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O

OVER 5000 ILLUSTRATIONS,

O

PUBLISHED BY

'^ %

.

imifh,
Post-Office Box, 754,

633 Chestnut

Street.

PHILADELPHIA, PA.
U. S. A.

^Jass,^

COPYRIGHT SECUREP.

COPYRIGHT,

18SG.

rKINTKU

15Y

MATLACK A HARVEY,
PHILADELPHIA.

ILLUSTRATED

ENCYCLOP.€DIA
COINS OF THE WORLD;
ILLUSTRATING THE
4+
A
4-

+

4l^atlcrn^ J^ncicnt^

ifmrcni
back to

atul ifxxvwxxHf
B. C. 700.

FROM

A. D. 1885

FINENESS, WEIGHT, FACE VALUE AND METAL WORTH.
FULL DESCRIPTION WITH EXACT FAC-SIMILE OF OVER
*

SIX
NAME

THOUSAND
LISTS, STATISTICS,

COINS.
&c.

HISTORICAL DATA, FULL INDEX.

TABLES FOR CALCULATION, REDUCTION, COMPARISON,

^ Jinancml

ami itwmi^matic ^ibvavy, COMPLETE IN ONE VOLUME.

PUBLISHED BY J^.
533

M. SMITH,
COPYRIGHT.

NUMISMATIST,

CHESTNUT STREET.

POST-OFFICE BOX, 754.

PHILADELPHIA,

PA., U.

S.

A.

1886.

GOLD AND SILVER COINS OFTHE WORLD
By a.
WL.

Sxiith.

INTRODUCTORY.
Mail}' years since, upon first applying myself to the stud}'- of ]Sumismatics, I diligently sought for a work which should contain, in l)rief form, the requisite information necessary for the casual inquirer or business dealer in current and uncui-rent coins of the world. Such a book did not exist. Constant demands from Banks, Bankers, Brokers, and Merchants for a work of this character, since I became a publisher, and the ever repeated regrets of experts and students in the science, that they could obtain nothing of the kind, with frequent requests from all, that I would prejiare, write, or compile, such a text-book, finally induced nie to undertake tlie onerous labor, the results of which are presented in The Excyclop.EDiA OF Gold and Silykr Coins op the World. Of works upon Numismatics, and of " Coin Books," within the last two hundred 3'ears, there has been issued an immense number, many of them very valuable in specialities; but none universal in application, all crowded with unnecessary matter, and nob one adapted to the requirement of ever\ -day business life or students' reference. To translate many of these works from the Latin, Greek, French, German, Italian, and. other languages; to compare, sift, select, and verify all the mass, and to condense the information to the utmost, comprises but a portion of my task. Correspondence was entered into with tlie Financial ]\Iinisters of every nation on the earth possessing a coinage official reports only were received as authority; every channel, every source of knowledge was exOur own and foreign liausted to obtain autlientie, reliable data.
;

;

-7

mints, national and private; museums, collections, and cabinets have given copies of tlieir treasures to our artist's pencil. Foreign and Home departments, financial institutions and financiers, the most distinguished scientists, have all generously responded to every application for information and material. The results of long'^years of study and dearly bought experience; large sums of money for importations of literature, purchase of rare, costly volcoins, artistic and clerical labor, have all been lavwork to render it complete and correct, an authority beyond question, an embracement of the entire field. In the interests of the science to which I have been so long devoted, to justify the flattering opinion expressed by those who desired this work from my hands, to aid, so far as in my power, in systemizing money and commercial transactions, and for my own reputation, I have expended upon The Excyclop.edia an amount of hard, conscientious labor for which money cannot recompense

umes, specimen

i.died

upon

this

me.

With facts and figures alone I have dealt, and to present these in the plainest possible form, arranged for the mo-^t speedy and sole object. satisfactory reference, has been Without egotism I may say that I consider my work well done in the whole range of literature devoted to numismatics or coined money there is and has never been, a volume so exhaustive in explanation and illustration or so certainly reliable as this EncycloErrors there may be; mistakes will creep into the most paedia. carefully edited works. I have discovered them in every authority, consequently I cannot, official document or statement I have used do not, claim infallibility, and will thankfully receive corrections. I be.Just, fair criticism is invited, and will be heartily welcomed. book to be the best and most complete, the only complete lieve work of its kind, ever issued, and, claiming that high standard, I friends and the public witliout further apology or olfer it to

my

;

my

my

commendation.
Philadelphia, March, 1SS6.

A.

^I.

S:\IITIT.

21 35G0

ji.

INDEX -PLATES AND TABLES.
Afghanistan,
Silver,

Gold,

415
417, 419

£ast Indies
Silver,

421 421 Altenburg (Germany), Silver, 175 America (Spanish) Silver, 411 Ancient Coins, Greek, 465 to 481 Jewish, 508 Roman, 483 to 503 Anhalt (Germany), Silver, 125 Argentine Republic, (S. A.), Gold, 83 Silver, 34, 35 Austria, Gold, 09 to 73 Silver, 74 to 85 (Germany), Silver, 127 to 131 Bank Tokens (English), Silver, 259, 275 Batavia (Holland), Silver, 299 to 303 Bavaria (Germany), Gold, 133 Silver, 135 to 141 Belgium, Gold, 86 Silver, 87 Bolivia (S. A.), Gold, 86 Silver, 30 Bologne (Italy), Gold, 311 Silver, 811 Brazil (S. A.), Gold, 38 Silver, 89, 41 Bremen (Germany), Silver, 143 Brunswick (Germany), Gold, 119 Silver, 145 to 149 Burmah (Great Britain), Silver, 277 Ca.nada (Great Britain), Silver, 274 Cash Value, Gold and Silver, (Table), 30 Characters and Numbers, (Oriental), 413 Chili (S. A.), Gold, 43 Silver, 45 China, Gold, 364, 365 Silver, 363, 367, 369 China (France), Silver, 106 Comparative Ratio, Silver (Table), 82 Coin History, U. S. A. (Table), 18 Coins, Ancient, 465 to 508 Greek, 465 to 481
Silver,

Africa (Great Britain), Silver, (Portugal) Silver, Allegorical Plate, Algiers, Gold,

283 379
4()3

(Great Britain), Gold, 200 268 to 273 (Holland), Silver, 301, 303 Ecuador (S. A.), Gold, 48 Silver, 49, 50 Egypt, Gold, 423 Silver, 425 England, Gold, 223 to 238 Silver, 241 to 283

English (drains and French

Grammes
Silver,

(Table), 32 Equalization, Gold and Silver (Table), 26

Essequebo (Great Britain),

277

France,
Silver,

Gold,

101, 103 105 to 117

(China), Silver,

106

French Grammes and English Grains
32 (Table), Frankfort-ou-the-Main, (Germany), Sil150 to 152 ver, Germany, Gold, 119, 133, 176, 177, 187, 209 Silver, 121 to 131, 135 to 175, 179 to 195, 199 to 207, 211 to 220 30 Gold and Silver Tables, Cash Value, 509, 510 Current Coins, 26 Equalization, Standard Value, 28 18 U. S. A., (History), Grains (English), and Grammes (French) 32 Table, 32 Grammes and Grains (Table), 233 to 238, 261, 279 Great Britain, Gold, 241 to 283 Silver, 288 Greece, Gold, 289 Silver, to 481 465 Greek Coins (Ancient), 191 Greiz-Reuss (Germany), Silver, 51 Guatemala (C. A.), Gold, 52, 53 Silver, 277 Guiana (Great Britain). Silver, 155 Hanibiirg- (Germany), Silver, 157 Hanover (Germany), (iold, 159 Silver, 68 Hawii (Sandwich Islands), Silver, 290, 291 llayti, Silver, 123 Hechingen (Germany), Silver, 119 llesse-Cassel ((tcrnianv), (Sold, 161, 163 Silver,
"

Baden

508 505 to 507 483 to 503 Current, (Table), 509, 510 Colombia (U. S. of S. A.), Gold, 46 Silvei-, 47 Current Coins of World (Table), 509, 510 Demerara (Great Britain), Silver, 277 Denmark, Gold, «9 Silver, 01 to 99
Mediicval,

Jewish,

Roman,

TTesse

Darmstadt (Germany),
'

Silver,

Kio

427 Hindostan, Gold, Hohenzollern-Siuinarinncn ((Jermanv),
Silver,

'123
29:'.
:5n;5

Holland, Gold,
Silver,

295 to
(C. A.), Silver,

Honduras

54

'

Hungary

(Austria), Gold,

Silver,

India, East
Silver,

09 to 73 74 to 85 (Groat Britain), <Jold, 269

2m,

271, 27:}

Reuss-Lobenstein (Germany), Silver, 191 Ring Money (Great Britain), 265, 267 Roman Coins (Ancient), 483 to 503 Rome (Italy), Gold, 319
Silver,

^01, 30:5 (Holland), Silver, 299 Islands (Holland), Silver, Italy, Gold, 304, 312, 310 to 320, 329, 337, 3:38, 348 :^05 to 357 Silver, 358, 359, ;362 Japan, Gold, 360 Silver, 303 Java (Holland), Silver, 508 Jewish Coins (Ancient), 33 La Plata (S. A.), Gold, Silver, 34, 35 119 Leclienstein (German}), Gold, 08 Liberia (Africa), Silver,

321 to 327

oumania. Silver,

Ligura (Italy), Silver, Lippe (Cierniany), Silver, Lobenstein (Geiniany). Silver,

1

3

Lombardy-Venice
Silver,

(Italy), Gold,

107 191, 220 312
:!55 to :357

169 315 279 Malta (Great Britain), Goli!, 281 Silver, 271 Mecklenburg (Germany), SiI^e^, 505 to 507 Mediaeval Coins, Mexico, Gold, 56, 57 58 to 61 Silver, 320 Monaco (Italy), Gold, Silver, 320 426 Morocco, Gold, 429 Silver, 119 Nassau (Germany), Gold, 173 Silver, 293 Netherlands (Holland), Gold. 295 to 303 Silver, Newfoundland (Great Britain), Silver, 274 63 New Grenada (S. A.), Gold, Silver, 62, 63 Norway and Sweden, Gold, 443 Silver, 445, 447 Numbers and Cbaraclers (Oriental), 413 Nuremburg (Germany), Silver, 137 (Great Britain), Obsidional Silver, 257 Oldenburg (Germany), Silver, 175 Oriental Numbers and (Muiracters, 413 (Italy), Gold, 316 Silver, 317 431 Persia, Gold,

Lubeck (Germany), Silver, Lucca (Italy), Silver,

Money

Parma
Peru

Silver,
(S. A.),

4;»3

Gold,

04
65, 67

Silver.

Portugal, Gold,
Silver,

Prussia (Germany), Geld,
Silver,

Ragusa

(Austria), Gold,

Silver,

371, 373 375 to 379 176, 177 179 to 189 (19 to 73 74 to 85

Reuss-Greiz (Germany), Silver,

191

INDEX-DESCRIPTIVE PAGES.
Afghanistan,

Liberia (Africa),

10

ORIGINA L SUBS CRIBERS.

.

John AV. Thurston, 50 Mill street, Germantown, Pa. 11. Walworth, riattsburgh, Clinton Co., X. Y. Henry L. Jewett, Capitol Bank of Macon, Macon, Ga. J. C. Weston, Cashier Clinton National Bank, Clinton, Iowa. George F. Jasper, First National Bank of Qnincy, Quincy, Ills. C. W. Statesman, Bunker Ilill, Ind.
L. Fleury, Decatur,
Ills.

W.

C. Stone, City Library, Springfield, Mass.

General M. C. Meigs, Washington, D. C.
E. F. Gerald, Auditor C. P. R. R., San Francisco, Cal.

Edwin Andrews, Deep River, Conn.
A.
C. Gruhlke, Waterloo, Ind.

Central Library, Syracuse, X. Y.

Cushman, Cashier, The Bristol Co. Xat. Bank, Taunton, Mass. Bank, Leominster, Mass. P. H. Parker, Box 367, Washington, Ills. Christine Elberg, Apenrade, Schlesvig, Germany. B. W. Kumler, Seven Mills, Butler Co., Ohio. National Xumismatic Museum, Smithsonian Ins., AVashington, D. C.
S. L.

F. J. Lothrop, Leominster, National

J.

H. Gray, Palatka, Fla.
Co.,

Thomas Cunningham, Mohawk, Herkimer
F.

X. Y.
I.

W. Furman,

308 Westminster

street.

Providence, R.

James E. Taylor, Xo. 10 Branch street, Lowell, Mass. C. W. Blume, Xuttellburg, Fayette Co., W. Va. S. A. McKean & Co., 100 Washington street, Chicago,
Dr. G. H.

Ills.

Xewcomb, 94 Chestnut

street,

Albany, X. Y.

J. C. Fales, Prof.

Xat. Science, Central College of Ky., Danville, Ivy,

W.

R. Kinnaird, First Xational Bank, McGragor, Iowa. Henry Abel, Jr., German Xational Bank, Pittsburgh, Pn. John S. Cavern, Cashier First Xational Bank, Macon, Ga. Academy, Mount St. Vincent on the Hudson, Xew York. Chas. E. West, 138 Montague street, Brooklyn, X. Y.
AV. E. SherriU, Taylor, Texas.

Geo. L. Bolton,

Room

52, Penna.

R. K.

Building, riiiladclphia. Pa.
Ills,

Jusliii Rinichi Ivuki,

Geo. A. IloUoway, 177 La Salle street, Chicago, Ministerfrom Japan to V.

S.

A.

Dom

Pedro

II.,

Emperor of

P)razil, S.

A.

Albert M. Baker, 224 South Fifth street, Philadcl])hia, Pa. Charles IT. Clarke 224 South Fifth street, Philadelphia, I*a.

11

A. Hamljii Todd, Library of Parliament, Ottowa, Canada. Augustine Schneider, 0. S. B. ^N'umismatist, Beatty P. 0. AVestmoreland Co., Pa.

John Jones, Kent, Ohio. Iv. K. Chapman, Farmers and Merchants Saving Fund, Smithfield. Va.
C. F. Sonne, Trukee, Cal.

Eli Foorman, Eaton, Ind. John Cashner, Box 2, Spearfish, Dakota.
E. G.

Hyman,

Cashier, Bangor, Me.
C. H., Ohio.

M. Herbert, AVashington
John
C.

Chas. T. Hull, Cashier First Xational Bank, Athens, Pa.
II. Werkheiser, Cashier, Silverton, Colorada. H. Ryland, Librarian Richmond College, Richmond, Va. "Winslow J. Howard, Assayer, Silver City, Xew Mexico. Jesse Sweed, Quaker City, Ohio. R. AV. McLochlin, 233 McGill street, Montreal, Canada. Frank McCoy, Los Angeles, California. John G. Anderson, 111 East 2d street, Jamestown, X. Y. Chas. Morris, G40 Adams street, Chicago, Ills. Edinger Bros., 18 Vesey street, New York City, X. Y. Lachman & Jacobi, AVine Growers, San Francisco, California. K. A. Lunderlielt, Librarian Public Library, Milwaukee, Wis. Francis Ravenscroft, Birkbeck ]jank, Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane, London, England.

J.

G. Staunton, Librarian Bates College, Lewiston, Maine.

J. 11.

Bay, 27 East Southern Bay, Exeter, England.
street,

Frank A. Wright, 43 Orange

Lewiston, Maine.

Chas. Norton, Conneout, Ohio.

W.

E. Bergcr, 324 X. 3d street, St. Louis,

Capt. C. Penick, R. D., Copenhagen,

Mo. Denmark.
Mass.

Edwin
Judson

S,

Foster, 35

Merimack

street, Haverhill,

W.

Blacke, AYauseon, Fulton Co., Ohio.

Geo. Follett, corner Maine & Thames streets, Xorwich, Conn. Miss Xellie E. Williams, Colcliester, Xew London Co., Conn. Byron Reed, Omaha, Xebraska. Cha.s. B. Bovier, Supreme Gov., Knights of Columbia, Westfield, Mass. J. G. Mills, 24 Plain street, Albany, X. Y. A. Gartner, Savannah, Ga. Miss S. S. Cox, 22 AVest Walnut Lane, Germantown, Pa. Carl C. Zschiesche, Xumismatist, 4 Konigsstrasse, Leipzig, Germany.

12

O. M. Phillips, Cashier First Xational Bank, Xorthfield, Minn.
€. M. AVorthington, Sterling,
Dr. Shefter, 1309
J.
Ills.

G. H. Golding, 94 East Genesee street, Syracuse, X. Y.

Arch

street, Philadelphia,

Pa.

B. Lippincott Co., Booksellers, 715 Market street, Philadelphia, Pa.

Lyman Low, Xumismatist,
E.
S. S.

853 Broadway,

Xew York

City, X.

Y.

O. E. Foster, Hornsea, East York, England.
Ballard, Davenport, Iowa.

E. Meigs, 1713 Locust street, Philadelphia, Pa.

J. S.

AVarren Gee, Spring Lake, Michigan. Harrington, 62 Orange street, Worcester, Mass.

C. H. Martin, Oxford Bank, Oxford, Xeb.

Henry L. Sheldon, Middlebury, Yt.
C. E.'^Morrill, Blackberry Station,
Ills.

Theodore F. Pose, Ivoryton, Conn. Geo. H. Heath, Monroe, Michigan. G. H. Stewart, Cashier, Zanesville, Ohio. A. H. Hall, Principal Xornial School of Practice, 17th and Sjiring Garden, Philadelphia, Pa. Martin Steffan, Jr., Box 60, Memphis, Mo. C. I), yan Hoesen, Toledo Xational Bank, Toledo, Ohio. L. S. Hill, Cashier Deseret Xational Bank, Salt Lake City, Utah. Hunter Stedman, Jr., 102 Chestnut street, Philadelphia, Pa. Peter M. Schmidt, Aabenraa, Schlesvig, Xorth Germania. Dr. Edward Marris, 1106 Pine street, Philadelphia, Pa. Hans Berndt, Bismarck. Dakota. James Forbes, Ogden, Utah. Ralph Heaton & Son, Mint of Birmingham, England.
*Ivarl

Edmunds, England. Hiersemann, 1 Turner strasse, Leipzig, Germania. Foster Ely, M. A. D. D., Syracuse, X. Y. Francesco Gnecchi, Xumismaticco Di Brera, Camerino, llali. Spink (t Son, 2 Gracechurch street, London, England. Julius Hahlo, 41 Unterdcn Linden, Berlin, X. W. Germany. United States Counterfeit Detector, 42 Broad street, Xew ^'ork, X. Y.
Christie, Ikiry St.

Xunn &

W.

Adolph AVeyl, Xuniismatist,
E. V. Maack, Kiel, Germany.

Berlin,

Germany.

E. Fay, 3 liuc Montholon, Paris, France.

Lorenz J. Elberg, Lametsbjerg Lint, ])r AVm. H. Pederson, Jamestown, Dakota.

