth he was able to
see the realms of the gods and yaksas,
and he also found
that he could travel to those places in a flash if he wished
to. However, just as before, at the very instant he thought
about using those powers, the realms became quite
invisible and the powers waned.
When the acarya was travelling on a certain road he
saw a wondrous door which led to the nether world. The
door opened by itself. A road was revealed and he
followed it, and in a short while he saw the nether realms
and _..was able to exert his mental control over them. Then
he returned to his practices. Although the siddhis he gained
were many, he did not put much effort into gaining them,
as they were gained rather by their own spc ntaneous
appearance. He thought, "Now the time for me to perform
the carya practices has arrived", and he went and begged
the Guru Jalandharipa to bestow upon him the pennission
to practise. Jalandharipa said, "Oh my! What an amazing
magician you are! However, right now you are unable to
practise the caryas. Now, there is a place called Pretapuri
about five hundred yojanas
north of here. A <j.akini known
as Bhadri lives there and she has all the secret tantras. In
her possession is the Complete Collection of Secrets,
known as the Sarrzpufatilaka Tantra.'"'" Go and get it from
her! It will be of great use to sentient creatures. Now, when
you actually beg her for it, she won't give it to you no
matter what you say, but if you say that it is I who sent you
she will certainly give it to you."
The next morning proceeded to the north.
At about the last watch of the day, he found a derelict, evil-
looking house on the edge of a precipice, in the middle of a
vast grey desert. When he went near the house he met an
ugly girl who was carrying water. She said that he should
really rent a place there for the night. When she went
inside the house a great voice called out, and when the
acarya went inside he saw a completely different girl there,
she said to him, "0 yogin, where are you going?" The
acarya told her his story and she replied, "This is the land
of Pretapuri, and I am that very Q.akinr, Bhadri!" The
acarya pondered a while and came to the conclusion that it
just could not be so and next morning he left for the north
again. At sunset he arrived again near the same house and
again he left at dawn, exactly as before, and returned to the
same place. Then the acarya prostrated before the dakini
and said, "You have in your possession the. Sri
Sarrzputafilaka (or Kha-sbyor-thig-le) Tantra. The acarya
Jalandharipa has sent me to fetch it and so I beg you to
give me the volumes containing the Tantra. I also beg you
for the upadda
s teachings and all the follow-up
teachings." The house immediately became ornamented
with all the trappings of a mansion, the woman appeared,
seated on a throne of gold and ornamented with rays of
light. She duly gave him the Tantra of the Sarrzpufa and
said, "Jalandharipa himself does not need this, but for the
sake of a few lucky sentient creatures, I bestow it upon
Tibetans in past times such as Rva the translator and
the Junior translator said that the Q.akini was Bhadri and it
is well known that in the Indian commentaries she is in the
Guru's lineage. Many people wish to see her as an
of Vajravarahi
and Nairatmya" and this is in
no way actually contradicted. As for the accounts of the
tradition, these say that she was the Q.akini 'Gro-
ba-bzang-mo.50 The so-called 'Gro-ba-bzang-mo is a well-
known name for the Q.akini GuhyaQ.akini and this too is
Previously in Tibet, it is said in these accounts that the
empowennents, teachings and follow-up teachings were all
bestowed on him, and this means that it was just like an
ordinary acarya giving teachings to a student by means of
coloured powders, amassing all the requisites for the
empowerment, intoning the ritual, practising in the day
time, empowering at night, reading the holy books and
scrutinizing and clarifying the central teachings. This
tradition was in no way abandoned by the Q.akini. She
realised that the acarya was a very fortunate being
and so he was blessed by that nirm3:1)a form of the Jiiana-
Q.akini, and he instantly gained remarkable Jiiana.s
internalised the meanings of all the tantras and she
bestowed on him all the instructions and empowerments to
enable him to work very widely for the welfare of sentient
creatures. He also gained the teachings and the follow-up
teachings of the very highest classes. Now, in previous
Mahasiddha biographies, the usual means of imparting
teaching from one to the other was in that very manner. As
fot us here in Tibet, it appears that we fall into the two
extremes with regards to our understanding. Most of the
fools and their followers who desire to be learned have a
vague understanding, and they wish to compare today's
Lamas and their blockheaded, ordinary disciples who have
hardly embarked on the path, to the Siddhas. They give
empowerments, explain tantric instructions and by so
doing, they cut off the very root. Not knowing whether
they are giving the thoughtful permission when placing the
scriptures on the head or not, they still consider it to be a
good and heroic thing to do. This illustrates that the Guru
never taught and the disciple never understood the
meanings, so both of them know nothing whatsoever. As
this is nothing other than a pretence to learning, they fall
into the extreme of nihilism. Also there are beginners on
the path who value the Mantrayana scriptures and rituals
and who attempt to act like the Aryas,'
Siddhas and
Sadhakas. They impose upon themselves the seemingly
strict disciplines with the wish to become learned and
instead become stubborn. These people fall into the
extreme of etemalism. Those who enter the path should
ensure that the lineage has a proper origin and that the
teachings have never been severed. There must be no error
in the ritual practice and meditational experience must be
followed through. There must be no doubt as to the main
teachings and the mind must be focussed on one thing
only, but with certain limits. Teachings taken must be put
into appropriate practice. Even though the sphere of
activity of the siddhas is other-worldly, and even though it
appears to be without order and system, you must have no
doubts or reversion in your views. You must pray to them
with the utmost respect.
Then the acarya returned homeward in a flash, on the
very road by which he had come. He offered the volume·of
the tantra, which he had received from the Q.akinl's own
hands, to his Guru Jalandharipa, who said, "If you had
asked the 4akini for it without any mental doubts
whatsoever, then that in itself would have been sufficient
reason for you to gain the very highest Mahamudrasiddhi.
It was for that reason that I sent you, but now all that has
been obscured by your vikalpa
arid now, as I have no use
to all for that book, you must take it, leave here and teach it
to others. I have known that this would be so from a
previous time!" The Guru explained all the tantra's
meanings in an instant.
When the acarya was seated in meditation, a demon
sprite who was undefeatable, yaksis from the golden
cavern and other yakSis too, came before him and offered
him their mantras, tantras and siddhis. He was told that if
he practised mental asceticism, then he would surely obtain
the Mahamudrasiddhis, and so he left for a while. After
that the Guru Jalandharipa saia. "Go to the glorious land of
Beg the Vajradakini's blessings for the six
and return quickly! Among those vajraq.akinis in
the land of Urgyen is one who appears completely different
-beg them from her. She is the one who will give
exquisitely wrought six-fold ornaments of human bone to
the acarya. Between Jalandhara and Urgyen it is said to be
one hundred and twenty yojanas and the acarya covered
that distance in one or two days. When he arrived in
Urgyen he was met b_y countless viras
and Qaki.nis and he
saw many of their amazing feats of magic. Once while he
sat in a row as a vast Qakini gaQacakra
was being
performed, he experienced great pleasure and noticed at
the lower·end of the assembled row, a particularly ugly
Qakini, with glasses on, uneven teeth, a coarse body, badly
coloured and wearing t a t t ~ e d clothes. The acarya realised
that this was the cJakini who had been prophesied to· him
and he said to her," The acarya Jalandharipa has sent. me to
you. I beg you to bless these bone ornaments. She then
intoned mantras and tied many mudra-knots on them and
them to the acarya
On the way back home, on a lonely road, the acarya
felt his heart tremble and he untied the Qakini's knots and
fixed the bone ornaments on his body. As a result, the
power to see the threefold world was born in him. He
attained the power to travel unhindered in the nether-world,
the realms on the earth and in the heavenly spheres. Then
he took off his ornaments and stored them in a vessel. He
said to the acarya Jalandharipa, "The mudras possess
certain power". but the acarya was not pleased at
having undone the Qakini knots and he manifested this
displeasure. This means that if the Qakini's knots had been
undamaged and had been offered undamaged to the Guru
Jalandharipa, then the acarya would have immediately
been given the bone ornaments by the guru and when they
were put onto his body he would have gained the very
highest siddhi, or so it appears to me anyway.
The acarya stayed in that place, living as he pleased,
and with the permission of the Guru Jalandharipa and that
aforementioned Qakini, he taught the vajrayana to fortunate
students who assembled there. According to their abilities,
each of them attained a certain meditational state and each
of them gained one of the special abilities. The acarya told
them of the eight siddhis
saying, "These are the eight
siddhi powers; the pill siddhi, the eye salve siddhi, the
sword siddhi, the siddhi of fleetfootedness, the elixir of life
siddhi, the yaksi siddhi, the vetala siddhi and the siddhi of
moving underground." The acarya performed
many rituals for easily obtaining those siddhis of
substance. Moreover, each of the students gained siddhi
commensurate with his good fortune. They also performed
the rituals and each of them got various of the fine level
siddhis. It is said that at that time there were seventy-two
students of whom thirty-seven were yoginis and thirty-five
were yogins.
On one particular occasion, the acarya noting the
extent of his internal heat, passed one of his ritual gazes
over a boulder, shattered it, and with his restorative gaze
was able to bring the fragments together again. Again, by
fixing his ritual gaze on a nagrodha tree, he caused it to
wither away and w!th his restorative gaze he was able to
revive it. Then everything he could desire came to him and
he thought, "Now I must ~ a v e certainly performed the
deeds of mental austerity", and going before the Guru
Ja:Iandharipa he begged him saying, "Now as I am certainly
able to perform the caryas, when will the Guru give me his
permission to practise them? All of my retinue have got an
ability each ancJ, I beg you to give me your permission to
lead them too." The Guru said, "You still look to me as if
you have absolutely no abilities at all! If you do have any
then please show me." The acarya fixed a tiger with a ritual
gaze, which petrifies the beholders, and immediately it was
transfixed like a tree. He exerted his gaze, which causes
things to tumble down, at a tree which was hung with fruit,
and it all fell to the ground. He fixed a spotted antelope
with a ritual gaze which summons and it immediately ran
before him and started to lick his feet. He fixed the King of
with a ritual gaze of subjugation and the King
together with his attendants came there before him and
prostrated at his feet. The acarya also summoned forth
lumps of various kinds of matter and could also cause
people's feet to move toward him against their will. He
asked the Guru what he thought of this display and the
Guru replied, "You have my permission to work on all the
other things, except for the King of Gandhara", and so the
acarya started to release them from their thrall. However,
he was only able to effect the partial release of a few of the
things and the Guru eclipsed him by manifesting his own
powers. After Jalandharipa had fully revived them all, he
said to l(rg1apa, "It is too early for you to practise, for you
too must be able to effect revival." Then the acarya stayed
there for a while in meditation.
Now, at that time, there was a tree on which there was
a corpse hanging like a sign and causing a hindrance to the
tree. The acarya fixed the tree with a ritual gaze and
overcame the hindrance. The corpse fell to the ground,
pondered for a while, transformed itself into a vetala,
came before the acarya to become his servant. A few
people saw this happen just once, but most people did not
see it.
abilities became ever greater and they
were recounted and spread among his followers in written
form. He said to them, "I shall now practice the caryas of
mental austerity and although you too have attained certain
abilities, you should still continue to accompany me"
prostrated himself before the Guru and said,
"Previously you eclipsed my powers, but now 1 have come
here before you and I beg you to bestow your permission
to practise upon me". Jalandharipa gave him the sixfold
bone ornaments, which had been blessed by the Q.akini and
said to him, "Now you may go and practise mental
asceticism! However you must not go to the land of
z You should go to the eight great cemeteries
and you may also wander around in the other great lands."
That is how the permission was bestowed.
Then Caryapa started to do all these things and while
he was on the road to the site where he was to perform his
practices, as·he had nobody to hold his seven umbrellas,
they circled around him by themselves, and as he had
nobody to sound the seven 4amarus, they sounded
At certain times his steps measured a cubit in
length, and at other times he did not even touch the ground.
At yet other times he rode on vetalas which held flower
garlands. Each day, by means of the eight or the ten ritual
gazes, he was able to fulfil the aims of many sentient
creatures. At other times the seven umbrellas multiplied
themselves into seven hundred and the seven 4amarus also
became seven hundred. His host of attendants found that
with their magical abilities they were able to wander
around accompanying him.
In the lands of Malava,
(also known as the "Plantation of plantain
trees"), the acarya's retinue were able to stay as they
pleased and they too were able to fulftl the aims of sentient
creatures. In this land he met the siddha Goraksa
who said
chidingly, "If you are the student of Jalandharipa, then you
should know that the Eastern King Gobicandra
hid him in
a pit some twelve years ago!"
The acarya Caryapa,
together with his one thousand four hundred attendants,
arrived in the east and set up camp in front of the King's
palace. The town's horses and elephants would not eat their
grass and small children would not drink their mothers'
milk. All musical instruments became silent. Everybody
knew that it was due to. the yogi manifesting his powers
and after the exhibition of power was over, the king went
and prostrated at his feet and begged him saying. "At
dawn, may the acarya and his retinue come to my palace
and stay there." The acarya replied, "I have one thousand
four hundred in my retinue. You will be unable to satisfy
them all." The King replied, "I have many hundreds of
thousands of soldiers and if I can keep them in cooked
food, why should I be unable to feed the acarya's retinue?"
The acarya said, "Oh well, first satisfy my two disciples. If
you can satisfy them, then in due course my other disciples
will come."
Next morning sufficient food to satisfy one thousand
four hundred men was prepared and the yogins Mahila and
Bhadala both came there. Their soup bowls were both
nearly filled with food, but the King's men were never able
to fill them completely. The two yogins ate all t:te food and
yet they said, "We are still not satisfied!" Then the King
knew that a sign had been manifested and he and all his
attendants made their offerings to the acarya's retinue.
Touching the acarya's feet, the King begged to become a
disciple and he was given the initiation with elaborations,
the teachings and the follow-up teachings. When he was
finally given the teachings of the tattva
deathless path,
which involved putting his hand into an empty earthenware
v e s s ~ ~ as-a--means of teaching by symbol, the King said, "I
have heard this teaching from another person previously,"
and the acarya asked, "Who was it who taught you?" The
King replied, "It was Hacppa
that I heard it from," and the
acarya replied, "If that was the same person as the siddha
Jalandharipa, then you certainly have accumulated a
multitude of sins-how can the deathless path ever come to
you? You and your retinue will be reduced to ashes!" Then
the King was repentant and terribly afraid. Caryapa's
disciples removed the earth and the rubbish from the pit
and opened it up. Three images of the King were fashioned
out of the eight metal alloy7
and when each was touched to
the feet of the siddha Jalandharipa it was cursed by him
and reduced to dust. When the King saw that, he was
mightily terrified and fell down in a swoon. With these
threats the King's mental impurity was resolved, and later,
after having begged the Guru for peace of mind, he became
a disciple. As the acarya had obtained siddhi, both master
and disciple together gave the King the teachings and later,
after a short w h i l e ~ the King attained siddhi. Jalandharipa
used this teaching method when he was in Bengal, and
when he was in Jalandhara he resided there performing
exactly as described before.
Feats in Various Parts of Ind-ia
Caryapa stayed for a while in the south-eastern region
of Odisa
and in the neighbouring land of Kalinka
working for the welfare of sentient beings. Then he went to
the land of Singala, simply because he felt like it. He
walked on the surface of the water without his feet sinking
into it and those of his retinue who were able to, also
performed miracles and proceeded there. One disciple in
particular spread an animal skin on the ocean and thereby
crossed over. Another threw his stick down and using it, he
too crossed over. Another flew over like a bird and yet
another went over in the heavens without even touching
the water. Others went over in various other ways. The
width of the ocean from Kalinka to Singala is many
hundreds of yojanas and they all got to Singala and cut one
or two hours off the length of the journey.
Now the King of Singala was Rathabala. He and his
attendants had seen this magical display and in an excess
of faith they paid homage at the acarya's feet and with vast
liberality made lengthy offerings. The secret mantrayana
path had not previously spread in that place and the acarya
made the vajrayana widespread, bringing many people to
siddhi. The King, his ministers, householders and
merchants erected a new temple and many other temples
were blessed and consecrated. The King was also
empowered and he erected a tantric temple called the
Right up to this very day it is mighty in its
blessings and in accord with one's fortune, if one prays
steadfastly for from seven days to a month, then even if
one were blind one's sight would be restored and even a
barren women would become fertile.
Previously in that land there a class of demons
known as Brahmademons, who always came and wrought
damage. In the day, a choking, boiling wind arose and male
and female children, horses, oxen, cattle, etc, were
encircled by the wind and immediately many of them died.
At night the wind moved houses, engulfed them in flames
and killed many men and cattle. Sometimes the demons
would appear as Brahrpins or as monks and would
slaughter people. The acarya expelled the demons, bound
them by oath and punished them. They have not
reappeared there to this day. Some 9akini