A penrade, Schlesvig, Germany

13
COPYRIGHTED BY
A.

M. SMITH

CURRENT GOLD AP SILVER COINS OF THE WORLD. A COMPILATION FROM OFFICIAL DATA.
Name, Fineness ami Weight, of Coins furnished especially for this ^ork by the TT'^x. Director U. 8. Mint. Amount of Pure Metal in Each Piece, accurately computed. Current Valuation of the Coins based upon tiie official proclamation of the Secretary U. S. Treasury, that "the values of such coins, expressed in the money of account of the United States, are to be talvcn ia estimating the values of all foreign merchandize, made outia any of said Currencies "

Gold.

14

Gold.

1

].")

Owing to

the frequent variations in the metal value of Silver, value, 1000 fine, Sl.OO per ounce.

it is

here computed at U. 3.

Silver.

iletal value of Silver,

it is

here comjiuted at U. S. value, 1000

fine, >!1.00

per ounce.

Silver.

J7

UNITED STATES,
^^innrn.m„^

Gold.

I.

'""'•iiE^'"^

'"->•"

,,....«»*

18

United States Coin History Tabulated.

UNITED STATES,

19
n.

a

Gold.

I.

20
length, from

Cape Cod on

llie

Atlantic to the Pacific near the 43 parallel,
tlio

is

nearly

2,800 miles and the greatest breadth, from

X.

southermost point of Texas 1,G00 miles.

The

extremi:y of iMiuneso a to the area, from the census report of 18S0,

W.

3,607,530 sq. miles (including Alaska but exclusive of the Lakes and River surfaces

There are 38 States, 1 Federal District and and Territories, including water surface of the Lakes and Rivers, is equal to about 4,000,000 sq. miles. In 1700 the population of the U. S. was 3,929,214; there were 6 cities containing an aggregate of 131,472 inhabitants. The census of 1880 shows: population of the Republic 50,155,783; Kumber of cities 28G; population of these cities 11,318,547. The official valuation of property in 1880, real and personal, of the people of the U. S., was $43,642,000,000. The Independence of the United States was acknowledged by England which had held them as colonies, on September 13th, 1783, after a war which commenced in 1770, thirteen States were in the original confederation and these are given first in the
States).

hounding the Eepublic or single
10 Territories.

Tlie total area of the States

table following.
Aroa
Value of
Ejcpeiullt'rs

bq. Allies pioauctsiuisso

Pub. Schools
20.000.4.55

Peiinsvlvania

New Haiups^liire
.Ma»aclmsetts
Pvluulf Island
("iiunectieiit

45,21.5 9,3ft5

$ 744,748,045
73,978,028
631..311,484

$

97.5.689.410

3.721.173
3.3.39.079 .514.813

75;S34.389
14(i,197.415

8,Slo
1,2.30
4.tlti0

101,103,021 1 S3, 080,211
l,oso,i;:i8.096

2.470,413
2.3.7S0.754 2.i)29.773

25.SS2,079 121,003,910
1,03(),176,741

New York
Ki'w Jersey Delaware
I^Iaryland

49.170 7.M.)
2.0.JII

12.210
42:4.30

Virginia Nortli Carolina South Carolina

52.2-0 30.570
51/,475

Georgia
Kentiiclcy

Vermont
Tenues.see

Ohio
Louisiana Indiana
Mississippi
Illinois

40,400 9,505 42,050 41.000 48,720
30.:!50

231.375.236 2li514,438 100,771,393 51,810,092 20,084,237 10.738,008 30,447,448 75,4&3.377 31,a54;366 37,074.886
318.305;.390 24,20.3.183

1.090;245
5. 185. 221

190.895,833 30,789.072
105..303,341

19.910.700
22.0.39.041
l;!..Vi3.2r,7

210.028.107
135.7!)3,002 08,(i77.482 I11.910..540 299,298,(!31 1(19,310.010
2ii(i.749,S37

20,127.9.33

21.941.974
4.SS2.-3S8
20,(l(;(i.913

1.127. 497 .;;.33 3s.:is;i.il7
(.:;..,2:;ii.lll

14s,000.41l
7,495,s(l2

46.SI0
.5t).(i50

92,> 11.915
l.i'i

414.804,073
13,.30.3,504
1N.>33.:;:
1

11,3.^0

Alabama
Maine
Missouri

Arkansas Michigan
Florida

52.250 33.010 00,415 53,S50
.58,015

W,018
](I2

79,825,.393

(i.-Vj2.57s

)7,015

105,384,005
0.7.36,1.59

150,092:025
5,.546.448 71,04.5,926

o«,080
5(),02.5

28,177,9(0 12.061.547 13,869.221 3,297,324
25,0.S5,163 30.303.4.54
1.3.:;.3.3,118

375,033,307
74,249,6.5.5

Iowa Texas Wisconsin
California

2^5,780 50,040
1.38.300
83.:!(t3 it(i,o:W

20,719,928 12S.245.480
11().227.973 7(1,005.198

10..393.742

499,103,181 20.291,835 507,430,227 170,468.886 357,709,507 202.051,282
193,724,2(.0

Minnesota Oregon Kansas

10.S79.982
;)O,790,212

13.403.019 4,428,712
21,4.34.470

50,908,575
235,178.9:!6
l:i.!,147,175

82.(IS0 24.7,S0

West Virginia Nevada Nebraska
<^olorado Dist. (."olumbia

110,7(10 70..S55

22,807,120 2,179,026 12,027,336
11,260,1.39

10.225.;M1
5.30. S(;2

5.40S.325.
103.9.32..541

9,944. S20
1,12(),.3S3

103,925

70
122..5S0 84,i»70
69, ISO

Ter.
••

New Mexico
Utah
^\'ashington

11,882,316 1,284,816
4,-324,992 8.2.50,134

18,146 631.131
6.">3,.524

2-3.109,223 3,(i32,403
.5.-314,399

H.01-3.178
l::.S4

" "

1,409,421
3,HO0,6.:6 1.33.573
.327;7i'8
4(

1,224

Dakota
Ari7ona Idaho

"
" "

119,100 113,020 81,800
14(i,()S0

2,373,970
(il.3.()6.5

22.401,3S4 1.127,946
2..^:!2,890

1.271,317
1.83.3.H07

Montana

'5,083

3.234.-304

"
"

Wyoming
Indian

97,S90 64,090
.577,390
3,C07,,5;!0

898,494

124,4;{3

8;i3,895

"

Alaska
Total

&3, 363.007,706

;

5.3ii,309.179

S10,197.09(!.776

21

UNITED STATES,
STAT5

unauthorized coins

GoM

L

@i^^

^^Tir&s'

CALIFORNIA, 1P53

KJTV FKA.VCISCO

[The inhabitants of Alaska and the Indian Territory (both unorganized),

are-

not incluacd in the above total under "population." In 1880, the Alaska census showed 30, 1~8 inhabitants; the estimated population of the Indian Territory was
75,000.

In 1880, the

total

T^egroes, Chinese, Japanese

"colored" population of the United States, including and Indians, was 6,580,793. Foreign born whites, over

213'earsofage, 3,072,487.]

In the year 1884 there was exported from the United States; of merchandise:
$740,513,609 in value; of specie $67,133,383; of agricultural products, $536,315,318.

Immigrants arriving
1885, 12,719,095.

in the U. S., in 1884, 518,592; total

immigration from 1820 to

The

report of the principal cereal productions in 1880,

shows a

totalof 1,754,861,535 bushels of Indian corn; 459,479,505 of wheat; 407,858,999 of

of barley; 19,831,595 of rye; and 11,817,327 of buckwheat. Total was 5,737,257 bales, averaging 475 poimds to the bale. The sugar product of the State of Salt produced, in 1880, was in value $4,817,636. Louisiana alone, in 1883, was 221,515 hogsheads, the average weight of each being 1,137 pounds. The total tobacco crop of the United States, in 1879, was 469,816,208
oats: 44,113,495

cotton production for 1880,

Pig iron manufactured in 1883, amounted in tons to In 1884, there was in operation, a total of 110,414 miles of railroad, built and equipped at a cost of $6,084,756,045, the gross earnings of which, in 1883, amounted to $823,772,924. The telegraph companies of the United States, in 1884, had an aggregate exceeding 104 miles of line, one company alone controlling 145,037 miles of line, with 450,571 miles of wire, sending in that year 42,076,226 messages, and receiving $19,632,940. The coal fields of the United States are estimated to embrace an area of over 600,000 square miles. There were within the Union, in 1884, 12,671 different periodicals in course of publication, daily, weekly or monthly. Tlie public lands of the United States still open for settlement, and sold at government rates, in 1884, comprised an area of 2,835,883 square miles, or 1,814,965,179 acres. In 1883, there were 22,383 patents issued from the United States Patent Office. The public debt, in 1884, amounted to $1,830,528,923.57, a reduction of $942,707,250.12 from 1866, at the conclusion of the civil war. There are 50,017 post offices; 43,338,127 miles of post -routes, and the service is administered at a cost of $40,404,960 per annum. The total tonnage in 1884, including vessels of every class, was 4, 271, 229 tons. The total receipts of the U. S. for the year ending June 30, 1884, were $343,519,809. The gold and silver produce from the mines of the United States in 1883, in value was of gold $30,000,000 of silver $46,200,000. The amount of National Bank and Legal-Tender Xotes, outstanding on October 31st, 1884 was, of Xational Bank Notes The United Stales paid in 1884, $332,473,693; of Legal-Tender Notes $346,681,016. in pensions to the 322,756 surviving participants in her wars, or to their legal heirs, Tlie amount of appropriation made by Congress, for the the sum of $56,963,098. fiscal year 1885, to carry on the different departments of the government, was $137,451,398. To enumerate the cultivated and natural products of the United States would require more space than a volume of tliis class can afford. There is no gift bestowed by nature, necessary for the comfort or luxury of mankind that does not exist or have its equivalent within the boundaries of the nation tlie wealth of minerals,
pounds, valtied at $36,624,357.
5,146,972.
;

;

23

UNITED STATES,

Silver.

„„.......«„„„.

<.0

S'l'

V

,

„.»v»»«""""".„,,^

'5>

»

^

<^

'"""•M,m„,,iwv»*^*'''

'2

4

precious and useful, is incalculable and and immense as to render it, if needs be,
its Innits.

inexliauslable,

and

its

resources are so varied
its

totally independent of

entire

world beyond
1st, 188-4,

The

state of the total

United States circulation, on October

was

as follows:

25

UNITED STATES,

n a

Silver.

I.

5

2G

GIVING THE
Kxplaiiation
:

AMOUNT OF GOLD OR SILVER

IN COIN.

its fineness being known, take the gross weiglit of the (tieee on the " grains " table and follow directly across until the column of the given fineness is reached. Thus, 110 grains gross, at 87.') fine is found to be 96^ grains pure. If the coin weighs llli» gross take the I'JO and the !• figures in the grains table. The raUulatiiius are only made as far as tSOO fine. If lower or intcnni'diatc'gra(h\s of lincucss arc sought, the simple rules of arithmetic will give the residts of any pussililc cdndiination. 4."i() tine being onehalf of the figures here given for 'JUU, &c., &c. Of course 1000 tine means the entire gross weight is pure.

— To find tlie artiuil amount of pure metal contained in a coin,

Gross

UNITED STATES,

N. A.

28
COPYRIGHTED BV
A. M.

SMITH.

TABLES
Cash Value

standard Fineness of Aiwrican Coins, the Latin Cui'in, and yine-Tcnths of the World. of Gold and Silver, 900 Fim, hn Grains and Ptanijicelyhts.

GOLD.
GRAINS.

Grains on outer colunin, ounce.

money value

oppo.site.

V

.

S.

Standard.

900 fine, Sl.S.fiOpei

29

UNITED STATES,

Silver.

I.

7

no
COPYRJGHTED BV
A. M.

SMiTH.

Givine the Cash Vnlne of Ooltl an<l Silver 1000 Fine by Ornins

TABLES
GRAINS.
1

aii<1

Penny weights.

'Pile valiKi of aiiv U-sser fiiuMii'ss may luMlettTiuiued by ilecliictiugat the rate of 10 prr cent, foreacli huiulred. Thus iCi (F.iiglisli Standard) is 7'- lier rent, less than this table. For UOt) fine (Anieritari Standard) deduct lU per cent. ; fur 8.jU, take olf lo per cent, and so on to any limit.

GOLD.
1

Opposite the number of grains on the outer eolnmns, stauds culated at r. S. Staudaril. KiOO tine. S'.'O.Gli per otiuce.
GRAINS.
(V? 7.3

its

mouey value

cal-

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Oue-half

(U rm
•-•-'

7 3 7 3

1073
(iO

•^-•-4?

9X3 3

45 Two 48 50 55 60 05 70
Three

93 lA

Five

Pennyweight
5.16:L

Pennyweight

2.061
2.15/:i

2.36ft
2.58:t

120 125 130 135 140
Six

5.38-V

5.59H
5.81tV 6.02/^
Pennyweight

200 205 210 215
Nine

8.601 8.8211 9.03|
Pennyweight 9.29,7^

2.79IJ

3.01^
Pennyweight

3413 •"^3

Pennyweight
r,i

12 15 20 One

13

72 75 80 85 90 95
Four

3.09^
Q 90 1
3

3.441

144 150 155 160
Seven

6.19A 6.45| 6.67/^ 6.8Sf
Pennyweight

216 220 225 230 235
Ten

9.46^^ 9.68/^ 9.90i

lU.Ulf
Peiniyweight

3.65H
3.871
Pennyweight

4.08H
4.13^

.86tV
Pennyweight
1.03,3^

24
30 35 40
\ /

1.29^

1.50fi 1.72J

96 100 105 110 115

4.30A
4.51if

168 170 175 180 185 190
Eight

7.23tL 7 Q1 17 7 531 i
7.74f 7.96if 8.17if

240 250 300 350
Fifteen

10.33

Pennyweight

10.76,V 12.9li 15.06ii
15.491 17.21f 19.361

Pennyweight

360 400 450
Twenty

4.73H
4.9r>^

192 195

8.261

Pennyweight

8.39^

480

20.66

As the juice of Tlie money value occupies tlie outside columns in this table I Silver fluctuates more and more each year, these calculation s have been based • I iZ. iil)on the metal atll.OO per ounce. KXlll fine; such price beiu^ a fair and safe average for bluer and seller.
GRAINS

SI L_ V p O Ii

.oi^V
.02

5 03

15f

.02tV
.03 .04

10 14f 19^
Pennyweight

One
.05

.05^\
.06

24 25

.061 .07

28f 30
q'^3

•07/t
.08 .09

35

•09|

38f 43J 45
Pennyweight

Two
.10

.10^\
.11

48 50
r,94

.12

m
.13

55 57| 00 02| 65

.14

14
.15

7

67J 70
Pennyweight

Tliree

72

31

UNITED STATES,

Silver.

1.

8

.

'

. . . .

.

32

ADVANCE SHEET FROM REPORT OX THE PRODUCTION OF THE PRECIOUS METALS IN THE U. S. FOR 1885, BY THE UIRECTOK OF THE MINT.
Average price of her xih-er in London, per
ouiirf. British slandiird, (935, ) siwW^sr.x and the equivalent in Uaittd atatex yold coin of an ounce 1, MO fine, taken at the averaye price.
'

Calendar
yuar.

Average
quotation,

Value of a
flue ounce at average

Value of a
Calendar
quotation.
line ounce at average

Calendar
year.

Average
quotation.

Value of a tine ounce at average
quotation.

London.

quotation.

London.

quoiation.
Li.

u. s.
d.

S.

London.

U.S.
Dollars. l.:.2,5

Dollars.

d.

Dollars.

d.

1-33.. 1834.. 1835.. 1830.. 1837.. 183S.. 1839.. 184a.. 1841 1842..
.

o9A
59ia 59ix GO
•'•'Ttr

1.29,7 1.31,3 1.30,8

1.3L5
1.30;5 1.30,4 1.32,3 1.32,3 1.31,6 1.30,3 1.29,7 1.30,4 1.29,8 1.30 1.30,8 1.30,4 1.30,9 1.31.G

59.^

G0| 00| G(VV

1851 1852. 1853. 1854. 1855. 185G 1857. 1858

61
GO.I

6U 6U
61^

1.33,7 1.32.6 1.34,8 1.34,8 1.34,4 1.34,4 1.35,3 1.34,4

i^m
18G().

02^

1843..

^^,
59 i 59 i

1844..
184.-)..

184i),.

18t7.. 1848.. 1849..
18")0..

5911
59.i

1861. 1862. 1863 1864. 18G5.
18iJ6.

611 61| 61^

59|

18(57

186^.

1.36 1.35,2 1.33,3 34,6 34,5 34,5 33,8 33,9 32,8 32,6

1869. 1870. 1871. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
1.S79.

60/, (30^
60J

^^\%
59i

1.32,8 l.£2,6 1.32,2 1.29,8 1.27.8
1.24,<)

56^ 52f
54ii|

1880. 18S1 1882 18^3.

51521
•J-^rtr

51

1 s

188 1.
1.-85.

50f 50f
.ftJL

1.15.6 1.20,1 1.15,2 1.12.3 1.14,5 1.13,8 1.13.6 1.11.0 1.11,3 1.06,48

RATIO OF SILVER TO GOLD EACH TEN YEARS SINCE
YEAR.

1687.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.ca platans a

Gold. n.

,

''^^

Gold.
No.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC,
PERIOD

(iaplata)
PURE
Sn.A"KR

WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.
(ien'l Kosa,

COIN.

FINE.

OF
Coin.

VALUE

;5 [

Silver.
No.

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC.

ARG. REPUBLIC (LA PLATA)

s

A

Silver.

;*(;

Silver.
No.

BOLIVIA.
PERIOD
i

OR SECTION.
Peso.

COIN.

FINE.
900
900 900 900
900 677 677 900 900

WEIGHT grains! OF PURE
I

VALi::.
.77

Cjin.
1.

Silver
372
376

2.

No

gold cuius are issiunl
for
gent'ral
is

3.

by Bolivia
circulation.

Peso of 8 Reals. do
Boliviano.
1-1(3

414 41S
418

.78

376

.78
.93

4. 5.
6. 7.
8.

There

500
25

450
22
144
144
47

a

Doubloon minted,
;

in

general style resembling the silver coins its value
is $1.5.58.

i
V

J

Peso or do do do

i Real.

.04i
.30 .30
.09 .19

210 210 104

i

do

93

BOLIVIA,

S.

A.

Silver.

III.

Silver.
No.
1.

BOLIVIA,
PERIOD

S.

A.
WEIGHT GRAINS
OF
Coin.
I

OR SECTION.

C(.)IN.

FINE.

PURE Silver

^ALlT.

;J7

BOLIVIA

S.

A.

Silver.

ni.

.

38

BRAZIL,

s

A

Gold.

IV.

Gold.
No.

BRAZIL.
PERIOD
WEIGHT
COIN.
FINE.

OR SECTION.

39

BRAZIL,

A

Silver. IV.

Silver.
No

BRAZIL.

40

Silver.

BRAZIL.

Silver.

IV.

42

Gold.
No.

CHILI.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.
Doubloon.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Gold.

3. 4.
5. 6.
7.

Chili

became

ii

Eepublic,
in

secediug from Spain,
1817.
Its

gold coinage

is

much

below the U.S. Standard.

4;;

CHILI.

Gold.

44

Silver.
No.

CHILI.

CHILI,

s

A

Silver.

,

46

COLOMBIA,

U.

S.

oFSA

Gold.

VI.

Gold.
No.

REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA,

S.

A.

47

COLOMBIA, U. S.

OF

S.

A.

Silver.

VI.

Silver.
No.

REPUBLIC OF COLUMBIA,
PERIOD

S.

A.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

•ib

ECUADOR,

Gold.
1.

VII.

Gol

49

ECUADOR.

Silver

vir.

Silver.
PERIOD

ECUADOR,
OR SECTION.
COIX.

S.
1

A.

50

Silver.

Vll.

,

No.

PERIOD

OR SECTION.
Peso.
Tlie

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Silver

2.
3.

money

of this country

fluctuates

greatly.

The
will
lie

4.
5.
6.

name of the
found on

Capitol, Quito,
is,

where the mint

all coins.

51

GUATEMALA,

Gold.

VIII.

Gold.
No.

GUATEMALA
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.
the
The most populous of Central Americau

COIN.
I
i

FINE.

OF
Coin.
I

PURE Gold.

VALUE.

(^uadrujile.

Republics.

Gold coinage very uncertain as to fineuess.

52

GUATEMALA,

Silver. VIII.

Peso. 386 grs. weight, 847 grs. pure, 72 cts. Xos. 18 cts. Nos. 5 and (>. 4 Heals, 30 cts. All tliese are 900 line and iJropoilionate in weight witli the Peso. Xo. 7. 835 tine, 210 grs. weight, 172 grs. pure, 31 cts.
Silver.

Guatemala.
3. Ileal,

Xo.
4.

1.

2

and

09 cts.

No.

2 Reals,

GUATEMALA, the most

nortlicru

and popidous

ottlic liepubhcs of Central

Total area, 44,800 square miles; America. It comprises nineteen departments. population (1872), 1,197,054. Tlie principal exports are cochineal, indigo, sugar, inaliogany, sarsai)aiilla, tobacco, fruits and coffee (the cotTee crop of 1884 exceeded
4:3,000,000 ponii(l>),

amounting

to 83.710.240.

53

GUATEMALA,

c

Silver

Viri.

Published by A. M. Smith, Post Office Box 754, Philadelphia, Pa.. U. S. A.

The

ea

,

54

HONDURAS,

cA.

Silver. Villi.

Honduras, most
central of the C. A. Kepublics,— 58,168 sq. miles 87(5, 410 population ; Kevenue, 1882,
;

$1,120,000; expenditure

about the same. Debt,
?;n ,000,000. Exports about $1,305,000; one

Railway; products, mahogany, fruit cattle, sugar, tobacco, coffee, indigo, india-rubber, ides, skins, sarsaparilla, cedar, fustic, rose
1
1

and Lima wood. Mineral

wealth is great. Capital, Tegueigalapa.

The Coins of Honduras and Uruguay here represented, are the Peso and Half Peso, all 900 tine, 38!) grains weiglit, 317 grains pure, worth 72 cts. for the Peso, and the Half Peso in proportion.

URUGUAY.

Silver.

Villi

Uruguay, a Repubof South America. 72,151 sq. miles, about 500 ,000 pop. Re V 1 883 was nearly $10,000,000;
lic
.

expenditures,

same

.

Debt, ?62,000,000. Paper money imcurrent in

commerce.

Capital,

]\I(mtevideo. 500 miles of R.R. Exports, 1882, $22,220,512. The grains are cultivated the exl)orts are wool, hides, liorn, hair and tallow.
;

Gold mines

exist.

VENEZUELA,

s.

a 4

Silver.

Xll.

No.

PERIOD

WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
I

PURE
Silver

VALUE.

Coin.

1.

Ob

Gold.
No.

MEXICO.

MEXICO.

^ A

Gold.

o8

Silver.
No.

MEXICO.

59

MEXICO.

N A

Silver.

60

Silver.

MEXICO.

GI

Silver.

IX.

62

Gold.
No.

NEW
PERIOD

GRENADA.
WEIGHT GRAINS
COIN.
FINE.
OF
I

OR SECTION.
See remarks on Silver.

Coin.

PURE Gold.

VALUE.

Dobloon, 16 Pesos.

N.

GRENADA.

Gold.

XI.

i-ii;

do

Silver.
No.

PERU.

65

PERU,

Silver. XI.

66

Silver.

G7

PERU,

s

)

08

TT A

WTT

SANDWICH ISLANDS

XII.

These Coins conform with the United States
Silver ]\Ioney.

One

Dolhir.

1)00 ttOO

412
192

371

77

Half do One Dime.
Quarter Dollar.

173

.36
.07

'M)
t)00

34
96
8t)

.18

HAWAUAN (Sandwich) Inlands.
situate in the

North Pacific

and beautiful chain of islands, Ocean (consisting of 13 islands, b of which are inliabited),
rich

A

forming the kingdom of Hawaii. United area, 7,028 square miles; population, about 52,000. They are admirably situated for trade, being in the route from America to China, and in 1883 were visited by shipping to the extent of 185,310 tons. Exports (1882), $4,974,500, consisting of sugar, rice, coflee, puln, hides, etc. imports, $8,300,000. Revenue, 1,780,080; expenditures, $2,190,000; public debt, $301,495. In 1883, silver half-dollars were coined for this government in the United States to the amount of $300,000; this was done under what is known as the "SpreckeFs contract." Fifty 2)er cent, of the gold in the country is of U. S. coinage. The amount of government (and only) paper currency outstanding at close of 1883, was $335,000, and this currency is issued only on and to the extent of coin deposits kept in the treasury for its specific redemption.
;

1. Quurter dollar, 25 cents, Nos. 2 and .3, Ten cents, same standard as the coins of United States, Liberia is an independent Kepublic of Western Africa, composed of Colored Emigrants from "the United States, and their descendents, founded in organized as a 1S20 by The American Colonization Society as a settlement It occupies that i)art of the coast of North Guinea between Repnbli(; in 1847. the rivers San Pedro and Tong, about -500 miles extending inwards an average

LiBERiAK Coins.

—No

(all

these are of silver,

;

Population, 1,500,000. Exi)orts; colTee, sugar, ginger, palmof 100 miles. kemels, palm-oil, indigo, ivory, gold-dust, etc. Revenue, 1884, $190,000. Chief

Town, Monrovia.

6^

AUSTRIA.

HUNGARY AND RAGUSA.

GoM.

XIII.

,

Gold.
No.

AUSTRIA.
PERIOD
WEIGHT
COIN.
FINE,

OR SECTION.

70

Gold.
No.
1.

AUSTRIA.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Gold.

71

AUSTRIA.

HUNGARY AND RAGUSA.

Gold.

XIII.

^••r.fi

iV

S9^

72

Gold.
No.

AUSTRIA.

/c

AUSTRIA

H U GARY AND RAC;USA.

Gold

XTII.

74

Silver.

AUSTRIA.

HUNGARY AND KAGUSA.

SilVeF.

XTII.

76

Silver.
No.

AUSTRIA.

77

AUSTRIA.

HU V GARY AND RAGUSA.

SUver.

XITT.

78

Silver.
No.

AUSTRIA.

79

AUSTRIA.

HUNGARY AXD KAGUSA

SilVGr.

XTII.

80

Silver.

8T

AUSTRIA.

HUNGARY AND RAGUSA.
9

Silver.

XIIT.

82

Silver.
No.

AUSTRIA.

83

AUSTRIA.

HUNG iARY AND RAGUSA.

Silver.

x:iT.

84

Silver.
No.

AUSTRIA.
PERIOD

HUNGARY.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

85

AUSTRIA.

HUNGARY AND RAGUSA.

SilVeF.

XIII

86

Silver.

87

BELGIUM.

SUver.

XIV.

ss

Gold.
No.

DENMARK.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

81)

DENMARK.

Gold

XVI.

90

Silver.
No.

DENMARK.

!)1

DENMARK.

SHver.

XVL

92

Silver.
No.

DENMARK.

'.).•;

DENMARK.

Silver.

XVI.

M
Silver.

95

DENMARK.

SUver.

XVI.

96

Silver.
No.

DENMARK.

97

DENMARK

Silver.

XVI.

98

Silver.
PERIOD

DENMARK.
OR SECTION.
COIN.
FIXE.

weight of
i

gra1.,s

pure
Silver

value.

Coin.

(In

Comnicmoatioa of Suppressec

99

DENMARK.

KM)

Gold.
No.
1,

FRANCE.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Gold.

1(11

FRANCE.

Gold

XVTI.

!

02

Gold.
No.

FRANCE.

lu:}

FRANCE.

104

Silver.
No.

FRANCE.

105

FRANCE.

Silver.

XVII.

,

106

Silver
No.

FRANCE.
PERIOD
WL-lGHl'

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FIXE.

lo;

FRANCE.

Silver.

XVll.

lOS

Silver.
No.

FRANCE

109

FRANCE.

SHver.

XVIT.

,

Silver.

Ill

FRANCE.

Silver.

XVII.

112

Silver.

113-

FRANCE.

Silver.

XVir.

lU
Silver.
No.

FRANCE.

FRANCE.

Silver.

XVii.
,

>^r^b

^

^

^t'^S'.'"'',

h-

'....

"yfi^ia;/^'"

^1

-C.,^.!*

v^

&^'^

f><

XC-v^~S'fy..,

%^^W^Jf

.<'S^"'"t's>k

"•afi.i....

116

Silver.
No.

FRANCE.

FRANCE.

Silver. XVli.

^•^ill^sli^'

118

Gold.
No.

GERMANY.

119

G'ETJTVrA'NrV . \XSlllX±yi.J±LH X

LEICHENSTEIN. HESSE-CASSEL SAXONY. NASSAU. BRUiNfSWlCK.

r* ^1 /l

U-OlCl.

^^rm XVlTl.

1

1-20

Silver.
No.

GERMANY

121

GERMANY.

lirE:^Si^lol\^HY^-^^^'^^^^-

SUver.

XVIII.

2

122

Sil\

I2i

CxERlVrANV . ?CHWARZBURG_RUDOI,STADT. VJTJUrVlVl^iN I HOHENZOLLERN-SIGMARINGEN'. HECHINGEN

a^l„^^ OUVer.

VT7-TTT XVIII.

3

o

124

Sil^

125

GERMANY,

anhalt

Silver.

XVlii.

4

126

Silver.
Ko.

GERMANY,
PERIOD

^^^den.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE
1

VALUE.

Coin.

Silver

1.

12;

GERMANY,

baden.

Silver.

XVI I

r.

5

128

Silver.

129

GERMANY,

babka

Silver.

XViii.

a

180

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE,

OF
I

PURE
Silver

VALUE.

Coin.

i.

131

GERMANY.

BADEN.

Silver,

xviii.

7

132

Gold.
No.

GERMANY.

BAVARIA.

GERMANY.

BAVARIA

Gold.

XVIII.

134

Silver.
No.

GERMANY,
PERIOD

bavaria
weight grains of pure
i

OR SECTION.

COIN.

fine.

VALUE.

Coin.

Sila^er

1.

135

GERMANY,

bavaria

Silver.

XVlli.

136

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

137

GERMANY.

NUREMBERG

BAVARIA.

Silver.

XVIII. lo

1-38

Silver.
No.

GERMANY,

^^varia

119

GERMANY,

bavaria

Silver.

XVIII. ii

140

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

BAVARIA.

141

GERMANY,

bavak.a.

Silver.

XVIII. 12

142

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

Bremen

143

GERMANY,

bremen

Silver.

XVlll. 13

144

Silver.

14.1

GERMANY.

Brunswick.

Silver.

XVlii.

u

146

Silver.
No.

GERMANY,

brunswick.

14;

GERMANY.

Brunswick.

Silver.

XYIIT. 15

14S

Silver.
Xo.

GERMANY,
PERIOD

bruxswick.
WEIGHT GRAINS
OF
I

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

PURE
Sila'er

VALUE.

Coin.

1.

lid

GERMANY.

Brunswick.

SUver.

XVITI.

,6

^<^IK^^

^ SPECIES^ P THALER 5

150

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

FRANKFORD-ON-THE-MAiy.

151

GERMAMY.

FRAXKFORT-ON^-THE-MAIX.

SilVGr.

XVIIT.

^^

1

152

Silver.
No.

GrEIilVTANY.

FRANKFORT-OX-THE-.MAI.V.

153

GERMANY.

tRANKFcDRT-ox-niEMAiN.

SllvGr.

XVIII.

1.-.4

Silver.

U5
Silver.

XVIII.

,

156

Gold.
No.

GERMANY,
PERIOD

h ANOVER.
WEIGHT

OR SECTION.

COIN.

(FINE,

V>7

XVIII.

158

Silver.
No.

GERMANY,

hanover

159

GERMANY,

hanover

Silver.

XVIII.

,,

160

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.
PERIOD

HESSE-CASSEL.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF
Coin.

VALUE.

Silver

I.

16L

GERMANY,

h

162

Silver.
No.

GERMANY,
PERIOD

i'ksse-cassel.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

163
HESSE-CASSEL.

Silver.

XYlii.

1

(M

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.
PERIOD

HESSE-DARMSTADT.
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.
Pliilipp.
2
II.

COIN.
Gulden.

FINE.

OF
I

Coin.

PURE Silver

VALUE.

Ludwig
do
Philipp.

Ludwig Ludwig Ludwig Ludwig

I.

II.

III.
II.

J6o

GERMANY,

hessedarms TADT.

Silver.

XVlli.

166

Silver
No.

GERMANY.
PERIOD

!

IPPE.

WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
Coin.

PURE Silver

VALUE.

1.

167

GERMANY,

lppe

Silver.

XVIII.

1G8

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

169

GEKMANY.

lubeck

Silver.

XVlll.

170

Silver.
No.

GSRIVIANY.
PERIOD

MECKLENBURG-SCHWERIN.
WEIGHT GRAINS
OF
I

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

Coin.

PURE Silver

VALUE.

1.

171

GERMANY,

mejklexuurg.

Silver,

xnu.

SHver.

GERMANY.

173

GEKMANY.
1

Nassau

SHver.

XVIII.

174

Sil^

175

GERMANY,

oldexburg.

SUver. XVIII.

176

Gold.
No.

PRUSSIA.

177

GERMANY.

PRUSSIA.

Gold.

XYTTI.

,,

17

17'.)

GERMANY,

PRUSSIA.

Silver. XYlii.

18U

Silver.

181

GERMANY.

PRUSSIA.

SUver. XVIII.

,,

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

A.M. SMITH, Publisher
PHILADKLPHU. FA.:

182

Silver.
No.

PRUSSIA.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

18^

GERMANY.

PRUSSIA.

Silver, xviii.

32

H

184

Silver.

185

GERMANY.

Prussia

SHver. XVIII.

186

Silver.
No.

PRUSSIA.

187

GERMANY,

pku

SUver. XVIII.

188

Silver.
No.

PRUSSIA.

189

GERMANY,

pil^sia.

Silver.

XMII.

,.

190

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

REUSS-GRF.rZ AND REUSS I-OBF.NSTEIN-.

191

GERMANY.

REUSS GREIZ. REUSS LOBENbTEIN.

Silver. XVIII.

192

r'

r^,<1?!-^^-^.

^ ^P

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA.

193

GERMANY.

SAXE-COBURG-GOTHA.

Silver. XVlll.

194

Silver

GERMANY.

19;

GERMANY.

SAXE-COEURG-GOTHA.

SHver. XVIII.

1<1G

Gold.
No.

GERMAN.

SAXONY.

J

97

GERMANY.

SAXONY.

Gold.

XVIII.

198

Silver.

199

GERMANY.

sAxoxv.

SHver. XYlll.

,„

i(JO

Silver.
No.

GERMANY,

saxoxv

201

GERMANY,

saxon

Silver. XVIII.

,,

202

Silver.

203

GERMANY,

saxony

Silver. XVIII.

•20i

Silver.

205

GERMANY,

saxony

Silver. XVIII.

206

20i

GERMANY.

WALDECK.

Silver. XVlli.

208

Gold.
No.

GERMANY.
PERIOD

WURTEMBERG.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

209

GERMANY,

wurtemburg

Gold.

XVIII.

210

211

GERMANY.

WURTEMBURG.

Silver. XVlll.
1

46

212

Silver.
No.

GERMANY,

wurtemberg.

21i

GERMANY,
1

wurtemburg.

SUver- XVIII.

^^

214

215

GERMANY,

wurtemburg.

Silver. XVIII.

216

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

WURTEMBERG.

GERMANY,

wurtemburg

Silver. XVlll.

218

Silver.
No.

GERMANY.

WURTEiMBERG.

219

GERMANY,

^v

UKTEMBURG.

SUver. XYIII.

Published by A. M. tijiiTH, Post Office T5ox 754,

PaitADELPmA,

Pa., U. S, A.

220

GERMANY,

LOBENSTEIN

Silver. XVIII.

No.

PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

221

ROUMANIA,

SHver. XXXVin.

Silver, all 900 Fine. No. 1, 5 Lei, 385 grains weight, 346 grs. pure, 72 cents Nos. 3 and 6, 1 Leu, 77 grains weight, 09 grs. pure, 14 eents; Nos. 3 and 5, 50 Bani, 38 grs. weight, 34 grs. pure, 7 cents Nos. 4 and 7, 3 Lei, 154 grs. weiglit, 138 grs. pure, 28 cents.
;

ROUMANIA COINS.— —
ROUMANIA.

;

This kingdom consists of the Moldo-Wallachia provinces,

formerly belonging to Turkey, by treaty of Berlin, 13th July, 1878, recognized as an independent State, and the territory of Dobrudscha added to it; raised to a king-

dom March
rich.

26, 1881.

Total area, 49,202 square miles; population 5,370,000.

Walla-

chia, largest of the three provinces,

has area of 28,276 square miles. The soil is very Products: corn, maize, millet, beans and peas; vines and various fruits arc

abundant; forests most extensive.
are reai'cd; minerals

Immense numbers of cattle, sheep and horses and precious metals are said to abound. Exports: wheat,
it

maize, rock-salt and cattle.
2,200,000 inhabitants;

Moldavia, the least of the three provinces, has about produces large quantities of fruit, grain and wine. Public

revenue of Roumania (1884), $26,289,115; exi^enditures, about the same as the revenue; public debt, $132,810,060; imports (1882), $53,870,420; exports (1882), $48,946,141. Since 1881, there has been authorized an issue of 25,000,000 lei, in pieces of 5 lei; the coinage of gold has been very small, the circulation in that metal is
entirely of Napoleons and Austrian pieces of 8 and 4 florins. The paper circulation in 1883, was 12,091,730 francs in treasury notes, and 58,498,790

composed almost

francs in national

bank

notes.

•>)•)

Gold.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

223

GREAT BRITAIN.