who also used to appear have not reappeared there since
then. In a place where many malicious 9akinis known as
Gingamido lived, was one in particular known as
VisvarUpi, or "She who has many bodily forms." She had a
female form and lived together with her five hundred
attendants. Each day their apparitions would devour
many hundred thousand men and animals in Jambudvipa
and the small islands. In order to subdue them, the acarya
crossed the ocean by magical means and when he drew
near the land he found that the chief of the 9akinis,
VisvarUpi, had transformed herself into a girl resembling a
goddess, who came and met him on the road. When the
acarya reached that particular spot she said to him, "0,
yogin, where are you going?" and he "I am going
to subdue the demoness Visvarupi." She said, "She has
body, limbs and fangs and her mind is very perceptive
indeed and if, as is said to be true, she is of use to sentient
creatures, then it be improper of you to punish her."
The acarya said, ''That is not so! Each day she harms many
hundred thousand beings, and because of that I must surely
subdue her." Visvarupi replied, "As she has great magical
powers, how will you be able to accomplish this?" and the
acarya answered, "Well we will just have to see what
happens won't we?" Immediately the five hundred
attendants of Visvarupi appeared on the spot and their
leader herself came forth panting heavily, with her huge
body in a more terrifying attitude than usual. The acarya
pointed a finger at her in a wrathful gesture and caused
them and their leader to suffer massive outflows of blood
from their bodily orifices. All Visvarupi 's joints fell apart,
and maddened with rage she fell unconscious, with her
memory quite gone. All her attendants were hurled to the
ground in a swoon as if they were drunk. The acarya gave
them orders and then bound them by oath, making them
swear never to harm sentient beings again. The demoness
Visvarupi prostrated herself at the acarya 's feet and when
he was once again about to go on his way, she said to him.
"If you wish to, you may use me as your steed so that all
other beings may see it. When you stay, please use me as
your carpet. I beg you always to follow behind me in your
invisible form and I beg you to manifest many miracles
and to thoroughly extirpate all those who are noxious." The
acarya did exactly as he had been begged by Visvarupi.
Somewhere in the south, in the land of
(known as 'Bird's beak ma.J)C;iala'), there
was a self-wrought image of the goddess Pingala,
means 'She who is reddish-yellow in colour', the origin of
which was quite recent. Magically potent Tirthikas
gathered there and by their mantras each of them
summoned forth a man nightly and devoured him at their
ga.I)a gathering. Once they gathered up many men at one
time as the yoginls wished to eat them all at a certain' feast.
The acarya arrived there and he fixed the yoginis with a
ritual gaze and scourged them with ritual gestures. Like
corpses, they all tumbled over and even the stone image
fell to the ground. The acarya pressed it under his feet and
it bent double. All the 4a:kinis gave their oaths never to
harm living creatures again. Similarly, there was an image
of a Kula maq-ka,
said to be self arisen, and it possessed
mudras of its birthplace. Although with such images it is
usual for the hands and feet to be lacking, this one is said
to have had them.
Also in the south, in the land of Tambala,'
where he
was staying in ascetic practice, there was a Trrthika called
KHQabhima, a yogin who was famed for his
accomplishments. He announced, "I wish to challenge the
acarya in a contest of abilities", and the King and
innumerable beings gathered there. In that place was a
Buddhist temple known as Carmavihara and a Tirthika
known as Sukanathamathura. The distance
between them was about two miles. strewed
things all over the Buddhist temple and when he performed
the mantras and the gesture of pounding, those things all
stuck fast to the temple. The acarya performed a ritual gaze
and all the things returned whence they had come.
Although the Trrthika had imbued all the things with his
mantra power they were unable to do any harm. Now, the
Tirthika ma!ha stood before a mountain and the acarya
Caryapa exerted his gaze to the rocky peak above the
ma!}la. From the crumbling peak fell huge chunks of rock,
which completely crushed the complex of one hundred and
eight Trrthika temples. Although attacked the
acarya with ritual gazes, finger gestures and even the
clenched fist gesture, as well as various others, no harm
befell him at all. The acarya gave him a return glance and
paralysed for a whole day, tumbled over like
a clay figurine. As his voice was paralysed he could not
speak, and as his mind was paralysed he had no memory
and appeared like an intoxicated person.
All the people there were mightily terrified and being
absolutely amazed, many prayed to him. As a result of
these entreaties the acarya gave a restorative
gaze and he was again restored to mental ease. In this land
of Tambala, due to the hiatus in Tuthika power, it is said
that all the people became Buddhist Previously the Arya
had been there and had also established
many beings on the path of truth, but in the interim period
the people had all become Tuthikas. In Nagmjuna's time
the number of Buddhists spread and again waned and in
Dharmakirti 's." time the number increased again. In that
particular area there were both Buddhists and non-
Buddhists, and Dharmakirti converted them all to
Buddhism. Even QP to the. present time there are Buddhists
there. The land is clo_se to Vidyanagar.
In . the land of Vuajapur, in the midst of the Vmdhya
in a town known as Devaghat, lived a King of
heretical view known as Pangkaja. When the acarya and
his attendants arrived there, very many of the people paid
homage to him and this infuriated the King. One day when
the acarya was going towards the town, the King set three
wild elephants on the left and right sides of the road and
when the acarya passed by, the King loosed them upon
him. Each elephant had iron tusks and the acarya appeared
before each of them and started to stretch their trunks and
crush their tusks. Now the King could see none of this,
seeing only the acarya seated on the left or right side of the
road or behind the As the elephants beheld the
acarya 's face, he bound them with a nose-rope and crushed
their tusks, and when he s ~ e d this subjugation the King
could only see him seated behind the elephants to their left
or right. In fact the acarya was not really there at all but
was. seated directly in front with his legs outstretched in a
posture of ease and comfort. The time passed in that
manner and gradually the elephants became exhausted and
they swooned to the ground. Then finally the King came
and touched the acarya's feet in homage, begged for
forgiveness and utterly rejected his heretical vie.ws.
Caryapa also went to the land of Kongkana, ~ and there
were many ksetrayoginis
gathered there together
performing a gal)acakra feast. One night the sounds of
<J.amarus and other instruments of offering were heard and
their melodious sounds pervaded the whole land. Those
townspeople who heard the sounds were sapped of their
mental powers and they all gathered at the acarya 's
residence to hear more of the music, so too did cattle
herders and mountain hermits, as well as horses, cattle and
buffalo; so too did various game animals, birds and wild
animals; so too did gods, nagas,
yaksas, amanusyas
they all assembled there. Those creatures who heard the
sound all became unbalanced and their frenzy of faith
lasted the whole night long. In the morning when the sun
began to shine, the acarya satisfied all the people and the
amanusyas with various delicious foods, which he drew
forth from a small vessel, and he said to them, "You must
always act virtuously." The amanusyas replied, .. We will
do so for five hundred years", and from that time until the
time of the mKhas-pa-sgo-drug,
the Tirthika faith'
declined somewhat and the Buddhists flourished by virtue
of their own abilities.
The acarya lived also for a time in the land of
in the town Chaityapata, known in Tibetan as
mChod-nen-grong, or 'Town of the Stupa' .
In that
panicular place Vajravarahi was famed as 'She who brews
the beer of the triple world'. Whenever the barmaids in the
seven hundred neighbouring towns prepared· their beer and
put it into vessels, they found that each time the grain was
mixed with the yeast and filtered, a residue always
remained left behind. When the residual grain, which had
no goodness left in it, was left in a sealed container for an
hour, the barmaids found that fresh goodness had returned
to it and that this same process could be repeated up to
seven times. Even to this very day the same thing happens
in each of those seven hundred towns. In auspicious times
the whole country is pervaded with the odour of beer and
this is absolutely true! Now the King of that land was
Indumala, a Trrthik:a, and for days at a time he was under
the thrall of the gods. At such times there were sacrifices
on every twelfth day of each month. Inside a sun temple,
within a sevenfold encircling wall, many thousands of
living creatures were slain as offerings. Once, at that time
of sacrifice, when the doors of the sevenfold walls has all
been locked, and guards placed outside them, the King and
his retinue together with the sacrificial Bralupins were all
inside with thousands of bound animals. The acarya
Caryapa went alone before the outer door and gave a ritual
gaze to each of the five hundred guards, all of whom were
overpowered and were left smiling inanely. The series of
doors opened by themselves and thus the acarya came
close to the site of the sacrifice. He gave a ritual gaze to the
men and the beasts who had.all been trussed up for
sacrifice and their bonds loosened of their own accord. The
acarya then fixed the ceremonial frreplace, at which the
Bra:hrpins were to perform the ftre offering, with a ritual
gaze and the flames grew larger and larger, finally
engulfing the whole site in flames. The King and his
attendants were terrified and fled, and both the King and
the Bra:lupins knew that this had been a manifestation of
the acarya's power. They prostrated themselves at his feet
and promised to do whatever he demanded of them. Thus,
they became established in the doctrine of the Buddha and
the acarya wandered off into other lands.
He went to Harikela near the land of Malyra
in the
southern regions and in that land there was a very high
mountain which was renowned as a pilgrimage spot.
Nowadays it is called Candrakumara. The acarya l;milt an
assembly hall in front of the mountain. Once while he was
arranging a vast g ~ a c a k r a feast in the hall, a buffalo and
its calf were placed in front of the door. Now, a certain
Lord of that land wanted to see if the acarya actually had a
yogin's powers or not, so when the assembly hall door was
closed, he made off with the buffalo and its calf. When he
had gone but fifty paces he turned around, looked at the
door and saw the buffalo and calf in their former places,
and when he looked at the ones next to him, they were
similar. A man was sent to investigate and he re-stole the
buffalo and calf, and when he too turned around to look,
exactly what had happened before happened to him. They
were stolen again and again seven times and it always
turned out the same way. Then, thinking that they had
gained seven buffalo and seven calves, they discovered that
they had only the mother and its calf, but when they looked
again at that spot before the door they saw that the original
mother and calf were still in the same place. They
wondered, "Which is the real mother and calf, this pair or
. that pair? We can no longer tell what is true from what is
false in this whole affair!" and they fled the place together.
The Lord of the place then knew for certain that all this had
been the yogin's fusion of amazing magical powers and
spiritual insight, and gathering together half his kingdom
and half his wealth, he renounced it and became one of the
yogins in the acarya retinue. He came to be
known as Lavayipa.
The King of the land of Trilinga
once made an
offering to the acarya and his attendants in a nearby
cemetery known as Attahasa, or in Tibetan, Ha-ha-sgrogs.
The acarya and his retinue approached the place and
performed the lengthy gal)a offering. Countless requisites
were gathered up and the King made made an offering of
them all. The Brahrpins, vaiSyas, farmers,
outcastes and many ordinary people of that land, as well as
five hundred women, also gathered there to make their
offerings. The most unique food at the gal)a was the
Karbuja, ot the 'Queen's fruit', which spontaneously
increased in number until there were more than one
hundred thousand. All those who had come there were
offered some and having eaten it, their streams of being
were blessed. The acarya fixed all those beings with the
ritual gaze that causes one to tumble down, and all of them
gained jiiana and were shown how to transform their
bodies and speech and how to work various magical
transformations and othre miracles. Afterwards all of them
became male and female yogins and attained special
meditational states, with many thousands gaining siddhi.
While he lived in the land of Dan9akaranya, in the
south near the land of Kana,
there was in that very place a
lovely pool from which the people drank. Two evil
poisonous nagas suddenly came there iri the form of two
poisonous serpents and they too drank from the water, the
poison from their mouths rendering the water unuseable.
Now, there was also in that place a Buddhist monastery
and the monks and upasakas
also drank water from that
same pool, and when they did so the saliva from the snakes
mouths mixed up with the water killed them instantly.
When the acarya heard about this he went near the edge of
the pool and from between the ripples in its waters both
nagas emerged. They thought that they would bind the
acarya and even though they tried to, they could not harm
him in any way whatsoever. The acarya pondered deeply
for a while and then he inflated their bodies so that both
naga serpents shattered into a myriad fragments and had to
undergo the most terrible sufferings for a long time. Later,
because of their devotion and supplications to him, he
made them vow solemnly never to harm any sentient
beings and with his revivi:ng gaze he made them into his
followers. He extracted the poison from the waters and the
people who had been killed previously were revived by the
sound of his palms being clapped. together. The acarya's
disciples had heard that he had gone to subdue the nagas
and they went to see it together with many other people.
The defeated nagas and countless other nagas in snake
form were gathered together and in the centre of a palace
the acarya was seated. All the beings who came to gaze on
him were astounded, the serpents became invisible and all
the assembled people there scattered. The mantrayana was
preached in that land and many beings attained siddhi, so it
is said.
At that time the King of Urgyen was Digdeva, known
as the "God of the directions". He invited the acarya to his
kingdom, where he stayed for a very long time. There were
many extremely able Tirthika yogins in that place, as well
as gakinls, and the acarya subdued them with his ritual
gazes and by his wonder-working. By means of these
powers he is said to have converted about twenty petty
kingdoms to Buddhism, as well as a like number of
Pat:t9itas who adhered to non-Buddhist ways. Although I
will not write at length on each and every one of them, I
will mention that some were subdued by masterful gazes,
some by petrifying gestures, some by being shown the
miracle of blazing flames (one or many) and yet others had
faith inculcated in them by seeing manifestations of
spiritual insight. In that land, in the great cemetery of
Ghorandhaka, Sri Heruka, Cakrasamvara
and the
manifested themselves to the acarya, while
he was fully engaged in a gat:ta feast, and he was greatly
pleased. He danced and sang praises and intoned mantras
together with a host of vetalas, and forming a gat:ta circle,
skeletons and jackals also danced around. Many dreadful
embodiments also came and made their offerings at the
ga.I;la and at that time Sn Heruka intoned the preliminary
Kye! To the beings confused in the dense, dark
ignorance of existence,
You manifest, just like the illuminating flashes of
lightning from the thick clouds on a dark night.
You are a fine and wondrous friend whose
liberated and gentle mind of intelligence has
outshone the rays of one thousand million suns.
By means of your effulgence you illumine the six
kinds of words, which have the meaning of bliss,
wisdom and liberation.
May you enter in the hearts of living beings
though your various activities and abilities,
And may you thoroughly dispel their darkness.
This is how the prayers were made and permission to
practise was bestowed. As the acarya eulogised the divinity
by saying, "Your elegant body of passion and tranquility
blazes forth in the three worlds, etc", the deity burst into
the eightfold laughter, "Ha-ha, he-he, etc." and then
became invisible.
Later, while was travelling to Ja:J.andhara,
he drew from under the earth, a long stele, fully eight
fathoms in length and a fathom wide. He grasped it with
one hand and thrust it into the ground on the outskirts of
the village of Koneja and it is still there. to this day. He
taught the meaning of the profound Vajrayana there for
quite some time.
The King of Radha
begged him to consecrate the
temple of Somapuri
and he did so. All those beings who
were present at the time saw all the divine forms, who
attended, as they became visible in dancing postures. This
all happened at the place known as 'Old Somapurt,' and
after that there was to be a new temple known as the
'Temple of the Three Spices'. The King Devapala
shifted the location of Somapurt and its supportive towns
to a new site and the new edifice was known by the same
name as the old one, .that is Somapurt.
From the description of the acarya's arrival in the land
of Viraja up to the time just referred to, all the stories about
him in this account have been set down in their due order.
It would appear that are some discrepancies in the dates
involved, but I have written this according to the earlier
part of the text known as The Lamp of Places, by the
Younger Kusali. Generally speaking, I have heard the
accounts of his thirty-two miraculous deeds in the twenty-
four lands and in the eight cemeteries and also his
extensive deeds in the forty-eight other sites, as well as the
accounts of his coming to the sixteen cemeteries, and I
have heard that they are all extant in the volumes of the
Caryapa collection.
At a later period in the great eastern land of Bengal,
the nephew of the aforementioned King Gobicandra, who
was known as Lalitacandra,
was acting as the protector
of the kingdom. His minister was Kusalanatha. The King
and all the other people throughout the kingdom were
fervent Tuthik:as, and the minister and his entourage were
Buddhists. KHI).acarya and his whole reti.nue of one
thousand four hundred attendants, seven hundred
umbrellas and seven hundred Q.amaru drums, came to that
Bengali town, performing their miracles on the way there.
At that time the town was known as Hemadala, but these
days it is deserted and has reverted to forest. All the people
there were amazed and the minister Kusalanatha made his
offerings to the acarya. The acarya wandered around the
whole city at his will, in the centre and in the four cardinal
directions. Now, in great Indian cities there are cemeteries
in the eight directions; the acarya would sit doy.-n in any of
these eight cemeteries, quite at random, and would perform
the great kindness of teaching the profound .meaning (of
the Dharma) to fortunate beings. The minister Kusalanatha
gathered up a vast array of things to offer and after a long
time had passed, the acarya came before him and said,
"You are far too liberal with your gifts. Why do you do
this?" The· minister replied, "I have erected a temple to
Arya Avalokitesvara
os in my pleasure garden and I beg that
the acarya might consecrate it." replied, "Well,
today the planets and the stars are all well conjoined and
all is well, so I will do it now." The minister said, "Good, I
have all the requisites," but the acarya replied, "Absolutely
nothing at all will be necessary." While on the road to the
temple the acarya plucked a flower and having arrived
there, he placed the flower on the crown of the image's
head, intoned the word, and announced the
end of the consecration. The minister Kusalanatha did not
believe that this was all there was and the acarya said to
him, "If you do not believe it, as I have completed the
consecration, I will go." Taking the flower which he had
placed on the image's head he started to leave, but the
image of Avalokitesvara also stood up and started to follow
him, coming to where the acarya was staying in the
cemetery. The minister repented and went off to the
cemetery and confessed, "I did not believe you before, but
now I certainly do, and I beg you to consecrate the
temple." As before the acarya placed a flower on the head
of the image which became gloriously effulgent with a
blazing light, when Kusalanatha tried to take the image of
Avalokitesvara with him two men, four men, eight men,
sixteen men, even five hundred men could not make it
move. So a temple was built on that very spot in the
cemetery, which came to be known as Nirgasthapana. The
previous temple, which Kusalanatha had erected, was
converted into a stiipa which contained a divinity.
In previous Tibetan accounts it is said that because of
his fear of the King's wrath, the minister Kusalanatha
erected the Avalokitesvara so that it resembled Isvara.
However, due to fear of the Mleccha
the image was taken
to Gangasagar
near the ocean and it is still there to this
day. Those who saw it at the time saw it as Halahala
the one-faced, four-armed form and right from the start it
appeared similar to the tranquil from of Mahesvara, and yet
it was not deliberately made to resemble a Tirthika god.
Then the minister Kusalanatha begged the acarya for
instruction, and perceived him to be a fortunate
being and bestowe,d on him the empowermebts, the
instructions and the follow-up instructions. Generally
speaking the Vira Isvara
does not diminish and does no
hann under any circumstances.
It happened that at that same time a 9-akini prophesied
that the minister should set up a picture of Cakrasamvara
as his tutelary divinity. While Ku5alanatha was performing
meditation, mantra and scattered offerings secretly at night,
the 9-akini proclaimed to all the citizens, "The minister
Kusalanatha has set up an image of his tutelary divinity
trampling on the royal gods." Many of the minister's
relations and friends said to him, "As you seem to have
actually set things up in this way, you would be fortunate if
you were merely banished to another land, but if the King
is annoyed at this (affront) he will cut off your head!" The
minister became absolutely terrified and put the picture
into a container, wrapped it in a lot of clothes so that it
looked like a corpse and placed it on a carriage. When it
was being taken out of the city via the southern gate, the
gatekeeper there became consumed with doubts and when
he seized it to look at it more closely, he discovered the
picture. He fixed it to the tip of his cudgel and carried it
before the King. The people of the city murmured among
themselves. The King gathered all his other ministers and
advisers together and sought their advice. He asked them,
"Should Kusalanatha be impaled or not?" They all replied
with one voice, "You should cut off his head!" and the
King answered, "You all say this without actually having
investigated the matter, but I, as the King, am· obliged to
investigate things more thoroughly. I will examine this
affair further", and he summoned Kusalanatha. He showed
the minister the painted image and said to him, "This
picture is suppressing my god. Do you recall drawing it, or
was it the work of your acarya- does he recall drawing it?
Whoever it was will certainly be punished!" The minister
replied, "I do not recall and neither does the acarya. All of
these things are taught in the Buddha's doctrine." The King
did not believe him and so the minister took a volume from
his house and showed it to the King, who replied, "Well
then if all this is indeed true, then who can possibly say
which of these two doctrines is the true one? We will have
to compete to see which doctrine is the most powerful."
Then the King also erected a picture in which Heruka,
was the cushion (of his god), and said, "When your picture
and mine are both set up on the same level, we will close
the doors and nobody, either from your party or from mine,
will be allowed inside." So they both made vast offerings
in equal measure, prayed in equal measure and after seven
days had passed, supporters of both groups came together
in equal number to see what amazing things has happened.
Whatever abilities the one had, so too did the other, and
what one did the other followed. So both paintings were
installed in a brand-new temple. Seven days later exactly
the same thing happened as before and the minister found
himself unable to carry out the King's orders fully any
more, but was still compelled to do so. Reduced to
trembling, he went before the acarya and said, "I am forced
to keep on performing like this," and he begged the acarya
to manifest his power for him. The acarya said to him, You
have little confidence! For this purpose I don't have to
show my power at all, for how can the Bhagavan Sri
Heruka, Lord of Creatures, be trampled on by a mere
So the acarya stayed in the cemeteries,
dancing and singing and engaging in various other
diversions. Then on the eighth day, both the King and the
minister, together with their Buddhist and Tirthika
supporters went all together into the temple and they
simultaneously displayed their two paintings. The
aforementioned image of Sri Heruka had grown larger than
before and was gloriously effulgent and the painting which
the King had set up had changed of its own accord and
Mahesvara and the goddess Uma
had been transformed
into Sri Heruka, who had indeed crushed them. Seeing that,
all the people made their offerings before the picture of Sri
Heruka and the large royal bell was tolled to proclaim that
thenceforth the King and his entourage would practise the
religion of the Buddha. The King then paid his homage at
the feet of the acarya Caryapa and he sought empowerment
and received the teachings. Later at different times, both
the minister and the King gained siddhi. Brah:rp.ins,
vaisyas, householders etc., all made their offerings
exclusively to the Buddha's teachings, and the gods of the
land as well, and apart from some secret practices which
went on in that land, all the people of Bengal gradually
became Buddhists. As the vessel of the land had thus been
altered, the people were completely amazed at how they
had been converted and the account of it, known as The
Complete Bodily Transformation, has become very famous
in India. The Mantra teachings were to prosper greatly in
that land and the acarya stayed there for a very long time.
Events Surrounding Death
Next the acarya thought, "I have wandered through the
eight great cemeteries and the sixteen great cemeteries and
all the other great lands, now I think it is time to travel to
the land of Devikota."
While he was. travelling in the land of Bengal he came
to the land of Varendra.
There he spent as long as he
wished. One day while he was on the road to the city, near
a grove which contained plantain, rose apple and mango
trees bearing fruit, guarded by a girl, the acarya, together
with his retinue of wandering yogins took some of the
fruit. The girl said to them, "You are quite arrogant about
your powers and quite proud of yourselves. Why don't you
make the fruit come down with your powers and then eat
it!" The acarya gave a gaze which causes things to tumble
down and all the fruit fell from the tree. Just as it was about
to actually touch the ground, the girl made a ritual gaze of
raising her eyelashes and the fruit was raised upwards and
restored to its proper place. With another ritual gaze the
acarya brought the fruit down to earth again and again the
girl with one of her gazes restored them to their former
elevated position. They both did this several times, turn by
tum. Finally the girl said, "With your paltry abilities, you
will never beat me! You may not move all ksetras
s by
yourself!" Then she departed, invisible. That girl was none
other than Vajravarahi.
At a different time, the acarya and his retinue came to
the land of Devikota, near the lower part of Kaccharanga,
near the Tibetan mountains. There, he made an abode for
yogins and said, "Now I have come here to Devikota,
having wandered in all the great cemeteries in Jambudvipa
and in all the great lands where yogis practise their
asceticism. Hereafter, I will not go to any other land, but
will stay here."
After a long time had passed, a great Trrthika Qakini
witch entered into a household of vaisyas, in the body of a
man whose name in the doctrine was Bahuri. In fact this
witch was said to be the emissary of all the witches and she
was known as Kaladandibhartakali. Adopting the form of a
sixteen-year old girl, the witch made a gesture,
representing the matrka's birthplace, towards a smpa
containing the Buddha's reJics, which was the main
support of the faith of that land. The acarya knew that if
the mudra gesture were to remain for a long time on top of
that sttipa, then the Buddhists in and about that land would
become apostate, so he said, "0 my students, remove the
sign of that matrka's birthplace and hurl it into the big
river!" The witch, resenting that, stayed there and once
when the acarya was on his way to the city by a certain
road, that malicious 4akini appeared, holding a pestle and
pounding rice. The acacya and his retinue came near her
and she made a disrespectful gesture at him with her body
and said sarcastically, "And the same applies to all
Buddhists." He gave her a ritual gaze and the mortar and
pestle were shattered. S h ~ too gave the acarya a gaze but it
did him absolutely no harm at all. She repeatedly gave
such gazes to his retinue, but generally speaking they did
no harm, although some of the followers had their clothes
scorched and others fell unconscious. The acarya 's
disciples supplicated him, so he gave another gaze which
caused the witch to tumble to the ground and both her
hands to fall off. At that the acarya found a little
compassion to be roused in his heart and so he gave a
restorative gaze to the two hands, which were re-joined.
The witch recited mantras and exerted another of her gazes
upon the acarya, who, having been moved by his
compassionate heart, had forgotten for an instant to fully
protect himself from her gaze, so it is said. He retired to his
abode and became very sick. He said, "My Guru said that I
should not come to Devikota, and so this is how it turns
out! I have broken his injunction and this is how it turns
out! You, my disciples, must perform gar;tas and
confessional ceremonies in the twenty-four lands and in the
eight cemeteries on behalf of the viras and Qakinis. Then
you must go and beg for medicines and reassemble here in
the middle of next week." Many of his disciples who had
the siddhi power of fleetfootedness, immediately and
swiftly performed all those commands and started to
return. One of the groups got the medicines and near the
road on which they were returning, they found many girls
washing themselves in a lotus lake. The girls said, "0
yogis do come here and bathe yourselves." The yogis
replied, "As our acarya is quite ill, we do not have the
time," and the girls said, "He has already recovered from
his illness." The yogis then answered, "Then we will put
down our medicines near the water and wash for a while",
and when they did so the girls carried off the medicaments
to where they could not be found. So the disciples returned
home, and when they met with the acarya he told them that
in fact those girls had been transformed forms of the
aforementioned QakinL The seventy-two yogins and
yoginls, the very best of his disciples, were summoned and
came before him and the acarya said, "Now, as I can't
reverse the punishment of breaking the Guru's injunction, I
will get the highest siddhi only in the bar-do
period, then
I will come again. Up to that time nolxxly should come in
here," and he closed the door and stayed inside (his cell).
The disciples discussed it amongst themselves and
although they kept it very secret, the malicious Q.akinis said
that if he were ever to come again, then they would suffer
greatly. The Brahrpins and astrologers who heard of the
acarya 's impending death went and begged the King and
all of them came together at that place, together with the
King's men.
On the fifth day, in the daylight hours, the door opened
and they beheld the acarya's dead body. Several of his
disciples, some Brahrpins and astrologers carried the
sandalwood fuel and other funerary requisites and they
took the remains to the great cemetery. Immediately after
this been done, the eighty-four siddhas,
who were the
bestowers of' the eighty-four siddhis, such as the sword
siddhi and the others, and who were perfected right from
the beginning, joined the throng, along with their retinues
who had come from wherever they happened to be at the
time. The Brahrpins and the others could not help admiring
his eminence and were so overcome with grief that they
ran some distance away, from where they watched the
proceedings in a crowd, although they could not pacify
their sorrow. The siddhas placed the remains in the middle
of a mandala which was drawn in space and spontaneous
flames spread forth over it. This is how the strength of the
acarya's Nirvana
was being manifested at that time and
eighty-four thousand yogins and yoginis came to see the
series of as they occurred. Instantly many
hundred-thousand others gathered there and remained on
that spot. At the end of the seventh day the acarya himself,
as he had done previously, caused seven hundred
umbrellas, seven hundred 4amaru drums, seven hundred of
his visible retinue and seven hundred of his invisible
retinue, all to gather there. When he had done this all the
.assembled yogins were amazed and went out to receive
them. There, in an elevated place. He said, "After all that,
what else is my body?"
and they all replied, "It has been
consumed by fire!" Then he-sang perfect dohavajra songs
and his visible body together with one thousand four
hundred attendants became invisible. At the place where
the offerings were to be made before his mortal remains,
the earth quaked, light pervaded everywhere, the odour of
perfumes was spread in all directions, and sounds of music
and a rain of flowers descended from the skies. That was
the twelfth day of the waxing moon and even nowadays in
Devlkota on that same day, one of those amazing portents,
that is, the sounds, the light, the rain of flowers etc., always
occurs there. The place where his relics are said to be
found is considered to be a. particularly unlucky spot and
thenceforth, up to this very day, Indian yogis do not bum
their bodies.
Then in each of the Eastern kingdoms, Devikota,
Varendra, Kamarupa,
O<Jivisa, Radha etc., all of the towns and all parts of those
very lands became filled with yogis and yoginis. One
cannot even say "how". "this", or "went in this manner," of
them, because for the most part their retinue was
completely invisible.
At that time the acarya arrived in the land of Puskara
and Maru. and was seen in the company of six
mudras. He. went to the various \testem areas of Puskara
and many fortunate beings there were established in a full
understanding of their lives. After he had stayed there for
several months he finally left, but nobody is sure where he
went to
In the south at Kan:taJ.aka
he achieved full perfection
in the bar-do period. Having entered his previous bodily
form, he arrived there in that manner, clearly visible, and
bestowed elixir and other substances on many beings there,
so he was of great benefit to them. He also resolved the
sufferings of many poor and sick people, on some he even
bestowed a few teachings. In a certain part of that land
known as Seyagiri, the offerings made to him at the time of
his arrival are kept up even to this very day.
In the north, between the rivers Ganges and Jamuna, at
Malapuri, he (again) entered his previous bodily form. As
he had once said that he had been there in a former life, it
was unfortunate that he was unable to go there while he
was an ascetic practitioner. He said, "As the time for the
practices has now arrived, may the six mudras appear on
my body,.. and for six months he engaged in one-pointed
meditation. Then the six bone aprons came there of their
own accord and for seven days he performed the deeds
with elaboration and all the people there saw it. Then it is
said that he found the state of yuganaddha
and became
Furthermore, near Magadha, to the south at
J arikhana/
in the town of Devaghata, which belonged to
Jarikhana, he was born spontaneously in the household of a
Brahtpin and his body was bedecked with the six self-
created bone ornaments. Immediately he said, "I am the
acarya ~ t : l a p a and I will perfect the remaining paths in
this very bodily form ... Immediately after he was born he
went into meditation anlin about a month he had perfected
the stages of the utpattikrama and the sarppannak.rama in
that self-same bodily form. Then he established himself in
meditative equipoise-some say that this all took six months
and others say that it was accomplished in a year. Sounds,
lights and a rain of flowers and other kinds of miracles
appeared, then he became completely invisible and found
the state of yug!lfladdha. In that land also the offerings and
the table of festivals associated with him exists to this very
day. Later on he manifested countless miracles in similar
As for the biographical accounts spoken by the acarya
siddha Kusalipa
in his collection of accounts known as
The Tree of Fate, and also the supplement which I have
written, drawing on other Indian and Tibetan accounts
which are most assuredly to be believed, I think that they
are all very accurate indeed. From the time that the acarya
first arrived from Jalandhara up to the time he departed for
Devik:ota, he preached the Holy Doctrine, and of those who
saw him countless individuals were established in the
mantrayana and became yogins and yoginfs, completely
emptying thirteen towns, so it is said.
The towns were:-
in the north, the town of Mala in Haridvara; in the west,
Avanti in Malava; in the south, Kanti in Kana and also
Vijapur in Viraja; in the east, Pundavardha in Linkara
where the trees flourish; in the south, Kanaka, an area of
Marahata; in the south, Karanya near Godavrf, and
Citipatana in Caritra; there was Hemadala, not the one in
Bengal in the east, but the one in the northern land of
Gandhara, today called Tila; in the south, Devaghata, a part
of Jarikhanda; in the south-east, the town of Kalinka; in
Madhyadesa, the town of Rodasi; in the west, the town of
Pukara. From all of these committed towns and their
surrounding. villages, and from all directions of the land
came women, youths and girls who were all counted as
(his) yogins and yoginls. If one were to add them all
together these would be enough to fully surround the outer
wall of a large city, but if one decided not to count them up
then it could be said that those who were converted were
sufficient to empty all those places mentioned, both towns
and villages. Each Indian town, moreover, numbered many
tens of thousands of people, even many hundreds of
As for his permanent retinue, some one thousand four
hundred in number, each one of them gained one of the
siddhis. One half of them, seven hundred in number, taught
when it was necessary and taught (largely) by magical
means, with people never even seeing their physical forms.
Furthermore, because of the circumstances in which they
lived, due to their invisibility, they became known as 'The
Invisible Retinue··. The other half, seven hundred in
number, perfected the siddhis of the wooden sandal, the
treasure vase, the sword, the yaksi etc., but not that of
invisibility and in their bodily forms were known as, 'The
Visible Retinue'. If they wanted to t ~ e s e people could
actually become invisible simply by 'hiding' their bodies.
Those known as the "Seventy-two Yogins and Yoginis"
were able to wander in all the great places merely by
thinking of them. As for the Mahacarya's brothers in
mental ascetic practice, they are said to have received
blessings bestowing insight equal in number to those of the
acarya himself. Although it is not at all certain that the one
thousand four hundred attained equal insight, it is certainly
true that when the Mahacarya travelled in an instant to the
great lands, they too were able to accompany him in their
magic forms and practised mental asceticism along with
him. As the population of the thirteen towns had become
yogins, they were known as 'The One Million, Three
Hundred Thousand Yogins', and it appeared that whole
land of Aryadesa
was pervaded by male and female
Buddhist yogins who adhered to the Mantrayana and who
performed the very highest deeds. Many others were to
perfect the ordinary level siddhis, whether of the highest,
middling or lower types. Even among the lower persons
there was not even one who could riot attain meditational
states to some degree or other.
It is said further that the sastras
which the perfect
acaryas composed were many, all in the form of doha
songs and paeans. They wrote great and small sadhanas
and empowerments as well as major and minor texts
concerning sarppannakrama. The siddhas themselves did
not speak at all about commentaries and explanatory
works, refutations of challenges to their views or
establishment of their own views, nor about issues of
debate, linguistic arts or other sorts of scholarly subjects. It
has been said that subjects like these were in fact written
down by the siddhas in order to protect the continual flow
of the oral teachings of this or that acarya, for the sa:Ke of
their tradition or custom, but in fact it was the pal)qits who
actually wrote such things. Therefore it happens that
compositions by the siddhas, in manuscript form, amount
to such a few indeed.
Heruka himself made a prophecy concerning the
acarya's deeds; "By means of your effulgence, you
illumine the six kinds of works, etc." With reference to
this, it was previously common in Tibet to identify the six
works which Sri Heruka predicted he would write. The
acarya Kusalabhadra the younger said,
"The ftrst work is on meditation. The second work is
on the nature of pristine awareness. The third work is the
Rig-pa'i-brtul-zhugs. The fourth work, according to the
sequence, is the method of imparting the secret mantra to
others. The ftfth work, according to the wise ones, is on the
mind of boundless learning. The sixth work is that which
concisely shows the meaning of the Dharma, the actual
application. Thus, the acarya has taught everything
thoroughly and I myself have seen one hundred and
twenty applicable practices." Furthermore he said, "Firstly
comes the generation stage; secondly comes the insight
gained through empowerment; thirdly comes practice;
fourthly comes the ritual of empowerment; fifthly comes
the collection of rituals and sixthly comes the completion
stage. These are the central works showing the six sections.
Generally, I have seen about one hundred and
complete collections of scriptures gathered up together,
including short doha songs." Now you should understand
something from those examples-although the Vajragili
came from the collections of songs in the tantras
themselves, the true siddhas expressed their experiences in
the form of dohas, and doubtless under more conducive
circumstances they later appeared as forms of Vajragili. Jo-
bo Naropa
and his followers performed only the sixfold
meditational teaching in order to fulfil the injuctions of Sri
Cakrasarpvara. However, there is really no need to figure
from all these details what the six tenets are. They are
empowerment ritual, sadhana,
the fire oblations, the
the four stages and the secret tattva,
which are said to be the six. In Tibet today, the fire
oblation ritual does not use the Mahacarya's actual words,
according to the translator of Mar-do and it appears to me
that this is certainly true. Although the acarya had
composed a fire oblation ritual previously, it was lost in the
meantime and subsequent acaryas have composed other
texts on it instead. For example the acarya Buddhajiiana
also wrote fourteen things which are in agreement with the
and the fire oblations were contained in
those practices, when they were taken to the land of
Kasmir, the text was lost. To make up for that Dfparpkara
wrote the text known as the Four Hundred and Fifty.
According to the pandit Gayadhara
the six texts concern
the completion stage and include instructions about vows,
a compendium
of essential teachings, and Mahamudra
and bindu
(instead of the latter three above), and these
were counted as the six. However, these last three texts
were not written by this particular acarya, so it is incorrect
to say that they were part of the six. These three were
amazing cycles of teachings for the followers of
and their author was even the acarya siddha known as
the younger.
In general, it is correct that he has written many
sastras. Pham-thing-pa
« and Mal-lo-tsa-ba
say in their
accounts of the lineage that previously, when
came to Bengal to subdue King Lalitacandra, on the road
from Madhyadda in the east, he met Vajravarahi in the
form of a leper woman and as a girl watching over an
orchard, and Srt Heruka in the form of a ploughman and as
a reader or scribe. When the acarya was not actually
engaged in his practices, their forms ceased manifesting.
Now, w_hen he came to Bengal, the King and the Minister
were made to make offerings to Heruka's picture for seven
days. When the acarya came to a certain cemetery to
perform a gal)acakra, a Tirtiga in the form of a Tirthika,
blue and holding a skull-cup, arose there and said, "I am
the master of the gar:ta!" The acarya replied to him, "But
you are not suitable", and then the skull holder transformed
himself into Srt Heruka and soared off into the heavens .
. The leper woman he met was not really so, but was a
transformation of VajravarahL The ploughman was not
really so, but was a transformation of Heruka. The girl was
not really a girl, but was a transformation of VajravarahL
The reader was not really so, but was a transformation of
Henika. The skull-holder was not really so, but was a
nirmat:ta form of Heruka, who said, "In this life you must
write the six main texts and in the bar-do period you will
attain the very highest siddhi." The acarya replied,
"When pressed beneath your feet, even my lower
winds vanish.
By your kind mercy, please withdraw your left
If your nine-fold crest ornaments are kept
straight, even the Brahma-realm vanishes.
Please remain with your head moving but a little!
If your hands are kept straight, the guardians of
the four quarters become terrified.
By your kind mercy please withdraw your hands
a little!
0 noble one, as your body is in a dancing pose
and is purposefully maintained,
I bow down before you with faith and an excess
of reverence!"
As he was thus eulogising Heruka, it appears that the
acarya became invisible. This profound piece of verse was
spoken in the free-flowing Indian fashion. When the
Bhagavan spoke of the six words previously, it js clear that
he spoke them in this very fashion.
You might want to dispute that the aforementioned
leper woman and the others went on to Devlkota, but you
will find that it is quite incontrovertible. It is also untrue to
say that he did not practise mental asceticism and tp say
that after this perfected acarya had given his commands (to
his followers) he was "obstructed" by a <;lakinr, is really
quite contradictory. If she were to have obstructed him, it is
only proper that she would have done so before he entered
into the carya practices. After he had actually performed
the carya practices for a long time, it was not really
necessary for her to obstruct him any longer.
The story of the ploughman, the reader and the skull-
holder just referred to, occur in the accounts of other
sadhakas and are not found only in the account of this
particular acarya.
Furthermore, it is said of the siddhas who gained great
and unique siddhi states, that after they had attained these
siddhi fields, had meditated on all the tutelaries and all the
divinities, because they understood all the realisations of
tantra, such things as a variety of divinities and a variety of
tantras no longer existed for them. Now, this particular
acarya attained mastery over all view-points and over all
tantras. When he had not yet grasped siddhi, he was a
sadhaka of Srt Cakrasarpvara, and later after he had gained
siddhi, he wrote very f a m ~ u s sastras and a multitude of
commentaries on Cakrasaqwara. Not everybody, however,
is in agreement that he attained his siddhi through that
particular tantra. The Indian practitioners of Hevajra,
and Black Yamantaka/
all claim that he
used "their" particular tantra, and that he was "their"
particular sadhaka. Thus, it is now quite certain how it was
that all these groups claimed him as their own. In the final
analysis, all of the things mentioned above are really quite
beyond doubt.
As for the dharma flow from the tantras, this acarya
certainly practised many of them. As for the others, he
clarified the mandala rituals of the Mahamaya,
mandala ritual of the Buddhakapala
by Sangadasa and
other famous texts which were crucial to the disciples of
the acarya. All this can be thoroughly established beyond
any doubt.
Principal Male Disciples
As for Eyala; once when the acarya had not arrived
from the land of Jalandhara to perform the carya practices,
a certain boy who was in charge of the king's elephants
and who also was a practising yogin, went into a deep state
of meditation. After a short while his body became very
light and he was able to travel without his feet even
touching the ground. While he acted as the Guru's servant,
he also practised mental asceticism and later also perfected
the Karma Mahamudra as explained in the teachings of the
Sarrtvara Tantra.
As a sign of this, many poor girls of
that land found that wisdom had descended on them, a
wisdom which they were able to work on and perfect. In
the meanwhile all of them became possessed of the utmost
good fortune and their physical forms were seen to be
radiating light. Thus it was that one hundred and twenty of
them made a gal)a-mru:tqala.
The acarya came- before the King of Alaka, a heretic
who was known as Mahupa. The King said to the acarya,
"What is there in your religion that I should believe in it?"
The acarya replied, "What is it that you desire most of all?"
and the King answered, "I desire gold!" The acarya held a
large vessel up to the skies and it instantly became filled
with gold. The King was absolutely amazed and thereafter
he abode within the confines of the dharma.
Later, while the acarya Caryapa was staying in the
land of Tibola, he attained the very highest Mahamudra
siddhi and was transformed into a rainbow body. He
attained siddhi by meditating exclusively on the
Secondly, as for Mahila; it is said that he was born in
the land of Malava, into the sudra caste, and that he was
very strong indeed. People say that he could uproot areca-
nut trees and palm trees with just one hand. When he had
subdued everybody by sheer strength, Mahila met the
acarya Caryapa who was travelling along a certain road.
Mahila tried to contend with him in a contest of physical
strength, but the acarya merely touched him with one
finger of his left hand and Mahila lost all his strength and
swooned to the ground. Then, quite devoid of any vestiges
of self-pride, Mahila became a yogin and with hardly any
food at all he performed his ascetic practices for twelve
years. By meditating on Cakrasarpvara he brought the very
highest siddhis under his control. In the land of Saurastha
in an abode of the Tantras, five hundred Brahtpins and
wanderers were gathered together. When Mahila finally
arrived there, they all rebuked him as a joke. Mahila called
out, "Nitrapoli" which means, "Sleep" a few times, and all
of them fell asleep. After seven days they had still not
awoken and some others of their kind asked Mahila if he
was able to awaken them. He snapped his fingers and
immediately all of them awoke. They were amazed and
paid- homage at Mahila's feet, and having adopted the
doctrine of the Enlightened One many of them attained
Thirdly, as for Dhamapa; he was a Maharash!fan. At
first he learned much from the Brahtpins, arid then coming
before the acarya, he was empowered and his very being
was blessed. Before this he had seen the visage of the
Bhagavan Yamantaka. As he gained a little in ability, he
came to perform the daily offices of the acarya Caryadhara.
When the Guru wandered about from one place to another,
Dhamapa went him. For a long time he was known as
Dhamapa, which means, "Beater of the round drum", but
later became renowned as Dhamapa. After a long time had
passed, at a time when he was engaged in his meditations,
a conspicuous white skull appeared before him. When he
took it in his hands he found inside it various kind of
impurities and without any hesitation he ate the contents. It
was then that he discovered that he could pass through
walls unhindered, and could travel many hundreds of
leagues in just an instant. Later he perfected the very
high test Mahamudra practice.
Fourthly, as for Dhumapa; he is said to have been born
in the east in the land of Rara, as it is called in common
parlance, or Ragha as it is known in Sanskrit. As to his
caste, he was a son of a vaisya. Having become ordained
in a monastery, he then begged for empowerment from a
yogin who was a worshipper of Avalokitesvara, and
thereafter he meditated upon it. When he saw the acarya
Carya and his vajra r e t i n u ~ coming along a road, faith was
kindled within him and he followed the acarya. Once, after
he had prostrated at the acarya's feet the Guru asked him,
"Have you been meditating upon Avalokitesvara?" and
Dhumapa replied, "Yes I have." The acarya asked, "Well,
do you wish to see his face?" and Dhumapa replied that he
did. The acarya said, "Well then, just look at this", and he
pointed upwards with his fingers. Looking up into the
heavens, Dhumapa saw the Five Arya Gods arrayed in a
path of light, and he danced for joy at it. He spent many
days in one single meditation session and it is said that
when he finally roused himself, he found that he had
attained the siddhi power of fleetfootedness. He also
performed the acarya's offices and also took the time to
beat the drum known as a pa!'lha
and to blow the various
musical instruments. He became known as Dhumapa due
to the sound of the music he made. It is said that by
meditation on the yoga of Vajranairatma,
S4 he was able to
attain the very highest state, and that supported by the
Hevajra Tantra he attained siddhahood. After the
Mahacarya had seen that it was the time to
convert the King Gobicandra, both Dhama and Dhuma
stayed together for many years, performing the acarya's
offices exclusively. Once in a small land near Urgyen there
was a King of heretical view, who believed in neither
previous or subsequent births. Both Dhama and Dhuma
went before him and he said to them, "It is foolish for you
to be yogis, as there are no previous or subsequent births."
The two acaryas replied, "Oh yes there are previous births,
0 King, because in your own previous life when you were
an outcaste, the succession was broken and all the gold you
possessed was hidden under this very mountain. If you go
and dig it up then the memory of your previous births will
come to you." It happened exactly as they had said it
would, the King recalled his births and entered into the
Dharma. As he was previously scared of poisonous snakes,
wild animals, robbers and other malicious things, he
managed to perfect the ritual gaze of control, in order to
subdue them.
Later, in Bengal, when the Mahacarya was converting
the King Lalitacandra, both Dhama and. Dhuma attained
the state of the rainbow body. They also perfected all the
ordinary and the very highest practices. After the acarya
had passed from his mortal body, both Dhama and Dhuma •
became invisibte and sang dirges, after which the
sufferings of the yogins were finally resolved. They taught
many fortunate beings and there were many too whose
mind-streams they liberated. They stayed for many years
so that people could behold them.
Fifthly is Bhadrapa, which means, "Best of all
disciples". When the acarya K r ~ ~ a p a was going to the land
of Kalinka, the king's son, a youth named Bhadra, gained
overwhelming faith in the acarya and his retinue. With one
of the acarya's disciples as his companion he followed
after the acarya and sitting in a boat together with many
other yogins they all proceeded to Singala. Now that youth
understood all the fields of learning and touching the
acarya's feet in homage, he begged to be allowed to
become his follower. The acarya knowing that he was a
fortunate being, empowered him and gave him'the follow-
up teachings, and with these Bhadrapa most assuredly
became a wisdom-holder. Generally, he seated himself
before the Guru, and thus relying upon him he was able to
perform ascetic practice for a long time.
Once, while he was travelling, many Tirthika yogins
said to him, "If you are indeed a disciple of the acarya
Caryapa, do you really have any abilities to demonstrate?"
Bhadrapa replied, jokingly, "Only a few", and so they
picked up rocks, cudgels and hammers and rained one
hundred thousand blows upon him. However, his body got
larger and larger until it had become the size of a bale of
wool. They continued to attack him with various weapons
such as daggers, but then he became as hard as a man of
stone. When they then struck him, sparks shot forth with
the sound of "Khrom, Khrom", and within one ot two
' .
hours of this the Tlrthikas started to turn bluish in colour.
The acarya Bhadrapa grasped the stem of a jasmine plant
and started to thrash the Tirthikas, who all tumbled to the
ground like corpses. After they had passed a day in that
state, some of the others begged Bhadrapa to revive them,
which he did. As soon as he gained empowerment, wisdom
was born in him, but if he had not bothered to manifest
such signs, no-one would ever have believed that he had
attained such abilities so he become known as Guhyapa,
which means, 'Secret Mail'. To those who understood, he
became known as 'Secret Yogin'. Not long after that he
attained the Highest Mahamudrasiddhi. However, while
the Gurum was staying there, Bhadrapa did not manifest
the miracle of invisibility.
When the acarya Caryapa had fiJtally relinquished his
mortal form, his disciples erected a stlipa and a temple on
that very spot. The deeds of the disciples appeared quite
iike those of ordinary people. After the Guru's life had
been threatened with destruction by that malicious <Ja:kini,
the acarya Bhadrapa departed to seek her out. By magic he
searched in every possible place and in every cemetery, but
nevertheless he could not find her. Then after a long while,
through his prescience and his thorough investigation, he
perceived that she was hiding at Devikota inside a hollow
Simi tree, in the form of an insect and in other too.
By means of his meditation, he grasped his 'emanation
sword' and· split the tree trunk asunder, grabbing the <Jakin!
by her hair, he chopped her body into bits with his sword
and gave them to the Vajra<Ja:kinis to eat. It was by means
of the fire from his wisdom emanation that he was able to
extirpate and incinerate the demon goddess. Then he sang
some Vajragitis, and after a while he became quite
After several years he arrived in the land of
Jatasanghata. The King there was known as Arjunadatta
and he was not a Buddhist. When he heard that the best
disciple of the acarya Caryapa had arrived he looked afar
(from his palace), but was unable to see him. He did
however see light, shaking of the earth, whirlwinds,
blazing fire and other more minor events, as well as
hearing a noise. When the King went out and drew nearer,
a yogin was seen to emerge from all those signs and he was
absolutely amazed. The royal priests, who were Tirthikas,
prevented the acarya from entering the palace, but
nevertheless be remained outside and the King came and
touched the acarya Guhyapa's feet in homage. The King
made offerings to the acarya for a long time. Once the
acarya said that he was going to hold a ganacakra feast in a