Gold.

XTX.

,

•224

Gold.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

22r>

GREAT BRITAIN.

Gold.

XIX.

22G

Gold.
No.
1.

GKEAT BRITAIN.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
Coin.

PURE Gold.

VALUE.

227

GREAT BRITAIN.

Gold.

XIX.

•>28

Gold.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

229

GREAT BRITAIN.

Gold.

XIX.

•230

Gold.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

281

GREAT BRITAIN.

Gold.

XIX.

•2:]2

Gold.
No.

GREAT BHITAIN.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

GHEAT BHITAIN

2;u

Gold.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.
PERIOD
WEIGH!' GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
Coin.

I

PURE Gold.

VALUE.

1.

2.

235

GKEAT BRITAIN.

Gold.

XIX.

236

Gold.

237

GREAT BRITAIN.
1

Gold.

XIX.

/^^'^^fe>v5

2;38

GKEAT BRITAIN.

Gold.

XIX.

No.

2;J9

GREAT BRITAIN.
is a strip of coast, about 45 miles in length, with some land south of the Krian River, and a large district

Province Wellesley, on the main land, opposite Penang,

It has an area of 270 square miles, is under the authorities of high state of cultivation, compared with the neighboring territory. Cyprus, an island of the Levant, at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, about 50 miles from the coast of Asia Minor, and 60 miles from its north-east extremity to the port of Latakia on the Syrian coast, with which it is connected by submarine telegraph cable; the distance to Port Said at the entrance of the Suez Area, estimated 4,000 square miles, with population in 18S1, of Canal, is 240 miles. 185,870. The principal productions are cotton, wine, grain, carobs (or locust beans),

called the Dindings.
in a

Penang, and

fruits. In olden times it was celebrated for its mineral wealth, the copper being of superior grade; the mines were long abandoned, but are now being again worked; large quantities of salt are obtained from salt lakes near Larknaka. Exporis: cotton,

and

salt, locust-beans, wheat, barley, wool, silk, spirit, sponges and raisins. Cyprus still forms part of the Ottoman Empire, but the government is administered by England, and will be while Russia holds Batoum and Kars. The Sublime Porte In 1883, the exports amounted to $1,451,050. receives a yearly subsidy of $438,430.

wine,

two pro Upper or Western Canada is now Ontario, Lower or Eastern Canada is Quebec; and these are sepaQuebec also includes the Isle of Anticosti and the 3Iagrated by the river Ottawa. dalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. The inhabitants of Lower Canada are mostly of French descent; those of Upper Canada chiefly British. The timber trade has long been, and still is, the most valuable of its commerce, though agriculture and cattle raising are fast growing in importance; the fisheries also yield great revenues. The mineral resources are not fully developed, but a large section, especially the shores of Lake Superior and Lake Huron produce gold, silver, cobalt, iron, lead, zinc and copper; sandstone, limestone, slate, and marbles of every color are found. Petroleum is produced in large quantities. Agriculture receives most attention in Ontario, and farm products as exports, are divided about equally between the United States and Great Britain; Montreal, Quebec and Toronto being the great cenKingston occupies a relation to the Lake trade, similar to that tres of distribution. of Quebec with the sea, Toronto being second in sharing this commerce. Montreal commands a vast overland system of communication by canal and railway.
area of these
viuce.^
is

Ontario and Quebec, or Canada Proper.

The

290,421 square miles (Ontario 101,733: Quebec 188,088);

since 1807, a confederated government, embracing the British North American Provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New r^runswick. Nova Scotia, ^lanitoba, British Columbia, North-West Territorj^, Vancouver's and Prince Edward Islands. This territorj', about as large as Europe,
i^tretches

THE DOMIXIOX OF CANADA,

from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean, and the area
Its

is

estimated at 3,580,-

290 square miles.
thereof;
balt, iron, zinc, lead,

exports are agricultural products,
fish,

animals,

and produce
copper, co-

woods and lumber,

manufoctured goods and gold,

silver,

and marbles, amounting in 1883 to $93,407,072. Poi)ulation, 4,352,080. There is no mint in Canada. In 1883 (latest report) of gold coin and gold bullion there was imported $1,228,753; and exported $476,192; of silver coin and silver bullion there was no export, and the inqjort amounted to $880,000. $950,000 of gold Avas produced the same year fiom the mines. The paper circulation outstandiiig Avas, Government, $16,115,084, banks, $36,501,695. The aA^erage of dutj' on all inqumed commodities, subject to
sandstones, limestone, slate
duty, Avas 17.5 per ccnl, in 1883.

240

Silver.
No.

GKEAT BRITAIN.

241

GREAT BRITAIN.

Silver. XIX.

212

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

GREAT BRITAIN.

•.'44

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

24.>

GREAT BRITAIN.

Silver.

Xix

24G

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

247

GREAT BRITAIN.

Silver.

XIX.

ii^'

H^j)

@;^

lU.s

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

249

GREAT BRITAIN.

Silver.

xix.

2")0

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

251

GREAT BRITAIN.

SUver.

XIX.

,3

252

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Silver

1.

253

GKEAT BRITAIN.

Silver.

XIX.

,.

254

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

25;i

GRSAT BRITAIN.

Silvpr.

XIX.

,.

256

GREAT BRITAIN.

Silver.

XIX.

,,

ROBTSRT.

sTEPff^^*

wrLLTJOC I. JIEITRY

I.

2o7

GREAT BRITAIN. ^^;?J^^^f,I„}^ SHver.

XTX.

258

SUver Tokens.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

259

GKEAT BRITAIN.

BANK TOKENS

SUver.

XIX.,,

Published bv A, M, Smith, Post Office Box. 7di.

Phila Pa.

itO

Gk>ld.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

SCOTLAND.

2G1

GREAT BRITAIN.

SCOTLAND.

Gold.

XIX.

262

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

SC>.

TLAND.

263

GREAT BRITAIN,

scotla

SUver.

XIX.

•H'A

GREAT BRITAIN.
Sierra LiCone comprises Ihe peninsula of that name, Sherboio Island, with some contiguous tracts and territorj' on the sea coast extending to, and including Mannah, which adjoins the Republic of Liberia and the Isles dc Los, the whole situated between 7^ 20'— 8^ 40' X. latitude, and l^o 20'— 13° 20' W. longitude, embracing an area of over COO square miles, with a population, in 1S81, of 60,546, of whom only 103 were resident whites; tropical fruits and plants grow luxuriantly; coffee and

cocoa have been introduced by tlie British. Exports: bennie seed, cocoanuts, ginger, groundnuts, india-rubber, gum copal, hides, palm oil, jkiIui kernels, and cola Gambia, this settleCapital, Freetown. nuts, amounting in 18S2, to 82,100,005.

ment consists of the Island of St. Mary, British Combo, Albreda, The Ceded Mill, and ISIcCarthy's Island. Area 21 square miles; population (1881), 14,150, of whom only 105 were whites; rice, cotton, maize, and a kind of millet, called Kous, are produced in the country along the Gambia River, but not sufficient for export. The principal exports are wax, hides and groundnuts.
comprises the coast of the Gulf of Guinea from 2^ 40' "W. Greenwich, extending inland to an average distance of 50 miles, including an area of about 1G,G20 square miles and a population of over 520,0 30. The Exports: gold, ivory, gum copal, oil-palm grows on this coast in great profusion. monkey skins, palm kernels and oil; these are sent principally to England. The chief forts and settlements are Cape Coast, Castle, Elmina, Axim, Dixcove and Accra, the capital. Value of exports in 1882, $1,700,095. Lagos is an island and port on the Slave Coast, embracing also tlie north coast of tlie Gulf of Guinea, between 20 50' and 4^ 30' E. longitude. It was permanently occupied to efieet the complete suppression of the slave trade in the Bight of Benin, and to develop its important trade in palm kernels and oil, lead ore, indigo and canewood. Lagos is the ExI)rincii)al town; iM)pulation in 1881 was 75,370, of whom onh* 94 were whites.
ports (1881), $2,300,035.

Gold Coast Colony

to 1° 10' E. of

liLN'G-MOXEY.
Tliat personal oniametits, made of the i)recious metals, were of a certain standai d weight and passed current as riKniey is certainly proved by Holy Writ. In the 24tU chapter and 'iiJd verse of Genesis, Abraham's servant, meeting Rebecca at the Avell, "took a golden ear-ring of half a shekel weight, and two-bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold"' and gave them to the damsel who ''was very fair to Hieroglyphic sculptures of ancient Egyi>t alsc) sliow the weighing and look ujion.'" recording of rings, evidently passing as payment, and pictured records of past ages, relating to otiier nations fuily sustain the opinions of nmnismatists, in contradiction to tlie dissent of certain savants, that rings ot dilferent size and metals were current

money.

From the far East, to the "West and Xorth, the ring-money found its way at an early age, and Caisar in his Commentaries, speaking of the money of Britain, says •"they use, instead of money, rings adjusted to a certain weight.'' though they then had money both of bronze and gold in circulation this related to the century preceding the (jhristian Era. In Ireland the ring-money was current for years later tiian the iieriod mentioned, and in Sweden and Norway it still existed in the eleventh and twelflii As most of the specimens now in collections Avere found in Ireland, it is centuries. probable that the use of ring-money was much more common in that country than in Britain, and its similarity to actual coinage is rendered more striking from its There are small rings of exactly one-half careful adjustment to special weight. l)eimyweight and so on through almost every intermediate grade up to thirteen ounces, seven jjennyweight, some even containing fractional thirds, small change, as it were a perfect money system.
; ;

265

GREAT BRITAIN.

i^iNGM'M^y

;

;^

266

GREAT BRITAIN.
land.
tirst,

The second plate illustrates different varieties of the ring;-money. gold, of IreThe earliest were little more than i)ieces of wire bent ronnd, and plain at

the ends were later flattened or shaped into varions forms, with rude attempts at ornamentation, the i)rogress of which can ea.sily be traced by the specimens [iresented. Xo. 10 is of cast bi-ass, as is Xo. 9 also, with the rings treble joined ; in Xo. 8 the brass rings are looped one within the other for con^enience in carrying Xo. T), which A\as found tliese baser metal rings have been foimd ni vast quantities.
in a bog in County (Talway, Ireland, is of gold weighing fifteen ounces, and is worth Xo. 7 is also of Irish production, uud contains To dollars worth of gold. $300.
l;tent wire the fashion and weight of the ring-money especially the Gallic warriors carried tiieir fortunes iii)on their IJersons in the shape of ornaments, but always having a fixed and standard weight rendering it transferable as actual money. The torcpie, worn aroiuid the neck, was In 17U0 a generally of pure gold and sometimes weighed as much as five pounds. specimen was imearthed at Pattingham, in St affords! ire, England, which contained tlu'ee pounds two ounces of fine gold, was four IVet long, very bright, and so flexible that it could be wrapped round the arm like a roi)e, and be easily extended to its original form; the bend which formed a hook at each end, as shown in Xo. 2 of The other s])ecimens are also of pure gold and probably Plate, served to fasten it. aieeded no fastening, tlieir extreme ductility causing them to retain the shape when placed on a limb, as is still tlie case Avitli the bracelets and anklets worn in some The illustration Xo. 1 is of a bronze torque, found in Somparts of British India. ersetshire, England ; it weighs two poimds, and is an exact reproduction of the gold ones mentioned. Xos. 1, 3. 4, 5 are copies of other relics, discovered in 18;'-2, and though they were soon melted and recoined into modern English money yet

From

the small circle of

increased,

and people,

i

drawings were made from them and are here given on a reduced scale. Xo. 4 weighed 41bs. 1 oz. 16 dwts. 11.06 grains; Xo. 3, lib. 4 oz. 1.") dwts. 13.47 grains. andXo. 5, lib. 4 oz. 13 dwts. 10.47 grains.

The use of I'ing-money is still prevalent in Africa, the Eonlah-jolaf and other African tribes still bringing gold-ring money to Sierra Leone, and .is a proof that the precious metal is only thus shaped to give to it a monetary character, it is a fact Eing-money has also, within the that these people never use rings for ornament. hist few years V)een dug up in Ceylon; it is formed of a flat wire, doubled into a loop, and stamped with inscrijtt ions such as ''•Sultan Ali Aadil Shah, struck at Lari. a stamped Daugh. " This prince reigned A. D. 1()-V.), and "daugh'' is the denomit)f a coin of his country. In Ireland silver as well as gold ring-money has l)een found, some being marked for division in halves. It is probable tiiat the far greater extent of the use of this form of coinage in Ireland, over Britain, arose from the fact that tlie former country maintained its indejiendence k)ng after the Romans had subjugated Britain and recoined every form of metallic currency into the money of Rome.

nation

Ascension is an isolated South Atlantic Ocean, 7^55' S. latitude, and 140 25' 5" W. longitude. Area, 35 square miles. The English took possession of it in 1815. It now has a steam factory, naval and victualling yards, coaling depot and hospitals; game aboiuids and where the soil is cultivated, the yield is plentiful.
island, of volcanic

British Possessions in the South Atlantic.
origin, situated

in the

In October, 1883, the population consisted of 89 officers, seaman and Kroomau. Exports: turtles and birds' eggs. Fulklarul Islands. These, the only considerable cluster in the SoiUh Atlantic, lie about 300 miles east of the Straits of ^Magellan, and consist of East Falkland (area 2,700 square miles); West Falkland (2,000 square
miles),

and about 100 small and wool.

islets,

rocks and sandbanks, comprising in the aggre-

gate 4,740 square miles, and a population in 1881, of 1,543.
tallow, seal skins

Exports:
S.

oil,

hides,
tlie

South Georgia, an island 800 miles E.

E. of

GREAT BRITAIN,

king

money

268

Gold.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

EAST INDIA.

209

GREAT BRITAIN, fast
l1>

inpia

Gold.

XTX.

.,

270

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

EAST INDIES,

271

GREAT BRITAIN. EAST

IXniA.

SUver.

XTX.

272

Silver.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN,
PERIOD
f)R

eastindia
OF
I

WEIGHT GRAINS
COIN.
FINE.
PURE
Silver

SECTION.

VALUE.

Coin.

1.

27;5

GREAT BRITAIN,

kast im ia

Silver.

XIX.

;

274

GREAT BRITAIN,

n a colonies

Silver.

XIX

nt this time. tliH soverei'^u for 20 shillings, or one ] omid sterling; the dotibia as before. sovereign for 4 s. tlie angel, 6s. 8d. He.vry yill no "nobles," or " vyals " were issued by this King; h« coineLl the doul)le ryal, or sovereign, and introduced the crovfi into the English series. The sovereign was ciu-rent for 20 s., or 1 £ sterling, the quarter, or crown, for 5 s., and the half -crown to 2 s. <> d. Gold was raised only about ^V,. a protit of nearly (10 per cent. b(^ing made by while the silver was inflated f exchanging silver for gold. VI (1547) coined the same pieces as his father, Henry YIII. Gold was raised -^j^, bringing the proportions of fine silver and fine gold to 1 as to 5jVDuring this reign the date was first placed on coins of the English
)

;

,

:

;

Edward

series.

change in general design of sovereign or double ryal. Mary, 1553 Silver raised in proportion to gold to 1 to HtVtElizabeth (1558) made many unimportant changes in her coins issued the pound sovereign, and made the proportion of fine silver to fine gold, in th« 43d year of her reign to be as 1 to lOff^f previous to which time it had been jw
:

No

;

;

1

to

11^.

Great Britain's American Colonies. All silver coins, 925 fine. No. 50 cents of Canada, 179 grains weight, 105 pure grs. 34 cents. No. 2 ; 50 cents of Newfoundland, 181 grs. weight, 1G8 pure ?5 cents. No. 3 ; 2 dollars of Newfomidland (Gold) 910 fine, 51 grs. weight, 37 grs. pure 11.59. No. 4 20 cents of Newfoundland, 72 grs. weight, GO grs. pure 13 cents. No. 5 10 cents of Newfoundland, 30 grs. weight, 33 grs. pure 0^ cents. No. 6 10 cents of Canada, 35 grs. weight, 32 grs. pure Oi cents. No. 7 25 cents of Canada, 89 grs. weight, 83 pure 17 cents. James I (1G03) shows the bust of the King in armor, on sovereigns. He also issued the unitit;, or unite, the half-unite, called a double crown the (luarter, called the Britain crown, and the half-ciuarter, called the half-crown. The sovereign here is for the first time called tlu^ rose ryal. The angel type is the same as before. By jn-oclamation of Nov. Kill, he raised the nominal and true value of gold to 10 per cent. Charles I coined but little gold his reign the proportion of fine gold
1
;

;

;

;

;

m

;

to fine silver

was

The Commonwealth gold
similar to those of Charles
I.

1 to 13|S|'^.

coin are in weight, fineness and value, exactly

GREAT BRITAIN.

SHver.

XIX.

SHver Tokens.
No.

GREAT BRITAIN.

276

Silver.
No.

Great Britain.

PKMF.RARA AX

^oSF.QUEB^

Ol'.AI-A.

277

GREAT BRITAIN.E^sfJS.«Dr.l^.v.Silver.

XIX.

3.

278

Gold.
No.
1.

Grand Masters.

KNIGHTS OF MALTA.
COIN.
FINE.

PERIOD

OR SECTION.

WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Gold.

283

GREAT BRITAIN,

afric.

Silver,

XIX.

1.

-284

GREAT BRITAIN.
St. Peter, all

St.

of silver, size and form of pennies struck at York. pennies, struck at the city of Martin, only two specimens extnnt
;
;

Lincoln. St Echmmd, \)e\my and half-penny, struck at St Edmundsbury about 950. Archrisiiops. Bisliops, abbots, and archbishops were, in early times, .yiven permission to stril'ie money, but the latter alone were allowed to stamp their own portraits on the coin. The ri^ht was withdrawn in 924, by ^tlielstan, who ordered that all the money in tlie kingdom should be uniform after tliat tlie ecclesiastical mintages were distinguished from tlie royal only by some IK'culiar marks, and even these were banished in tlie reign of Henry VIII. Men11(111 is here confined to pieces struck by the Sees of Canterbury and York, prior to the restrictions imposed by ^thelstan. The earliest autlientic coin originating at the mint of the Archbishop of Canterbury is a very rare penny of Jaenbrhi, who held that See from 7(33 to 790, and on tliis he is united witli the King of

;

jSIercia.

u:^hilheard Abp, 790 to 803, contemporary with Offa and Coenwlf, kings of and both tlieir names occur on his coins, which are very rare. Vulfrcd, 803 to 830, on his pennies dropped the king's name, placing liis own and his portrait on the Obverse. Theogild succeeded Yulfred, but held the See only three months and left no
IMercia, coins. Ceolnoth, several exist.

Ahp, 830

to 870, put his

name, bust and

titles

on pennies, of which

Ethered, Abp, 871 to 890 only one coin known, devices as preceding. Plegmund, 891 to 9-23, left a few of liis i:)ennies with name and title, ])ut no
;

portrait.

Tlie coins of the arclibishoi»s of York were stycas. mitil tliev were patterned after the regal coins, and tlicii sonic symbol or miiit-niark was the distinguishing feature. Enbald, 796, is the first of this See whose stycas are known, but he is probablv the second of that name ; tlievc are many varieties. Yiqmund, 851, succeeded Widsius, the immediate successor of Embald, who left no coins. Vigmund left several types.

Ulfhere,

mintage

;

854 to 892, the last Archbishop, whose his stycas, very rare, resemble the former ones.

name

occurs on

I'ork

MOXARCHS OF KXGLAND.
tories England, very rare.

Ecgbeorht, 800 to 837, became King of the West Saxons, called his terriand concpiered nearly all of South Britain. His pennies are

Ethelwlf, 837 to 856, son of the above, succeeding only to the West Saxon Kent, Essex, Sussex and Surry, going to ^thelstan, on whose death, 852, they reverted to Ethelwlf. Fifty varieties of his pennies are known. .Etkelbald, 855 to 860, son of Ethelwlf, seized on West Saxony in 855 and held it until his death. Only one coin of his ever known. yEtlielbearht, 856 to 8(56, second son of Ethelwlf, succeeded to Kent, etc., on his father's death, and to West Saxony after his bnHher. Sixty varieties of his coin known. ^Ethdred, 806 to S71, brother of the above. Coins not numerous, very light aiul of debased silver. Coins very rare, mostly pen^Elfred, 872 to 901, brother of the above. nies hilt some pieces are in existence that are not of that class. Eadweard, 901 to 925, son of vElficd. Coins pennies, half-pence or thirds of pennies; about eighty varieties known. ^Ethelstan, 925 to 941, succeeded his father, and regulated the mints in A'arious towns conferred upon some ecclesiasticals the privilege of striking

dominions

:

;

:

;

285

GREAT BRITAIN.
of mints
acter.

money, but ordered it all to be of one (tlie regal) type. About sixty variations and 110 of moneys occur upon liis coins all i)ennies, of good sih-er. Eadmund, 941 to 94G, brother of foregoing and his coins all of like char:

;

Over 100 types known. Eadred, QK) to 1)55 types of coins (120 known
;
:

j

similar to those of his

predecessors.

Eadwig, 95.') to 959, son of Eadmund 30 varieties. Types like the aboA'e. Erdqar, 95S to 975, brother of Kadwig. during whose life he had beeii elected King of all the country between the Tlianies and the Firth of Forth;
after his brother's death, 958, he became King of all Britain, being the first monarch to rule over all the really and permanently united Kingdom of the Coins sinnlar to the otliers, though generally lighter; 170 Heptarchy. moneyer'sl names and over 70 mints mentioned on his varieties. Eadweard II, '• The .Martyr,"' 975 to 978, eldest son of above, succeeding at Coins like the age of b! nuu-dered l\v conuuand of his step-mother, Elfrida. his father's, with one exception, and numerous. ^Ethelrad 11, 978 to 1010, succeeded his murdered half-brother passed laws for regulation of coinage. His money presents some lunelties of type and appearance, and is quite numerous, over 250 varieties being known. Cnut, lOK), to 1035. Sweyne. King of Denmark, had in 101.3, gained Cnut possession of part of Britain, and ^Ethelrsed took refuge in Xorniandy. claimed the dominion of his fatlier, Sweyne, and fought hard against ^Etiielra'd and liis son, Edmond Ironsides (who left no coins), and finally obtained rule
; :

money

over the whole kingdom. Ot Sweyne, no English coins are known Init the of Cnut is very plentiful, 310 moneyers being mentioned and more places of mintage than any other king. His pennies are veiy light ; 50 Harold I, 1035 to 1010, son of Cnut.
;

varieties

known.
;

English and Ilarthacnut, 1040 to 1042, elected to succeed his brother. Danish coins apjwar in this reign all very rare. Edward '• The Confessor,''^ 1042 to 106G. Coins various in type, size and weight half-pence and fartliings were formed by cutting the penuy into two or four parts. About 400 varieties. Harold II, 1006, succeeded Edward and reigned only nine months killed Coins numerous. at the Ijattle of Hastings. Willinm the Conqueror, 10(3G to 1087, and William Rufus, 1087 to 1100. The money of l)oth tliese kings imitates that of their Saxon predecessors so closely that it is hard to distinguisli to which one of them the pieces belong. Pennies alone were coined, and must have been struck in a collar, for they are uniformly round. Pieces plentiful. Henry I, 1100 to 1135, regulated coinage and passed severe laws against Pennies only known of types and forms very counterfeiters and debasers. various. Stephen, 1135 to 1154, usurped the throne after Henry's death, dissipated Very few of his pieces are extant all that the treasury and debased the coin. are known are of good silver. Henry, Bishop of Winchester, the legitimate brother of Stephen. One coin is known as struck by his authority. One type of coin Robert, Earl of Gloucester, illegitimate son of Henry.
;
;

;

known.
Stephen and Matilda : One type supposed to have been sti-uck when Matilda,wife of Stei)hen, took conmiand of the army and liberated her husband when he was a prisoner. Eustace, elder son of Stephen and Governor of York. Two Aarieties very rare and very imperfect. Wilham, son of Stephen, has two coins ascribed to him, but it is doubtful if they are rightly assigned.

286

GREAT BRITAIN.
1154 to IISO, adopted a new money which was very poorly In 1180 he sent for a size and shape and in i)arts illegible. loreign artist, Philip Ayniary ot Tows, to imi)rove his coinage, and it became Cohis numerous. round and legible, but otherwise not nuieii benefited. Richard J and John No Englisli money known. Henry III, 1216 to 1272 Pennies only known. Edward /, 1272 to 1307, coined pennies, half-i)ence and farthings and the

Henry

II,

minted,

irregiilai-

m

:

:

;

original groat is by some assigned to this reign, and it is generally believed that ^Many varieties. he lirst cause^l that coin to be struck. Edward II, 1307 to 1327 Coinage of same weight, standard and type as not very rare. that of his father, but some distinguisliing mint marks Edward III, 1327 to 1377, struck groats, half-groats, pennies, half-pence
:

;

and

tartiiings,

very

many

varieties.
:

same coins, types, etc., as his predecessor. to 1413. Henry V, 1413 to 1422. Henry VI, 1422 to 14(31. There is no certainty of the coins of any of these Henrys, so far as tlie date is concerned the types are similar and Ihe coinage almost identical. Edward IV, 14G1 to 1483 Same as the Henrys. Edicard V, 1483, is said to have had coins struck, but none have been disco^•ered. Richard III, lJf83 to lJf85 : Similar to the Henrys and Edwards ; but no
Itichard II, 1377 to 1399

ifenryiF, 1399

;

:

farthings known.

Henry VII, 1435

to 15C9

:

Same
:

as above;

some variation

in device,

and

many

varieties.

Five different classes of coinage, all varying in to 1547 Plenty. of metal. Edward VI, 1547 to 1553, tried to better the disgracefully debased money of his father without great success. He ordered festoons, or shillings, to be struck with eciual i)arts of silver and alloy, and of the weight of eighty grains, and in 1551 commenced tlie circulation of crowns, half-crowns, shillings, six-pences and three-pences, and pennies. There are many varieties, with many variations
type, weight

Henry VIII, 1509

and fineness

of fineness.

Mary, 1553 to 1558, announced her intention of restoring the coinage of it« original highest standard, but she made it lower than ever. In Elizabeth, 1558 to 1002, set seriously to work to restore the standard. the second year of her reign she had struck pieces of three-half-pence and threefarthmgs, never coined before or since. In 1501 the mill and screw process was and the pieces thus coined are known as milled introduced by a Frenchman money. Many varieties in this reign. James J, 1603 to 1025 On his accession the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland were united and a new coinage was ordered, of standard fineness, 11 oz., 2dwt, of silver with 18 dwts. of alloy; weight, 7|f gr. to the penny. Many varieties and types. Charles /, 1625 to 1049, improved the appearance of his coins and kept np
;
:

Very many varieties. Commonwealth Parliament seized the tower and mint in 1642, and struck money from the King's dies, coining none in their own name, until after the execution of Charles, their first pieces bearing date 1049. The standard was
the standard.
:

that of Elizabeth. Charles II, upon his restoration, 1000, coined money like his father's, refusing to u.se the mill and screw and striking his pieces by the hammer, which was last emjjloyed for this purpose in his reign. James II, 1<)S5 to 1(588, conducted his coinage upon the same principles as that of his brother, in denomination, size, weight and fineness. William and Mary, 1(J8S to 1095, issued coinage identical with that of

James

II.

287

GREAT BRITAIN,
WiUimn III, 1(195 to 1702, made no change in weitrht or fineness, but altered the type of liis money. -4))?)^, 17(1-2 to 1714, continued the standard of lier })redecessors. George J, 1714 to 1727, made no change in denonuiiation, «ize. weight or
fineness.

George TT, 1727 to 1700. same as i>receding. George III, 17(10 to 1S20. no cliange. George I]\ lf^20 to 183U A. new coinage on the same principles. Victoria, 1830 to a new coinage on the higii standard, as before, and varied according to necessity of providing special pieces for colonial
:

,

possesions.

^^i^jii^j

J**-.

• ^t^-inx^iO'

288

SERVIA,

SHver.

XIXL

cents No. 2. 1 Dinar or a ^ Dinar.
;

Servia, Silver Coixs, all 900 fine. Ko. 1. 2 Dinar, worth about 39 and Xo. 3 is a piece of 50 Paras, equal to about 10 cents
;

is a kingdom of Eastern Europe, borderiiig on Slavonia, AN'allaBulgaria, Bosinia and Hungary, from wbieli last named comitry it is separated by the Danube. By the Berlin Treaty of 1878, its area was increased to 18,787 square miles population (in 1883), 1,820,000. The country is mountainous, its valleys fertile, ])roducing, when cultivated, good crops of corn and other cereals ; said to be ricli in minerals. The chief trade is with Austria and Turkey; prmcipal exports; swine, cattle, i)runes, grain, wine and timber, amounting (in 1882) to $8,819,315. Revenue 87,473.000. Pu])lic debt, November, 1884, about $35,000,000, one-half of which was contracted for railroad. No official financial reports ])ublished. Capital, Belgrade.

Servia
:

chia,

;

GREECE,

Gold.

XlXf.

No.
1.

PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

fine.

weight grains of pure
i

VALUE.

Coin.

Gold.

289

GREECE,
1

Silver.

XIXI

No.

PERIOD

OR SECTION,

COIN.

290

Silver.

291

HAYTI.

Silver.

XX

T.

'^'^^

,

c^"^

f%r*^'

Gold.
No.

HOLLAND.

293

HOLLAND.

Gold

XXII.

294

Silver.

29i

HOLLAND.
1

Silver,

xxn.

/-^:;x|ir

296

Silver.
No.

HOLLAND.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
Coin.
I

PURE
Silv-r

VALUE.

1.

297

HOLLAND.

Silver.

XXII.

298

Silver.
PERIOD

HOLLAND.
OR SECTION.
COIN.

COLONIES.

2t0

HOLLAND

EAST INPIES.

Silver.

XXTT.

300

.iiiiiiiiiiljiiiiiiiilililiniililil!

Silver.
No.

HOLLAND.

COLONIES.

301

HOLLAND.

EAST INDIES

Silver.

XXII.

302

Silver.
No.

HOLLAND.

COLONIES.

303

HOLLAND.

I'-^'^T

i^'piE^.

JAVA.

Silver.

XXIT.

,

304

305

ITALY,

SHver.

XXIIl

o06

Silver.

307

ITALY.

Silver. XXIII.

308

Silver.
No.

ITALY.

309

ITALY.

Silver. XXIIT.

''« III

H l>*
'

iii«'

310

Gold.
No.

ITALY.
PERIOD

BOI.OGXE.
i

OR SECTION.
Tius VI.
4

COIN.
Pistoles.

fine.

weight grains of pure
i

VALUE.

Coin.

Goi.p.

do
Benoist

XIV.

Gregcry.

ITALY.

BOLOGNE

ITALY.

BOLOGNE

Silver.

XXIIL

>1P

#

,

^'

312

313

ITALY.

II

UR

Silver. XXIII.

314

Silver.
No.

ITALY.
PERIOD

LUCCA.

WEIGHT GRAINS
COIN. FINE.
OF
I

OR SECTION.
Felix an

Coin.

PURE Silver

VALUE.

8.
i).

10.
11.

315

Silver.

XXKI

,,,,

XXIII.

Gold.
No.

ITALY.

PARMA.

S17

ITALY,

P^RMA.

Silver.

XXllI.

318

J

Gold.
No.

ITALY,
PERIOD

ROME

OR SECTION.

COIN.

319

ITALY.

Ro

IE

Gold.

XXIII.

320

Silver.
No.

ITALY. ROME.

321

ITALY.

Ro

:f

Silver. XXlir.

322

Silver
No.

ITALY.

ROME.

523

ITALY.

ROME.

Silver. XXIII.

324

Silver.
No.

ITALY,
PERIOD

ROME
VVEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
I

PURE
Silver

VALUE

Coin.

1.

325

ITALY.

Silver. XXIII. „

Silver.
x.>.

ITALY.

ROME.

32<

ITALY.

I

OME

Silver. XXIII.

,,

.328

Gold.
No.

ITALY.

SARDINIA.

.•}29

ITALY.

SARDINIA.

Gold.

XXIII.

,,

330

..•"'^

^/»s,^

^-^^

<^, /*?>__

Gold.
No.

ITALY.
PERIOD

SARDINIA.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

^82

Silver.

383

ITALY.

SARDISn,

SUver.

XX in.

..

177^

3d4

Silver.
No.
1.

SARDINIA.
PERIOD
WEIGHT
COIN.
.Scudo, 5 Lire.
GRA1.N.S

OR SECTION.
Victor Victor

FINE.

OF
I

PURE
Silver
^16

VALUE.

Coin.
385 900 385
385

Emanuel

II.

2. 3. 4.

Charles-Felix.

Emanuel I. Victor Amedee III.
Charles Felix.

Scudo, Piemont. do do

346

900
906

346
489
138

.72

New

Scudo.

540
154

1.02
.28

5. 6.

2 Lire.
III. i Scudo, i Lire.

900

Victor

Amedee

Piemont.

903
901)

270
38

243
34
69

.50
.07

7.
8.

Charles Albert.

Charles Felix.

Lire.

9U0

.14

335

ITALY.

SARDINIA.
^<,0""""T'ffl,,,

SUver. XXIII.

.,

336

Gold.
No.
1.

ITALY.
PERIOD

SICILY.

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Gold.

337

ITALY.

SICILY

Gold.

XXIIT.

,,

338

ITALY,

SICILY

Gold.

XXTTT.

No.

PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

339

ITALY.

SICILY.

Silver. XXIII.

1.

:M0

Silver.
No.

ITALY.

SICILY.

841

ITALY.

SICILY

Silver. XXIII.

,,

342

Silver.
No.

ITALY.

SICILY

Ferdinand lY. do
3. 4. 5.
6.

Don

Carlos.

Ferdinand IV. Ferdinand II.
Charles III. Ferdinand IV.
Charles
II.
II.

7.
8.

9.

Ferdinand

10.

Cliarles III.

343

ITALY.

SICILY

Silver, xxiii.

;]4l

Silver.

345

ITALY.

SICILY

Silver, xxill.

346

Silver.

347

ITALY.

SICILY

Silver. XXlll.

us
Silver.
No.

ITALY.
I'LRIUD

TUSCANY
FINE,

OR SECTION.

COIN.

WEIGHT GRAINS PURE OF
Cjin.

VALUE.

Silver

1.

349

ITALY

TUSCANY.

Silver.
1.

XXIII

,.^,

350

.'9^

V/:.

Silver.
No.

ITALY.

TUSCANY.

351

ITALY.

TUSCANY

Silver, xxiil.

'\

^"^
c/^

M'

4^

^^'^^
"••^m.^iui-"^'-*'

Published by A.

M.Smith, post Office Box 754< Fkil'^

'

a.

352

J^U£tu^j,iM •'*-^C«ft^i>d^

Silver.

ITALY, TUSCANY

353

ITALY.

TUSCANY

Silver. XXIII.
1

354

Silver.
No.

ITALY.

LOMBARDY-VENICE.

1.
2.

3.
4.

Ludovicus Manin, (Thelastof the Doges.)

6.

3/. 5

ITALY.

vEMc]

SHver. XXIII.

356

Silver.
No.

ITALY.

VENICE.

357

ITALY,

VENICE.

SUver. XXIII.

o58

JAPAN.

Gold.

XXIV.

Gold.
No.

JAPAN.

359

JAPAN.

Gold.

XXIV.

360

Silver

JAPAN

362

JAPAN.

Gold.

XXIV.

weight grains
fine.]
'

of
i

Coin.
559 854
557

pure Gold.
503

VALUE.
21.65 33.06
21.57

1.

o
3.

These pieces are large, of very thin oval-shaped gold' the .'urface
having on it waived line?. The value is written on each in Ind. ink.

^ew
Old

Cobailg.

900 900 900 900

4. 5.

Nos. 4 and 5 are stamped, and No. 5 is part Silver.

do Ncw Cobang. II If do
Xi-Shoo.

768
501

486

437

18.80
ceuts.

Value about 18

363

CHINA.

Silver.

XA

Silver.
No.

COCHIN-CHINA.

364

CHINA.

Gold.

XV.

Gold.
No.

CHINA.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.
Ingot Money.

FINE,

OF
I

Coin.

PURE Gold.

VALUE.

365

CHINA.

Gold.

XV

366

Silver.
No.

COCHIN-CHINA.

367

CHINA.

Silver.

XV.

3

368

Silver.
No.

EMPIRE OF CHINA.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.
Ingot Money,

FINE.

OF
I

Coin.
179

PURE Silver

VALUE.

Fineness varies in all Ingot Money. Impossible to give purity and value.

do do do do do Native Dollar.
Tael.

4078
571 509

60
115

956

345

329

.68 .84

Native Dollar, (Private coinage.

980 990

414
565

404 560

1.16

/C'

^.-..,

36!)

CHINA.

:i7i)

Silver.

371

Gold.

PORTUGAL.

No.

372

Gold.
No.

PORTUGAL.

373

PORTUGAL.
^.,»»"""':"'""'".„„

Gold.

XXXVI.

.

^N**'

S,/752,,..

374

Silver.
No.

PORTUGAL.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

PORTUGAL.

Silver.

XXXYT.
i,„nniiminm/»^^_

.•57G

Silver.

PORTUGAL,

SHver XXXVI.

378

V.,.

Sil\

PORTUGAL.

AFKic

SUver. XXXVI.

380

Gold.
No.

RUSSIA.

::h

I

RUSSIA.

Gold.

XXXVII.

,

382

Silver.
No.

RUSSIA.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.
Peter the Great.
(Several Types
.

COIN.
Rouble.

iweight grains pure fine.i of Coin. Silver
i

Nicholas

1.

do do do

o8o

RUSSIA

Silver,

XXXVIT.
AV>""

RUSSIA.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS
COIN.
Kouble.