temple and the King went there to offer the
requisite materials. The door was locked and there was
nobody there to unlock it, but a crack opened up in the
door of its own accord. The King looked inside and saw
arising in the form of the thirty-seven gods,
and he begged to be allowed to erect a suitable temple
there in accord with his vision. The acarya told him,
"There are many unfortunate beings who are unsuited to
see such things, but if you erect as many statues as you
yourself have seen, without any personal attachment at all,
then it will be for their good." And so the King erected a
temple dedicated to Bhagavan Tathagata Sakyamuni and it
was called Buddhasthanam, or 'Place of the Buddha',
traces of which remain to this very day. In that land all the
other temples belonged to the Tirthika faith and they were
all thereafter bound over as Buddhist temples.
Once in Kasmir, the King

and a certain
Mleccha King were at war, which had caused all the
Kasmiri border people of flee. Although the King
Turuskamana and his retinue strove hard in battle, they
found it difficult actually to gain a victory. When the King
was seated among the acarya's attendants and had
supplicated the acarya, the latter intoned mantras into the
hom of a deer and, blessing the King, he gave him the
hom. The acarya said to him, "While you are preparing for
battle, blow this horn and sound it loud here and there."
The King did this and many of the Mleccha soldiers fell to
earth in a stupor. Their ears were deafened and whichever
of them tried to flee by grabbing their horses were
prevented when the horses bolted. The Mleccha army was
hurled into absolute disarray. The acarya made the Ka.Smiri
King victorious and was able to raise the banner of the
Dharma there too. It is said that at that time the King of
Kasmir was Harsadeva.u
Now the son of that king's
minister was a simpleton, his mind was weak and placid.
He visited the acarya several times and the acarya breathed
upon him; instantly the fool came to know all languages
and religious doctrines. His name was Svayambhuraja, and
later on he came to know all the scripts, grammar and
literature of the whole of Kasmir and became a repository
of them. It also appears that he became an erudite orator.
This acarya is said to have blessed one hundred people in
Kasmir afflicted with stammering and they too became
very eloquent.
Once while he was staying in the land of Sri Ogq.iyana
in the north, a lake appeared which had not been there
before. Poisonous nagas (from the lake) harmed the
inhabitants of Oggiyana and they were even harmful
towards the Holy Doctrine. At their behest Moslem
brigands used to come from time to time to cause trouble
there. The acarya thought of a way to subjugate the nagas
and with several of his attendants he set up his abode right
next to the lake. Meteorites rained down, tongues of fire
flashed down, but even though they revealed themselves
like this, they could do absolutely no harm to the acarya
and his retinue. Indeed, taking all these manifestations in
his hands, he devoured them! A fierce, endless rainstorm
covered the land to a depth of twenty cubits, but the acarya
and his retinue floated to the top of the billowing waves
and thus stayed on the lake's surface. Innumerable,
irresistible poisonous creatures gathered together, but the
acarya and his retinue were in a state of invisible,
meditative equipoise and the demons were unable to even
see them. A few of them could be seen (partially), but they
could not be touched, and when they transformed
into rainbow bodies nothing at all could be
done to them. As much as the acarya concentrated his
thoughts, by just so much the lake began to boil. A nearby
bank burst and the flood waters carried off many of the
Moslem cavalrymen. It is said that when the lake was
finally dried up, even the poisonous nagas, whose magic
was ruined, quite humble.
In the intervening five hundred years it is said that the
Moslems did no further damage in Oqqiyana, or in other
lands. Having worked for the welfare of beings for many
years, the acarya soared into the heavenly realms in the
invisible body of his yuganaddah He wrote sastras on
Cakrasarpvara and also a few commentaries on Hevajra.
Generally speaking, they are known as the bDe-mchog-
Sixthly, the novice Cimbupa, who was the son of a
of Magadha. Later he became a novice at Nalanda
where he learned the dharma thoroughly. Once while the
acarya Caryadhara was staying in Kongkana, at the
exhortation of some of his friends, Cimbupa went there and
met him. He begged to become the acarya's follower and
was given the protection of the complete empowerments,
the actual teachings and the follow-up teachings, spending
seven years in all with the acarya. Then in a certain house,
a five coloured cloud, sunlight, drizzle and a rainbow all
appeared together in the one spot; seeing them and
meditating on sahaja-meaning, it dawned upon Cimbupa
that they were all of the same nature as an illusion. On
account of that a completely correct insight into his being
was aroused in him and in due course he perfected the
eight ritual gazes etc. Once the signs of bodily heat and the
eye-salve siddhi arose in him as if by a miracle. He
thought, "What use is all this deception by deception?" and
so, while meditating solely on the sahaja states, he started
to perform conduct very free of elaboration.
On another occasion, when the acarya Caryapa and his
attendants were proceeding eastwards on a certain narrow
and dangerous road, which ran next to the Ganges river,
and on which there was no turning back, they met a leper
woman, her whole body running with pus, blood and open
sores, and all her fingers missing. She said, "When you
have helped me to cross this river then you can carry me to
the city!" but none of the retinue would help her. Cimbupa
clasped her from behind and swam across the River
Ganges. When he reached the middle of the river the leper
woman changed her bodily form into that of Vajravarahi
and Cimbupa was transformed into a full holder of the
Sru:pvara and Heruka teachings. Vajravarahi led Cimbupa
by the hand and together they both soared into the heavens.
Vajravarahl said to the other yogins, "To practice yoga you
must have compassion. If you don't have that how can you
possibly gain siddhi?" That was how Cimbupa departed
into the heavens.
All this comes from the thirty-seventh chapter of the
Saf!lvaramulatantra, wherein is mentioned the siddhi
known as 'Ha-Ha' or the 'Laughing' siddhi. At that time it
was considered to be a great, but nevertheless ordinary
siddhi, but not long afterwards Cimbupa gained the very
highest levels of siddhi by its means. As this acarya was
previously a novice, he was known as the 'Novice
Cimbupa', but later in his life he adopted the form of a
yogin. The name Cimbupa is to be u.nderstood. as the name
of one who mixes with sweepers. Some say that his real
name was Mal)ibhadra, or in Tibetan, Nor-bu-bzang-po.
This acarya composed dohas at his leisure, but it seems he
did not write many sastras or other dharma texts. Although
there should be many wondrous accounts of his miraculous
deeds no others have been found.
These then were the acarya's six disciples. They
practised the caryas of mental asceticism in company with
the acarya himself and they attained the very highest states.
Principal Female Disciples
The Mahacarya Kal)hapa's female disciples attained
siddhi too. When the acarya arrived in the south in
two sisters lived there-the eldest was called
Mekhala and the youngest Kanakala. When they were ten
and eight years old respectively, they were betrothed to two
Brahrpin youths, but both the youths were too young to
marry. Some years later when the two sisters had still not
become brides, the local people became very critical of
them, but it was said to be due to the power of karma, not
to any inherent fault.of the girls that they remained unwed.
The marriage discussions were broken off.
Later the girls saw the acarya in company with his
attendants who were all performing miracles, and they,
filled with wonder, said, "We are in great dread of sarpsara.
Please show us a means of liberation from it" When they
had thus begged the acarya, he saw that they were fit
vessels, so he empowered .them and the very highest
wisdom came to them. They practised the teachings and
the follow-up teachings and in a short while they also
attained the eight ritual gazes and all the other powers.
Walls, mountains and waters no longer hindered them, and
they attained both intellectual and inner spiritual powers.
They continued to live around the acarya's assemblage and
they held fast to their mental ascetic practices. Once when
both of them were going along a certain road, they met
many ordinary yogis, followers of Goraksa, who mocked
them and said, "You are students of Show us
some illusions then!" Now, as the abode of those so-called
yogis was situated in a particularly spot, the girls
performed a ritual gaze known as 'that which leads forth'
upon it, and they put the whole place down, unbroken, in a
place which was· a veritable desert, white in colour and not
at all beautiful. The girls said to the yogis, "Now you too
will have to perform a trick like this," and they left. Later,
when· the GorakSa.s begged their forgiveness, their houses
were returned to their previous site.
On another occasion in Bengal, during the reign of
King Lalitacandra, when the Mahacarya had seen that the
time was right for converting the King, the two girls
emerged from a throng of people surrounding the acarya,
and paying homage at his feet said, "By the grace of the
Guru we two have attained the very highest and greatest of
goals, and now we wish to fly off to the heavens. However,
before that we will be happy ,to do whatever the acarya
requests us to do." The acarya replied, "Well then, cut off
your heads and offer them to me." The girls drew from
their mouths well-tempered swords of wisdom and cutting
off their heads without any hindrance at all, offered them
into the Guru's hands. Facing backwards, they danced off,
rising higher and higher on the heavenly paths, finally
disappearing into rainbow light. The gOddess Srtjiiana had
also previously manifested a miracle similar to this and
even and 9akinls in ·their ordinary bodily forms
started to demonstrate it in considerable numbers. As an
antidote to this activity, Vajravarahi herself appeared in
that form, with her head severed, and it is said that this
miracle appeared frequently thereafter amongst her
The yogini Bandhepa was the most accomplished of
the acarya female disciples. She was also known
as Singala yogini and as J?ombi yogini. She was born into
the J?ombi caste, the outcastes, the lowest caste of all, in
the unique and special land of Singala. She was a lotus-
possessor60 who had all'the requisite signs fully developed.
When she had grown up, her mind was quite clear, she had
a good intellect, her demeanour was fitting, she was literate
and was well versed in all fields of learning. After a while
the acarya and his retinue came to that land. She saw the
marvellous things they did, was amazed and found that
faith was born within her. However, due to her caste, she
thought that she was without fortune in her religious
activities. When she was thinking, "I am not even able to
approach these people," one of the yogis in the retinue said
to her, ''There is no caste or non-caste! The true state of the
self-arisen wisdom abides in all beings. On that account,
no one is to be despised." When she heard that and the
songs he sang too, she realised her good fortune in the
dharma and was overjoyed. At a great feast in honour of
the acarya and his retinue she begged to be led on the
perfect path. Then on an occasion when the acarya and his
followers were staying together in a graveyard, she offered
to fetch the flesh of a pig and a vessel of liquor, and having
done so she offered them to the gathering. Those few
requisites for the gal)a gathering were quite sufficient to
satisfy many thousands of yogis and yoginis and all the
attendant spirits. The <;tombini gained empowerment and
became a Mahayogini possessed of the very highest
wisdom. The gal)acakra went on for seven days .and the
participants enjoyed themselves in states of bliss without
end. Thereafter she meditated on the Vasantatilaka yoga
and for seven days her body was distressed with a
profound sense of suffering, as if it was being broken into a
hundred-thousand fragments, which were then dispersed.
She perfected the blazing up of the inner heat and it is said
that all the knots in her psychic channels were destroyed.
Having understood the meaning of sahaja as it really is, it
is said that she passed six months in a single session of
meditation and when she arose from it she became a fully
consummated, perfect being, completely understanding the
meaning of the sahajabhava. Because of this understanding
she gained the accompanying magical qualities of
transforming physical form and clairvoyance which
extended up to one hundred thousand yojanas, as well as
tP.e powers of the ritual gazes and the magical siddhis of
fleetfootedness etc., all of which she gained effortlessly.
Then she remained with the Mahacarya's retinue and
became the patroness of the gai)a, performing the maJ)9alas
and the ascetic practices. In the meantime she became
invisible and somewhat later perfected the state of the
rainbow body. At the acarya Caryapa's funeral rites she
became clearly visible again, the earth shook and various
other miracles manifested themselves.
At that time, in the land of Kamarupa there arose a self
created statue of the god

with a horse's face
and the image was a full cubit in height. It was a magically
potent image, and was known as Harigirimatho. Many
people came there to make offerings (at the shrine) and
Brahrpin mantrikas circuqtambulated the place all the
while. Those who adhered to the Buddha's teachings in
that place came under attack, tongues of frre fell upon their
homes and consumed both their dwellings and all their
material possessions, causing them much damage. Havoc
was wrought on other creatures as well as on the
Buddhists. Not many years later the yogini came to convert
the mantrikas and on the road there they created a troop of
phantom cavalry, all fully armed. The yogini hurled a
flaying-knife, the emblem of her tutelary divinity, at them,
and all the cavalry were cut to shreds. When she went
before the temple, the god became wrathful and
manifested flames both outside and inside the temple
precincts. It is said that the yogini let a great rain fall, cast
spells with her own mantras, and in a state of complete
calm she strewed various ritual items about. As soon as
this had been done the fire died away. She entered the
and went before the image with the horse's face,
mighty in its magical powers, fierce and irresistible, and
they both fell to fighting with each other, snarling and
biting. The BrahlJlin mantrikas transformed themselves
into ugly ralqasas and flailed at her with all kinds of
weapons and lunged at her with huge cudgels and rocks but
the yogini did not flinch. She clapped her palms together
and the image of was reduced to dust in a flash, its
horse's head tumbled to the ground, the BrahlJlins vomited
blood and fell to the ground, and all those who lived
nearby and were worshippers of went insane and
were quite incapable of helping themselves.
In general, most of their temples and their bodies were
destroyed, some even being split asunder. After two days
had passed, the King and the remaining populace came,
touched her feet in homage and begged to be restored. The
insane BrahlJlins, quite beyond help, as well as others in a
similar condition, were also revived. After thai the yogini
Bandhepa stayed in that very land, at Mt. Umagiri, and
taught a little dharma to fortunate people. Then the
Tirthikas restored all their ruined sites, but when the image
of Harigirimatho was reerected, the workers found that
when they restored the face of the god, elephants ran
across it and smashed it. Likewise, when they reerected the
houses, they simply away, and when they were
rebuilt they split into fragments and were utterly destroyed.
Then again the King, the people, and even the Bralupins
came before the yogini and scattered various precious
things over her body, and begged her for forgiveness
saying, "Creatures are unable even to relinquish their
bodily forms! As you are a repository of loving-mercy,
please restore the temple." Later, when they did indeed
restore the temple no further fear arose in them, but from
that time on the worship of waned in that land.
After that, in various lands, she liberated spiritually
ripe people who, due to their good fortune, lived in those
places and people actually saw her doing so, it is said. The
various sastra and doha songs which she composed exist to
this very day.
As for the acarya Caryapa himself, he was a live
he had six disciples who attained the very highest siddhi,
and three female disciples who were the most famous of
his followers.
Other Disciples
Among his other disciples was the acafya Bhadalipa.
He was born in the east in Bengal, the place to which the
acarya Caryapa had come from Jalandhara to perform his
practices. Later, after the death of the acarya, Bhadalipa
stayed in the east in Odivisa. A certain merchant there
made an offering of a piece of land to the order of monks.
Now certain Tirthkas claimed the land as their own, as it
had indeed been frrst of all, and they were not willing to
allow'the erection of a Buddhist temple. Afterwards, while
Buddhists went to supplicate the King a certain
Brahrpin built a small Tirthika linga temple there. Later on
the sthaviras and the monks engaged the Brahrpins in
dispute, and both Buddhist and non-Buddhist factions
assembled there in great number. It was at this very time
that the acarya Bhadali arrived there and he said, "As long
as this dispute is not resolved,. the temple over there will
have to be removed." He trussed up the temple with rope
and carrying it on his back, put it down right next to the
town of the Brahrpins. They were utterly amazed at these
manifestations of siddhi-power and (subsequently) it was
as if the land thereabouts brought forth monks of its own
accord. In due time the (Buddhist) temple of
was erected. It is said that Bhadali later attained the
Mahamudra siddhi.
As for the Siddha Lapayipa/
his story· has been
mentioned before. Many yogins with only a few powers
gathered together in Magadha and when they were
performing a gru:tacakra in the Sitavana cemetery,
acarya Lapayipa gave his promise to act as head of the
gal)a. While he was staying at the gru:ta house a black
clothed Tirthika, a worshipper of Mahesvara, selected
himself as chief of the gal)a. He known as
which means, 'Ascetic clinging to neither purity nor filth.'
He appeared holding a skull cup and said, "I will be the
leader of the gru:ta!" The acarya said, -"You are a Trrthika
and I am a Buddhist, you would therefore be ill-suited as
the leader of such a gathering." "Oh well", said the
Tirthika, "You might as well ascend the throne as the
Now the height of the throne was two cubits, but
when Lapayipa started to climb up he found that he could
get no more than a quarter of the way up, although the
throne got no higher and the acarya's body got no smaller.
Although he tried many different means, he could not
actually get up onto the throne. Realizing the skull-
holder was a nirmar:takaya form, the acarya Lapayipa
confessed his sins and prayed to the emanation, who was
Srt Heruka, and w·as seated in the heavens. Heruka said,
"You should have supplicated me right from the very start
and you should have been free from pride. Your desire for
siddhi is tarnished with pride, so you must now work for
the welfare of sentient creatures." After saying this Heruka
became invisible.
Next the acarya went to the town to Ayofihya.
King there, who was called Vijnapti, was a heretic. The
acarya pondered how to convert the King and went off to a
certain region, where inside a particular rock was an empty
cave whose inner dimensions were between eight finger-
widths and eight cubits in breadth. There was a broken-
open mouth to the cave, but otherwise there was no
entrance at all. When the King, his ministers and his
chamberlains were travelling pn the road to the place
where the carya were being performed, the door
to the cave appeared to be wide open and the cave itself
appeared to have become vast inside. They saw the acarya
sitting in the midst of various foods and riches and they
related all this to the King. At dawn, the King, as if on a
hunt, came to see for himself. The acarya came out of the
cave and said, "Why has a mighty King such as yourself
come to jlis- place?'' The cave's door was so large that the
King and several of his attendants were able to go inside,
and they enjoyed so much food and drink that they were
quite satiated.
The servants then went out while the King and the
ministers stayed inside. It was then that the acarya
summoned his magic to keep them inside the cave, so that
there was no longer any door on the outside and so that the
narrow entrance-way had become solid, dense rock. The
King and the ministers were amazed and frightened. The
acarya said to them, "You must relinquish your heretical
views" and he made them promise to practise only virtuous
deeds. Then he sent them out through the cave's small
entrance quite unharmed. It was by the manifestation of
this miracle that the acarya establisheq the King in the
Now, the rest of the story relating to the King
Lalitacandr.e. and the minister Kusalanatha is as follows. In
the daytime both King and minister governed the state
according ·to the confines of the dharma and during. the
night they both meditated on the utpattikrama and the
sarppannakrama. After several years had thus passed,
manifested herself in real form, blazing clearly
before the minister. She was also visible on the walls of
nearby houses, unimpaired by shadows, visible both day
and night. Then she was seen from about two miles away
and later on from a league, and then from a distance equal
to that of the land of Gaura.
After a short while it
pervaded without any limits at all.
In due time the minister was able to understand all
languages, simply by hearing them (once). He knew all the
sastras intuitively,.even those he had not heard previously.
Once, many letters from many of the qeighbouring Kings
were piled up before the king's feet. They had been written
by the pal)9its of the various kingdom and being in
rhetorical and poetic form, they were very hard to
understand. They were written in various tongues and
scripts, and contained many kinds of benedictions from
different ·religions and siddhantas.
Scribes, officials,
Brahrpins and pal)9its in great number were called in, and
although they investigated them, even they found them
extremely hard to understand. However, the minister
himself unraveled the meaning of all of them and
explained their meanings extensively. He answered all
questions them, which were many and various, and
also.clarified all the (obscure aspects of their) meanings.
The King and his attendants said, "Previously you were
quite unable to understand things in this way. How is it that
you are able to do it now?" The minister replied, "I studied
right up to last and then he duly changed the subject.
Sometime later, one night at midnight, he woke up and
saw a huge, ugly old woman infested with leprosy who
was getting up after being murdered. Supported by a stick,
she came before the minister and said, "I am hungry". He
knew straight away that she was a manifestation of the
and without any hesitation he paid homage to
her and offered aH manner of food, grains,
nourishments and other delightful objects. Then he begged
her, "Oh, please let me become your follower!" The
Bhagavani placed her hands on the crown of his head in
blessing and instructed him to imagine her dissloving into
his crown. As he did so, she disappeared. Afterwards he
intuitively realised what had truly occurred, and it is said
that he also gained all the subtle siddhis and having
brought them all under his mental control he became a
siddha. However, he kept all this quite secret and ruled the
kingdom by ordinary means, acting with full cognition of
the people's thoughts and their dispositions.
Once, while he sat before the King, he saw that a
certain cat was licking up the offering of milk and yoghurt
in the royal temple in a pleasure grove. He waved his hand
in a gesture of dismissal, and the King asked what he was
doing. Knowing that it was the proper time, the minister
replied by telling him exactly how he had gained siddhi.
Then he relinquished his ministerial duties and performed
the deeds of a yogin instead and thus it was that he worked
for the welfare of sentient beings. It is said that he finally
gained the Mahamudra siddhi. This siddha Kusalanatha
wrote many doha songs and various profound sastras.
The King, thinking of his former deeds, realised that
he had received teachings from a siddhacarya himself and
had allowed some time to pass in vain since then. As he
had put in only minimal effort he could not really hope to
attain siddhi, so he handed over the affairs of state to his
ministers and chamberlains and he meditated strenuously
day and night. After one or two years had passed, one day
while he was making offerings to the monks and to the
temple, he decided that at night he would go secretly to the
cemetery to make offering there too. In the charnel ground
was the complete skeleton of a woman, with every vestige
of flesh removed from it. He made his offerings to it and it
started to stand up. He knew at that instant that the
Bhagavani was abiding in it and he recited mantras, at
which the skeleton danced and taught him the dharma. The
King attained wondrous attributes and all his deeds, even
the most minute, became perfect. It is said that the skeleton
teaching known as 1arar:ta
existed from that time. In the
meanwhile the ministers and the Brahmins had overturned
. '
all the laws of the land, which was no longer happy. By his
mantras and meditations, and with his exhortations, the
King brought happiness again to the various regions of the
Once the armies of about fifteen Trithika princedoms
encircled his palace. The King recited mantras which
caused flowers to be strewn all over his enemies, who were
instantly subdued and paid their homage at his feet. They
were unable to do any harm at all to the people of Bengal
and swearing many oaths and vows to this effect they
departed. Finally, the King attained the state of an invisible
vidyadhara. Generally speaking, if one considers these two,
the King and the Minister, it was the minister who was the
greater siddha.
As for the yogin! Kangkanapa, she brought her citta
under control by means of her bracelets and realised things
as they really are, She stayed with the yogin Dhumapa,
working with him in ascetic practice. Most of time she was
able to transfer the fruit of mango trees to wood-apple trees
at will. The fruit of these trees was transferred to banana
trees, and the flowers, fruit and leaves of these trees were
all transported hither and thither as if in a game. She too
finally attained the siddhi of invisibility.
The yogin! Jalahari came from the k ~ a t r i y a caste and
had been a gal)acakrin for two or three years, but having
found faith she entered the door of practice of the
Mantrayana and became a true disciple of the Mahacarya.
The acarya Guhyapa taught her at length and by·means of
her meditations on the internal heat she was able to attain
siddhi. She worked for the welfare of beings for many
years. At these times she generally performed with items of
food. A skull-cup would be put in front of her and she was
able to coerce lumps of food into it from one, two or even
three different houses. From some of them she was able to
bring forth cooked rice and soup, from others beer, and
from yet others she was able to bring forth butter-broth.
When the vessel was quite filled she partook of the
contents. On one occasion the nutritional quality of the
foods and the liquids from the various houses was reduced
to nothing. She snapped her fingers in a gesture of
satisfaction; once again the houses produced beer etc.,
which had been restored and butter even emerged from
whey! In the text known as A Series of Paintings
explained the meaning of the teachings _to the
sarppannakrama. It is said that she was transformed into a
rainbow body and that the number of students who attained
siddhi powers (from her) is uncountable.
The biographies of the closest disciples of Guhyapa
cannot be described in any detail here, but among the
disciples who actually did attain siddhi, the chief was the
acarya Antarapa, also known as Antaracarya, which when
translated means 'The Middle Acarya'. Now this acarya
was really known as or in Tibetan, rNam-
rgyal-srung, also known honorifically as rNam-rgyal-
zhabs. He mastered the five sciences at Nalanda and he
also studied much of the Tantra collection. Then he found
faith in the acarya Guhyapa and. at his feet became a yogin.
Then he meditated on the meaning of Cakrasarpvara. Once
while he was travelling on a certain road on the outskirts of
a city, he chanced upon an untouchable's house. He had
seen it previously, but when he arrived there this time it
had become a huge mansion upon a vast site. There was a
covered balcony'on top of the main house and secreted in it
was a wondrous woman whom he was able to catch
fleeting glimpses of. She said, "In the land of Otre
is a liquor seller, a woman known as There is a
volume of the Dharma in her house-go and ask her for
-it." He left immediately and came gradually to the land of
Otre. He asked people, "Is there a liquor seller called
here?'' and was told that she was indeed there. He found
her house, entered and asked her if she had the book or not.
She told him that it was not there and as the house was
quite small and poor, he searched it from top to bottom, yet
he could not find the book. Then he seated himself in front
of the house door for several days and when the liquor
seller went out, he broke into the house, drank a lot of
liquor and quite drunk, he fell asleep. After a while, with a
splitting head ache, he heard a voice say to him, "Above
the door you will find Mahakrodha!" and when he looked
there he discovered the 'Tantra.
Knowing that it was a magically potent text he prayed to it,
but found that nothing happened. He was told in a dream,
that he would be taught after seven years, a.nd he brought
the book back to Magadha. After seven years had passed a
vajrac;lakini manifested herself before him in her real form,
blessed him and gave him the permission to teach the
Tantra to others.
Once, while he was meditating in Sitavana cemetery,
he saw the visage of Heruka and later he became a great
yogin with mighty powers. Through his meditations he
gradually perfected his understanding of the Tantr-a, the
mantras and the stages of wisdom.
He travelled together
with many attendants, going back and forth between
Bengal and Magadha. While he was practising mental
austerities with elaboration and without elaboration in a
far-flung town in Magadha, known as Kaba, one of the
king's ministers was in the process of erecting a temple.
The acarya spent the full-moon day consecrating it,·as he
had been requested, and on that very day he also converted
a Mleccha King in the western land of Sindhu.
two different bodily forms of the acarya were manifested at
the same time!
Later in Sindhu, another Mleccha King was enthroned.
Now in that land was a monastery called 'Hidden Jewel'
with five hundred fully ordained monks residing in it.
When the aforementioned King wanted to launch an attack
on them he found that most of the monks had been able to
flee. Next morning- he found that on the previous night a
certain yogin had arrived and was staying in a small house
nearby. At night a sound of music had arisen from the
house and a monk who had been staying in the house
peeped at the yogin though a chink in the door. He saw that
there were many women of different forms and types who
were all making offerings to the yogin. The monk begged
him, "As you have obtained power, please subdue this
gro.ssly apostate King." The yogin replied, "I am not really
fortunate enough to be able to do that, so you really should
invite the acarya Antarapa!" The monk replied, "If the
King arrives here tomorrow then inviting the acarya will be
a waste of time," and the yogin answered, "Well, if that is
the case I will go and get him now." He had perfected the
siddhi of fleetfootedness, and just before daybreak the
acarya Antarapa and all his attendants arrived. As the sun
rose the Mleccha King, mounted on an elephant, arrived
accompanied by his retinue. The acarya cast a ritual gaze at
the elephant and its tusks and trunk fell to the ground. The
elephant bucked and the King tumbled to the ground. With
another gaze the acarya caused the King and all his best
warriors to go quite mad and fall into a state of rigidity.
The rest of his forces fled. Most of the warriors realized
then that the acarya has attained siddhi and by paying him
homage they were released from their thraldom. By
exerting another gaze, even the elephant's trunk and tusks
were restored. The however, was not so lucky in his
recovery and he soon died. Not long afterwards the King
Yama, who was a faithful follower of Buddhism, took up
the reins of government.
This acarya worked mainly with Cakrasarpvara for the
welfare of sentient beings, and was the root Guru of the
siddha Tillipa. He performed his practices without any
elaboration and finally reached the end of the secret stage
of the practice, gaining the· very highest Mahamudra
The lineage started out with the acaryas
the younger, Bhuvaripa, Bhuva bLo-ldan and
Kusalabhadra the younger, and up to the present time the
Caryapa sect has not run its course. The accounts of these
siddhas can be found in other sources.
Here have been recorded the wondrous stories of the
gaining of siddhi of those, who, with the highest bliss,
pervade the triple world. If one praises them with a garland
of waves of untruth, as if one were a learned sort of person,
or if they· are related with self-delusion and without due
care, then the stories themselves become more objects of
ridicule. As mentioned here, it is fitting that these stories of
the vajra-students of the Carya path are fully believed. May
whatever heaps of merit accrue from this, help us to attain
the very state of Sri Heruka.
This, the Mahacarya, the mighty Caryadhara 's
amazing biography known as the Sweet Melody, has been
related by me, Taranatha, together with the Carya Ananda
Snbhadra, who made continual exhortations to print it. I
was fifty-eight years old when I wrote the work.
Part 1\vo
The Supplement