OR SECTION.
Nicholas I. Alexander I. Nicholas I.
Ale.xander
I.

FINE,
868

OF
I

PURE
Silver

VALUE.

Coin.

Nicholas

I. I.

Alexander
Nicholas

I.

do do

do do do 5 Kopeks. Rouble 5 Kopeks. 10 do do 10

386

RUSSIA.

Silver.

XXXYIT.

, 4

386

Silver.
No.

RUSSIA.

387

RUSSIA,

Silver. XXXViii.

388

Gold.
No.

SPAIN.

389

SPAIN.
v^%

Gold.

XXXVIII.

,

/^

«

'^

H
3

^-x-

.^^

"^'^-

=

'

""".i7.9

>"

to

<)

>

."'.V.'Im".

*

'""

^2

390
a kingdom, situate on the south-west of Europe, and occupying the It was formerly divided into 14 larger portion of the great Iberian Peninsula. provinces (now subdivided into 49), called the Ancient Provinces, and these are still

SPAIN,

refen-ed to, viz New Castile, La Mancha, Old Castile, Leon, Estremadura, Andalusia, Murcia, Valencia, Aragon, Catalonia, Basque Provinces, with the Canary and Balearic Isles, comprising an area of 195,775 square miles, with a population of (in 188B), 10,902,021. To tliese must be added Cuba and Porto Rico. Area, 70,400 square miles; 2,050,010 population; the Philipl)ine Islands in Asia and Oceanica, 53,299 square miles, G,19:j,2;]2 population; the African jiossessions in the Gulf of Guinea, Fernando Po, etc., 1,435 scjuare miles, with 30,000 inhabitants, making a total of 320,975 square miles, and 24,914,000 population. Spain is rich in minerals, especially iron, copper and lead. The country is fertile and tropical fruits flourish; also wheat, barley, oats, maize, rice, hemp and flax of tlie best quality. The vine is cultivated in every province, and superior
best

known and most

:

Asturias, Galicia,

wines are produced. Exports: silk, quicksilver, iron ore and other metals, wines, Trade olive oil, dry and green fruit, wool, grain, vegetables, cork, seeds and salt. was for many years confined to France and Great Britain, but the United States and Germany are now competing for .a share. Home trade is rigidly protected by high customs duties. The national debt has been consolidated, and is now $1,290, 000,000 at 4 per cent. There is no floating debt. The only paper currency is that of the "Bank of Spain." Exports in 1883 amounted to $127,001,846. There are no cold mines in Spain, and all the bullion of this metal is obtained from abroad, and

from the remelting of old Spanish money.

391

SPAIN,

Gold.

XXXVITI.

^y

No.
1.

PERIOD

WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
I

PURE
GOI.D.

VALUE.

Coin.

392

Gold.
No.

SPAIN.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.
For

COIN.

FINE.

WKIGHT GRAINS PURE OF
I

VALUE.

Coin.

Gold.

.

393

SPAIN

Silver. XXXVIII.

,

Philadelphia, Pa.

394

395

SPAIN,

Gold.

XXXVIII.

ate

I,

"^^^Si^^ '\X.:>^

Published by A. M. Smith, Post Office Box 754, Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A.

306

Silver.

397

SPAIN.

Silver. XXXVIII.

,

All correspondents requiring answers must
enclose stamps.

'^

©

|'~

A. M.
P. 0.

SMITH,

Numismatist, \i

Bos

754.Pbilaaelplua,

Fenn

398

Silver.
No.

SPAIN.

399

SPAIN.

Silver. XXXVIIl.

401

SUver. XXXVIII.

^

Post Office

Box 754,Philadelphij)l

25

402

Silver.

403

SPAIN.

Silver. XXXViii.

40i

Silver.
No.
1.

SPAIN.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

PINE.

OF
Coin.

I

PURE
Silver

VALUE.

405

SPAIN.

Silver. XXXVIII.

401)

Silver.

407

SPAIN.

SUver. XXXVIII.

,,

408

Silver.
No.

SPAIN.

409

SPAIN.

Silver. XXXYIII. „

^^^A^

A./

^-"

l^m--^.

410

Silver.
No.

SPANISH AMERICA.

411

SPAIN.

AMERICA,

Silver.

XXXYIIT.

:

412

OEIEKTAL XUMEKALS AND CHARACTERS.
The opposite plate is given as a guide in distingnisliing coins marked with Oriental Characters. These are generally in Arabic, with \ariations, l)eing very
rude in Java and Morocco, somewhat precise in Turkey, Egypt and Persia, in
the latter country they are in the flowing taleek which is to the strict Arabic, what our Italics are to tlie Roman. Tlie dash resembling a 2 with elongated base, found on nearly all these coins means in or ai, and the characters beneath gives tlie name of the city whereat the coin was struck. On the plate tlie figures i, G and 10 in the column, represent Constantinople and distinguish the coin as of Turkey ; tigure 2, means Cairo, and is on the pieces of Egypt figure 3 is Tunis ; ligures 4 and 5, Tripoli ; 7, 8 and 9, Algiers, and Xo. 11 is Morocco. That there should be variations in the inscriptions is not strange as the coins are all engraved and those who do this work use the freedom which would be taken by penmen in WTiting the same name. The numerals here shown were written according to European order (fi-om left to right, but figures, letters ami words in Arabic run in the ojiposite direction. Most Ottoman coins bear two dates, that of the Hegira and of the Sultan's The year of the Hegira in which the ruler ascended the throne is on each reign. coin of Turkey and upon another portion the year of his reign will be found the two added gives the date of the coin according to the ye<ir of the Hegira and this be readily transformed to the Christian date. The " Hegira " or flight of Mohammed from Mecca was on July 16th, A. D. 022. and from that date time is recorded by his followers
;
;

A. H. 1143., A. D. 1730. A. H. IIC.B., A. D. 1754. Mustapah III., A. H. 1171., A. D. 1757.
I.,

Mahmond
Othman

III.,

As the Mohammedan year is Inner, it is shorter than ours by about eleven days, and they thus have thirty-four years in the time we have but thirty-three.; Morocco dates its coins by the Oriental rule, but uses the European figures. Ilindostan, Java and Persia use the Arabic or Persian characters, but they do not bear the peculiar marks of the Turkish coins. The date is frequently omitted The money of in coins of Persia, and when engraved is in very minute figures. Hindostan, except in a few instances is issued by the British East India Company from the mints at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay, the Madras coins are stamped from Arcot, Calcutta's bear the name of Morshedabad, a neighboring city and Surat is on those of Bombay ; some of these are with, some without dates, the figures, even Avhen on, are not reliable ; Java's coins (Dutch East India Co. ) prior to the restoration in 1816 were marked with Arabic characters, but had the Christian date in European figures.

41S

Oriental

Numerals and Characters.

XXVII.

123
1.

4567890
\ajjE^c5

COXSTAXTIXorLE.
CAIEO, EGYPT.
TUXIS.

2.

3.

4.

TRIPOLI.

'•'

5.

6.

COXSTAXTIXOPLE.
ALGIERS.

7.

9.

"

Ot^VJiO

10.

COX^STANTIXOPLE.

11.

MOROCCO.

c2

.

414

Gold.
1.

AFGHANISTAN.

2.
3.

4.

415

AFGHANISTAN.

Gold.

XXVI.

.

416

Silver.
1. 2. o.

AFGHANISTAN.
of about A. D. 300.

Buddhist, coin, Hindu. Sassaxian " Indo-Sassanian.

"

"

5. a. 7.

King Eukratides, Greek, B. C. 181. Didrachni, Rajput coin, Hindu, about A. D. 1192.
Sassanian,

^(luare.

8.
9.

10.

11.

King Philoxenes, Greek, B.
]ndo-Sassanian.

C. 130.

Hemidrachni, Square.

12.

13. 14.
15.

King
"

Lysias,

Greek,

B. C. 147.

Antimacbus, GREEK, B. C. Indo-Sassanian.

Hemidrachra. 140. Obeus.

417

AFGHANISTAN.

Silver.

XX vi.

2G

418

Silver.
1.

AFGHANISTAN.

419

AFGHANISTAN.

SUver.

XXVI.

420

Gold.
No.

ALGIERS, TRIPOLI, TUNIS.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS

OR SECTION.

COIN.

FINE.

OF
I

PURE
Goi.-n.

VALUE.

Coin.

1,

421

ALGIERS, TRIPOLI, TUNIS.

Gold.

ALGIERS

SUver.

XXTX.

422

Gold.
No.

TURKEY AND EGYPT.

423

TURKEY AND EGYPT,

Gold.

XXX.

424

425

EGYPT.

Silver.

XXX.

,

426

Gold.
No.

HINDOSTAN.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

42;

HINDOSTAN.

Gold.

XXXI.

,

428

Silver.
No.

MOROCCO.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.
Spanish

COIN.

FINE.

WEIGHT GRAINS OF PURE Com. Silver
I

VALUE.

429

MOROCCO.

Silver. XXXII.

430

Gold.
No.
1.

PERSIA.
PERIOD
WEIGHT GRAINS
COIN.
FINE.
OF
I

OR SECTION.

Coin.

PURE Gold.

VALUE.

431

Gold.

XXXTII.

.

432

Si]

i',3

Silver. XXXIII.
n,

4.;4

Gold.
No.

TURKEY.

435

TURKEY.

43G

Silver.
No.

TURKEY.

4;i7

TURKEY.

Silver.

XXXV.

i38

Silver.

4;'.)

TURKEY.

Silver.

XXXV.

440

Silver.
No.

TURKEY.

441

TURKEY.

SHver.

XXXY.

,

4-12

i5?'i£>,

sr>

Gold.

443.102. Vicio

NORWAY and SWEDEN.

Gold.

XXV.

414

Norway, conjoint
peninsuhi.

part of tlie area of 122,869 square miles; population 1,818,853; one-thirtieth of the countrj^ is cultivated, forests cover one-fourth, the rest is naked, uninhabitable, mountainThe cod and herring fisheries employ most of the inhabitants. Mineral proland.

with Sweden since 1814, occupies the westL'iu and northern It is divided into 20 provinces, or "auits," comprising an

Ship building and timber ducts are similar to, but less than those of Sweden. dressing are the chief industrial arts. Exports: timber, cod fish and its oil, herrings, salmon, lobsters, minerals, furs and ice, amounting in 1883 to $34,154,415; public
debt same
istration
j-ear,
ot"

The admin$28,791,240, incurred mostly in constructing railways. entirely distinct from that of Sweden, and it retains its own Xorway is

laws.

Silver.
No.

NORWAY.

445

NORWAY and SWEDEN.

Silver.

XXV

1^ ii^I

.•?l"l

t^^'p^^

446

Silver.
Xo.

SWEDEN.
PERIOD

OR SECTION.

COIN.

447

NORWAY and SWEDEN.

Silver.

XX7.

448

Gold.
No.

SWITZERLAND.

449

SV/ITZERLAND.

Gold,

XXXTX.

1

4o0
^^.''^
>)

^,^t^

^-^1

(^ ^'^•^_

-

Gol

451

SWITZERLAND.

Gold.

XXXIX.

452

Gold.
No.

SWITZERLAND.

453

SWITZERLAND.

Gold.

XXXIX.

4^)4

"11

iP^B

Silver.

SWITZERLAND.

45.">

SWITZERLAND.

SUver. XXXIX.

456

Silver.
No.

SWITZERLAND.

4.J7

SWITZERLAND.

Silver.

XXXIX.

458

)^SK
15:4/51

w"'\c:j3^/

--9?.;'

'*-"

Silver.
No.

SWITZERLAND.

45^

SWITZERLAND.

Silver.

XXXIX.

.

460

Silver.
No.

SWITZERLAND.

461

SWITZERLAND.

Silver.

XXXix.

462

CAMBODIA,

Silver.

XXVin.

Camhodia, Silver Coixs, Xol; 3 Ticals, worth about ??1.B0. ]^o. 2; Coin equal to 5 Francs, 900 fnie, 3-^5 grains weight 72 cents. ]S\). 3 Equal to 4 Francs, 900 fine, 154 grains weiglit— 28 cents. Cambodia, or Camhoja, or Cambodge, is bounded IS", by Siani, E. by Cochin Chia, S. by the Frencli Colony, and has a sea board ot 200 miles on tlie Gulf of Siani. The French assumed a protectorate over it in 1804. It is the remains of a once powerful and \\<'althy nation. Tiie Cai)ital is Penmipeuh, and Kami)ot is its tlie oidy port. Chief products and exports gamboge, cardamous, caoutchouc, spices and fish. Elephants and rhinoceroses abound, and the magnificent remains of ancient glory are of greatest interest. IS'o financial statistics are to be obtained.

;

;

4G3

-

^

<

)lil

Tiiiif yields lip his iirt'cidus liciards

Caliu Sicieuces gives her just awards;

l!y tariiislicd cdiii, tir loiiK-liidden I'ast, restored, I'roves History's trutli, cuaipletes lier graud record.

464

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.
rather numerous plates devoted to Greek coins of past ages are by no tlie least valuable or iuterestnig in this work, comprising as they do,' records and studies in mythology through the presentation ot the gods and heroes as imagined by their worshipers; in history presenting what nuist be accepted as authentic portraits of sovereigns and princes from Alexander to Augustus, covering a period of from B. C. TOO, to the Christian Era, and giving reliable evidences of political changes and histories of the many autonononious cities jiiid states of the then civilized world; the metrologist will hiid nuicii to command attention in comparison of the various systems and standards; the paleographist will have examples of the ancient alphabets, I.ycian and Cyprian, Pl.oeiiiciaii, (freek, Latin, Iberian, &c., in dilTerent stages of development, and the artist or medallist see before him models of perfection, that for elegance of design and excellence of linish defy the genius and skill of the present day to equal or even approach. The i)lates present specimen coins of Syria, Egy])t, Asia JSIinor, Phoenicia, Northern and Central Greece, the Peloponnesus and islands of the ^Egean, Italy, Sicily, AVestern Europe, the southern shores of the Mediterranean, &c., &c., exhibiting tlie Period of Archaic Art, ending with the Persian wars, B. C. 700480; Period of Transitional and Early Fine Art, to the end of the Atlienian supremacy, B. C. 480-400; Period of Finest Art, Age of tlie Spartan and Theban supremacies, B. C. 400-;33G; Period of Later Fine Art. Age of Alexander and the Diadochi, B. C. 33(5-280; Period of the Decline of Art, Age ot the Epigoni, Period of continued Decline of Art, Age of the Attalids, c"^:c., B. C. 280-190; a. C. 100-100; and Period of the late Decline of Art, Age of Mithradates tlie trreat and of Iloman dominion, B. C. 100-1. The skill of the most eminent artists and engravers has been called into re(piisition in the ]>reparation of these beantiful plates from authentic, original coins, and the results of their efforts, superior though it is, hardly does justice to the elegant models fi'om which they copied. Phocaic stater, electrum metal, of Leshos. Obverse, a lion's head; 1. Probably belonging to the period immediately preReverse, an ir.cnse square. 500. ceding the reform of the courage by Croesus, B.

The

means

A

C

"LAHiPSACEisrE stater," siich as is mentioned in Attic inscriptions, This is of electrum; about the end of the together with the staters of Cyzicus. coinage was introduced. The sea horse is a symbol of lifTli century a gold Poseidon. About B. C. 478. Obverse, 3. Early gold coin, an Euboic stater of Sardis, capital of Lydia.
2.

A

foreparts of lion
4.

and bull, face to face; Iteverse, incuse square. B. C. 508. double stater of Ci/zicus, Lion with fish below, on observe; Reverse, punch-mark, about B. C. 470. T). A gold Daric, or Persian stater, of Darius ITystaspes, who died B. C. 404. Obverse, the King kneehng with bow and javelin; lieverse, the punch mark. Pliny states that the 6. Colophon, a coin of a dog standing upon a fish. people of this city trained their dogs to assist in war, and to do duty as sentinels; Date about B. C. 500. seal on 7. DoTT.LE Stater of Phocea, an Ionian city in Asia INfinor. Date about B. C. 500. the Obverse, and mark of punch on the lleverse. Obverse, a land 8. DiniiACiiM of ^Egina, an island in the Saronic gulf. Date B C. 750. tortoise; lleverse, the punch-mark divided into compartments. 9. Teos, a gold coin of head of the fabulous griirin on Obverse, and punchmark of very early date on Reverse. Dat(; B. C. 520. bull is 10. An incuse coin of tlie city of Sybaris, destroyed B. C. 510. shown, looking backwards. The initial letters, read from right to left, the first

A

A

A

letter tiu-ned partly over, indicating great antiquity.

131

465

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

466

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.
Of the Spartuu colony of Cyrene in Africa. Obverse, the sacred Silphiuni plant lleverse, in punch mark, head of Jupiter Ammon. Dale B. C. 450-4;JU. Obverse, head of Athena 12. Of Athens, i)robably in the lime of Pericles. (Minerva); Revei'se, punch mark with owl and the initials of the city. Obverse, head of Jupiter, with thun13 Early coin of Syracuse in Sicily.
1 1.
;

derbolt behind the shoulder.
14. Yery early coin of Selinus. a town on the south coast of Sicily. leaf of wild parsley, the sacred symbol of the city. 15.

Obverse,

Tetradraciim,

of the tield in B. C. 48U.

of Panoruuis. Obverse, Head of Demeter, the products her hair; lleverse, ahorse s^iHoping pasta palm tree. Date,

Obverse, Head of Janus, laureated; Peverse; 10. Bronze coin of Panormus. Po, enclosed in a wreath of olive leaves. B. C. 480. Obverse, a helmeted male head, laureated; 17. Bronze coin of Panormus. name of the city around it; Reverse, a laureated male head. B. C. 480. Obverse, a fine head of Pallas; Reverse, a IS. Bronze coin of Panormus. horse head and the trinacrin, typifying the three-cornered island of Sicily. B. C.
480.

Obverse, Head of Hercules in a lion's skin; 19. Bronze coin of Mamertini. Reverse, an eagle standing on a support and having a serpent trodden under his Date, about B. C. 400. left claw. Obverse, Head of Her20. TBTRADRAcnM, of Panomfins, a city in Sicily. cules with lion's skin; Reverse, a horse head between a head of wheat and a palm branch. Date, B. C. 480.
21. Bronze coin of Panormus. Obverse, a male head; Reverse, three spears of wheat, indicating the fertility of the country. B. C. 480.
22. Tetradrachm, of Zancle, now Messina, of Sicily. Obverse, a dolphin curved; Reverse, fancifully subdivided by two series of parallel lines, at right angles to each other. In the central space is a shell. Date, about B. C. 400. Obverse, a hare, courant; R-^verse; a car 23. Tetradrachm, of Messana. drawn by mules, with victory, holding crown, flying above. These peculiar types were first adopted on coins by Anaxilaus, who Avon a victory at Olympia with the mule car, aud who introduced hares into Sicily. About B. C. 400. 24.

a

bid),

A bronze coin of Mamertini. Obverse, a male head, laureated; Reverse, with lowered head, advauci.ig towards the observer's left. Date, about

B. C. 400.
25. Tetradrachm, of Messenia, a south-westerly district of Peloponnesus. Obverse, a lion's scalp; Reverse, head of a calf, looking toward tlie observer's left. B. C. 450. Obverse, a male head, 26. Tetradrachm, of Catana, a city of Sicily. laureated, full-lace fronting; Reverse, a quadriga i)assing a cohnnn, a victory Hying above, a serpent beneath. B. C. 400. Obverse, fine head of Apollo, laureated, 27. Tetradrachm, of Catana. etc. Reverse, a quadriga, with a victory above and a crab beneath. B. C.
;

400.
28. An electmm coin of the city of Syracuse, the most important in Obverse, an elegant licad of Artemis; Reverse, a line head of Ai)ollo.
Sicily.
li.