Material Concerning
This is a necessary supplement to the mighty acarya
Caryadhara 's biography, the words· of which will provide
understanding of the stories of a whole host of other
In several places in the account of the acarya Maha
Caryapa, it was mentioned that certain doubts needed to be
resolved. For up to one or two hundred years after the time
of the acarya, there were many of his direct disciples as
well as other yogis, who were not of his tea<:hing lineage,
whose faculties were sharp and who had roused in them-
selves the very highest powers of discriminating wisdom
through meditating only on the sarppannakarama. Then
there were those of middling faculties, who studied both
utpattikrama and sarppannakrama, and who, gradually
gained firmness in their practice; and there were those of
quite ordinary faculties who gained firmness only in the
utpattikrama. There were many who were of this level.
They were all supported by the example of the acarya
Maha Caryapa, who abiding in ascetic practices either with
elaboration or without elaboration, appeared to be
performing customary worldly practices. Such..followers
were widespread. Except for those for whom the
appropriate time had not yet dawned, the rest of the
siddhas who performed the carya practices attained an
appropriate level of siddhi, whether it was of the highest or
the ordinary level. In more particular terms, as Mahacarya
lineage of disciples was the greatest and the
most numerous, understanding of both stages was aroused
in them and though they had not yet become firm or very
firm in their beliefs, their customary ascetic prac.tices
spread very widely and all of them gained the desired fruit
of their siddha practice. This was because of the blessings
of the acarya himself and because it was an
appropriate time for the flourishing of his teaching. It is
said that the acarya abridged his practices as well as the
necessities for the remaining activities and that he made a
firm internal resolve for the welfare of his lineage of
spiritual succession. It was at about that time that the
lineage of spiritual succession of Caryapa fully pervaded
all areas, however after that the Caryapa sect spread
predominantly in the east of India. Further to that, in the
Indian oral tradition it is said,
The east was converted by and therefore
there are many Caryapas,
The south was converted by Nagarjuna and
therefore there are many Dharmapas,
The west was converted by Lva-va-pa and
therefore there are many Balantipas,
The north was converted by Goraksa and
therefore there are many Atesapas.
These latter are known today as 'yogis'.
There were innumerable siddhas who arose within the
Caryapa sect. Some of them were great and some were
minor. Even today in Bengal, _Bhati,
and KokP
there are a few remnants of the sect, although
their numbers are not great. Despite this, there are indeed
many who have attained certain powers.
It would seem that in other early Tibetan accounts
there exist various differing views. For example, in the text
of the Elder rGya-ras-(pa),
who committed to writing the
doha lineages coming from Ras-chung-pa,
it says that the
Knr:ta who broke the Guru's binding injunctions was none
other than the Younger, and that it was not
the Elder, as described here. It appears
furthermore, that this view stems from a lecture given by
who claimed it was so. U-rgyan-pa-rin-
chen-dpal181 also agrees with him, and as he was himself
incarnation of his disciples have kept on writing
that it was so. In one of the shorter acconts of his deeds it
is noted that nowadays, among the Indians, acarya
is said to have been born in Kamboja,
that in
the future he will perfect the sword- siddhi and the many
others, and that coming to Varanasi, he will teach the
doctrine and cause the Vajrayana to spread widely. It also
expresses the hope that siddhas numerous as the stars in the
heavens will appear. In those texts it is said that the King
tutelary divinity was the goddess Cunda
the view is held within the Indian oral tradition that both of
them of them appeared and reappeared. The Tibetan
attitude is somewhat different. According to the Indian
lineages in all of the Tibetan doha accounts, the
lineage-holder of all the teachings is mNga'-bdag
" an incarnation of the acarya so it is
said, and the 'Chief Blazer"
is explained as also being
none other than As has been said by none
other than the acarya Amitavajra,
"The unexcelled
Caryadhara worked due to the kindness of Jvalapati," (i.e.
they were one and the same). Now, some later people were
opposed to that view and said instead that Caryadhara
and the 'Chief Blazer' were one and the same, and
they also said that he was quite distinct form
This is similar to contending that gLing-chen-ras-pa
gLing-ras are one person. Really it is quite beyond any
doubt that the birth of the 'Chief Blazer' has been clearly
recalled and that Caryapa himself is being referred to here,
and that Caryapa is doubtlessly a name for the 'Chief
Stories of Subsequent Yogis of the Carya
Now I will relate certain biographical accounts. The
Caryapa yogin known as Kali performed his meditations
quite close to the mercantile centre of Ra4ha and his
brother Vikali meditated near the village of Likara, or as it
is known, Burgeoning Wood. Both of them gained some
degree of meditational accomplishment. One day Vikali
went to the town of Ra4ha where he met with Kali and he
said, "We should make a gaJ)acakra." They invited other
yogins and yoginls to the assembly place and Vikali said,
"We should bring some corpses from the cemetery to use
as seats," and so both of them went off to the charnel
ground. There they whipped the corpses with switches and
the corpses rose up, went to the place of the gal)a assembly,
and fell to the ground as so many seats. Vtk.ali went to the
topmost end of the right hand row and Kali to the head of
the left hand row, and the assembly performed the
gaJ)acakra ceremony. When it was over and everyone was
getting up, someone said that the corpses should be
removed, Kali merely snapped his fingers at his row and
all of them got up and danced their way back to the
cemetery, where they tumbled back into their graves.
Vtk.ali visualised and gestured, but found that at first only
half his row got up, then tumbled to the ground again.
They jerked their heads but finally were unable even to
move them. The yogin Kali said, "Your (excessive) pride
ill befits your puny ability. Now you must engage in
meditation," and he gave the corpses a kick, which caused
all of them to rise just as the previous ones had done. Later
on, the yogin Kali gained the very highest siddhi and
Vikali went back to his abode and meditated. Later he
attained the eye-salve siddhi.
One of King Devapala's scribes known as Pranapa
abandoned his life's calling, studied the dharma and
became a learned paryQ.it. Then he went to a Caryapa yogin,
and having begged him for the teachings, he entered a state
of meditation, in which good experiences were roused in
him. His body became very light and fatigue-free and he
was able to walk on water. He could see all his inner veins
and drops, and he found that he understood all the sastras
and writings that he had not known before, as well as
understanding the talk of all creatures and amanusyas. He
thought, "Now that I have gained all these powers I will do
the practices!" and so he went wandering in various
regions. Near to a certain town in the land of KamarU was
a half-ruined temple. He could hear the sound of a sermon
being read inside, so he opened the door and went in.
There he saw a fully renounced yogin, dressed in old
clothes, intermittently reading from a book and nodding off
to sleep. After some discussion with him, Pranapa asked
the reader, "Sir, are you a paryQ.it or a yogin?" The man
said, "I am a yogin!" and Pranapa replied, "Then why is an
old yogin such as your self reading and reciting?" The
yogin answered, "This (text) is very hard to read and it has
become a penance for me, so that I may purify my sins."
Pranapa then asked, "How hard is it to read then?" The
yogin answered, "Well, you just read it and let me. go off
and meditate!" and he left him the book and went off.
Pranapa looked at the book and found that he could not
even understand which were the heads and which were the
tails of the letters, and as the yogin had left him quite
alone, without telling Pranapa where he had gone, he
realised that the time for his carya practices had certainly
not arrived. Then the word, "Meditate!" resounded from
the heavens, and so Pranapa went off to a lonely forest and
meditated. It is said that the yogin who adopted the skilful
means of becoming the reader was the siddha Dharmapa.
Subsequently the yogin Pranapa did not actually complete
the deeds with elaboration, but as taught in the
Cakrasaf!Zvara Tantra,
he was to perfect the master
siddhi of words, and whatever he prayed for he was able to
There was also a certain Caryapa yogin who once
meditated next to a lake in the land of Udivisa. At dawn a
mighty sound and a glowing light arose and a woman
called K r ~ r : t a appeared. She said, "I am hungry, thirsty and
tired," and the yogin, who had been given a buffalo carcass
by some mountain hennits, as well as a whole clay pot of
beer, gave them to her. She devoured the buffalo in a single
mouthful and drank down the beer in a single gulp.
Blithely she then taught him a mantra and said, "You will·
perfect the ten ritual gazes. I have given those mantras to
others and I must now vanish as they were given by a
witches' method," and it is said that she sank into the
middle of the lake. The yogin tested his powers on grass
and trees and realised that he had indeed perfected those
gazes. He then thought, "Now I will wander through the
various lands and engage in the practices." After he had
gone some way towards another district he saw a certain
minister's daughter, who was on the way to be betrothed to
-another minister, and from a long way off the yogin
exerted his mighty subduing gaze. All the nobles and
servants came towards the yogin ·and paid their obeisances
to him, and having strewn gold dust over him and having
offered him many things of value, they departed. "I have
fulfilled all the aims of a yogi," he thought joyfully, and
continued in his wanderings.
Somewhat later he saw a ploughman furrowing the
ground, and a little distance away he espied a variety of
food and drink wrapped up in a silk cloth. He thought he
might beg some food when he stopped to eat, so he uttered
some words of benediction. The ploughman said not a
word, and acting as if he had not even heard him, gave no
reply. The yogin urged the ploughman further to give him
some food, and the latter scorned him say}ng, "Though you
have a yogin's form, why are you so greedy after food?" At
that the yogin exerted his powerful gaze at the
ploughman's two oxen, and they both immediately died.
The ploughman said, "Well, as you are a Buddhist yogin,
and Buddhists are supposed to be filled with compassion, I
beg you to revive these two oxen." The yogin recited
mantras, performed gestures and went into meditaion, but
the oxen did not move even a fraction. The ploughman
beat them with a switch, and forthwith both oxen lashed
out their hooves and rose, so he was able to plough the
huge field in an instant. As he did so, he vanished into the
distance. At the limit of vision he turned to the yogin and
said, "Siddhi is gained by being of use to creatures. How
can it possibly be gained by such evil deeds? Now you
must go off and meditate." Then he vanished from sight.
From that time on the yogi knew that the siddhi powers of
the laukika<;lakinis were mere hindrances to the attainment
of the very highest siddhi, so he purified himself before the

and meditated upon the meaning of what had
happened to him. One morning the Assembly of the
Victorious Ones, in the form of birds, arrived before him,
made a prophecy and bestowed empowerment upon him.
He was able to bring all areas of knowledge under his
mental control without any hindrances and brought to
perfection even his most insignificant deeds. While he
accomplished all this, his body showed no signs of change
whatsoever. His job was to prepare for the other yo gins'
feasts and gal)aS and as he did this for a long time, he
became known as Pangktipa, which means, "He who
prepares the rows". The ploughman who appeared before
him was the siddha Medhinapa, but this is not exactly clear
i'n the Sri Heruka Tantra (which predicts it).
As for the acarya Srtmanu, he was born in the land of
Maru into the vaisya caste. He was ordained a monk there
and after a short while he wandered off to Kasmir, where in
a temple known as Ratnagupta he studied the Tripi!aka and
became very learned. He met the acarya Caryapa's direct
student, the yogin Nandipa, who was able to travel in the
nether world. He gained the empowerments from Nandipa,
as well as the teachings and the follow-up teachings, and
thereafter he stayed in a rocky cavern in Sri Urgyen in deep
meditation. He gained clear mastery over the
Vasantatilaka, and all the while that he remained seated the
powers of spiritual insight and the working of miracles
arose in due order. He could travel at will through rocky
fissures and under the ground. While he was practising
mental austerities in company with certain other yogins
who had attained but a few powers, they all wandered off
into various other lands. Near a certain -town lived a
weaver, an old man, who said to them, "If you are yogins
who are at all tainted with conceit, then surely you are not
going to perform gal).acakras in cemeteries?" Srimanu
replied, "I certainly will do so," and they all moved on
accordingly. When some of the young men (yogins) made
gaJ)a offerings of various nutritious provisions of uniform
taste, Srtmanu and the rest of the throng with him started
hacking at the provisions with weapons. The weaver came
and said to them, "Aren't you accumulating sins by
treating gar:ta requisites consecrated for siddhi in this
way?" and he burst into laughter. "Oh well, how else can
we eat them?" asked the yogins and the weaver
transformed himself into a huge tiger, ate a piece of· the
offerings, and returned back into the form of a man. "Right
here and now, you should forget all about these siddhi
powers. You should display not even the slightest interest
in even the most insignificant siddhi, but should instead go
off and meditate on the meaning sahaja!" Srtmanu then
meditated for twelve years, having abandoned (worldly)
elaborations, brought the highest siddhis under his sway
and taught the dharma to a few disciples. In the land of
he carried a boulder to the valley of the river Nila
as it was obstructing a certain road and by this deed he
caused a sinful Mleccha King to find faith in him and to
pay homage at his feet. Finally, after all this activity, he
became invisible.
These four aforementioned siddhas were known as
The Four Sadhakas With An Overweening Pride, or in
Tibetan the mNgon-pa'i-nga-rgyal-can-gyi-sgrub-pa-po-
bzhi. In times past Tibetan used to join bits of these stories,
and ones similar to them, to that of Maha Kar:thapa. Those
four were Caryapa yogins, and if you use the word
'Caryapa' it could, of course, refer to the acarya Kar:thapa,
but it seems that some of the Nepalese mantrikas and
Tibetans in the old days have given rise to these sorts of
The old weaver in this last story was the siddha
Tantipa, a weaver of Malava who was extremely skilled
and diligent in his work. He had ten sons who, when they
became older, each had fields, and wives who bore them
many children, thus the lineage of the weaver became great
indeed. When he had become advanced in age each of his
children's households gave him succour in their turn, but
because of his age he was no longer able to do any work
and his behaviour had become quite unattractive. His sons
said, "Father, we give you service and we look after you. If
you go out and arrive at each of our houses in turn, you
might stumble from exhaustion and people might laugh at
us, so please come and live with us here." So he was
placed in a forest grove near to the eldest son's house and
they all brought provisions there in due turn. Once the
siddha Jalandharipa approached the home of one of the
weaver's sons and that night went to the forest grove on
the pretext of renting a hut. The old weaver knew that
someone with a lamp had come there, but he did not know
exactly who it was. At dawn the old man asked, "Who is
that in the grove?" and Jalandharipa replied, "I am a yogin
from various parts, and it is I who have come. Who are
you?" The old weaver answered, "I am the father of all
these weavers and as they did not ·want to display me
before others, they have hidden me away here. I tell you, I
am quite depressed and miserable." Jalandharipa replied,
"Well, why don't you find a means to overcome all this
suffering?" and the old man said, "I certainly will find one,
I beg you to allow me to become you disciple." At that, the
acarya Jalandharipa transferred wisdom and insight to the
old man, blessed his being and bestowed upon him all the
teachings and the follow-up teachings. Tantipa's sadness of
spirit was completely resolved and in great happiness he
meditated. After two or three years had passed he brought
the Mahamudrasiddhi under his sway, but for a time (after
that) he isolated himself and would not teach to many other
Once, it was Tantipa's eldest son's turn to carry
provisions to him, but, because a number of guests had
arrived that day, the flustered son forgot to deliver the
provisions. At midnight he remembered and sent a servant
to go and fetch them. While he was organizing this the
grove became completely suffused with light and various
musical sounds. He saw a chink in the door to his father's
hut, which opened of its own accord to reveal the old man,
his body completely transformed into light, with various
amanusyas, gloriously effulgent, paying homage to his
possessions. Later on, as the old man was renowned for
having attained siddhi, he did not stay in that land, but
wandered elsewhere, as if pursuing his work of weaving.
He worked thus for the welfare of sentient creatures and
finally, together with the many in his retinue, he departed
into the heavens. This siddha Tantipa, like Bitva(pa),
J?ombi and others was a supreme yogin. His collection of
songs known as the Three Hundred Dohlis, is found in one
large work. He also wrote many fragmentary upadesas, but
apart from those he worked exclusively for the welfare of
sentient creatures and I have not been able to discover a
more extensive account of his life.
Now, I think that one should understand things in this
way. Long ago, when the Mahayana teachings first came to
the earth, it seems that the Kriya, Carya and Yoga Tantras
also emerged, at least speaking in general terms. The
and others of the Anuttarayogatantra
collection also appeared in one group, as was predicted in
the Sri Cakrasa,.varamulatantraraja's fifty-frrst chapter.
As other, earlier Tibetans, had not made it clear exactly
who had brought forth this Cakras'!lvaramulatantra, (the
translator of) Mar-do together with SambutP
stated that the acarya Caryapa had brought if forth. Now
the truth really rests with the first opinion mentioned. For a
considerable time since the arrival of this tantra,
innumerable people who have adhered to the path of the
tantras, meditating and teaching, have undoubtedly attained
siddhi (by its means). The tantra was passed on in a lineal
succession, but that succession did not flourish for long or
very widely. Moreover, not many sastras on the
commentaries (to the tantra) were even written, therefore,
after that time, even the oral accounts petered out. Tracing
the lineage from Vajradhara to Saraha and Nagarjuna
the others, is simply following an enumeration of names
and there is nothing definite to be grasped in all this. Later
on, the siddha Savaripa
mentally absorbed the meaning
of the Ca1J4alt Tantrd
and it was definitely he who first
gave upaddas to Luyipa.
Later the acarya Luyipa
mastered the Cakrasa'!lvara Tantra, and as Sri Heruka and
Vajravarahi continually to teach him, there is
really no need (to look for) lineal predecessors to Luyipa.
This acarya Luyipa is said to have brought forth the
Yogini-samcarya Tantra.
After him the acarya

is also said to have brought forth the Sri
In accordance with those two
tantras, both acaryas composed sastras based on the
sadhanas drawn from the root tantra itself. The acarya
Luyipa, Ghantapa and were the pioneers of
Cakrasamvara and are as famous as the sun and moon.
Each of the other siddhas such as Darikapa
Denkipa:m. and the younger lndrabhuti,
disseminated its
practice even further. The acarya Kongkanapa, or as he is
known also, Larikajayabhadra/'
together with
and Bhavabhadra,
each composed
different systems of its practice. The BrahJ:!lin Ratnavajra
also wrote on it in an entirely new vein and irrespective of
whether or not he was the disciple of the younger
IndrabhTiti, he certainly widened the practice. You will
have to examine all this for yourselves.
As for the practices, they were amazing, and it appears
therefore that this tradition possessed all the requisite

Ratnavajra composed the Saf!Zvara sadhana2C'FJ
in Kasmir, and it was bestowed on Naropa as a gift in
Madhyadesa. Naropa realised that it was a remarkable
work and meditated on it. He affixed it to the tip of the
king's victory banner and paid profound homage to it. So
its renown spread, and it is said that thereby, it eclipsed Sri
Luyipa's own practices in the western part of Kasmir. It is
even said that at one time more people meditated on it than
meditated on Luyipa's own tradition! Even in Tibet the
translator Rin-chen bZang-po
translated it with
consummate skill. and as it had flourished there since
previous times, notes and yig-sna
exist which
relate to it. As for the practice tradition of
Larikajayabhadra, some people say they are one and the
same as found in the texts of Luyipa. Although the
utpattikrama agrees with Luyipa, as is befitting, the
SaJ:!lpannakrama and some other parts proceed from
another set of premises and consequently differ greatly,
The practice tradition is therefore heterodox. Now, as
regards this particular observation, it is based solely upon
the Tibetan translations. Fourteen
perfected acaryas, the
siddhas Gayapa, Kalaharhsakumara,
Dharmapa, Kukku!ipa, Ghundiripa, Catilapa, Nadipa,
Gandharapa, VInapa, Tandenapa, Tadakapa, Kankalapa,
Jayanandipa and Bhadepa, also attained siddhi by the path
of practice of Cakrasarp.vara. Each of them is to have
instituted as their own individual practice, the central
tenets of the utpattikrama and the sarp.pannakrama
according to differing traditions and at various times, and
that after meditating on them, many of them attained their
siddhi. All their major deeds and their central tenets were
translated into Tibetan, but it would appear that there were
not many of them. However in Aryavarta many such
accounts existed and some also seem to have survived into
later times.
In the Mulatantra's
mar;tc;lala, the whole host of
divinities is asserted be black in colour, and this is certainly
the teaching tradition of Dharmapa. In 's sadhana
the left leg of the divinity is described as outstretched. In
the teaching tradition of Gangharapada, or Sa-'dzin-zhabs
in Tibetan, a dancing posture had to be adopted. The
disciple of Ghundiripa, the renowned Sii Urgyen-pa
his versiol) of the sadhana of Dhannakara, does not assert
any definite colour for the divinities, but the colour of
couples in union appears to the same. In the sadhanas that
wrote, the hosts of divinities are in a one-faced,
two-armed aspect and although the host of divinities in the
Mfllatantra are in a two-armed aspect in this tradition, it is
really only for easier meditation and symbolism, and it
does not imply that Vinapa did not accept the deities
having many hands. The mar:tc;lala of yellow Heruka which
condensed the rosary of yogic perfection, appears to have
been part of the tradition of Jayanandipa.
As for the acarya Bhadepa, Bhadalika, Bhadrapa and
Bhandepa, their names are quite similar and have all been
written incorrectly, so their meanings have all been
imperfectly unqerstood and they have been mistaken for
each other. However, they were quite· distinct
and their
commentaries were also quite distinct In the tradition of
the acarya Kukku!ipa,:ll? all the assembled deities in the
Mulatantra mal)4ala are said to have similar faces.
The siddha Gayapa strove hard in the work of his
caste, that of singers and dancers. He was able to compose
many new verses (extemporised) and once had to sing
songs in praise of each of five hundred great men gathered
at a certain festival. After a time he ran out of words and so
he sang the previous words again, but with transposed
meanings. Those who had been praised with new and
original words gave him great rewards, but those for whom
he had used the same words again offered him nothing. At
the end of the festival he thought, "I must find a way of
putting new words into my verses automatically." While he
was reflecting on this a certain yogin who was released
from all bodily fetters approached him and asked, "Have
you thought about it in this way?" and Gayapa found the
highest faith roused in him and he replied, "Yes I am
thinking in this way, Sir, I touch your feet and beg to
become your follower." After he had begged him further he
was given a few teachings on the utpattikrama and the
sal!lpannakrama relating to Sal!lvara Heruka. Then he
abandoned sleep, and spent the whole night in meditation,
in the daytime he meditated in deep ravines, while at yet
other times he completely ceased all activity whatsoever.
Once after several years had passed, a bitch appeared on
the road he was travelling on through the wastelands, who
was quite sick and clc;>se to death. Then a wolf appeared
and was clearly ready to devour the bitch, who was unable
to protect herself no matter what she tried. In order to
protect the bitch's life, G ~ y a p a cut off his left hand and
gave it to the wolf, who gulped it down and departed. Then
with a swaying motion the bitch transformed into
Vajravarahi and putting her hand ·on his crown, she
bestowed instructions on him, by which means he was able
to attain siddhi. Then again ,he sang songs, but this time he
performed them only in forests and towns, whereby he
established many beings on the path of fruitful liberation.
He became known as Gayapa, or Singer of Songs
The siddha • was a native of Kalinja, or as
it is otherwise known, Kalinka. At Somapurt he studied
and became very learned. At that particular time many
children were gathered together in the town, and one of
them appeared to be in meditation, while the others
furtively asked him questions. was the lad
giving teachings to them as if he had the power of spiritual
insight, because of which the acarya asked himself the
question, "What is in the boxes and bags of the customers
over there in that shop?" He examined his mind but found
that even he did not know the answer. Realising that
althought he knew the five fields of learning very
thoroughly he did not know the answer to a tiny question
like this, he became very downcast and that night he fled
(the monastery). Then he stayed in a place praying to
for six months and in a dream a voice said to
him, "Leave here and go to tqe east where there is a town
called Hitsila. In a fishing village there lives VajravarahL If
you pray tp her for seven days she will grant you a glimpse
of her face." He did as he had been told and a week later he
came. across an old, ragged fisherwomen burdened down
with a hundred fish. He knew her to be the Bhagavani and
when he prayed to her she transformed herself into a
. /
youthful mruden, he prayed to her further, she underwent
many furth6 changes. She appeared seated amidst fierce
tongues of flame which blazed forth, she empowered him
and gave him the teachings, due to which, meditation and
spiritual insight were aroused in him. He made a deep pit
and surrounded it with the bodies of fish, and having
purified his stream of being, he engaged in meditation and
finally attained perfection.
While the acarya was staying at an inn in the fishing
village, three chief yogins and approximately one thousand
of their attendant yogins arrived. said to them,
"Please come here, we must perform a The
three acarya looked at abode, where there was
no more than one lump of meat, a single lump of fish and
only one vessel of liquor, and they knew the place would
be too restricted, so they said, "We think you will be
unable to satisfy our needs as there is really no room here."
The acarya replied, "Well, let us see just how many people
we can fit in," and they found that the thousand yogins
could all be seated inside and yet they only filled a comer
of the house. offered the yogins all that they
required and said, "You should all now be able to enjoy
this repast, so please do so," and the yogins ate from those
provisions for seven days, yet however much they ate and
drank, they were still unable to finish them. They paid
homage at 's feet and begged for his
forgiveness, and as they were unable to finish off the rest
of the food they left it behind and departed.
As for Kalahathsakumara, he was born in the town of
and in his youth he earned his livelihood
making irrigation channels. As a result his body was
always white in colour, and he was called Kala, which
means, irrigation ditch, Hathsa, which means, white, and
Kumara, which means, youth, so· he came to be known by
that name. He was ordained in a certain temple and having
studied the dharma, he managed to enrol himself in the
rows of the learned monks. He thought, "All this is really
without any substance at all," so he begged a guru for
initiation into Cakrasarpvara, meditated on it, and one day
he attained particularly remarkable powers. In a. town in
Bengal, a certain King became his patron. Each of a group
of five hundred Brahrpins made fire oblations with three
hearths each, and as there were boundless supplies for
making a mai)<}.ala and for the requisite offerings for it the
acarya went into a profound contemplative state. In an
instant an overwhelming tempest arose, smashed all the
offerings and carried away all the Brahrpin 's requisites.
Each time they tried to start again, the same thing
happened, as many as seven times. The wind carried away
t ~ e Brahrpins and even the King himself, and they all had
their clothes torn off. Then the King and the Brahrpins
realized that it. was all a manifestation of the acarya's
powers, and paying their respects to him, they begged him
to bestow his commands upon them. He told them that
from that time on they must no longer sacrifice lives as
part of their offering ceremonies and that having a m e n d ~ d
their beliefs, they should come to have faith in the
teachings of the Enlightened One.
As for the acarya Dharmapa, he was born in the
southern part of the country, in a town known as Saliputra,
and he was also ordained in that land. In time he became
most learned in the sciences and passed his time in hearing
(teachings) and in debating, but he starved himself to such
an extent that he became blind. Once when he was at a
loose end he thought, "Wouldn't I be fortunate if I could
meet a fully realised Guru, who would show me the true
path?" and in this manner he continued to worship the
Three Jewels. Vajra<}.akin'i appeared before him in a dream
and said, "I will empower you!" Thereafter he worshipped
her continually and she did indeed come to him,
empowered him, and gave him teachings. After five year's
meditation he mastered the Mahamudrasiddhi. Outwardly
he worked as a reader, but (truly) he worked for the
welfare of sentient creatures. I have only heard of the
M ahlimiiya
as a text related to this acarya.
Kukku!ipa's consort transformed herself into a hen.
Ghundiripa, or Ghunduripa, was evidently very widely
renowned in Tibet in the 'past. He killed many Ghundiri
birds and devoured their flesh, and when he had finished
he would manifest the miracle of letting them fly out of his
Apart from his name, Catilipa, no other account of
him has appeared. You should also investigate whether
Nadipa and Nalipa are the same person or not. The acarya
Gandharapa, or acarya Sa-'dzin-pa (as he is known in
Tibetan), was from the land of Gandhara, or Sa-'dzin, and
he was born into the k ~ a t r i y a caste. His real name was
Vijiianikure. He became an upasaka and studied each and
every field of learning, and also practised one of the
collections of tantras. Where he studied there were no men
trom Gandhara, and so he was called by the name
Gandharapa. He begged the acarya siddha Purvagupta, a
secretive yogin, for the teachings on Cakrasarpvara, and
when he meditated on them he found that all kinds of
subtle and coarse experiences became clearly visible
before him, and that he was able to perfect all of them. In a
forest grove next to a goldsmith's colony near a certain
town in the east he engaged in meditation and flames
blazed clearly from him scorching all the grass and trees in
the forest. Shortly afterwards by merely thinking of rain
falling, a shower emanated from his meditations and all the
things that had been previously scorched were immediately
restored. Having attained the mystic powers, he then
performed acts of mental asceticism and wandered at will
throughout many lands. He spread out his animal skin mat
on the river Ganges and both he and his retinue travelled
many times up and down the river between the region of
Gangasagar and the town of Prayag.
He also did the same
thing in the valley of the river Rohie
and the vast
Once, when he wanted to go to the land of Dhanasri
in company with his retinue, a shower of flowers, lights,
music and wondrous odours pervaded everywhere as a sign
that they could not sink beneath the ocean's surface.
Acarya Gandharapa thought, "Now I am filled with power
just like my own Guru," and at that instant he sank into the
water. By rekindling his faith, he was able to restore things
to their previous condition and so he proceeded to the land
of Dhanasri. There, he recited mantras and worked widely
for the welfare of beings. In one day he put stone parasols
on one hundred and eight stupas. After that he stayed in a
place known as Powerful Cavern, near Magadha. At first
he thought himself equal to his own Guru and his excellent
qualities, and due to this pride his body was to find no
further transformations. Finding (only) unusual powers and
working for the welfare of sentient creatures, he but drew
near to the Mahamudrasiddhi.
As for Vrnapa, he has been written of elsewhere.
Tandepa and Tantepa are one and the same, I think.
Tadakapa was a brigand who is renowned for later gaining
The siddha Kangkalapa was ·a wealthy householder
from Gaura in the east, who delighted in sensuous
pleasures. Quite suddenly his wife died and when he was
carrying her mortal remains to the charnel ground, he
grieved deeply. A certain yogin with a very clear mind,
was there and he asked, "What are you doing?" and so the
bereft husband told him the whole sad story. The yogin
said, "Sadder than that is your very own death!" and
Kangkalapa replied, "Then I beg you for a means of
liberation from it." The yogin empowered him and
bestowed the teachings on him and the householder spent
six years in that very charnel ground in order to eliminate
his mental impurities, all the while surrounded by
skeletons. At the end of that time he attained siddhi and he
worked extensively for the welfare of sentient beings.
The acarya Jayanandipa was. a very learned Brahrpin
and Brahmacan, who later came to abide in the teachings
of the Buddha and became an upasaka. He received
teachings from a tantric acarya and duly meditated on
them. When he later became chaplain to the King of
he assembled limitless requisites from which
he made sacrificial cakes each day. Now, certain ministers
said to the King, "This person makes too liberal use of the
king's wealth," and due to such meddlesome slander the
King flung the acarya into jail. All the workers (of the city)
assembled and many hundreds of thousands of birds flew
to the palace and made crying sounds. Their bodies
adopted all manner of shapes and they let their droppings
fall onto the people's heads below. Then a man who
understood the language of birds pondered all this activity
and said to the king, "What the birds say is that you are
holding their parent in prison and that you will be
destroyed in seven days." He repeated this again to the
King, who came to the prison to ask the acarya about the
story he had heard. The acarya said, "I took only what I felt
was fitting of the king's property and I did not dispose of it
elsewhere." The King replied, "Well, where will you get
such a large amount to replace it with?" Immediately he
heard this the acarya covered the heavens with his hands
and grain, cooked food, silks etc., piled up in boundless
quantities in front of the King, who knew that the acarya
had indeed attained siddhi, and paid obeisance at his feet.
He invited the acarya to-his palace and made offerings to
him. Previously the acarya had practised the
Gul)aguhyayoga but after this he was famed (simply) as
one who became a siddha.
The first acarya to perform the sacrificial cake rituals,
whose official title was 'Baling Acarya', and who resided
at the monastic university of Vikramasna, was
Naga:xjunagarbha, the author of the Balividhisamuccaya,m
and he was a student of this siddha Jayanandipa.
Acarya Bhadepa was a sthavira steward of a small
monastery in a place in Magadha, and knew all about the
dharma. He once went to visit a monk, who resided in a
cemetery to give him a message. As it was the fourteenth
day of the waning moon many people from the town had
come to make offerings and others who had already done
so were returning. There was a middle-.aged lady, who,
having been left behind to make her offering said, "I pay
homage to the Buddha" three times, and having done so,
she proceeded home, taking cubit length steps without her
feet even touching the ground. Bhadepa saw that she
arrived back earlier than those who had left before her, so
he followed her and finally 'caught up with her. Realizing
that she was .an emanation he supplicated her and paid
homage at her feet. She empowered him with the transfer
of intuitive wisdom and bestowed on him the teachings and
the follow up teachings. Bhadepa abandoned his
sthavirahood and from time to time he meditated in that
cemetery or in the temple. A f t e ~ twelve years had passed in
this way, a group of many men visited that very cemetery
and it is said that they found a skeleton there wearing
monk's robes. It is also said that they saw the same thing
on many occasions in the temple. Bhadepa had found
unique inner siddhi. Outwardly he manifested many
miracles with skeletons and skulls and later he departed in
a rainbow body. He also wrote texts which were central to
the utpattikrama, sampannakrama and the empowerments
of Srt Cakasarpvara ..
The siddha Bodhivajra, together with his retinue of
five hundred yogins and yoginis, performed the gal)a-
mai)Qala at all times. Each of the five hundred yogins and
yoginis, who were his attendants, also gained the ordinary
level siddhis, and he attracted a vast host of students. When
arrived, he came soaring through the skies. He wrote the
Sri Cakrasaf!lvara sadhana, the condensed meanings and
explanations of it etc. It is said that he departed in a
rainbow body from the very spot. This tradition did not
spread very widely in India, but the tradition of soaring in
the skies exists to this very day. This acar:ya and
Jfianavajra, or as he is known, Jfianapada,
were both
prophesied in the later Kalacakratantra.
The yogin Matridatta was a and then an
upasaka. In the Sri Cakrasaf!lvaratantra it is prophesied
that at a particular time he would become a yogin, and so
he wandered to a cemetery. There in order to purify his
mind, he spread out some corpses as his seat and cushion.
He set up some other corpses as pillars and yet others
above him as a canopy. He stayed there meditating on the
signless, eventually bringing the Mahamudrasiddhi under
his control. He also performed the practices free from
elaboration. At about that time in a part of the land of
Odivisa a new lake. came into existence and a newly
arrived, malicious naga also arose. It stole village boys and
virgin maidens and carried them off to its lair. It even
carried off the son of King Virapala and vanished
completely out of sight. The King begged the acarya to
help him and so the acarya went to the lake and into its
waters. He came to the abode of the naga, took the king's
son and delivered him back to the King himself. At that
everybody knew that he had attained perfection and begged
him to destroy the naga. With unwavering heart the acarya
boiled the lake and the youths and maidens who had been
abducted previously, who were not in fact dead, emerged
from the lake's waters and were each taken back to their
own families amidst great joy. The acarya was then called
siddha Masanapa. He meditated on the six yogas and the
sadhana of Sarp.vara according to the Bodhisattvatika and
the Vajraplif}iuttaratika, and finally attained full
siddhahood. He wrote a supplement to the Bodhisattvatika
and also passed on various lineages. From the time of
Irarikapa until the time of this Masanapa, these acaryas
worked for the w e l f a r ~ of sentient beings and the
miraculous accounts of their works are numerous.
Nevertheless, whatever I have written, here and elsewhere,
has only been what I have seen and heard myself.
Thus the Caryapa tradition has been recorded quite
impartially. The siddhas Hiranyapa, Mandarapa, Tilakapa,
Sudadapa, Chitrachapa, Karkarapa, Jatukarna,
Dhanamitra, acarya Jimutapa, Dharmasrt,
Knl)agayipa, Lilavajra
and Saratapa as well as the
others, have all been written about in the sastras. Later on
there arose many very famous persons who also gained
powers, Nagopa,
Sangharipa etc., were among those who
gained very mighty powers.
The Caryapas relied mostly on Cakrasarp.vara; many
others relied on Hevajra and Yamantaka, and were
supported by other very detailed sadhanas as well, such as
those of Mahakala and the Vajra.Qakini class etc. All of
them were pre-'eminently practitioners of the
Vasantatilaka and Pra:nayoga. Before the acarya Antarapa,
the earth was mainly filled with lineal descendents of
Caryapa himself, but nevertheless the Caryapa tradition is
really without any such limits. In the time of the acarya
Junior Carya, the Caryapa tradition became very famous,
and then in the time of Bhuvaripa
and Bhuva bLo-ldan
it prospered only a little. After the acarya Kusalipa freed it
from any admixtures or deleterious influences, the main
tenets were pure and the practice experiynces, which, when
set out in detail, clearly show a very unique tradition.
This then is the to the account of the
acarya Caryapa. In order to understand the origin and the
spread of Cakrasarpvara, I rGyal-khams-pa, Ta:ranatha
wrote these words.
1. Tw. bdud Skt. Mara
Lord of the world of death.
In avadana literature (doctrinal points made into literary works
via narratives) Mara is often personified as the Lord of Demons
who attempts to prevent the Buddha from attaining
Enlightenment. Such as account of the 'temptation' may be
found in the 13th Chapter of the Buddhacarita of in
the translation by E.B.Cowell in Vol. XLIX of the Sacred
Books of the East series ed. Max Muller
Mara is often referred to in his four-fold aspect, in which form
he personifies the hindrances which the meditator may
experience. See Nalanda Translation Committee, The Life of
Marpa the Translator, p.233 and Snellgrove, D.L. The H evajra
Tantra Vol. 1, p.80 note2.
Tib. Skt. Tirthika
'Heretics' Those who are not Buddhists. See Edgerton,F.
Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary, p.254 where the word is
adduced as a perjorative term. See also Tibeto-Sanskrit
Lexicographical Materials ed. Angdu, S. p.I23.
3. The dating of is full of problems, few of which are
capable of a final resolution. According to the Western tradition
the Buddha's Parinirvana was approx. 560 B.C. According to
the Tibetan traditioa it was 948-947B.C. (See Roerich, G. The
Blue Annals p.22). According to the Tibetan reckoning
birth was approx. 475 A.D. which is far too early
to be consistent with the internal references in this text,_e.g. the
consecration of Somapuri. If the Western dating were adopted
(and the Tibetans certainly do not) this would bring his birth to
about 1060 A.D. which is a more workable date, but still not
consistent with the dating of certain internal references such as
the aforementioned Somapuri consecration, King Devapala, the
fact that Maitripa (n. 178) is said to be a rebirth of
(n. 179) and that Maitripa's dates are 1007/1010-1085 A.D. See
Snellgrove, D.L. The Hevajra Tantra, PLI, p.l3, n.4.
4. Tib. slob-dpon Skt. Acarya A title given to a teacher, a
ttansmitter of instructions.
5. Tzb. kLu-sgrub Skt. Nagarjuna
A renowned Tantric siddha is referred to here. For biographical
details see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages p.4
ff; Wallesser, M. The Life of Nagarjuna from Tibetan ·and
Chinese Sources: Jan Yun-hua, Nagarjuna, or More? A
new interpretation of Buddhist Hagiography.
6. Tib. dpal-'bras-spWlgs Skt. Sri Dhanyakata}ca
The site in South India of a huge smpa where according to
legend the Sri Kalacakra Tantra was first preached by the
Buddha, twelve months after his enlightenment According to
the eminent Tibetan scholar Padma-dkar-po the King Sucandra
of Sambhala heard the Tantra being preached at the swpa and
returned with it to his country which Padma-dkar-po then goes
on to describe. Chos-'byung-bstan-pa'i-pad-ma-rgyas-pa'i-
nyin-byed of Padma-dkar-po edited by Prof. Dr. Lokesh
Chandra as Tibetan Chronicles of Padma-dkar-po, Satapita}ca
Series, Vol 75. Fol.103 A, lines 1 ff. The site of Dhanyakata}ca
has been variously identified by scholars and as yet there
appears to be no consensus. Prof. G. Tucci in his Tibetan
Painted Scrolls, Vol.2, p.617 identifies it with, "Srigiri,
Sriparvata, one of the 'Chief centers of late Buddhism. It
corresponds to in Guntur district, where the
famous stupa stands." Tibetan tradition, quoled by Klong-rdol-
bla-ma locates it at ••a three day boat journey from where the
frontiers of Bengal and China join." see Smith, E.G. University
of Washington Tibetan Catalogue, p.29.
7. Tib. Nag-po-chen-po-mngon-par'byung-ba Skt. Mahakala
The MahakiDa Tantra. P. 79 Vol.3
See the Chos-'byung of Bu-ston translated by Obermiller,E. as
History of Buddhism by Bu-ston, p.221
8. Rva-10-tsa-ba. His full name was Rva-lo-tsa-ba rdo-rje-grags
A great translator and practitioner of the Yamaniaka cycle. He
was also a master of the Kalacakra and one of the two main
branches of its practice in Tibet bears his name. For his
biography see Roerich,G. The Blue Annals, p.374-380;
Ferrari,A. mK'yen-brtse's Guide to the Holy Places of Central
Tibet, p.98; The Biography of Rva Lotsaba (in Tibetan) by
Yeshi Senge.
9. Uruvisa. Perhaps a corruption of Otre Visa. In Taranatha's
rmad du-byung-ba-rin-po-che'i-khungs-lta-bu'i-rgyan trans.
Templeman, D. as The Seven Instruction Lineages, p.43, it is
noted, "There was a prophecy made by the Buddha himself
about the land of Uruvisa and my GLiru has said that the land of
UruviSa is very close to the land of Bengal."
10. Tib. 'dzam-bu-gling Skt. Jambudvipa
The ancient name used to refer to India. Literally, 'Land of the
rose-apple tree.' It is believed to be the main continent out of
the seven which surround the axis-mundi, Mt Meru.
11. Tib. phyag-rgya-chen-mo Skt. Mahamudra·
A system of practice in which the tendency to treat things as
they appear and as they seem to appear (i.e. as dualities), is
brought to a final point of stasis, enabling the practitioner to
work in the real world, not the world of delusion. See the
Nalanda Translation Committee, The Life of Marpa the
Translator, pp. xxxix-x1iii.
12. See Bu-ston's Chos-'byung (Trans. Obermiller) Vol.2, p. 120.
13. See n.6. On the Kalacakratantra see Kalacakra Tantra and
Other Texts, ed. Prof. Dr. Raghu Vira and Prof. Dr. Lokesh
Chandra, Voq, pp.S-20. See also Roerich G.Studies in the
Kalacakra. ·
14. Tzb. khrishing I kha-tvam I rtse-gsum Skt. Khatyanga
(See Mahavyutpatti, ed. Sakaki, R. Vol.l, p.447, entry no.6932.)
A symbol of the mendicant yogin consisting of a metal pole
about six feet long, culminating in a trident Below the trident
are two human heads surmounted by a gleaming white skull.
Below the heads are a pair· of crossed vajras decorated with
flowing scarves. As with all yogins' ornaments it has one major
purpose-it stands as a graphic representation of a profound
meditative realisation. At another level it may also be linked
with the absolute fearlessness required by the yogin and its
nature as a weapon symbolises this very clearly.
15. Tib. rus-pa'i-rgyan Skt. Asthyabhanu:ta
The yogin's accoutrements also include ornaments of human
bone. They are highly decorated with relief carving displaying
the minor divinities being evoked in the dance the yogin
performs, this being the occasion when they are most usually
worn. The six-fold bone ornaments worn by Tantrikas are
crown, earrings,bracelets/anklets, necklace, apron of wheels,
and an unguent of bone-ash gleaned from cemeteries. Used in
ritual dance they clearly and eloquently symbolise the tantric
transformation. cf. Lessing, F. Yung-ho-kung p.120
16. Tib. cang-te'u Skt. Qamaru
A double-headed drum made from human skulls or wooden
substitutes placed crown to crown and struck by means of pellet
beaters joined by thongs to the point where the skulls are
joined. The drum is always held in the right hand and its sound
encourages depth of meditative experience and is considered to
be a primal sound. See also n. 62.
There is an article in Asian Music, vol.10 (1979), pp.63-91, by
Rinjing Dorje and Ter Ellingson, ••Explanation of the Secret
Gcod Da Ma Ru: an Exploration of Musical Instrument
Symbolism", which discusses the f/.amaru in some detail. Also
Mireille Helffer's article •Les instruments de musique lies a Ia
pratique des tantra d'apres un texte de Kun grol grags pa, 'J a'
mtshon snin po,' Vol.l, pp.83-107 of Contributions on 1ibetan
Language, History and Culture, proceedings of the Cosma de
Koros Symposium held at Velm-Vienna, Austria, 13-19
September 1981, Arbeitskreis fur Tibetische und Buddhistische
Studien Universitat Wien, Wien 1983, discusses the f!amaru.
17. Tib. chang-snod
The yogin carries with him a skull cup as a vessel for food and
drink and I presume that this is what is referred to here.
Tantrikas would certainly have a use for beer or liquor in their
rituals where they are offered to their guardian deities in ga1_1a
ceremonies. It may also be interpreted at a different le.vel as a
symbol of the yogin's complete indifference to the caste
injunctions, which in time forbade its use by
Brahf!lins, if not, the rest of the population.
18. The island of Sri Lanka. Taranatha also refers to Lanka as
Sin gala.
19. 1ib. dngos-grub Skt. Siddhi
Siddhis are powers which demonstrate the yogin's complete
mastery over phenomena. They are of two
(A) 1ib. 'jig-rten-pa'i-dngos-grub Skt. Laukika Siddhi 'The
worldly siddhis'. (Seen. 56)
(B) nb. 'jig-rten-'das-las-dngos-grub Skt. Lokottara Siddhi
•The Siddhis which are Beyond the Mundane'. There is
also a view that these siddhis are the fruit of the
practice of the Mahamudra. They are also linked with
nb. mthun-mong-ma-yin-pa'i-dngos-grub which is the
•Extraordinary-level siddhi'. The very highest siddhi is
the attainment of the final ErilightenmenL
20. For an account of this see p.36.
21. Tw. 'ja'-lus The stage of at which the mundane body is
understood to be of the nature of light-that is identical with the
body of Vajradhara.
22. nb. spros-bcas Skt. Prapailca-with elaboration
Tib. spros-pa-med Skt. Nisprapai'lca-without elaboration
In the context of tantric practice, with elaboration can mean the
use of many consorts, costumes and other paraphenalia; without
elaboration can mean either that all or some of the above are
imagined and are not physically present, or that practice is done
without either_ physical or imagined elaboration of any sort.
23. Tw. rigs-(chen-po)-bzhi Caturvan:ta ,
The four castes are-Brahrpin, Vaisya and Sudra. On
the origins of caste see Srinivas, M.N. Caste in Modern India
and Other Essays, esp. chapter 3.
See also Basham, A.L. The Wonder That was India, esp. pp
Auboyer,J. Daily Life in Ancient India.
24. Tib. do-ha Skt. Doha
Dohas are extemporised songs of exultation in which the yogin
tells of his experience of reality and either encourages others to
emulate his path or gives more or less pith instructions on how
to accomplish those experiences. See also n. 128.
25. It is interesting to compare some other translations of this very
doha line which iaranatha has used.
My translation of it in The Seven Instruction Lineages, p.43,
was, .. Going on reaching out is the Brahrpin's son!" which I
have slightly amended in the present translation. Per Kvaeme's
version in An Anthology of Buddhist Tantric Songs-a study of
the Caryagiti, p.l13 is ..... the shaven-headed (Brahrpin boy)
goes constantly touching (you) " certainly points out the direct
activity of the Brahrpin boy This contrasts
markedly with the translation of A. Mojumder, The
Caryapadas, where he has, part 2, p.44, "Qombi ... you go just
touching the shaven-headed Brahrpin." This, it seems to me,
misses the whole meaning of the yoga.praxis which
undertook, in which he strove after Qombi, the union of the
two, the transcendence of duality.
26. Tib. bskyed-pa'i-rim-pa Skl. Utpattikrama
Tib. rdzogs-pa'i-rim-pa Skl. Sarppannkrama
Utpattikrama, is the stage of generation, .the stage of
imagination which ripens the continuum for the stage of
completion which is its effect, it is a meditation imagining an
aspect similar to birth, death or intermediate state.
Sampannakrama, the stage of completion, is a yoga that arises
from having caused the energy-winds to enter, abide and
dissolve into the central psychic channel by the power of
27. Tib. Kun-rdzob-kyi-bden-pa. Skt. Sarpvfta Satya.
28. Magadha-The area known nowadays as Bihar state.
29. Sri Nalanda-a Buddhist monastic university in Magadha,
about 170 miles East of Varanasi. Founded in the 5th cent A.D.
Nalanda maintained the very highest academic standards and
attracted scholars from as far away as Central Asia, China and
the islands of Indonesia. See Sankalia, H.D. The Nalanda
30. Tib. sde-snod-gsum Skt. Tripitaka
The threefold classification of the Buddhist canon into:-
(1) Tib. 'dul-ba- Skl. Vinaya-Monastic Discipline
(2) Tib. mdo-sde Skl. Sutra-Religious Discourses
(3) Tlb. mngon-chos Skt. Abhidharma-Metaphysics
31. Tib. rgyud-sde Skt. Tantrapitaka
The division of tantric literature into four classifications is well
described in Lessing and Wayman, Introduction to the
Buddhist Tantric Systems. (See index headings under "Tantra,
Classification into groups".)
32. Princess was the sister of King Indrabhmi of
044iyana, and lived in. the fll'st half of the 9th. cent. A.D. She
was a renowned practitioner and commentator ·on the
Guhyasamaja Tantra. As her title in the present work suggests,
she was a great yoginL She is counted as one of the
Mahasiddhas in her own right and is shown on pp.38 and 44 of
Schmidt,T. The Eighty Five Siddhas. For a brief biography see
Robinson, J. Buddha's Lions. pp.250-3.
33. Tib. rDo-rje-mkha'-gro-ma. Skt. Vajraqatdni.
A female, fully realised being who may be coerced to help the
yogin in his practice. They are said to travel in the heavens, as
their name suggests, because they are beyond all conceptual
dualities and proceed in the ether which reflects the state of
awareness they have reached. Vajraqakini is said to be an
alternative term for Qakini.
34. Jalandhara. At the time of the Kingdom of
Jalandhara comprised the area around modem Jullundur city,
especially the land bounded by the Ravi river in the West, the
Sutlej river in the East and South and the hill areas along the
Dhauladhar range and the lower altitudes of the sub-Himalayan
range in Himachal Pradesh. See Law, B.C. Historical
Geography of Ancient India, p.86 and Charak, S.S. History
and Culture of the Himalayan States, Vol. I, Himachal Pradesh.
3'5. A wrathful divinity, Heruka appears in many fierce forms such
as Sri Cakrasaf!1vara and Hevajra. As this work has been
dedicated by Taranatha, "in order to understand the origin and
the spread of Cakrasamvara" (Supplement p. 79) it most likely
refers here to Heruka the form of Sri Cakrasaqwara.
36. Tib. spyod-pa Skt. Carya
The final stage where the yogin has no further need to engage
in meditation and instead, abandoning any attachment to it, he
meets the world "head on", seeing it as it really is, with any
concepts as to its nature gone forever. At this stage all activity
is suffused with, and inseparable from, meditation.
37. Tib. lhag-pa'i-lha Skt. Adhideva
Literally, 'The very highest gods'. In this context the term most
probably means the Tib.yi-dam Skt. that is one's own
chosen deity, the divine form of one's own inner nature. (Seen.
38. Tib. sgrub-pa-pa Skt. Sadhaka
One who has entered the Vajrayana path and who practises all
the required evocations etc.
39. Such pills were made often as pan of the search for immortality
or for a gold-transforming elixir. See Templeman, D. The
Seven Instruction Lineages pp.75-76
40. Tib. gnod-sbyin S/a. Yak§a
Literally, 'Bringer of hann.' A class of capricious divinities
attendant on the god Kubera, who require constant propitiation
to avoid their malevolent retribution. I am aware that the
Tibetan term in no way translates the word "yak§a", but appears
to be an interpretation. For a discussion of yaksas, the
derivation of the term, their origins etc. see Maury, C. Folk
Origins of Indian Art.
41. Pretapuri means 'the abode of the pretas', or • the abode of the
hungry spirits'. 1ib. yi-dvags Skt. Preta. ·The torment of the
pretas arises from their insatiable craving. It seems that
Pretapuri has an allegorical meaning here.
42. Tib. dpag-tshad Skt. Yojana a measure of distance which in
Vedic times was gauged in part by the distance covered in one
day by a bullock team, but which is generally accepted as being
a distance of about 9 miles. Apte, V.S. The Student's Sanskrit
English Dictionary, p.460. Macdonnell, A.A. A Practical
Sanskrit Dictionary, p.248.
43. Tib. gSang-ba-kun-bsdus
44. Tlh. Kha-'byor-thig-le Skt. Sa'!f{JU!atilaka Tantra
Tohoku" 381, p.26 Vol.2
45. Tlh. gdams-pa Skt. Upade§a
Literally, 'Elucidation' or 'Explanation'.
46. "lib. sprul-pa'i-sku S/a. N i n n ~ a k a y a
The physical form or emanation body in which a being may
appear as a guide to practitioners. On the teachings of the
bodies (Tib. sku. S/a. Kaya) in Buddhism see Guenther, H.V.
Tantra and Revelation, in Tibetan Buddhism i1J Western
Perspective, esp. pp.215-224.
47. Tib. rDo-rje-phag-mo Skt. Vajravarahi 'The Diamond Sow'
Vajravarahi is the 4akini consort of Sri Cakrasalpvara (see n.
34) For a description of Vajravarahl from the text Vajrayane
Pujavidhi, see Bhattacharryya, D.C. Tantric Buddhist
Iconographic Sources, pp 38-39. Vajravarahi is known as 'The
Diamond Sow' as her form displays a pigs head emerging from
the right side of her head.
48. Tlh. bDag-med-ma Skt. Nairauna/Nairatrnyi •No sense of Self-
ness, • The main consort of Hevajra. See references in
Snellgrove, D.L. The Hevajra Tantra, a Critical Study, Vol. I.
49. On the Samvara tradition, according to the Junior Translator of
Mar-do see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages,
50. Tibetans believe that 'Gro-ba bzang-mo was an emanation of
the goddess Tara, bestowed on the world for its welfare by a
beneficent gakini. The story is often performed in Tibet as an
opera, but it is most likely Indian in origin. The text has been
published in India (in Tibetan) as mKha'-'gro-bu-mo-'gro-ba-
bzang-mo-'-rnam-thar at the Tibetan Printing Press (Shes-rig-
par-khang) and has been translated imo English by Duncan, M.
in H_arvest Festival Dramas of Tibet.
51. Tib. ye-shes. Skt. Jf\ana
This is the beginningless wisdom, a substratum of all.
Even dualistic thinking (Tib. mam-rtog Skt. Vikalpa) is
grounded in jiiana. (See n. 51)
52. Tib. 'phags-pa Skt. Arya
A title expressing nobility of spirit, often used as a prefix to
names. It may also mean a Bodhisattva, which is the more
likely here, or one who is superior through having gained
insight into emptiness.
53. Tw. mam-rtog Skt. Vikalpa
The basis of samsara. The tendency to separate into two is
Vikalpa. Sunyaia is empty of all such false and illusory
constructs. Direct perception is always correcL What is not
correct is the false conclusion reached by means of vikalpa.
54. Tw. u-rgyan Skt. OQcJiyana, Udayana
Hitherto used in reference to the Swat valley in Pakistan.
See Tucci, G. Travels of Tibetan Pilgrims in the Swat Valley.
However, see Lokesh Chandra's well-argued and provacative
paper entitled O#iyana: a new interpretation in Aris, M and
Aung San Suu Kyi (Eds.) Tibetan Studies in Honour of Hugh
55. Tw. phyag-rgya Skt. Mudra
In this context the mudras are the six-fold ornaments that
K.ffilacarya was given by t h e ~ - (see n.15)
In other contexts the word may refer to the tantric consort, a
·. ritual gesture, or to the 'sealing' of the sldhaka on the
MahamUdri path.
56. Tw. dpa'-bo Skt. Vira, 'Hero'
A class of demi-god often coercedjnto working for a yogin in
his solitary practices. Also a class of medium who transmits the
inspirations of various protective divinities.
57. Tib. tshogs-'khor Ski. Gal).acakra
The so-called 'Tantric Feast' at which the mandala rituals etc.
are performed in re while still following the strict tantric
injunctions. See Snellgrove, D.L. The Hevajra Tantra, a
critical study, Vol.l, part 2,Ch.4, esp, verses 2 and 6-14.
On ganacakra, cf. M. Laiou, 'Preliminaires d'une etude des
ganacakra,' in Y. Matsunaga, ed., Studies of Esoteric
Buddhism and Tantrism in Commemoration of, the 1150th
Anniversary of the founding of Koyasan, Koyasan University,
1965, pp.41-6.
58. Tib. dngos-grub Skt. Siddhi
The eight siddhis referred to here are of the worldly type, (see
n. 19). It is important to note here that had to
perfect all eight of the worldly siddhis before he was granted
permission to proceed with the carya practices. The bestowal of
permission came from the and from his Guru
Jalandharipa. See pp. 6,7,10,12-14.
59. Tib. ha-stangs Skt. vilokita
Ritual gaze-the ability to perform feats such as casting down
fruit from trees, replacing the fruit, taming wild animals and so
forth with a mere glance. There are eight such feats which are
an indication of perfecting the generation stage, utpattikrama
60. Tw. sa-'dzin Skt. Gandhara
An area in modem Pakistan (and parts of Afghanistan) to the
south of Swat and Udayana, Once a great centre of monastic
Buddhism, it derived much of its artistic and philosophic
inspiration from the fact that it lay on one of the branches of the
Silk Road to China. Merchants and mendicants both carried
influences with them and made Gandhrua a unique melting pot
of Buddhist thought and arL
See Beal, S. Si-yiu-ki. Buddhist Records of the Western World
and HaJiade, M. The Gandhara Style and the Evolution of
Buddhist Art.
61. Tlb. ro-langs Skt. Vetala
A corpse, which when revived by a tantrika in a ritual
ceremony has certain powers which its •creator' may harness.
Failure to do so leads to the vetala becoming a demonic
•zombie' which may wreak all kinds of havoc.
Wylie, T. ro-langs The Tibetan Zombie, in History of Religions
Vol.4, No.1.
For early Indian legends on the vetala see Stories of Vikrama-
detya-the Veta/a Paiicavif!ISatika. This work has been translated
into Tibetan (and Buddhicised) as The Tibetan an (sic)
Professor Tales, ed. Lama K.S. TulJcu.
62. According to Roerich 's informant Tibetans believe that
Devikota is Tsa-ri in South-East Tibet. Roerich states that
Devikota is in the Vindhya Hills (See n. 83) but page 31 of this
present work suggests that it is more likely to be in Bengal. For
the Roerich reference see The Blue Annals p.729, f/n 2.
Majumdar, R.C. in his History of Ancien! Bengal p.320
suggests that Devikota lies 18 miles south of the town of
Dinajpur, in the village of Bangrah. It was a land famed for the
malicious nature of its inhabitants.
63. Tib. dur-khrod Skt. Sam8ana
These were popular places of practice for Tantrikas for they
exemplified the negativities with which one practices and
which are transformed into Enlightenment.· There were certain
cemeteries which were more highly regarded than others, for
example Tib. dur-khord-bsil-ba-tshal Skt. Sitavana, the ·cool
Sandalwood Charnel Ground' near Nalanda. Sitavana is
described by Chag-lo-tsa-ba who visited it in 1234A.D ... The
great cemetery Suavana is situated in a treeless clearing inside a
large forest to the North-west of Nalanda. In this forest there
were numerous venomous snakes with spotted bodies and black
heads of the size of a man's thigh. The tops of thickets (in the
forest) used to shake and emit a cracking noise when the snakes
moved about." Roerich, G. The Biography of Dharmasvamin
(Chag-lo-tsa-ba Chos-rje-dpal) a Tibetan Monk Pilgrim, p.85.
There is a discussion of the Eight Great Cemeteries by R.O.
Meisezahi ('L' Etude iconographique des huit cimitieres d'apres
le traite Samsanavidhi de Luyi') in Meisezahi's Geist und
Ikonographie des Vajrayana-Buddhismus. Hommage a Marie-
-..)Therese de Mallmann. ·sankt Augustin, VGH
W"ISSenSChagtsverlag. 1980, pp.3-123.
64. Tlb. gdugs S/ct. Chaura
The umbrella was a symbol of royalty signifying special rank
and position. The deeper significance here points to the
ttemendously rare and elevated of one who has attained
full realisation as had. In the edition of Ttiranatha's
Complete Works from the set of prints from 1ib. rtag-brtan-
phun-tshogs-gling (in 17 volumes). there are two beautiful
woodblock vignettes of Knl}acarya. one in Vol. I p.2
(Tiiranatha's Autobiography) showing the siddha surmounted
by umbrellas and seated on a tiger skin with a 4aJnaru (see
n.16) floating in the air above his left shoulder. and the other
showing him surmounted by floating umbrellas. Vol.l. p.716
(Spiritual Songs oflaranlitha).
65. Tlb. gzhom-med-da-ma-ru Slct. Anaha :r;>amaru
The unstruck drum sound
At the deeper level of meaning this refers 10 the perfection of
the yogic process during which the dualities (left and right
channels) reach a state of ultimate unity (central channel). This
spontaneous sounding is a sign of this perfection. Munidaua's
commentary to doha song is not particularly
helpful here. Kvaeme, P. An Anthology of Buddhist Tantric
Songs-a· Study of the Caryagiti, pp . .l19-122.
See also Dasgupta, S.B. Obscure Religious Cults pp.57-8
For a Kasmiri work on Sivaism and its interpretation of
Anahate see Singh, J. Vijiianabhairava or Divine
Consiousness, p.36.
66. Malava/Malaba-both spellings are possible in Tibetan. It is a
land of the West of present-day Madhya Pradesh, centering on
the town ofUjjain.
See Watters, T. On Yuan Chwang'sTravelsinindia. p.242ff.
67. l presume this refers to the area around Bombay.
68. Tlb. chu-shig-gi-shing. S/ct KatalikSetra
Referred to as 'Katsali' in the Indian vernacular of the time. See
Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, p.39.
69. For an account of see Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, pp.78-80. For a slightly more detailed
account of the meeting between and see
the abovementioned work. p.39, and also Dasgupta, S.B.
Obscure Religious Cults, pp.387-391
70. King Gobicandra or Govicandra lived approximately late 8th
cent. A.D. See Majumdar, R.C. History of Ancient Bengal
pp.81, 162, 166. See also Dasgupta. S.B. Obscure Religious
Cults, pp.394-397.
71. For an account of alandharipa and King
Gobicandra/Gopicandra see Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, pp38-41 and Dasgupta, S.B. Obscure
Religious Cults. pp381-392.
72. Tib. de-kho-na-nyid Skt. Tattva
The state of things as they really are. The state of being without
any Vlkalpa. (see n.51)
73. Ha<Jipa is the sweeper form of Jalandharipa in which he
instructed King Gobicandra. See Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, pp.38-41. As a ha<Ji (sweeper)
Jalandharipa had adopted the guise of a sudra (see n.23). See
Turner, R.L. A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan
Languages, (Fasciculus XI) entry 13953.
74. Ttb. li khra Skt. A s h ~ Dhatu
The eight-metal alloy was supposedly indestructible due to the
innate purity of its constituents, and images caste in it were
intended to embody the vajra-nature of Buddhism, both in what
they symbolised and in their very material. Some of the earliest
images in this alloy have been found in Bangladesh. Five alloy
metals were relatively common, in early Western Tibetan
bronzes (about late 12th cent.-mid 14th cent A.D.) but eight
metal alloys were common only in better quality Tibetan
casting centres.
75. This is the modem Orissa and appears in 1aranatha's works also
as O<JiviS3, Odivisa, Udivisa etc. See n.l64.
76. A few lines below Taranatha says that the distance from
"Kalinka to Singala was many hundreds of yojanas." In his
Chos-'byung translated by Chattopadhyaya, A. as Tiiranatha's
History of Buddhism in India, p.333, he refers to Kalinga (=
Kalinka) as being in the "southern part of India" and "included
in Trillinga" (see n.92), which could possibly place it along the
Eastern Ghats of India in the modem state of Orissa. As it is
referred to as "neighbouring" OdiSa (see n.72) this seems a
possible choice.
77. Tw. srin-mo SkJ. Tw. sriA-po SkJ.
A class of minor divillity mostly quite inimical to man. Such
demonic creatures need frequent 'oath-binding' by one with
superior powers to render them harmless.
78. Tw. bya-mchu'i-dkyil-'khor Skt. TUI}4am81}4aia
See Turner, R.L. A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan
Languages, Fasciculus V, entry 5853.
79. Tib. dMar-ser-ma Skt. Pingala
As for the meaning of this term in Hindu Tantra see Chap.6 of
Bharati, A. The Ta111ric Tradition. See also Dasgupta, S.B. A n
Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, esp. Chap. 5
80 Tw. Rigs-kyi-ma-mo SkJ. Kula ma(!ka
"A class of ancient Tibetan goddesses are the ma-mo who show
a marlced similarity to the matrka of India. dPal-ldan Lha-mo,
the most prominent protectress of religion is their
mistress ... most of the ma-mo are depicted as ugly and ferocious
female figures of a black colour, half-naked, with emaciated
breasts and clotted hair. Their typical weapons are a sack full of
diseases (nad-kyi-rkyal-pa), the magic notched stick (khram-
shing), a black snare (zhags-pa-nag-po), and a magic ball of
thread (gru-gu)" Nebesky-Wojkowitz, Oracles and Demons of
Tibet, pp.269-270.
81. I am unable to locate Tambala, but some lines later in this work
1aranatha notes that it is close to Vidyanagar. (see n.82)
82. A group of huts or cells beionging to ascetics and often
containing a central shrine. The could function as a
retreat or as a place of instruction, often in charge of a well
respected ascetic elder. Support came from the local populace
or by endowment.
83. Tib.'Phags-pa Skt. Arya Sana (ka)
Roerich in The Blue Annals, pp.23 and 1051 (see The Blue
Annals text, ed. Lokesh Chandra, Sata Pitaka Series, Vol.212,
f24,line 1 and f933, line 1) translates the Tibetan term as both
Sanavasin and Sanavasika. For an account of Sanavasin, see
Tucci,G. Tibetan Painted Scrolls, Vo1.2, pp.509-10, and
TO.ranatha's Life of the Buddha in 125 episodes in Demo, N.G.
(Ed.) TO.ranatha's Life of the Buddha and His History of the
Kalacakra and TO.ratantra pp.368-69. For a representation of
this great saint. see Clark,W.E. Two Lamaistic Pantheons,
84. Tib. Chos-kyi-grags-pa Skt. Dhannakirti.
A great MMhyamika master and logician who lived about 600-
85. Presumably- this is the same Vidyanagar referred to in
Taranatha's Chos-'byung, translated by Chattopadhyaya, A. as
Taranlitha's History of Buddhism in India, p.335 where he notes
that "King Mahendra ruled in the KrsQll\3 and Vidyanagara
86. I am unable to locate this land. The Vindhya hills lie along the
River Narmada which runs from Madhya Pradesh to Gujarat.
.87. Probably the ancient land of KonkadeSa situated around the
present-day Coimbatore.
88. Jib. zhing-gi-mal-'byor-ma Skt. Ksetrayogini
In India certain places had special significance in tantric
practice Jalandhara, Devikota etc., mentioned here are among
the 24 places sacred in the practice of CakrasaJ!lvara. These
were the fields-Ksetra, women born in such localities were
referred to as KSetrayoginis.
89. Jib. klu Skt. Naga
A class of beings, half human and half snake, whose abode is
subterranean and who control rain, river flow, soil productivity
etc. The Nagas also induce certain infections as retribution for
impurity introduced into their realms. In the Tibetan
classification of sentient creatures they are counted as being of
the animal realm. See Rock, J.F. The Na-Khi Naga Cult and
RelaJed Ceremonies, Vols.l and 2.
90. Jib. mi-ma-yin Skt. Amanusya Literally, 'not man'.
I take this opportunity to correct the error in my The Seven
Instruction Lineages n.61. An Amanusya is a spirit or demon
according to Edgerton, F Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary,
p.62. According to dGe-shes Chos-kyi-grags-pa in his brDa-
dag-ming-tshig-gsal-ba they are equated with pisaca demons,
which are cannibalistic, and with pretas (see n.39).
91. Tz.b. mkhas-pa-sgo-drug Skt. ~ a 4 DvarapaQQita
'The Six Famous Doorkeepers' or provosts, who allowed entry
of students into Vik:ram8Sila University by engaging them in
debate and evaluating their prowess. Vikram8Sila had six gates
and the Six Famous Gatekeepers were said to be
contemporaries. The tradition of 'gatekeeping' was current in
all such monastic universities. See Chaudhary, R. The
Vikramaslla University pp.6-7. Roerich, G. in The Blue
Annals, p.206 translates thus," .. .at the eastern
at the southern gate-Nag-gi-dbail-phyug grags-pa
(Vagisvarak:irti); at the western gate-Ses-rab 'byuil-gnas blo-
gross (Praji'iakaramati); at the northern gate-Na-ro in
the centre-Rio-chen rdo-rje (Ratnavajra), and Ji'iana5ri". See
also Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, n.l58
92. Charitra was one of the main ports of the land of 0Q.ra (Otre),
the modem Orissa. See Beal, S. Si-Yu-Ki. Buddhist Records of
Western World, Vol.2, pp.204-206.
93. Perhaps this refers to the remarkable smpa at the convent of
in OQra. (Otre). See Beal, S. Si-Yu-Ki. Buddhist
Records of the Western World, p.205.
94. Perhaps this is the range of mountains known to Huen Tsang as
the Malaya mountains, to the east of which is the abode of
Avalokitesvara, Mt. Potalaka. Beal, S. Si-Yu-Ki. Buddhist
Records of the Western World, pp.232-233.
95. The country in South India along the Eastern Ghats containing
three lingas at Srtsailam in the east, Drak8arama in the district
of Godavrt and at Kalesvara. Sec Majumdar, R.C. The History
and Culture of the Indian People, Vol.5 p.373.
96. Tzb. Ha-ha-sgrogs Skt. Anaflasa
An epithet of Siva. Turner, R.L. in his A Comparative
Dictionary of the Indo-Aryan Languages, p.lO, entry 184,
defines it as 'loud laughter'.
97. This is perhaps a reference to used for the Southern
Empire of Vijaynagar.
98. Tzb. dge-bsnyen Skt. Upasaka
A Buddhist layman who has undertaken to abide by any or all
of the five precepts-namely to abstain from killing, stealing,
sexual misconduct, lying and use of intQxicants.
99. Tib. 'Khor-lo-sdom-pa Skt. Calcrasarpvara
100. Tzb. rig-pa'i-lha-mo Skt. Vidyadevi
Their role is explained, according to the teaching of Lwa-ba-pa
in Lessing, F.D. and Wayman, A. Introduction to the Buddhist
Tantric Systems, p.314, .. Those five initiations which have the
nature of the five Tathagatas are also referred to by the
expression because they accomplish the five
vidyajiiana which are the transmutation of the five avidya and
because in each case the initiation is conferred by the vidya-
devi, namely Buddhalocana and so on. They represent the
sequence of the five initiations." This then clearly links the so-
called vidyadevis with the most profound aspect of Vajrayana
101. Later in this work Taranatha refers to Ra:Qha as the Sanskrit
term for the place that was called Rara in the colloquial. See
p.43. Law, B.C. in his Historical Geography of Ancient India,
p.254 says, "The province of Ragha seems to have comprised
the modem districts of Hooghly, Howrah, Burdwan, Bankura
and major portions of Midnapore" ... the people there were rude
and "hosule to the ascetics. The dogs were set upon them by the
RaQha people ... The mischief makers whom the lonely ascetics
had to reckon with were the cowherds (gopalaka) who made
practical jokeS' on them."
102. The dates of are hard to reca,cile with the date of
the founding of Somapuri under King Dharmapala (about 770-
810 A.D.). laranatha's information about the existence of two
SoiT'.apuris is most interesting. Majumdar, R.C. in his History
of Ancient Bengal, pp.ll0-111 gives the following information,
.. Now the recent archaeological excavations carried out at
Paharpur, in Rajshahi district, leave no doubt that its ruins
represent the famous Somapura-vihara, and the name of the
place is still preserved in the neighbouring village called
Ompur. According to the shon inscriptions on some clay seals
found in Paharpur, the Somapura-vihara was founded by
103. King Devapala ruled about 810-850 A.D. See Majumdar, R.C.
History of Ancient Bengal, pp.lll-119.
104. King Lalitacandra reigned from the late 7th to early 8th cent
A.D. See Majumdar, R.C. History of Ancient Bengal, p.81.
105. T&b. 'Phags-pa sPyan-ras-gzigs Skt. Arya Avalokite8vara
The Bodhisattva of great comp8SS'ion who is believed to be
embodied in tlie persons of the Dalai Lama and the rGyal-ba