C.

oOC.
29.

Tetradrachm,

of Syracuse.

by dolphins;
are two

R(!Verse, a (juadriga, dolphins. B. C. 500.

Obverse, head of Arethusfe, surronnded with victory above, holding a legend; below

30. Bronze coin of Syracuse. Obverse, a fine head of Apollo; Reverse, abiga driven towards the observer's right; the Greek letter Psi in the exergue. B. C.

500.

467

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

468

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.
Obverse, head of Pallas, lielmeted, and ol. Tetradrachm, of Syi'acuse. behind a bunch or .urapes over a Avine cup; Eeverse, a pe^rasus yallnninir. Obver.se, head of Pallas, lielmeted, bull's 32. Tetradkachm, of Syracuse. head between the head and border; Eeverse, a pegasus in motion. i3. C. 500. Obverse, a fine male head; Reverse, the 33. Tetradrachm, of Syracuse. B. C. 500. fore-part of a pegasus galloping towards the observer's lefi. Obverse, a helmeted head; Reverse, a 34. Tetradrachm, of Syracuse. winged female standing, the right hand elevated, tlie left holding an animal by the head. B. C. 500. 35. Tetradraciim, of Agrigentnm, one of the most powerful and celebraObverse, an eagle; Reverse, a crab, anil helted of the Greek cities in Sicily. meted head beneath it. B. C. 500. Obverse, an eagle devouring a hare; Re3(3. Bronze coin of Agrigentnm. Three glolndes verse, a crab with animalcule above and sea-plant beneath. aroimd the border and one on the crab. B. C. 500. 37. Bronze coin of Syracuse. Obverse, a laureated and bearded head of Zeus; Reverse, Iliero I, driving a quadriga, and holdhig a branch in his left hand. B. C. 470. Obverse, Ilead of Gelon, the hair confined with 3S. Bronze coin of Syracuse. a fillet; Reverse, a lion walking towards the observer's right; club of Hercules;

lamp beneath. B. C. 480. Obverse, a bearded and laureated heail; 39. Bronze coin of Agrigentum. Reverse, an eagle standing with extentled wrings, a cornucopia in front and star
over the
40.
left

wing.

B. C. 500.

Bronze coin of Agrigentum. Obverse, a bearded head; Reverse, a serB. 0. 500. lient coiled romid a staff, dividuig the legend. Obverse, Head of Ceres; 41. DiDP.ACHM, of Cephalcedium, a town in Sicily, Reverse, a shepherd with thyr.-^ns in his left hand, standing with left foot resting on a hound and his riglit leg touching a second dog. About, B. C. 400. Obverse, bearded and laureated head of Posi42. Bronze coin of Syracuse. don; Reverse, an ornamented trident, with dolphin on either side. B. C. 480. Obverse, a head with 43. Bronze coin of Emporise. a city of Plispania. D. V>. stamiied on the helmet; Reverse, a pegasus, stamped D. D., running.

About B.
44.

C. 400.

Bronze coin of Ilimera, a city of Sicily. Obverse, Head of Pallas; Reverse, female standing with Ivre in left hand and wreath in right. About
B. C. 400.

Obverse, head of a lion, with silver coin of Leontini, a city in Sicily. 45. open mouth, surrounded by four grains of wheat; Reverse, a biga, witli ^ice crowning the horses. Obverse, a female head, elegantly ornamented 46. Bronze coin of Leontini. with a head dress; Reverse, a lion walking past a palm lice. About B. C.
450.

A

Obverse, a pair of 47. Bronze coin of Enna, a city in the centre of Sicily. serpents harnessed to a, plow; Reverse, a man standing and holding a long slalf B. C. 450. in his left hand. Obverse, a young head of Apollo; Re48. Bronze coin of Tauromenium. Tauromenium was a city on tlie east coast of Sicily. verse, a bull butting. About 300 B. C. ReObverse, a head of Apollo, laureated. 49. Bronze coin of Mendenum. verse, Aesculojiius standing upon a serpent and holdhig something in his right

hand.

B. C. 300.

469

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

470

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.
Bronze coin of Gela, an important towni in Sicily. 01)verse, a female crowning a minotaur; Reverse, Bi<>a and Nice with wreatli. About B C
f.O.

500.
51. Bronze coin of Ars-yrina. a city of Sicily. Obverse, an eagle standing by a branch of frnit; Kevcrse. a cross patonce, having in cacii of tlie angles two letters of the city. B. C. 300.

52. Bronze coin of Oenidae, a town in Acarnania. Obvei-se, head of Zeus; Reverse, head of the minotour; this fabled monster typifying the river Achelous upon the bank of which the town was built. B. C. -ioO.
53. silver coin of Segesta, a city of Sicily. Obverse, a female head, the hair confined with a tillet or l)and; Reverse, a dog scenting the ground B C. 450.

A

54. Bronze coin of Menaenum, an inland city of Sicily. Obverse, a laureated, juvenile head; two fishes in front thereof; Reverse, Ares advancing, with spear hi right hand, shield and cloak in the left. B. C. 300.

Obverse, a male head; Reverse, a do-55. Tetuadraciim, of Segesta. walking past three heads of wlieat which stand side by side. B. C. 450. Oljverse, a laureated head of Apollo; Reverse, 56. Bronze coin of Ilalaesae. a man standing, in his right hand an ornament; belinid him is a lyre and in trout a musical uistrument all emblems of Apollo. B. C. 300. Obverse, laureated, 57. Tetradraciim, of Xaxos, an ancient city of Sicily. juvenile head, laurel leaf behind it; Reverse, Silenns seated, with cup in his left hand, a thyrsus in the right hand, behind, an ivy brancii, and in front a statue of Priapus. B. C. 450. Obverse, bearded head of Dionysus, fillet 58. Tetradrachm, of Xaxos. with ivy leaves; Reverse, Sileiuis seated, with wine cup, tlivrsus and ivy, similar

to

Xo.
59.

06.

B. C. 450.

las,

Bronze coin of Morgantia, a city in Sicily. Obverse, a tine head of Palliel meted and ornamented; Reverse, a lion standing, with a serpeut below.

B. C. 450.
60.

Tetradrachm,

of

Xaxos.

Obverse, bearded old head, suiTuounted by

two horns; Reverse, a bunch
450.

of grapes hanging

between two

leaves.

B.C.

Ob61. Tetradrachm, of Selinus, an important Greece colony in Sicily. verse, a parsley leaf in a sunken square, the letters S. E. L. I. ui the angles; Reverse, a parsley leaf inverted. B. C. 550.
62.

Head
4J0.

of

Bronze coin of Tyndaris, a city on the north coast of Sicily. Obverse, Demeter; Reverse, Castor and Pollux on horseback, galloping. B. C.
Obverse, a bearded head. B. C, 550.

03. Silver coin of Abacrenum, a city in Sicily. verse, the Erymauthian boar, with erect bristles.

Re-

Obverse, a nude male standing, holding an 64. Tetradrachm, of Selinus. offering in the right hand and a th.yrsus in the left, a parsley leaf bcliind, a cock in a cage, and a bull liehind; Reverse, two i)crsons in a biga, one with bow and arrow, the other driving. B. C. 550.
65. Silver coin of

with a

fish

Camarina. Obverse, a female head, much decorated ami on either side; Reverse Leda seated on a swan, a fish below, etc.

B. C. 500.
66. Tetradrachm, of Camarina, a Greek city in Sicily. Obverse, head of Hercules in a lion's skin; Reverse, Ares driving a (piadriga, Nice Hying above, a swan tlying below. B. C. 500. Obverse, l)(>arded and laureated head of Zeus; 07. Bronze coin of Centoripa. Reverse, a thuuderbolt dividing the legend. B. C. 500.

471

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

472

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.
68. Bronze coin of Cossura, a small island in the Mediterranean, half way between Sicily and Africa. Obverse, a female head, crowned, Eros decorating •the front; Reverse, Phoenician legend enclosed with a laurel wreath. B. C. 500. 69. Bronze coin of Aetna, a city in Sicily at the foot of the mountain of same name. Obverse, head of J^iuebus Apollo, with radiated crown; Reverse, Ares B. C. 5U0. standing, with speur and shield. Obverse, head of 70. Bronze coin of loeta, a town in the interior of Sicily. Zeus Reverse, a soldier, standing, right hand extended, left holding a club.
;

.

B. C. 450.
Obverse, 71. Bronze coin of ^lelita, an island in the ISIediterranean Sea. head of Ceres; Reverse, an ornamented tripod dividing the legend. B. C. 400. Obverse, head of the 72. TKTRADKArirM, of Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse. B. C. 480. tyrant, hair confined with a fillet; Reverse, a biga driven by IsTice. 73. Bronze coin of Liparia, a towai in the island of the same name. Obverse, Ilr.plKestiis seated on tripod, holding in his extended left hand a cautharus, in the right a malleus; Reverse, six globules surrounded by the legend. B. C. 550.
74. Gold coin of Pyrrhtis. Obverse, head of Pallas, the letter A. below; Reverse, Nice laying a wreath on an altar. B. C. 280.

75. Bronze coin of Calacte, a city on the nortli coast of Sicily. of Apollo; Reverse, his lyre dividnig the legend. B. 4C0.

C

Obverse, head

Observe, head of Artemis; 76. Gold Stater of Pyrrhus, King of Epeirns. Reverse, Nice marching, a thunderbolt in the field. B. C. 280. 77. Silver coin of Agathocles, King of Syracuse. Obverse, fine head of Persephone, wreathed; Reverse, Nice crow^ning a trophy, a triquetra in the field,

B. C. 300.
78.

Tetradrachm
filleted;

Gelon,
79.

Obverse, flue head of of Hieron II, King of Syracuse. Reverse, Nice driving a quadriga. B. C. 220.
of Ilieron II. of Philistis,

Tetradrachm Tetradrachm

Obverse, a fine head of Pallas, helmeted

;

Reverse, a pegasus.
80.

B. C. 220.

beautiful female

head of Philistis veiled;

supposed queen of Ilieron. Obverse, a Reverse, Nice driving a quadriga.

Legend
81.

Queen Philistia." Date, B. C. 220. Bronze coin of Panormus. Obverse, a female head, the hair confined by in the field, fronting the neck of a band; Reverse, head of a horse, tlie letter

A

the horse.

B. C. 500.

Obverse, an old 82. Bronze coin of Panormus, an important city in Sicily. male head, beardea and laureated; Reverse, a horse running, three globules in
tlie field.

B. C. 500.
01)verse, a handsome female head, veiled, a Reverse, a tlmnderbolt dividing the legend. B. C. 280.
t

83.

Bronze coin of Pyn-hus.

li-

denl belnnd.

Obverse, a turret ed head of 84. Bronze coin of Panormus. horse's head in front of a palm tree. B. C. 500.
85.

Rhea; Reverse, a

Silver coin of Syracuse.

phins;
500.

Reverse, a

man

Obverse, head of A rethusa^, surrounded by doldriving a (juadriga, Nice crowning the horses. B. C.

86. Bronze coin of Syracuse. Obverse, head of Persephone; Reverse, driving a biga, the letter s'ujiua below, a sun above. B. C. 500.

man

Obverse, two bearded head, 87. Bronze coin of the city of Catana, in Sicily. jugata; Reverse, a nude man standing, dividing the legend. B. C. 480. 01)verse, a liead with the hair erect, a gi'ain of 88. Bronze coin of Gela. Indications of the fertility of tlu; region; Reverse a wlieat near the border. bull. In the exergue, tliree globules. B. C. 550.

»

473

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

;

474

ANCIENT GKEEK COINS.
89. Bronze coin of Affrigentnm, devcurriis: a bare; Jie\er.se, a crab,

Obverse, an ea^le with expanded wings, with two globules above, and a marine liorse

below.
90.

B. C. 550.

Bronze coin of "Messana, a city in f>iciiy. Obverse, a hare, running; "Re50U. verse, an octopus. B. Obverse, head of Hercules in lion's 91. Bronze coin of Siolus, a city in Sicily. skin; Reverse, a squill with three globules on and tlnee globules under it. Pmiic

C

inseriptiou below.
92.

B. C. oUO.
witli tiiyrsus

Bronze coin of Hybla, a city in Sicily. a bee behind it; Reverse, Dionysus standing,
tlier erect

Obverse, a head, with bust draped, and canthorus, a pan-

B. C. 500. a city in Sicily. Obverse, head of Apollo, laureB. C. 500. ated; Reverse, the tiipod of Apollo, dividing the legend. Obverse, fine head of Persephone; 94. Bronze coin of Paropi, a city of Sicily. Reverse, a wreath of leaves and liowers. B. C. 500. 95. Bronze coin of Gaulos, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, the present Gozzo. Obverse, a hehneted liead in a crescent, two glolndes behind it; Reverse, a soldier standing with sword and buclder, a sim in front. B. C. 500. Obverse, head of Pallas, two 96. Bronze coin of Caena, a toT\Ti in Sicily. ijclobules above; Reverse, Xice running with a crown in lier right and a trophy in iier left hand. B. C. 500. Obverse, a tine female head, 97. DiDRAcnMof Terina, a city of Bruttium. tlie neck ornamented with a string of pearls; Reverse, Nice seated, holding on the back of her right hand a bird with extended wings. B. C. 500. Obverse, head of Diana 98. Tetradrachm of Oluntiuni, a city in Crete. Reverse, Zeus seated with basta and holding an eagle in his hand. B. C. 500. Obverse, a 99. Bronze coin of Cyzicus, a city on the^ Propontis in Mysia, female head, the hair bound by a stalk of wheat, and three wheat ears around it: B. G. 500. Reverse, a caduceses surroimded by a ^^reath. Obverse, liead of Pallas in 100. Silver coin of Ileraclea, a city in Lucania. armor; Reverse, Hercules strangling a lion, his bo^vand club in tlie field. B. C.
before
Iillu.

93.

Bronze coin of

]STegara,

500.

Ob101. Bronze coin of Eleutheraa, a town of great importance in Crete. verse, liead of Apollo, laureated; Reverse, Apollo seated on a lyre, holding in his B. C. 500. right hand a globe.
Obverse, 102. Tetradraciim of Alexander The Great. Avith lion's skin over it; Reverse, Zeus seated with hasta and in his right hand. B. C. 320.

head of Hercules. an eagle standing

Ob103. Gold Stater of Alexander III, The Great; who died B. C. 323. verse, head of Pallas; Reverse, Nice holding a trident and a crown for the victor; in the field a caduceus.
104. Gold Stater of Philip II, King of JSIacedonia, who died B. C. :>:]('>. Obverse, head of Apollo; Reverse, the king driving a biga. 105. Gold Stater of Lysiniochus, King of Thrace, who died B. C. 281. Obverse, head of the king in the character of the Amnionian .Iui)iter; Reverse. Pallas holding Nice in her outstretched hand.

This coin bears lOG. Tetradraciim of Lysimachas. tions similar to those on the gold stater No. 118.
107.

emblems and

inscrip-

Gold Stater

of Selencus,

King

of Syria,

who

died B. C. 280.

Obverse,

head of the king in the character of Apollo; Reverse, Apollo standing with a bow in his left hcind and an arrow in the right.

47.3

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

476

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.
108. 109. 110.

Gold Stater
ol:

Obverse, head

of Ptolemy. Soter. Kins: of E^ypt, who died B. C. 283. king; Reverse; Jupiter driving aquddiigaof elephants.
f ulinen,

Tetradkaciim

au eagle standing on a
V)y

of Ptolemy, Soter. Obverse, head of the king; Eevei-se, or tliunderbolt. B. C. 285.

Tetradrachm of ]Sracedonia. Obverse, head of Artemis surrounded Macedonian shields; Reverse, club of Hercules dividing the legend, both encircled by a wreath. About B. C. 400. 111. Bronze coin of Seleucus TV. King of S^Tia, who died B. C. 175. Obverse, liead of tlie king, the hair confined witli a fillet; Reverse, prow and fore part of
a
ship, dividing tlie legend.

112. Bronze coin of Tigranes, King of Armenia, who died B. C. GO. Obverse, head of tlie king wearing a tiara; Reverse, a female seated, holding a corn ucopise in one hand and a wreath in the other. 113. Tetradrachm of ISIithridates YI, King of Pontus, who died B. C. 63. Obverse, head of tlie king; Reverse, a pegasus dividing the legend, and surrounded with a wreath. 114. Tetradrachm of Antlochns I, who died B. C. 210. Obverse, his head; Reverse, Apollo seated on a Cortina, holding in one hand a bow and in the other

an arrow.
115. Tetradrachm of Antlochns lY, King of Syria, who died B. C. 104. Obverse, i)ortrait of the king; Reverse, an eagle standing on a fuhnen, dividing the legend. 110. Tetradrachm of Seleucus YI, surnamed Epiphanes, who died B. C. f)4. Obverse, his portrait; Reverse, Pallas with spear in one hand and Xice in the other. 117. Tetradraciim of Alexander I (Balas), B. C. 152-144, struck at Tyre; Obverse, portrait; Reverse, Eagle date, year 103 of Seleucid Era, B. C. 149. with club of Hercules in front. 118. Bronze coin of Ptolemy II, siu-named Euergetes, King of Eg\iit, who died B. C. 222. Obverse, head of Jupiter Amnion; Reverse, an eagle on a ful-

men^the Ptolemaic emblem.

Tetradrachm of Phileta-rus, founder of the Kingdom of Pergamus, Obverse, head of the king; Reverse, Pallas seated, offering died B. C. 203. a wreath, in the field a sword.
119.

who

120.

Tetradraciim

who

died B. C. 181.

of Ptolemy Y, surnamed Epiphanes, King of Egypt, Obver.<e, head of the king; Reverse, Eagle on fulmen.

of Ptolemy YII, Euergetes II, known as Physcon, who Obverse, head of the king; Reverse, Eagle on fulmen, Ob122. Bronze coin of Berenice, wife of one of tlie Ptolemys of Egypt. Reverse, a verse, head of the queen, with covering extending over tlu^ bust cornucopise surromided by the legend. 123. Tetradrachm of Xicomedes III. Philopator, King of Bithynia, died B. C. 74. Obvei-se. head of the king; Reverse, Zeus discharging a thunderbolt from his left hand and holding basta in hi;; right. 124. Gold Stater of Phamaces, King of Pontus, who died about B. C. 170. Obverse, head of the king; Reverse, Apollo seated, a lyre behind and a tripod in front of him. 125. Gold Stater of Cyrene, a city of great imiiortance in northern Africa. Obverse, Xice driving a (pjaih-iga; Reverse,Zeus standing with hasta aiitl liolding a patera over an altar. B. C. r)00.
121.