106. Tib. dBang-phyug Skt. Jsvara.
The Supreme divinity, often used as an epithet for Siva.
See Santideva's Bodhicaryavatara (Bilingual Edn. Skt. and
Tibetan) by Bhattacharya, V. Ch.9, verse 119. See also the
commentary by Mi-pham on chapter 9 of the
Bodhicaryavatara known as Shes-rab-le'u'i'-tshig-don-go-sla-
bar-rnam-par-bshad-pa-nor-bu-ke-ta-ka Samath edn. p.98ff.
For an interesting reference to the image of ISvara at
Kapilavastu, the city where the Lord Buddha grew up, see
Beat, S. Si-Yu-Ki. Buddhist Records of the Western World,
Vol.2, p.23.
107. Tib. kla-klo. Skt. Mleccha
A term used often in reference to Muslims, .who in the
prevailing times, were considered to be without any law or
restraint and were therefore said to be barbarians.
108. Gangasagar is where the River Ganges and the ocean meet that
is the Ganges estuary in Southern Bengal.
109 Halahala is a form of Avalokitesvara (see n.102). For a
description and line drawing see Bhattacharya. B, The Indian
Buddhist Iconography, p.132-13 and Clarke, W.E.
Two Lamaistic Pantheons, p.265. ·
110. This is a clear example of the skill in means of Avalokitesvara
who adapts to any form in order to preach. "And what is the
range of skilfulness of the Bodhisattva Mahasattva
Avalokitesvara ... to those who are to be converted by
Mahesvara, he preaches assuming the shape of Mahesvara."
Saddharma-Pur;tjarika, Trans. Kem,H. p.4ll
111. This clearly seems to be referring to the powers of the image
which resembled ISvara.
112. This is a jibe and a play on words at the expense of the
worshippers of the king's god Isvara or MaheSvara, also known
as Tib. Phyugs-bdag or Skt. PaSupati the Lord of all Creatures.
Heruka as the Supreme Tantric divinity is also the true •Lord of
all Creatures' and says that as such, Heruka can
never be crushed (Tib. brdzi-bar) by a mere cattle-herd (Tib.
rdzi-bo), referring to P3Supati.
113. Also known as Parvati, the •daughter of the mountain', Uma is
the wife of Siva. Dialogue between Siva .and Uma forms the
basis for many of the Tantric texts most highly regarded by
Hindu Tantrikas. See Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction
Lineages, p. 78 for the account of the siddha Miilapa
overhearing such preaching while stuck in a fish's belly.
114. Taranatha also cal)s Varendra by the name Varendri. This was
an ancient kingdom situated around the present-day Rajshahi
dist of Bangladesh.
115. Tib. zhing Ski. KSetra
When external to the body a kSetra is a place for practice,
hallowed by usage and propitious location.
When internal, the kSetra are the mental courses and routes of
the movement of the potentiality roused and given life and
movement by the practice. See Guenther, The Philosophic
Background of Buddhist Tantrism in Tibetan Buddhism in
Western Perspective, p.lOl. See also Tsuda, S. The
Samvarodaya Tantra, Selected Chapters, p.45, n.2.
116. Ttb. bar-do Skt. Antarabhava
The period between death and rebirth of consciousness. For
literary references to this period, see Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, n.62.
117. Tib. grub-thob Ski. Siddha
Those who by the tantric path have attained complete mastery
over their own mental processes, and therefore over the world
of phenomena. See also n.56 and 69.
Concerning the 84 Siddhas see:-
Robinson, J. Buddha's Lions. The Lives of the
Eighty-Four Siddhas
Schmidt, T. The Eighty-five Siddhas
Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages
118. Ttb. mya-ngan-las'-das-pa Skt. Nirvana
Although Nirv3rta refers to the end of the siddha's path where
he/she sees the world in its true form and works with the world
in a an ongoing relationship, in this context it means the outer
manifestation of his state of realisation, as displayed at the
death of ~ ~ a .
119. Taranatha's Collected Works, Vol.12 p.621, line 7 says, "After
all that, what else is my sphere of activity?"
120. For the burial customs of Gorakhnathi yogins see Briggs,
Gorakhnath and the Kanphafa yogis, pp.39-43.
121. Krunar,Upa is the present-day Assam. Kamarupa has long been a
sakti pltha (holy pilgrimage spot for tantrikas) for Hindu
tantrikas and is one of the 'outer' pit}las for Buddhists.
122. A mountain peak, perhaps near Kamariipa. (see n.ll6). For a
reference by !aranatha to this place see Templeman, D. The
Seven Instruction Lineages, pp.87.:88.
123. A kingdom located in the present-day Assam.
124. Bhangala is one of the many older spellings of present-day
125. PuSkara is possibly ~ a . an area to the south of the river
Damodar in Bankura dist. of Bengal. See Majumdar, R.C.
History of Ancient Bengal, pp.39-40.
126. The area of south India. south of Maharnshpa known by the
same name, ~ ~ to the present day.
127. TJb. zWlg-' jug Skt. Yuganaddha
The unity of polar opposites. Guenther, in translating
Advayavajra's YuganaddhaprakaSa, says, ''The Void and its
Manifestation are by nature coupled together (Yuganaddhata)."
Guenther, H.V. Yuganaddha-The Tantric VJeW of Life, p.135.
He goes on to say (p.207-8) that the path, "finds its culmination
in the unity of our utter openness (stong-nyid) and compassion
(snying-rje), because the less we think of what surrounds us and
with what we deal as objects and things and the more we
become aware of their stimulating openness which is as nothing
(stong-pa), the less we are inclined to violate, subjugate and
destroy and the more we tend to infuse our dealings with the
world with tenderness (snying-rje) which comes naturally.
The goal is not a static absorption into a lifeless and spiritless
absolute but an ever-present unity of rest and action." This
corrects the same quotation from Guenther used in Templeman,
D. The Seven Instruction Lineages (see n.38) Where the word
"spiritual" was used for "spiril.less".
128. I am unable to identify Jarikhana.
129. On Kusalipa see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction
Lineages, p.53.
130. Concerning the thirteen towns referred to:-
(1) Malawa. see n.63
(2) Viraja in the Vindhya Hills. see p.19 of this work and also
refer to n.83.
(3) Marahata possibly refers to Mabarash!fa
(4) Godavri. The area of the same name is in present-day
Andhra Pradesh round the town of Elwu.
(5) Cmitra-see Charitra, n.89
(6) Gandhara. see n.57,
(7) Kalinlca- see n.73,
(8) MadhyadeSa, an area of ancient·central India extending in
a swathe from present-day Jaipur to Allahabad.
131. Tw. 'Phags-yul Ski. AryadeSa.
'The Holy and Sublime Land of India.'
132. Tw. bstan-bcos Ski. Sastra
An explanatory work, usually a text but in this case a
performance such as a spiritual song etc.
133. Tw. rdo-rje-glu Ski. Vajragiti
The following line of the translation should clarify the
difference between a doha (n.24) and vajragiti. It appears that
the Skt. Caryagiti (Tib. spyod-pa'i-glu) are rather more similar
to vajragiti as they seem to have been more formally versified
and to have been set to ragas (melodic frameworks), more than
likely after the initial doha had been extemporised at the
moment of 'peak experience'.
134. Nliropa lived from 956 A.D. to 1040 A.D. For his philosophic
outlook and his biography see Guenther, H.V. The Life and
Teaching of Niiropa. For problems regarding his dating see
Wylie, T.V. Dating the Death of Niiropa, in lndological and
Buddhist Studies in Honour of Prof. J.W. de Jong on his
Sixtieth Birthday. (Ed. Hercus, L.A. etal) See also Robinson, J.
Buddha's Lions, The Lives of the Eighty-Four Siddhas and
Grunwedel, A. Die Legenden des Nii-ro-pa
135. Tw. sgrub-thabs Ski. Sadhana
A means {thabs) of perfecting (sgrub) the mental creation of a
void form of a deity in perfect detail.
136. Tw. dPyid-kyi-thig-le Skt. Vasantatilaka
The texts in the Tanjur (Tib. bstan-'gyur) which relate to this
goddess, an integral part of the Cakrasarpvara cycle, are the:-
Vasantatilaka.P.2166 by
Vasantatilaka (Ttka?) P.4667 by
Vasantatilaka Gitika. P.3179
by Saraha of the lineage of
See Chattopadhyaya, A. Catalogue of the Kanjur and Tanjur
Vol.l. p.414.
In her active role Vasantatilaka is Vajravarahi (see n.45),
consort of Cakrasalpvara (see n.34) and hence her importance
in this work which is in part on the development of the
Cakrasarpvara lineages in India. See Lessing, F. and Wayman,
A Introduction to the Buddhist Tantric Systems, pp.36 (n.23)
137. Tlb. gsang-ba'i-de-kho-na-nyid Ski. Guhyatauva
In the schema outlined here and coming as it does as the
culmination of practice, the secret Tauva is likely the same as
Tattva (see n.69).
138 Buddhaji'iana is the same person as Buddhasriji'iana, a
contemporary of King Dharmapala (about 770-810 A.D.). For
details of his life see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction
Lineages. pp.56-60 and Templeman, D. The Origin of the lara
Tantra, pp.3941. This latter work is a translation ofllranatha's.
rgyus-gser-gyi-phreng-ba. See also n.220
139. 1ib. lung Skt. Agama
·canonical Texts' Edgerton,F. Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit
Dictionary, p.88, but here it more probably means •spiritual
permission' bestowed on a disciple embarking' on practice by
the Guru whose injunctions may never be contradicted. Such
permissions form an agama lineage from the Guru.
140. Dipaf!lkara Sriji'iana (Ati5a) 982-1054 A.D.
For details of his life and works see Chauopadhyaya, A. A tis a
and 1ibet, and Einer, H. Berichte uber das Leben des Atiia
(DipairzlcaraJrijnaana). Eine Untersuchung der 9uellen.
For a biography in Tibetan see Vol.Kha of the bKa'-gdams-
glegs-bam (Pha Chos) entitled Jo-bo-rin-po-che-rje-dpal-ldan-
a-ti-sha'i-rnam-lhar-rgyas-pa-youngs-grags by 'Brom-ston
rgyal-ba'i-'byung-gnas. Smith, E.G. University of Washington
Tibetan Catalogue, p.9.
For further details of his ministry in India and his sojourn in
Suvamadvipa see Jo-ba-rje-lha-gcig-dpal-ldan-a-ti-shas-rgya-
Perhaps the text referred to here: is either of the two Homa
Vidhis he wrote,
(1) P.4861 or,
(2) P.3483
141. Tw. sPrin-s'dzin Skt. Gayadhara
Apart from the information about his sponsor 'Brog-mi-sha-
kya-ye-shes and the works he translated in Obermiller, E. B u-
ston's History of Buddhism, pp.216-17 and in The Blue Annals,
trans. Roerich, G. p.207, the only other source I have found is
the Tibetan work Dus-rabs-bdun-pa-nas-dus-rabs-bcu-bdun-
pa' i-bar-rgya-gar-gyi -pandita-bod-du-rim-byon-dang-bod-kyi-
bu'i-do-shal subtitled Indian and Tibetan Scholars Who Visited
Tibet and India from the 7th to the 17th century A.D. This work
note that Gayadhara's gurus were Naropa and Maitripa and also
gives a l t e m a ~ initiatic names.
142. I am unable to identify this term from the text used which.
shows it unclearly. Taranatha's Collected Works, Vol.l2, p.627,
Line 7 gi:ves it as "bsdus" which I have used instead.
138. Tzb. thig-le Skt. Bindu
See n.ll1 for reference to the crucial terms Tib. rtsa Skt. Nadl I
Tw. rlung Skt. Prai)a I Tib. thig-le Skt. Bindu.
144. Pham-thing-pa also known as Bal-po'i-pham-thing and as
Pham-thing-chen-po. There is also an alternate spelling of Pha-
mthing, see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages,
145. It appears quite likely that Mal-lo-tsa-ba is the same person
referred to in Roerich, G. The Blue Annals, pp.382 and 1051 as
Mal-gye-lo-tsa-ba-bLo-gros-grags who heard the Saqtvara
cycle from Pham- thing-pa and who in turn was a teacher of Sa-
chen Kun-dga'-snying-po (1092-1158 A.D.).
146. Tib. Kye-rdo-rje Skt. Hevajra
The chief tutelary divinity of the Tantra of the same name. The
Hevajra Tantra belongs to the class of Tantra known as Tib. bla-
na-med-pa Skt. Anuttara, or 'The Very Highest', which refers to
both the complexity of their material and their structure and
also to the fact that they deal with the most profound, absolute
truths. It is also sub-categorised as a Mother Tantra Snellgrove,
D.L. The Hevajra Tantra a Critical Study, 2 Vols. is a
translation, texts in both Sanskrit and Tibetan and a
commentary by KaQha The Tantra itself deals
with an understanding of the real nature of things and the
practioner is enjoined to participate in the world of Hevajra
with no preconceptions (see n.51). A voluminous commentary
in 761 folia by Sa-skya bla-ma Dam-pa bsod-nams rgyal-
mtshan (1312-1375 A.D.) entitled rGyud-kyi-rgyal-po-dpal-
kye-rdo-rje'i-rgya-cher-'grel'-pa-nyi-ma'i-'od'zer appears to be a
particularly useful and detailed (line by line) explanation of this
tantra, although the language used is far from easy.
147. Tib. gSang-ba-'dus-pa Skt. Guhyasarnaja
The chief divinity of the Anuttarayoga TanJraS (see n.141). The
Guhyasarnaja is a Tantra classed as a Faiher Tantra, on which
Lessing, F. and Wayman, A. Introduction to the Buddhist
Tantric Systems, pp.259-261.
Bhattacharya, B.(Ed) The Guhyasamaja Tantra
Wayman, A. Yoga of the Guhyasamaja Tantra
Wayman, A. Early Literary History of the
Buddhist Tantras, in Wayman, A.
The Buddhist Tantras
Matsunaga, Y. Some Problems of the
Guhyasamaja Tantra, in Lokesh
Chandra and Perala Ratnam (Eds.)
Studies in Indo-Asian Art and
Culture, Vol5.
148. Tib. gShin-rje-gshed-nag-po Skt. Kala Yamruttaka
For texts, sadhanas, maQqaia vidhis, homas etc. dealing with the
liturgy of the Black Yamantaka see Lokesh Chandra, Tibetan-
Sanskrit Dictionary, pp.2381-2.
149. The 'Mahamaya'is the Sri Mahamaya tantraraja Nama, an
Anuttarayoga Tantra, classified as a Mother Tantra. The
clarificatory text referred to here is the Mahamayama1J4ala-
vidhi-krama Bodhana, Tanjur P.2508
150 Tib. Sangs-rgyas-thod-pa'i-rgyud Skt. Buddhakapala tantra
The Sri Buddhakapala-nama-yogini tantra as it is fully entitled,
is an Anuttarayoga Tantra of the class known as Mother tantra.
151. Tib. bDe-mchog-gi-rgyud Skt. Sarpvaratantra ,
An Anuttarayoga Mother Tantra fully entitled Sri Laghu-
Sa,vara Tan.tra-but see Tsuda, S. The Saf!lvarodaya Tantra-
Selected Chapters. pp.2745.
152. The area known in the present-day as Kathiawar.
153. On the word Pataha see Turner, R.L. A Comparative
Dictionary of the Indo-Asian Languages, p.433, entry no.7696.
154. Tw. rDo-rje-bdag-med-ma. Ski. Vajranairatma
A ferocious form of Nairatma/Nairatmya, see n. 46 .. A
representation of this goddess may be see in the Tibetan-
Sanskrit Dictionary. of Lokesh Chandra p.1289.
155. Here of course "the Guiu" refers to
156. Tib. 'jig-rten-pa'i-lha Ski. Laukikadeva
The minor spirits, demons and sprites.
157. Tib. rDo-rje-sems-dpa' Skt. Vajrasattva
A Bodhisattva whose nature is unswerving and pure. He is
particularly evoked in consecration rituals etc. See Snellgrove,
DL. Buddhist Himalaya, p.68ff.
Dasgupta, S.B. An Introduction to Tantric Buddhism, pp.77-90.
158. Turuska refers to the Turkish invaders of India. See
Templeman, D. The Origin of the Tiira Tantra, n.l23. King
Turuskamana would have been one of these invaders.
159. King Harsadeva of Kasmit reigned 1090-1101 A.D. See
Kalhana's The Saga of the Kings of Kasmir,
Trans. Pandit, RJ. 7th Taranga. The whole sorry periOd of this
Icing's rule is described in this Taranga, a sense of which may
be given by verse 1146, "Meanwhile the weakness of the Icing's
moral character, which had become notorious everyWhere, was
such as was understandable in one begotten by King Kala5a".
Simth, V. refers to Harshadeva as "a half-insane tyrant" and as
the "Nero of Kashmir". The Oxford History of India, p.194.
160. Tib. padma-can Skt. Padmani/Padmini/Padmaka.
In tantric literature this refers to the tantric consort par
excellence (in fact it is often used as an epithet for Nairatma),
who in ·the form of a sixteen year old girl has all the requisite
signs and marks of the perfect consort.
161. Tw. Khyab-'jug-chen-pa Ski.
162. At. this point in the text the name is spelled Lapayipa.
Previously in this text it had been spelled Lavayipa, (pp.22-23)
In Taranatha's bKa'-babs-bdun-ldan-gyi-brgyud-pa'i-rnam-
thar-rmad-du-byung-ba-rin-po-che'i-khungs-lta-bu'i-gtam it is
spelled as Lavayila ip both editions I have consulted;
(A) Five Historical Works ofTaranatha, F 221A, linel.
(B) bKra-shis-rdzong. F 30B lines 1-2.
163. Tib. dur-khrod-bsil-ba-tshal Ski. Sitavana
For a description of Sitavana see n.60.
164. Ayodhya/Ajodhya was the r.nain city in the ancient area of
Kosala. The remains of Ayodhya are very close to the
presentday city of Faizabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh.
165, Tib. gTum-mo Skt. Cai)Qilli.
Cai)Qali is the name given to one of the six yoga practices
attributed to Naropa. The bodily heat generated in this proctice
is a sign that correct procedure has been observed. As a goddess
CaJ]Qllli is the divine representation of this yogic heat. Her
correct arousal and employment in the meditative process is
crucial. Failure to observe this can be potentially very
166. Gaura is possibly the ancient Kingdom of Gauga in Bengal.
167. Tib. Ita-grub Skt. Siddhanta
Usually the Sanskrit is translated as Tib. grub-pa'i.mtha' which
is often abbreviated to grub-mtha'. It seems to me that this
expression (Ita-grub) expresses much the same thing, that is
'world view', 'doctrine' or 'means of attaining a spiritual end'.
168. Presumably Bhagavani here to Cai)Qali or to Vajravarahi.
In a later context (p.78) it refers to Vajravarahi.
169. Turner, R.L. In his A Comparative Dictionary of the Indo-
Aryan Languages, p.329 describes 'taraJ]a' as 'crossing, safe
passage, surmounting of difficulties', which seem apposite here.
170. I translate Tib. sna-tshogs-ri-mo as 'a series of paintings' but
am unable to trace any further reference to this work.
171. Otre=Ogra=Orissa. See n. 72 and 89.
172. Tib. gTum-po-khro-bo-chen-po'i-rgyud-kyi-rgyal-po.
Ski. tantra raja
An Anuttarayogatantra Mother Tantra. See the critical ed'n. and
translation by George, C. The Tantra.
173. Tib. ye-shes-lnga Ski. Pai'lcajiiana.
The Five Wisdoms are related to the five families of Buddhas.
By means of the Mahamudra meditation process the five
wisdoms emerge from their opposites. The Five Wisdoms are:-
(1) Mirror-Like Wisdom,
Tib. me-long-lta-bu'i-ye-shes
Skt. Adar:Sa jnana
(2) Wisdom of Sameness
Tib. mnyam-nyid-ye-shes
Skt. Samara jnana
(3) Discrimination Awareness Wisdom.
Tib so-sor-rtogs-pa'i-ye-shes
Skt. joana
(4) All-Accomplishing Wisdom
nb. bya-ba-nan-tan-du-grub-pa'i-ye-shes
(5) Wisdom of the Pure Absolute
Tib. Chos-dbyings-shin-tu-inam-dag-ye-shes
Skt. Dharmadhatuvisuddhi joana
See the series of tape recordings by the Ven. Traleg Rinpoche
The Impact of Yogacara on Buddhist Tantra. 11 Cassettes.
Norbu, T.
Magic Dance, The Display of the Self-Nature of the Five
Wisdom .pakinls.
174. Sindhu is possibly the area known nowadays as Sind.
175. Bhati is possibly the same place as Bhatinda, the area around
the town of Bhatinda in the Punjab, North-west of Delhi.
176. This is possibly the same place as that referred to in n.117.
177. Tarana:tha in his Chos-'byung translated by Chattopadhyaya, A.
laranatha's History of Buddhism in India, says (p.330), Eastern
India consists of three parts. of these Bharpgala and OQ.iviSa
belong to Aparantaka and are hence called the eastern
Aparantaka. In the north-east, Kamaru(-pa), Tripura, Hasama
are called Girivarta, i.e., surrounded by mountains. Proceeding
further east from this region, (one reaches) Narp-ga-ta on the
slopes of the northern. mountains. Bordering on the sea are
Pukhali, Balaku, etc.-the country of the Rakhari-and
Harpsavati, Mar-ko etc, the country of Mu-nari-s. Further, Cak-
ma, Kam-bo-ja etc. All these are collectively called Ko-ki.
178. The Elder rGya-ras-pa is the same person as gTsang-pa-rgya-ras
Ye-shes-rdo-rje (1161-1212A.D.) see Roerich, G. The Blue
Annals, p.664ff. esp.p.668. See also Lokesh Chandra, Tibetan
Chronicle of Padma-dkar-po, SatapitaJca Series, Vol.75, F.286v,
(p.572) Lines 3ff.
179. Ras-chung-pa.(1083-1161 A.D.) was the second disciple of
Milarepa (1ib. Mi-la-ras-pa) and the author of the most popular
biography of the master.
A biography of Ras-chung-pa by rGod-tshang-pa is referred to
in Smith, E.G. University of Washington 1ibetan Catalogue,
under, B3-1, 3A. p.225
180. For details of Amoghavajra see Roerich, G. The Blue Annals,
p.1042. and Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages,
181. U-rgyan-pa Rin-chen-dpal (1230-1309 A.D.) was a disciple of
rGod-tshang-pa U-rgyan-pa is referred to as a "mahasiddha" in
The Blue Annals. trans. Roerich, G. In his remarkable
biography in the work cited above (pp.696-702) he is shown as
a master of Mahamudra and Kalacakra practices.
182. The name appears as Kamboja and as Kamboja. It seems to
have been a kingdom on the westernmost limits of the Pala
Empire. It was situated around the present-day N.W. Frontier
area of Pakistan.
183. This reference to King Gopala could mean either of the last two
King Gopalas of the Pala dynasty, Gopala II (acceded to the
throne 940 A.D.) or Gopala III (acceded to the throne 1140
184. An image of Cunda may be found in Gordon, A.K. The
Iconography of Tibetan Lamism, pp.73 and 74 (illustration).
Cunda appears in the of Abhayakaragupta
edited by Bhattacharya, B. in the of Mai'ljuvajra, and
Kala calera.
185. mNga'-bdag-Maitripa, also known as Advayavajra lived from
1007/1010-1085/1088 A.D. For details of his life see Hadano,
H. A Historical Study in the Problems Concerning the
Diffusion of Tantric Buddhism in India, Advayavajra, alias
This is found in Religious Studies in
Japan, Ed. Ishizu, T: et al. pp.287-99. Despite some strange
interpretations of Buddhist practice, e.g. p.295 lines 15-28, this
is a most useful article.
186. Tw. 'Bar-ba'i-gtso-bo Skt. Jvalapati
This term 'Chief Blazer,' appears to be used in reference to
as an honorific temi reflecting the high degree of
yogic practice he had attained in the Mahamudra, perhaps more
especially in c.ertain. associated aspects. (see n.159). If the
present passage here is joined with the information found in
ntanatha's Chos-'byung translated by Chattopadhyaya, A. as
1aranathas History of Buddhism in India, p.304, picture
becomes somewhat· clearer. I would alter one thing in
Chattopadhyaya 's translation, that is delete the words "and the"
on line 19 of the page mentioned. See the text of the Samath
edition of laranltha's Chos-'byung p.224. The following points
(1) Maibipa(1007/1010-1085/1088 A.D.) (see n.178) is a
rebirth of according to the 'corrupt' history
(2) The 'corrupt' history of the doha referred to in
Chattopadhyaya's translation must be in the Tibetan
tradition in the light of the present passage;
(3) Jvalapati and are the same person.
(4) Amitavajra (see n.l80) says that Caryadhara and
Jvruapati are the same person .. (Amitavajra is a lineal
descendant of
(5) It is true that is the same person as
Jvalapati and· that they are both alternate names for

187. On Amitavajra see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction
Lineages, p.25.
188. gLing-ras-pa (1128-1188 A.D.) was the founder of the 'Brug-
pa-bka'-brgyud sect. For his biography see Lokesh Chandra
Tibetan Chronicles of Padma-dkar-po,· f.283A, L.4ff. and
Roerich, G. The Blue Annals, pp.659-664. I have been able to
fmd nothing about a controversy over the names gLing-ras-pa.
and Dar-gling-ras-pa ·
189. Tib. 'Khor-lo-bde-mchog-gi-rgyud. Skt. Cakrasaqlvara Tantra
See Tsuda, S. The Stlf!lvarodaya Tantra. Selected Chapters esp.
chap.4, ''The Saqwara Literature". See n.145.
190. Tib. yi-dam Skt.
The Life of Marpa the Translator, translated by the Nalanda:
Translation Committee, has an excellent note (p.257-258) of
this word which I quote here;
''The vajrayana practitioner's personal deity, who embodies the
practitioner's awakened nature. Yidam is explained as a
contraction of yid-kyi-dam-tshig, "samaya of mind". Yidams
are sambhogakaya buddhas, which are visualised in accordance
with the psychological makeup of the practitioner. The student
first develops intense devotion toward his guru. This
relationship makes it possible for .. the student to experience
intuitive kinship with the lineage and then with his yidam.
Identifying with the yidam means identifying with his
characteristic expression of buddha nature, free of distortions.
Through seeing his basic nature in this universalised way, all
aspects of it are transmuted into the wisdom of the spiritual
path. This leads directly to compassionate action-skillful and
Peaceful yidams inspire the student's gentleness. awakening
openness. Semiwrathful yidams are the union of vajra passion
and anger in the transcendental sense-simultaneous
magnetizing and destroying as an expression of the awakened
state. Wrathful yidams are associated with the dynamic energy
of "vajra anger", the primordial compassion that cuts through
hesitations of idiot compassion and disbelieving in one's
buddha nature. The male yidam (peaceful:bhagavat;
semiwrathful:Qaka; semiwrathful arid wrathful: heruka)
signifies awakened energy, skillful means, and bliss. The
female yidam (peaceful: bhagavati; semiwrathful and wrathful:
Qakini) signifies compassion, emptiness, and prajna. This
emptiness is fundamental accomodation and ultimate fertility.
Through union with the heruka, the Qa:kini can give birth to
191. Lahore here is presumably the area around the present-day city
of the same name in Pakistan, but see Majumdar, R.C. The
History and the Culture of the Indian People, Vol.4, p.131,
192. On the Guhyasamaja Tantra see n.142.
193. If the Sambuti referred to here is a translator then it is possible
that he is the same person as Sambu Lotsa:wa; see Roerich, G.
The Blue Annals, p.712.
194. Tib. rDo-rje-'chang/rDo-rje-'dzin Skt. Vajradhara A divine form
of the Ultimate Reality. The lineage from Saraha .runs to
Nagarjuna and thereafter becomes more complex. See
Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, pp.2-14.
195. Savaripa, also known as "Saraha the younger", was a disciple
of Nagarjuna and the preceptor of Luyipa and of Maitripa. See
the reference in Note esp. pp.S-13. On Luyipa see n.190 and on
Maitripa see n.178.
196. Tib. sDom-pa'i-rgyud Skt. Tantra
I am unable to find a tantra of this name. Most tantras have
alternate "short" titles of which this might be an example.
is frequently referred to in the Hevajra Tantra and
Carya songs and appears in the of Abhaya-
karagupta, edited by Bhattacharya, B. in the of
Hevajra, Nairatma, Heruka, Yogambara and that of Pailca4aJ<a,
197. On Luyipa see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction
Lineages, pp.S-11. •
198. Tib. dPal-mal-byor-ma-kun-spyod-kyi-rgyud
Skt. Sri Yogini Saf!lellrya Tantra
p.23 Vol.2
199. was a disciple of Vilasyavajra the barmaid also
known as the yoginr Cinto. He also instructed the renowned
Lva-va-pa in the Cakrasaf!1vara Tantra.
Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, pp.31 and 33.
see list of his works on Cakrasarrvara on p.406 of
Chattopadhyaya, A. Tiiranatha's History of Buddhism in India.
200. Tib. dPal-mNgon-brjod-bla-ma'i-rgyud
Skt. Sri Abhidhana Uttara Tantra.
The Blue Annals, trans, Roerich, G. refers to this work as the
Saf!1vara mula tantra (Tib. bDe-mchog-rtsa-rgyud), but in this
particular work 1aranatha cites it as it has been written at the
head of this note. It occurs in the Kanjur P.17 Vol.2
201. According to Taranatha's bKa-babs-bdun-ldan Trans.
Templeman, D. as The Seven Instruction Lineages, (p.8) the
lineage runs Saraha, Nagarjuna, Savari, Luyipa, Denkipa,
Tillipa; From Tillipa (Tilopa) there are two lineages:-
(1) Naropa, the younger Dombhi, Kusalibhadra. and
0) Luyipa, Darikapa, Antarapa
Both Darikapa and Denkipa were empowered by Luyipa at the
same time (p.9-U of the above mentioned work). The problem
appears to be two-fold-Luyipa's role as a preceptor to
Denkipa whose disciple was Tillipa, and also that he appears as
a student of Tillipa. Luyipa is often confused with Minapa and
is often regarded as a 'proto-siddha'. Darikapa's Cakrasarrvara
works are Cakra-saf!1vara-matJtj.ala-vidhi Tattva-avatara
P.2146 Voi.Sl Cakrasa'!"vara-sadhana Tattva-sDf!1graha P.2145
Vol.Sl Cakra-saf!1vara-stotra-savartha-siddhi Visuddha-
cudanane P.2147 Voi.Sl
202. On Denkipa see the references in the above note.
203. There were at least two siddhas named Indrabhuti.
(1) Indrabhuti, the King of 044iyana. See Templeman,
D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, pp.24-5.
(2) King Indrabhuti (the middle), whose gurus, Saroruha
.and Lva-va-pa (Kambalapa) both had prickly relationships with
him. See the abovementioned work, pp.28-9, and pp.33-6.
Younger Indrabhuti (=middle Indrabhilti) possibly wrote,
P.2129 Vol.49 1 the Cakra-Samvara-Stotra. P.2157 Vol.Sl and
the Cakra-Samvara-anubhanda-Sangraha. P.2172 Vol.Sl
204. Lailkajayabhadra was a leading acarya of Vikramasila and a
specialist in Cakrasarpvara. See Chattopadhyaya. A.
Tiiranatha's History of Buddhism in India, p.325. The texts are
the Cakra-sa,vara-mulatantra-Paiijika P.2122 Vol.49 and the
Cakra-saTflvara-sadhana P.2191 Vol.Sl
205. Durjayacandra was of the lineage of Qombhipa and of Caryapa
He was one of the great teachers of Vikrama5Ila.
See Chattopadhyaya, A. Tiiranatha's History of Buddhism in
India, p.327, and Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction
Lineages, pp.22-23. He wrote the Cakra-sa,vara-sadhana
206. Bhavabhadra was a renowned practitioner of Cakrasarpvara and
one of the teachers at Vikrama5ila. See Chattopadhyaya, A.
Tiiranatha's History of Buddhism in India, p.326. Perhaps he
was the Bhavabhana who wrote the Cakra-sa,vara-Paiijika
P.2119 Vol.48
207. Ratnavajra was one of the six gatekeeper at
VikramaSila. (See n.88). For a brief biography see
Chattopadhyaya, A. Tiiranatha's History of Buddhism in India,
pp.301-302, & p.430 for a list of his works on Cakrasarpvara.
208. Tib. byin-rlabs Skt.
When the guru gives to his disciple he infuses the
student with an immense all-accomplishing energy which may
be fully realised within the specific practices being undertaken.
209.. Cakrasaf!lvara advaya vira sadhana, P.5158 Vol.87
210. Rin-chen-bzang-po (958-1055 A.D.) was a great scholar of
Western Tibet, equally renowned as the creator of an artistic
renaissance there. For an easily accessible biography see
Snellgrove, D.L. and Skorupski, T. The Cultural Heritage of
Ladakh, Vol.2. pp.83-116.
211. I am unable to find out what yig-sna means in this context
although it occurs in a sentence containing well-known terms
for example, sa-bead and mchan-bu which I translate as
'outlines' and 'note' respectively. Perhaps it means something
take 'random words' or 'random notations'
212. The names of those fifteen, not fourteen as Taranatha says, are
all in Sanskrit transliteration 'except for Gayapa, which is given
as Tib. gLu-dbyangs-mkhan and which is given as
Tib. Nag-po-rdo-rje. Some time later at the end of the account
of Gayapa he is referred to by this name in Sanskrit
transliteration. (Text, in Five Historical Works ofTiiraniitha, ed.
Tsetan Dorje. F.175B,line2.)
213. This MUlatantra is the Saf!lvara Mulatantra, on which see
Tsuda, S. The Saf!lvarodaya-Tantra. Selected Chapters, pp.28-
The Sa'!lvara Mal)qala is described in Abhayakkaragupta 's
Nispanna-yogavali. translated by Bhattacharyya, B. pp.44-6.
214. sri Urgyen-pa is possibly an alternate name for U-rgyan-pa
Rin-chen-dpal,. see n.174.
215. For a biography of VInapa see Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, p.30-l. See also Robinson, J. Buddha's
Lions. The Lives of the Eighty-Four Siddhas, pp.57-9.
216. On the point of the similarity of the names, but the individuality
of the siddhas, see Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction
Lineages, p.44.
217. For a brief biography, .see Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, p.78 where it is mentioned that he had
twelve consorts and that "when they all went into the city he
became like a rooster ... " The correct spelling appears to\ be
(see Turner, R.L. A Comparative Dictionary of the
Indo-Aryan Languages, p.164, entry 3208) although it does
appear as Kakkuppa in the abovementioned reference to his
biography. Some pages below in the present work 'Ilranatha
notes that his consort transfonned herself into a hen.
218. Ttb. Nag-po-rdo-rje Skt.
219. Although the text has Khasarpm:ti this should be changed to
KhasarpaJ]a, a fonn of Avalokite8vara. See Clade W.E.
Two Lamaistic Pantheons, p.202, and Bhattacharya, B. The
Indian Buddhist Iconography, pp.128-13Q, 257,259 and 406.
For an account of Santivannan's journey to Potala/Potalaka,
abode of Avalokitesvai"a, and the origin of this fonn of
Avalokite8vara known as KhasarpaJ}a, see Chattopadhyaya, A.
Taranatha's History of Buddhism in India, pp.191-l95.
220. Pataliputra was the second capital of the later Pala empire, and
was situated around the present-day city ofPatna.
221. The Mahamaya text of Dharmapa's could be either of two
referred to on page 317 of Chattopadhyaya, A Catalogue of
Kanjur and Tanjur, Vol.l Texts (Indian Titles) in Tanjur, (1) The
Mahamaya-nama-sadhana, P.2498 Vol.57 author unknown but
the work exposed by one VajraQa:kinl of 044iyana or (2) The
P.2514 Vol.57, by Dhannapada.
222. Prayag corresponds to the present-day city of Allahabad,
situated at the confluence of the Jam una and the Ganges Rivers.
223. Perhaps the Rohit river referred to here is the Lohit. which
enters the Brahmaputra near Sadiya in the Lohit Frontier
Dividion of Arunachal Pradesh.
224. Brahmaputra of 'The Son of Brahma' is the river which runs
along the north side of the Himalayas crossing through them in
the Pemako district of Southern Tibet. It then runs through the
Siang Frontier Division of Arunachal Pradesh, joining the
Ganges in Bangladesh.
225. Dhanasri=Dhanasridvipa. 'laranatha notes in his Chos-'byung,
trans. Chattopadhyaya, A. Taranatha's History of Buddhism in
India, p.332, "In the smaller countries (lit. like
Siilgaladvipa, Yavadvlpa, ·nmradvlpa, Suvan,tadvlpa,
DhanaSridvlpa and Pa-yi-gu, the Law was spread in an early
period and remains widely prevalent will now .. .in Dhanasri and
Pa-yi-gu the Mahayanls are only a few in number."
226. In 1aranatha's Chos-'byung the land of Bagala is to be in
Eastern India. Perhaps this is the same place as our Bagaling
and perhaps both are a corruption of Bhangala/Bengal.
227. The Balividhisamuccaya is possibly the text referred to as the
Bali-snana-vidhi-sahita Tanjur,
rGyud. lxxxii 70. On 1ib. gTor rna Skl. Bali. 'offerings', see
Tucci, G. The Religions ofTibet, pp.l15-6, and Beyer, S. The
Cult of Tara index entries. Perhaps one of the holders of the
office of Balin(g) Acarya at Vikrama5ila was Junior.
See Roerich, G. The Blue Annals, p.372.
228. !aranatha alludes to the identity of Jnavajra and Jnanapada in
Templeman, D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, p.66, but it is
really not a clear statement. There appears to be a problem in
dating Ji'lanapada's patron, King Dharmapala, see Majumdar,
R.C. History of Ancient Bengal, chap.5 esp. appendix 2,
pp.l66-19. From Taranatha's accounts it emerges that the
names Buddhaji'lanpada, Buddhasriji'lana, Ji'lanapada, and
possibly Ji'lanavajra refer to the same person. See Templeman,
D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, pp.56-60 and Templeman,
D. The Origin of the Tara Tantra, pp.22-23. Refer also to
Roerich, G. The Blue Annals, pp.372-374 where Ji'lanapada and
Buddhaji'la:na are mentioned as being identical. See also n.l33
229. Possibly referred to here is the Ka5mirian Dharmasri (see
Roerich, G The Blue Annals, p.859) disciple of Chag-dgra-
bcom (1153-1216 A.D. See The Blue Annals, p.l056).
230. Li:lavajra was the master of Buddhasriji'lana (see n.220).
According to the !aranatha, (see Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, p.66) the lineage is. Lalitavajra (Rol-pa'i-
rdCHje), Lilavajra-Mai'ljusriji'lana-Amoghavajra. See also
Chattopadhyaya, A. Tiiranatha's History of Buddhism in India,
231. For a biography of Nagopa, 'the Naked One' see Templeman,
D. The Seven Instruction Lineages, pp.S0-81.
232. Bhuvaripa was a disciple of the Junior (see n.219)
whose guru was Antarapa, whose guru was Bhadrapa, whose
guru was See Templeman, D. The Seven
Instruction Lineages, p.44. Bhadrapa's other name was
Guhyapa (Tib. gSang-ba-pa). See this work pp.45-46, and the
above mentioned work, p.44
Bhuva bLo-ldan was a disciple of Bhuvaripa, see n.224.
List of Wor'ks by Found in the
This list was compiled initially from the Catalogue of
the Tanjur compiled by Alaka Charttopadhyaya et.al.
entitled, Catalogue of Kanjur and Tanjur, Vol.l Texts
(Indian Titles) in Tanjur, which was based on Catalogue
du fonds tibetain de Ia Bibliotheque Nationale, Ileme et
Illeme parties: Index de bsTan-'gyur, Paris 1909-25. There
are certain limits to the acceptability of such a list,
however, every entry has been compared with the
catalogue of the Tibetan Tripitaka (Tokyo-Kyoto, Suzuki
Research Foundation, 1955). Both are catalogues of the
Peking edition of the Tanjur, but as the Tokyo-Kyoto
reprint is a more recent edition and more readily available
the textual reference numbers refer to that edition. The
order of the Cordier/Chattopadhyaya list has been
maintained, but minor spelling variations in the Sanskrit
titles have been incorporated from the Tokyo-Kyoto
edition. Attribution of authorship has been compared and
where there is variation it has been noted, P. indicating the
author mentioned in the Pekfg Catalogue and C. the author
according to Cordier. If the names presented here are
accepted as common sobriquets of then this is
a fairly definitive list of his works in the Tanjur,
nevertheless, it would appear that not all of his works are
actually contained there. The list may serve however to
give access, to those interested in the writings of this
remarkable siddqa, to some of the range of his work and
may also- be an easy source of reference to his body of
writings. Considering that siddhas generally eschewed the
written medium as an effective means of propagation,
's works are of an interesting range and
unusually large in number.
P.3035 Vol.68
P.3215 Vol.69
P.2168 Vol.51
P.2169 Vol.51
Alokacatura-!1ka-nama P.2251 Vol.52
P.4974 Vol.86

P.5316 Vol.102/P.5455 Vol.103
Kurukulla-sadhana (Sadhanadvaya) (Srt Kanhapada)
P.4398/9 Vol.87
P.2783 Vol.66
Kurma-padr-varahr-sadhana (Vajrayoginr-sadhana)
P.5134 Vol.87
buddha -sadhana'-nama
P.2811 Vol.67

P.2819 Vol.67
P.23·87 Vol.56
Gar:tacakra-vidhi:.nama P.2820 Vol,67
Gar:tacakra-vidhi P.3318 Vol. 70
(Arya) Gar:tapati-cinta-ratna (sadhana)
P. 4987 Vol.86
(Arya) Gar:tapati-bali-vidhi P.4979 Vol.86
(Arya) Ga.t:iapati-stuti P.4977 Vol.86
(Arya) Ga.t:iapati-stuti P.4989 Vol.86
Guhyatattva-prakasa-nama P.2167 Vol.51
P.3032 Vol.68
Guhyapati-vajra-sadhana P.3055 Vol.68
(Sii)-Guhyasamaja-mal).q.alopayika P.2683 Vol.62
Guhyasamaja-bali-vidhi (Bali-vidhi) P.2685 Vol.62
(Sii)-Cakrasambara-homa-vidhi P.2165 Vol.51
(Sii) Cakrasamvara-sadhana (P.Vratacarya/C. Kanhapada
alias P.2162 Vol.51
Ca.t:i4ali-yantra (Kanl,lapada) P.5067 Vol.87
Caitya-vidhi (Dharma-kaya-dipa-vidhi) (P. Kalapamaha/
C. P.2818 Vol.67
Jina-janani-vibhaga-nirdesa P.5029 Vol.87
Jihma-saralikaral).opadesa P.5181 Vol.87
(Arya) .Qakini-vajrapanjara-nama-mahatantraraja-kalpa-
mukhabandha P.2325 Vol.54
Triskandha-sadhana-nama P.3509 Vol.l 05
P.3150 Vol.69
Dharmakaya-drpa-vidhi (P.
/Kalamahapada of India) P.2818 Vol.67
Nairatmya-sadhana P.2441 Vol.57
Paiica-sarga-nama P.3127 Vol. 69
P.2386 Vol.56
P.2686 Vol.62
Bali-vidhi (Krsna) P.2685 Vol.62
P.2507 Vol.57
nama-grantha P.5276 VotlOO
Bhagavac-Sii-cakrasambara-mal).q.ala .. vidhi
P.2163 Vol.51
P.2164 Vol.51
nama P.5180 Vol.87
P.2810 Vol.67
BhTita-cJamara-sadhana (=Sri-vajragaldni-sadhana)
(Kanha) P.4975 Vol.86
Madhyamaka-pratitya-samutpada P.5257 Vol.96
P.4961. Vol.86
MahadhuQcJhana-mTila-nama (Kanhapada) P.5060 Vol.87
P.2508 Vol.57
Mahayana-melayana-pradipa P.4543 Vol.81
P.4978 Vol.86
P.4664 Vol.82
MftYu-vidhi-nama P.2389 Vol.56
(Sri)- (Sri
P.4822 Vo1.86
Yamari-santi-homa-vidhi P.2819 Vol.67
P.2313 Vol.53
(Kanhapada) P.2604 Vol.59
Rathacakra-paiicadasa-yantra (Kanhapada) P.5062 Vol.87
Vajra-giti __f) 139 Vol.69
(Sri)-VajracJakini sadhana (Kanha) P.4975 Vol.86
Vajrayogini-sadhana P.5134 Vol.87
(Sri)-Vajrasattva-pTija-vidhi P.2684 Vol.62
Vasantatilaka-nama (Sri Krsna) P.2166 Vol.51
(Sri)- (i<;sna) P.4667 Vol.82
Vighnaraja-sadhana (C.Kanha) P.4559 Vol'.81
Vinayakaraja-sadhana-nama (extract from Vajra-9aka-
tantra-raja) P.4976 Vol.86
Vinayakaraja-sadhana-nama (Kanhapada) P.4973 Vol.86
Vinayaka-homa-vidhi (Sri.
P.4980 Vo1.86
sadhana (Krsna) P.2427 Vol.57
Sarpvara-vyakhya P.2177 Vol.51
P.2170 Vol.51
Saptaparva-vidhi P.2512 Vol.57
Samaja-ni5cara-jalendra-sadhana (C.
P.5136 Vol.87

P.5320 Vol. I 02/ P.5445 Vol.l 03
Sarvapreta-vajra-pasa P.4818 Vot86
Sarvabhtita-bali-vidhi-nama P.2430 Vol.57
Sanucara-karma-yama-pUja-vidhi( =sarva-preta-vajra-pasa)
P.4818 Vol.86
Samanya-dharma-carya P.2509 Vol.57
StUpa-vidhi-nama P.2388 Vo1.56
(Sri)-Hevajraikavira-sadhana P.2381 Vol.56
Smrti-nibandha the Junior) P.2317 Vol.54
P.2383 Vol.56
P.2382 Vol.56
Hevajra-stUpa-vidhi ( =StUpa-vidhi-nama)
P.2388 Vol.56
P.2385 VoL56
P.2384 Vol.56
Angdu,S. (Ed.)
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Srinivas, M.N.
The Cultural Heritage of Ladakh Vol.2
Aris and Phillips Warminster 1980
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Templeman, D. (Trans.) The Seven Instruction Lineages of
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Turner, R.L.
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Indian and Tibetan Scholars who visited
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Index of Sanskrit Terms
Ajitavajra, 105
Agahasa, 122, n.96
Ansa, n.140
Advayavajra, n.127, n,185
Antarapa, 74, 76, 106, n.201, n,232
Antaracarya, 74
Aparantaka, n.177
Abhidhanauttara Tantra, 93, n.200
Amitavajra, 83, n.l86, n.187
Amoghavajra, 83, n.180, n.230
Ayodhya, 69, n.158
Aijunadatta, 56
Alaka, 51
Avanti, 43
Avalokitdvara, 32,52, n.94, n.l05, n.l09, n.llO, n.219
Aryadesa, 44, n.l31
Aryavarta, 95
Indumala, 26
IndrabhTiti, the King, n.32, n.203
IndrabhTiti, the Middle One, n.203
IndrabhTiti, the Younger, 93, 94, n.203
Isvara, 33, 34, n.106, n.lll, n.112
Ujjain, n.66
Udayana, n.54, n.60
Udivisa, 87, n.75
Umagiri, 66
Uma, 36, n.l13
Uruvisa, 3, n.9
Urgyen, 13,29,54,89
Eyala, 51
Eyalapa, 5
O<;iivisa, 41 68, 104, n.75, n.177
O<;l<;fiyana, 58, 59 n.32, n.54, n.203, n.221
O<;tra, n.89, n.171
Otre, 75, n.89, n.l71
Otre Visa, n. 9
Odivisa, n.75
Odisa, 20 n. 7 6
Oruvisa, 6
Kakku!ipa, n.217
Kaccharanga, 37
Kataliksetra, 17, n.68
Katsali, n.68
Kanaka, 43
Kanakala, 62
Kankalapa, 94
Kangkanapa, 73
Kangkalapa, 101
Kapilavastu, n.l 06
Kaba, 76
Kambalapa, n.203
Kamboja, 83, n.l77, n.l82
Karanya, 43,
Karkarapa, 105
Kan:ta!a, n.85
Kari).a!aka, 42, n.97, n.126
Kalasa, n.159
Kalaharhsakumara, 94, 98
Kalinka, 20, 43, 55, 97, n.76, n.130
Kalinja, 97
Kalesvara, n.95
KaSmir, 47, 57, 58, 89,94 n.159
KID)ha, 7, n.146
Ka:J)hapa, 62, 90
Ka:J)hacarya 4
KID)hacaryapa, 6
Kiil).hipa 4
Kana 28,43
Kanti 43
Kamarupa 41, 65, n.121, n.122, n.177
Kamboja, n.182
Kalacakra (Tantra), 4, 104 n.6, n.8, n.13, n.181, n.l84
Kaladandibhartakali 38
Kala Yamantaka, n.148
Kali, 85, 86
Kuklm!ipa, 94, 96, 100, n.217
Kubera, n.40
Kusalanatha, 32, 33, 34, 70, 72
Kusalabhadra, the younger, 45, 77
Kusali, the Younger, 31
Kusalipa, 43, 106, n.129
Kusalibhadra, n.20 1
the Younger, 46
Krsna(female), 72, 86
10, 14, 16,42,54,62,82
Junior, n.227

94, 96, 98, n.212, n.218
3, 5, 8, 16, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 46, 52, 79, 81,
82, 83, 92, n.3, n.17, n.26, n.34, n.55, n.58, n.64,
n.65, n.69, n.102, n.l12, n.118; n.136, n.146, n.155,
n.186, n.205, n.232
the Younger, 77, 81, n.232
Koki, 82, n.177
Koneja, 29
KonkadeSa, rt.87
Kongkana, 23, 59
Kongkanapa, 93
Kosala, n.164
Khasarpat)a, n.219
Khasarpat)i, 97, n.219
Gailgasagar, 33, n.106
Gandhara, 14, 15, 42, 100, n.60
Gandharapa,94, 100
Gayadhara, 45, n.141
Gayapa, 94, 96, n.212
Giflvarta, n.177
Guhyac}.akini, 9
Guhyapa, 54, 72, 74, n.232
Guhyasamaja (Tantra), 49, 92, n.32, n.147, n.192
Godavri, 43, n:95, n.130
Gopala, 82, n.183
Gopicandra, n.71, n.73
Gobicandra, 17, 30, 54, n. 70
Govicandra, n. 70
Goraknath, n.120
Goraksa, 17, 60, 62, 82
Gaucj.a, n.166
Gaura, 4, 68, 100, n.166
Ghantapa, 93
Ghundiripa, 94, 98
Ghunduripa, 98
Ghorandhaka, 30
Cakrasrup.vara, 46, 48, 52, 58, 93, 95, 99, 100, 105, 106,
n.35, n.47, n.99, n.136, n.199, n.201, n.204, n.206
Cakrasarpvara Advaya Vira Sadhana, n.209
Cakrasrup.vara Tantra, 87, 93, n.189, n.199
Cakrasamvara Sadhana, 104
Tantra, 7 5 n.172
Cal).c;lali, 70, n.l65, n.168, n.196
Cai).cj.aH Tantra, 93, n.196
Candrakumara, 27
Cannavihara, 23
Caryacaryapa, 6
Carya,8, 14, 16,48,50,52, 70,76, 78,80,85,87,92, 106
Carya, the Junior, 106
Carya Ananda Srtbhadra, 78
Caryadhara, 52, 58, 78, 80, 82, 84, n.136
n.5, n.186
Caryadharipa, 6
Catalipa, 94, 100
Caryapa, 6, 17, 20, 22, 24, 32, 36, 51, 52, 54, 56, 65, 67,
76,80,82,84,86,87,89;90,92, 104,106
Caryavajra, 6
Caritra, 43, n.130
Citipatana, 43
Cinto, n.199
Cunda, 83, n.184
Chaityapata, 25
Charitra, 25, n.92
Chitrachapa, 105
Jatasanghata, 56
Jatukarna, 105
Jamuna, 42, n.222
Jambudvlpa, 4, 20, 38, n.10
Jayanandipa,94,95, 102,103
Jalahari, 73
Jalandhara, 7, 8, 12, 19, 31, 43, 51, 68, n.34
Jalandharipa, 7, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 90, n.58, n71,
Jimotapa, 105
Jnanapada, 104,n.228
Jnanavajra, 104, n.228
Jfianasri, n.91
J valapati, n.186
Qombi, 64, n.25
Qombi Yoginl, 64
Qombhipa, n.205
Qombhi, the Younger, n.201
Tantipa, 91, 92
Tantepa, 101
Tandepa, 101
Tambala, 23, 24, n.81
Tadakapa, 94, 100
Tamradvipa, n.225
Ta:ranatha, 106, n.9, n.18, n.25, n.35, n.64, n.75, n.76, n.81,
n.83, n.lOl, n.102, n.l22, n.138, n.l62, n.200, n.212,
n.217, n.228, n.230
Tara, n.50
Tibola, 51
Tila, 43
Tilakapa, 105
Tillipa, 77, n.201
Tul)9amal)9ala, 22, n.78
Turuskamana, 57, n.l58
Tripura, n.177
Trilinga, 28, n.76
Dan9akaranya, 28
Darikapa, 93, 105, n.201
Digdeva, 29
Dipatpkara, 47
Dipatpkara Snjiiana, n.l40
Durjayacandra, n.205
Denkipa, n.20 1, n.202
Devaghat, 24
Devaghata, 42, 43
Devapala, 31, ~ 6 . n.3, n.103
Devikota, 16, 36, 38, 40, 42, 48, 56, n.62, n88
Dra:ksarama, n.95
Dhanamitra, 105
Dhanasri, 101, n.225
Dhanasridvipa, n.225
Dhamapa, 5, 52
Dhamapa, 53
Dhannakara, 95
Dhannakirti, 24, n. 84
Dhannapa, 82, 87, 94, 102, n.221
Dhannapada, n.221
Dhannapala, n.102, n.138, n.228
Dhannasn, 104, n.221, n.229
Dhanyakataka, 3, n.6
Dhumapa, 5, 53, 54, 73
Nandipa, 89
Nrupgata, n.177
Nalipa, 100
Nagarjuna, 3, 24, 82, 93, n.5, n.194, n.195, n.201
Nagarjunagarbha, 103
Nagarjuna-kul)ga, n.6
Nagopa, 105, n.231
Nadipa, 94, 100
Naropa, 46, 94, n.l34, n.141, n.l65, n.201
Nalanda, 7, 59, 74, n.29, n.63
Nirgasthapana, 33
Ni:la, 90
Nairatma, n.48, n.154, n.l60, n.196
Nairatmya, 11, n.48, n.l54
Paiicagaka, n.196
Padrnaka, n.160
Padmani, n.160
Padmin!, n.l60
Pangkaja, 24
Pangktipa, 89
Pasupati, n.112
Pataliputra, 98, n.220
Parvati, n.113
Pin gala, 22, n. 79
Pukara, 43
Pukhail, n.177
Pundavardha, 43
Purvagupta, 100
Puskara.I)a, n.125
Puskara, 41, n.125
n. 93
Potala, n.219
Potalaka, n.94, n.219
Prajfiakaramati, n.91
Prayag, 101, n.222
Pranayoga, 106
Pretapuri, 9, 10, n.41
Bagala, n.226
Bagaling, 102, n.226
Bandhepa, 63,66
Balaku, n.l77
Baling Acarya, 103
Balividhisamuccaya, 103, n.227
Bali Snana Vidhi Sahita Yama Kala Sadhana,
Bahuri, 38
Birvapa, 92
Buddha, 27, 35, 36, 56, 64, 102, n.1, n.3, n.6, n.9, n.32,.
n.83, n.106, n.l17, n.134, n.190, n.125
Buddhacailta n.l,
Buddhakapala, 48, n.150
Buddhakapala Nama Yogini Tantra, n;l50
Buddhajfiana, 46, n.138, n.228
Buddhajiianapada, n.228
B uddhalocana, n.1 00
Buddhasrtjiiana, n.138, n.228, n.230
B uddhasthanam, 56
Bodhivajra 104
Bodhisattva n.52, n.105, n.llO, n.157
Brahmaputra, 101, n.223, n.224
Bhagavani, 70, 72, 96, n.168
Bhadala, 18
Bhadalika, 95
Bhadali, 68
Bhadalipa, 68
Bhadepa,94, 102,104
Bhadra, 54
Bhadrapa, 5, 54, 56, 94,. n.232
Bhadri, 10, 11
Bhangala, n.124
Bhatpgala, n.177
Bhandepa, 95 -
Bbavabhadra, 94, n.206
Bhati, 82, n.175
Bhuvaripa, 77, 106, n.232, n.233
74, 76,101, 103,n.28,n.29
43, n.130
Maru, 41,89
Mala, 42,43
Malaba, n.66
Malapuri, 42
Malava, 17,52
Malaya, n.94
Malyra, 27
Masanapa, 105
Mahacarya,44,46,54,62,63,65, 74,78,82
Mahak.ala, 3, 106, n.7
Mahak.ala Abhyudaya, n.7
Mahak.ala Tantra, n. 7
Mahakrodha, 7 4
Mahamaya, 49, 92, 100 n.149, n.221, n.149
Mahamaya Tantraraja Nama, n.149
Mahamaya Nama Sadhana, n.221
Mahamaya Krama, n.221
Mahamaya Mal)<Jala Vidhi Krama Bodhana, n.149
Mahamudra, 4, 47, 51, 52, n.ll, n.19, n.55, n.173, n.181,
Mahamadrasiddhi, 4, 12, 51, 56, 68, 72, 92, 100, 104,
Maharastra, 16, 62, n.126, n.130
Mahasattva, n.110
Mahasiddha, 10, n.181
65, 66, n.161
Mahayogini, 6, 64,76
Mahupa, 51,
Mahendra, n.85
Mahesvara, 33, 36, 68, n.llO, n.l12
Madhyadesa, 42, 46, 94, n.130
Mara, 3, n.1
Malava, 42, 88, n.66, n.130
Madhyamika, n.84
Maqica, 38, n.80
Minapa, n.l13, n.201
Muiiail, n.l77
Mekhala, 62
Medhinapa, 89
Meru, n.10
Maitripa, n.3, n.141, n.186, n.195
Yama, 76
Yamantaka, 52, 104., n.8,
Yamantaka, Black, 49, n.148
Yavadvipa, n.225
Yogambara, n.l96
Yogini,S, 15,22,23,39,40,41,43,44,62,64,65,66, 72,
84, 104, n.32, n.l98, n.l99
Yogini Sarpcarya Tantra,_92, n.l98
Ratnagupta, 89
Ratnavajra, 94, n.91, n.207
Rara, 53, n.101
Rathabala, 20
Raq.ha, 31, 41, 53, 85, n.101
Ramat)a, 4
Rodasi, 43
Rohit, 101, n.223
7, n.32
Laghu Sarpvara Tantra, n.145
Latika, 4, n.18
Latikajayabhadra, 93, n.204
Lapayipa, n.162
Lalitacandra, 32, 47, 54, 62, 70, n.104
Lalitavajra, n.230
Lavayipa, 28, n.l62
Lavayila, n.162
Lahore, 90, n.191
Likara, 85
Linkara, 43
Lilavajra, 104, n.230
Liiyipa, 92, 94, n.195, n.197, n.201
Vagrsvarakrrti, n.88
Vajraghantapa, 93, n.199
Vajra9akini,l3, 56, n.221
Vajradhara, 93, n.194
Vajranairanna, n.154
Vajrapai)iuttara!fka, 105
Vajravarahi, 11, 26, 36, 46, 48, 60, 62, 92, 96, n.47, n.136,
Vajrasattva, 57, n.l57
Varanasi, 83, n.29
Varendra, 37, 41, n.ll4
Varendri, n.114
Vasantatilaka, n.l36
Vasantatilaka !Ilea, n.136
Vasantatilaka GI!Ika, n.136
Vikalpa, 13, n.51, n.53, n.72
Vi.kramaslla, 103, n.91, n.204, n.205, n.207, n.227
Vijapur, 43
Vijaynagar, n.97
Vijayfianabhirava n.65
Vijiiapti, 69
Vijiianikure, 100
Vidyadevi, 30, n.100
Vidyadhara, 72
Vidyajiiana, n.100
Vidyanagar, 24, n.81, n.85
Vindhya Hills, 24, n.62, n.86, n.130
Vrraja, 30, 42, n.130
Vrrajapur, 24
Vilasyavajra, n.199
Visvarupi, 21, 22
Vinapa, 94, 100, n.215
Virapala, 105
Sambhala, n.6
Savaripa, 93, n.195, n.201
Sakyamuni, 57,
Sanakavasin/Sana(ka)vasin, 24, n.83
Sanavasika, n.83
Sanavasin, n.83
Santideva, n.l 06
Santipa, n.91
·sa:ntivarman, n.219
Siva, n.106, n.l13
Sitavana, 67, 75, n.63, n.163
Seyagiri, 42,
Snjiiana, 63
Snparvata, n.6
Snmanu, 89, 90
Snsailam, n.95
Snhatta, 41
Sangadasa, 49
Sangharipa, 104
Sarpcarya Tantra, n.198
Sarrpannakrarna,6,42,44,70,74,81,94,96, 104,n.26
Tantra, 10, n.44
Sarpvara, 60, 104, n.49, n.145, n.213
Sa.rpsara, 62, n.53
Srup.vara Tantra, 50, n.151
Sarpvara Miilatantra, 60, n.200, n.213
Sa.rpvara Sadhana, 94
Sarrvrta satya, n.27
Sarnbuti, 93, n.l96
Saratapa, 105
Saraha, 93, n.136, n.195, n.201
Saraha, the Younger, n.l95
Saroruha, n.203
Saliputra, 99
Singala, 20, 55, 64, n.l8, n.76
Singaladvipa, n.225
Singala Yogini, 62
Sindhu, 76, n.l74
Silahatta, 82
Sukanatharnathura, 23
Sucandra, n.6
Sudarsapa, 105
Suva.I1)adv1pa, n.140, n.225
Somapuri, 31, 97, n.3, n.l02
Somapun, Old, 31
Saurastha, 52
Swat, n.54, n.60
Ha<;lipa, 18, n.73
Hatpsavatr, n.177
Haramba, 82
Harikela, 27
Harigirimatho, 65,66
Haridvara, 43
Harsadeva, 58, n.159
Hasama, n.177
Halahala, 33, n.109
Hitsila, 97
Hiranyapa, 105
Hemadala, .32
Heramba, 40
Heruka, 44, 46, 48, 68, 74, 76, 92, 94, 96, n.35, n.112,
Heruka Tantra, 88
Hevajra, 49, 59, 105, n.35, n.48, n.146, n.196
Hevajra Tantra, 54, n.1, n.3, n.48, n.57, n.146, n.l96
Index of Tibetan Terms
Kye-rdo-rje, n.146
Klu-sgrub, n.5
Klong-rdol-bla-ma, n.6
Kha-sbyor-thig-le'i-rgyud, 10, n.44
Khyab-' jug-chen-po, n.161
mKhas-pa-sgo-drug, 25, n.91
mKhyen-brtse, n.8
'Khor-lo-bde-mchog-gi-rgyud, n.l89
'Khor-lo-sdom-pa, n.99
Gling-ras-pa, 84, n.188
Glu-dbyangs-mkhan, n.212
'Gro-ba-bzang-mo, 11, n.50
rGod-tshang-pa, n.l79. n.181
rGya-ras-pa, the Elder, 83, n.178
rGyal-ba Kar-ma-pa, n.l05
Ngag-gi-dbang-phyug-grags-pa, n.91
mNga'-dbag Maitripa 83, n.185
mNgon-pa'i-nga-rgyal-can-gyi-sgdub-pa-po-bzhi, 90
mNgon-brjod-bla-ma'i-rgyud, n.200
Cak -rna, n.177
Chag-dgra-bcom, n.229
Chag-lo-tsa-ba, n.63
Chu-shing-gi-shing, n.68
Chos-kyi-grags-pa, n.84
mChod-rten-sgrong, 24
gTum-po-khro-bo-chen-po'i-rgyud-kyi-rgyal-po, n.172
gTum-mo, n.165
Dar-gling-ras-pa, 84, n.188
Dur-khrod-bsil-ba-tsal, n.63, n.163
bDag-med-ma, n.48
bDud, n.l
bDe-chog-gi-rgyud, n.151
bDe-mchog-'bong-lo'i-grub-brnyes, 59
bDe-mchog-rtsa-rgyud, n.200
rDo-rje-'chang, n.194
rDo-rje-bdag-med-ma, n.154
rDo-rje-phag-mo, n.47
rDo-rje-'dzin, n.l94
rDo-rje-sems-dpa', n.l57
sDom-pa-'i-rgyud, n.196
Nag-po-chen-po mngon-par-'byung-ba, 3, n.7
Nag-po-rdo-rje, n.212, n.218
Nor-bu-bzang-po, 61
rNam-rgyal-zhabs, 74
rNam-rgyal-srung, 74
rNal-'byor-ma-kun-spyod-kyi-rgyud, n.198
Pa-yi-gu, n.225
Padma-dkar-po, n.6
Padma-c:m, n.l60
dPal-ldan-lha-mo, n.80
dPyid-kyi-thig-le, n.136
sPyan-ras-gzigs. n.105
sPrin-'dzin, n.141
Pha-mthing, n.144
Pham-thing -chen-po, n.144, n.145
Pham-thing-pa, 47, n.144
Phyugs-bdag, n.112
'Phags-yul, n.131
Bal-po'i Pham-thing-chen-po, n.144
Bu-ston, n.7, n.12
Bya-mchu'i-dkyil-'khor, n.78
dBang-phyug, n.106
'Bar-ba'i-gtso-bo, n.186
'Bras-spungs, n.6
'Brug-pa-bka'-brgyud, n.188•
'Brog-mi-sha-kya-ye-shes, n.141
'Brom-ston-rgyal- ba'i-'byung-gnas, n.140
Bhuva bLo-ldan, 77, n.233
Mar-ko, n.177
Mar-do, 11, 46, 92, n.49
Mar-do-lo-tsa-ba, n.49
Mal-gyo-lo-tsa-ba bLo-gros-grags, n.145
Mal-lo-tsa-ba, 47, n.145
Mi-pham, n.106
Mi-la-ras-pa, n.179
dMar-ser-ma, n.79
Tsa-ri- n.62
gTsang-pa-rgya-ras Ye-shes-rdo-Ije,- n.l78
'Dzam-bu-gling, n.lO
Ras-chung-pa, 83, n.179
Rin-chen-rdo-rje, n.91
Rin-chen-bzang-po, 94, n.210
Rol-pa'i-rdo-rje, n.230
Rva-lo-tsa-ba, 3, n.8
Rva-lo-tsa-ba rDo-rje-grags, n.8
Lva-va-pa, 82, n.1Q0; n.199, n.203
Sha-na'i-gos-can, n.83
Shes-rab- 'byung-gnas-blo-gros, n.91
gShin-rje-shed-nag-po, n.148
Sa-skya-bla-ma Daqt-pa-bsod-nams-rgyal-mtshan, n.146
Sa-chen Kun-dga'-snying-po, n.145
Sa-'dzin, 100, n.60
Sa-'dzin-pa, 100
Sa-'dzin-zhabs, 95
Sangs-rgyas-thod-pa'i-rgyud, n.150
Sambu-lo-tsa-ba, n.l93
gSang-ba-'dus-pa, n.l47
gSang-ba-pa n.232
Ha-ha-sgrogs, 28, n.96
U-rgyan, n.54
U-rgyan-pa, 95, n.181, n.214
U-rgyan-pa-rin-chen-dpal, 83, n.181, n.214

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