Tetradrachm

died B. C. 117.

;

477

ANCIENT GREEK

COINS.

478

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

479

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

480

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

481

ANCIENT GREEK COINS.

482

HISTORICAL COIN ATLAS OF THE
From
Julius

ROMAN EMPIRE.

Pieces of all Emperors, Empresses, Tyrants and Kings,

Cesar

B. C. 70, to

the Extinction of the Western Empire, A. D. 476.

Made Perpetual Dictator 1. Caesar, Cains Julius, born B.C. 100. B. C. 44. jNIurdered by Pompey and Senators, March loth of same year. One of the most noted characters in history, distinguished by extraordinarj'' genius and attainments in the most diversified pursuits.
2. Augustus, Caius Octavius Csepeas, first Emperor of the Roman Empire Born B. C. 63. Declared Emperor B. C. 29. Died A. D.

Coins rei)resent him with Julius Caesar, Lepidus, Agrippa, Tiberius, 14. wise and moderate ruler. Julia, Caius and Julius and Germanicus.

A

Tiberius, Claudius Nero Csesar, born B. C. 42. Son-in-law of Augustus Ciesar A. D. 4. Emperor A. D. 14. Smothered by order of Caligula A. D. 37. His reign exhibits every variety of detestable actions.
3.
4.

Drusus, Nero Claudius,
Antonia, bom

15.

a

Poisoned A. D. lU. Ciesar A. D. 4. good and brilliant man.
5.

afterwards Germanicus, born B. C. A noble prince, a grand general,

:grandson Caligula A. D. 37.

B. C. 38. Wife of Drusus Senior. Poisoned Beautiful, virtuous and unfortunate.

by her High

honors were paid to Iier memory. Born B. C. 13. Poi6. Drusus Csesar, or Junior, son of Tiberius. soned by his wife A. D. 32. Consul A. D. 15 and 21. Tribunica Potentas A. D. 22. Naturally noble but degraded by gross jjassions, Born B. C. 15. 7. Germanicus Csesar, son of Nero Claudius Drusus. Ca?sar A. D. 4. Poisoned A. D. 19. A great soldier, a chaste, temperate

and much beloved man and Consul. Born B. C. 15. 8. Agrippina, wife of Germanicus Ciesar. to death in banishment by Tiberius A. D. 33. A noble woman.
9.

Starved

A. D.

Caius, or Caligula, son of Germanicus and Agrippina. Born Emperor A. D. 37. Killed A. D. 41. A beast in human form. 12.

10. Claudius I, Poisoned A. D. 54. p^^ror A. D. 41.

Drusus Nero Germanicus,
tact.

born B.

C. 10.

Em-

Industrious and diligent, but a failure

through want of judgment and
11.

originally L. Domitius Aiienobarbus Born A. D. 37. Younger son of Cmeus Domitius Anenobarbus and Agripjiina. His mother afterwards n)arried her uncle, Emperor Claudius, who adopted Nero and changed his name to Claudius Ctcsar Drusus Germanicus. Emperor A. D. monster, i)robably the vilest character in Killed himself A. D. OS. 64. history.

Nero,

A

12.

Galba
149

Ser. Sulpicus, born B.
xV.

C. 3.

soldiers avaricious.
liis

by

D. 09.

A man of excellent

qualities,

Emj^eror A. D. 68. Killed but over severe and

483

HETOEICAL COIN ATLAS OF THE ROMAN

EfflPIEE.

Pieces of all Emperors, Empresses, Tyrants and Kings.

484

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.
lo. Otho. M. Salvius. born A. D. 32. Emperor A. D. 69. Bein^ conquered by Vitellius, he killed himself the same year. A companion of Nero, he imitated all the vices of that tyrant. 14 Vitellius- Aulus, born A. D. 15. Emperor A D. 00. Killed by Vespasinnus' soldiers the same j^ear. He had a little le.irning, but great

'

talent for eating, drinking, debts
15.

and

debauclieries.
9.

Died
16.

79.

Vespasianus. T. Flavins Sabinus, bore A. D. By birth of mean condition, he rose by merit

Emperor

69.

statesman.

He was frugal, temperate and Domitilla, Plavia, the first wife of Vespasianus. She died before her husband became Emperor, and the coins bearing her portrait were
struck after her death.
17. Titus, Flavius Sabinius Vespasianus, born A. D. 40, son of Emperor Vespasianus and Domitilla Flavia. Emperor A. D. 79. Died A. D. 81. A brave general, a man of learning and a ruler of peculiar

as a soldier amiable, but too avaricous.

and

excellence.
18.

Assassinated A. D. 96. tyrants that ever disgraced a throne
20.

19. Emperor A. D. 81. 52.

Julia, daughter of Titus. Little record and that not good. Domitianus T. Flavius Domitianus Augustus, born A. D.

One

of the most cruel

woman

the wife of Domitianus, whose record as a equals her worthless husband's, whose assassins she urged on to their murderous work.

Domitia Longina,

Emperor A. D. 96. Died 21. Nerva M. Oocceius, born A. D. 32. A. D. 98. A noble character of strong will and great administrative power. He received the honor of deification.
Casar and Emperor with 22. Trajanus M. Ulpius, bom A. D. 52. Nerva A. D. 97. Sole Emperor A. D. 98. Died A. D, 117. One of the most distinguished of Ronjan rulers. Wife of Trajan. A woman 23. Plotina, Pompeia, died A. D. 129. justly honored for her extraordinary merits and high character. Remarkable for her Sister of Trajan. 24. Marciana, died A. D. 115, After her death slie was enrolled among the gods. virtues and talents.
25.

Matidia, daughter of Marciana.

Honored

in her life-time, deified

which occurred in the reign of Antonius. Adopted by Trajan and 26. Hadrianus, P. Aelins, born A. D. 76. his :jon-in-law. Trajan adoi)ted him A. D. 117 and heAvas declared Emperor the same year. Died A. D. 138. A good ruler and successful soldier whose virtues overbalanced many defects in his character. 27. Sabina, wife of Hadrian, honored in life and death, but unhappy in her matrimonial relations. She committed suicide about A, D. 137. 28. .^lius, adopted by Hadrian about A. D. 136, with the name of Died A. D. 138. Ca?sar. 29. Antonius, Pius, in early life Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antonius. liorn A. D. 86. Adopted by Hadrian and declared EmDied A. D. 161. A most exalted and wise character ia peror, A. D. 138. private and public life.
after her death,

485

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.
,qOO0""°°OOO(

486

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.
Annia Galeria. Bom A. D. 105. Died 30. Faustina, Senior. A. D. 141. She was in everyway unworthy of her great husband, but notwithstanding the utter profligacy of her life, he loaded her with honors before and after her death, Adopted by 31. Marcus Aurolius Antoninus, Born A. D. 121. and son-in-law of Antonius Pius, Emperor A. D. 161. Died A. D. 180. A " wise, learned and just man. Commonly distinguished as the Philosopher."
of Faustina, Senior, and abandoned to ill deeds as washer mother. She was married A. D. 145 or" 14(3 to Marcus Aurelius, who either through good nature or blindness, ignored her vile acts, cherished her living and honored her after
32.

Faustina, Junior, Annia, daughter

as thoroughly

death in 175.

Son of ^lius Cicsar, 33. Verus. Lucius Aurelius, Born A. D. 130. son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius and associated with him in the empire A. B. 161 169. His original name was L. Ccionius Commodus. Died by poison, A. D. 169. During his life he shared the honors worthily of Marcus Au-

relius.

lius 176.

Commodus, L. Aurelius. Born A. D. 161, son of Marcus Aureand Faustina, Jr. Named Csesar A. D. 166. Associated in empire A. D. Named Augustus 177, sole emperor 180. Died from strangulation and poison 192. A miserable man and ruler, cruel, corrupt and dissolute.
34.
35.

CriSpina, wife of Commodus,

unfaithful,

divorced, banished to

Capreae and put to death.

Born A. D. 126, Emperor A. D. 193. Assas36. Pertinax, Helvius. sinated after a reign of 87 days in consequence of his firmness in insisting upon reforms in the army and State. DidiuS Salvius, afterwards M. Didius Commo37. Julianus, dus Severus Julianus. BornA. D. 133. Declared Emperor A. D. 198. Assasinated after reigning 66 days. A good soldier, but unscrupulous and amHe bought the supreme power by promises of money to the bitious.

M

soldiers.
38.

Clara, Didia, daughter of Julianus.
effigy, or rare

Born A. D. 153 only known
;

through her
39.

occasional coins.
in Syria,

Niger,

A. D. 193.

A

C

Pescennius. Declared Emperor by the army
soldier,

good

no statesman, he could not secure the power;
D. 146, Emperor 193. Master admirable general and reformer,

was put
40.

to death as a rebel A. D. 194.

Severus, L. Septimus. BornA.
;

of the whole Empire 197 but cold and ungenerous.
41. intellect 42.

died 211.

An

Domna,

and vast ambition.

Julia, wife of Septimus Severus. A Avoman of powerful Starved herself to death A. D. 217, upon loss

of power.

in

Albinus. Clodius, or DecimusClodius Ceionius Septimus. Born Africa named Ca'sar l)y Septimus Severus A. D. 193, rebelled and took
;

title

of

Emperor

Severus 197.

A

of Britain and Gaul 196; defeated and killed by Septimus great general and man of some learning.

487

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

488

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.
-43. Caracalla or Caracallus, also Bassianus, and when adopted by 8everus, called M. Aurelius Antoninus which last name he retained ever after. Born A. D. 188. Named Ca>sar 19G; Augustus 198 Emperor with Assassinated 217. A bold, bad Lis brother Geta 211 sole Emperor 212. man whose life is stained with all crimes. 44. Plautilla, Fulvia. Married to Caracalla A. D. 202 soon banished, left destitute and finally murdered by order of her husband.
;

;

;

or P. Septimus. Born A. D. ISO. Brother of Caracalla. Ca'sar 198; Augustus 209. Emperor with Caracalla 211 and assassinated by him, while in the arms of his mother, A. D. 212. A far better character than his murderer though with many vices,
45.

Geta,

L

Named
46.

Opilius) Macrinns. Born A. D. Killed 219. A haughty, blood-thirsty, inhumanly cruel coward. He was the instigator of tlie murder of Caracalla. 47. Diadumenianus or Diadumenus M. Opelius, son of MacBorn A. D, 208. Named Ca\sar and Augustus 217. Killed 218. rinus. Celebrated for his remarkable beauty.
(or

Macrinus M. Opelius

1G4.

Proclaimed Emperor 218.

48.

ElagabaluS,

guards

peror passed into a jiroverb.

Marcus Aurelius Antonius. Killed 222. A glutton and all 218.

originally called Yarius Avitus Bassianus, and afterBorn A. D. 205; declared Emthat M'as bestial, his name has

49. Paula, Julia Cornelia. INIarried to Elagabalus A. D. 219, diTorced the next year. Died in j^rivate life. 50. Maesa. Julia, grandmotherof Elagabalus and Alexander Severus. One of the n:i<)st able and strong minded women of history ambitious and unscrupulous but wise and polite.
;

Killed A. D. 222. She 51. Julia Soaemias, mother of Elagabalus. was the first woman who took a place in the Roman Senate. Her life was not pure and her body was subjected to every indignity after death, A woman of 52. Mama>''a, Julia, mother of Alexander Severus. strong character, devoted to her son. Her advice caused the revolt in the iirmy, A. D. 235, in which both mother and son were killed. 53. Severus, BI. Aurelius Alexander, usually called Alexander Born A. D. 205. Killed 235. A brave soldier, a pure, just man, l^cverus.

but loo much under control of his mother. 54. Orbiana. Sallustia Barbia, one of the three wives of Alexander Severus. Known only through effigies on coins. 55. Maximinus I., Julius, Verus. Born A. D. 173, of low parentage. Of immense strength and gigantic stature, (over 8 feet). He became conspicuous in the army and rose to be Emperor A. D. 235. He

C

"\vas

assassinated with his son, 238.

A brute in

every respect.

56. Caesar, C. Julius Verus, son of in a lesser degree, the honors gained by his father, and promising young man. liim A. D. 238.

Maximus

Maximinus, shared was Uiurdered with

A

57.

Gordianus

I,

M

Antonius, surnamed Africanus.

Born

A. D. 158. Proclaimed ]^aii};eror in Africa 238, and was acknowledged by the Senate, but unable to quell a revolt, he killed himself after a reign of about forty days.

489

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

490

AIMCIENT

ROMAN

COINS.

58. Gordianus Africanus II, eldest son of G. A. I. Born A. D. 192. Associated with his father in the })urple and perished in battle against the rebels on the same day. Both father and son bear noble characters in

history.
59.

Pupienua Maximus, Marcus Clodius.
2o8.

Bora A. D.
after.

164.

Ca'^lius. Born A. D. 178. Associate Emperor with Pupienus. 238. An excellent combination cf an able general and sagacious statesman. He and his brother ruler perished by assassination three months alter their elevation to supreme power.
61. 222.

Made Emperor with ]>albinus 60. Balbinus- DeciinUS

Killed three months

Gordianus III, M. Antonius, grandson of G.A.I. Born A. D. Proclaimed Augustus 238. Assassinated 244. An amiable young
wife of Gordianus III

man, deservedly well beloved. 62. Tranquillina, Sabnia, or Sabnia, Furia, and daughter of Misitheus. No record.
successful been a Christian.
64.

63. 249.

Philippus

I.,

M.

Julius.

A

warrior and ruler.

Born A. D. 204. Emperor 2<4. Killed By some authors, claiiued to have
I.

Otacilia Severa, Marcia, wife of Philippus
ancient writers to have been a Christian.

Believed by

many
65.

Born A. D. 237. C»sar 244. AssoII.. M. Julius. with his father as Augustus, 247, and killed with him when but twelve years of age.

Philippus

ciated
67.

Decius, C. Messius Quintus Trajanus Decius. Emperor 249 drowned in a bog, 251. He accepted the the army under threats of death if he refused.
201.
;

purjjle

Born A. D. from

67.

Etruscilla^ Herennia, wife of Decius.

Known
Named

only from hiT

coins.
68.

EtruSCUS, Herennius, son

Augustus 251,
69.
fer.]

of Decius. Killed in battle the same year.

Ca>sar A. D. 249.

Hostilianus, son, son-in-law or nephew of Decius [authorities difAssociated in the pur[)le with Trebonianus Gallus, A. D. 251. Reported to have died the same year and also to have reigned two years. 70. Gallus, Trebonianus, C. Vibius. .Joint ruler with Hostilianus. Killed Avith his son, by his soldiers, A. D. 253.
71. Volusianus, son of Gallus. Killed with his father. 252.
72.

Named

Ca3sar
208.

A. D. 251.

Augustus

Aemilianus, Aemilius.
Killed

Born A. D.

Proclaimed Emperor

in Maesia, 253.

by

his soldiers 254.

73. Valerianus, P. Llcinius. Born A. D. 190. Emperor 253. great soldier, called upon to rule on account of his high merit. He was and died in captivity from cruel treatment, captured by the Persians 26 263. After death his skin was stuffed and preserved as a trophy by his
',

A

enemies.
74.

Mariniana;
Gallienus,

wife,

sister

or

daughter

of Valerianus.

Known
son of

only by her coins.
75.

P.

Licinius Valerianus

Egnatius;

491

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

492

ANCIENT KOMAN COINS.
Valerianus by his first wife. Emperor with his father A. D. 253. Assassinated 268. A contemptible character. It Avas during tliis reign that the many generals declared themselves Eaiperors, and these are designated as The Tfiirtv Tyrants.
76.

Salonia, Cornelia, Augusta, wife of Gallienus, mother of Sa-

lon inns.
77.

Valerianus, Junior,

opposite in character.
78.

half brother of Gallienus, and a happy Assassinated A. D. 2()8.
of Gallienus.

Saloninus, P. Licinius Cornelius, son
Ctcsar 253.

Born

A. D. 242.

Put

to

death 25y.

One of The Thirty 79. Pcstumus, M. Cassianus Latinius. Tyrants. Rebelled against Gallienus, and proclaimed himself Emperor in Gaul A. D. 258. He was a strict but just ruler while he reigned. Killed 267.

One of the Thirty Tyrants, was 80. VictorinuS, M. Pravvonius. associated with Postumus in the purple. A superior general and statesman, but a slave to his passions. Assassinated A. D. 267.
Emperor in Gaul, A. D. 267. The fourth 81. IVTarius, M. Aurelius. of the Thirty Tyrants who ruled Gaul. His reign lasting for forty-eight hours, when he was assassinated. His coins must have been minted before he assumed power.
82. Tetricus, Pesuvius. The last of the Thirty Tyrants who governed in Gaul, where he was proclaimed Emperor, A. 1). 267. He restored the provinces to Aurelian in 273, by betraying his army in battle to that rulpr, and soon after retiring to private life he died at a very

C

advanced age. Proclaimed Cwsar while a 83. Tetricus, C. Pesuvius Pivesus. child; son and successor of C. Pesuvius Tetricus, one of the Thirty Tyrants, who ruk'd from A. D. 267, until con(|uered by Aurelian, about A. D. 274. One of the Thirty Tyrants. A brave sol84. Macrianus, Senior. dier, defeated and killed in battle by Aureolus, A. D. 262.
Flourished during 85. Macrianus, Junior, son of the preceding. the latter years of his father, shared his power and met with the same fate M. Aurelius Claudius, Gothicus. Born A. D. 86. Claudius II Died 270. A great warrior, a wise ruler. He Etni)eror A. I). 268. 214. endeavored to re-establish honest coinage and issued money of copper, plated or silvered over. Emperor A. D. 270, reigned but a 87. QuintilluS, M. Aurelius. few Aveeks, when, deserted by his soldiers he killed himself. Pie bears a high character in history. Born A. D. 27088. Aurelianus, Valerius, or L. Domititus. Emperor A. D. 270. Treacherously killed A. I). 275. A victorious soldier and able ruler, the history of his reign is most brilliant. 89. Severina, XJlpia, wife of Aurelianus, seems to have been worthy her great spouse. Medals and coins were struck in her honor, and })rove that she survived her huslKUid. 90. Vabalathus. Athenodorus, son of Zenobia, Queen of Palmyra. He was made Emperor in Syria A. D. 266, and captured by Aurelia,n 273, Certain of his coins bear the face of Aurelian on the obverse.
,

493

ANCIENT KOMAN COINS.

40

4

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.
91. 276.
92.

Tacitus,

M. Claudius. Emperor

A wise
arts.

ruler,

from Sept. A. D. 275 to April not ambitious of military glory, but a promoter of all

peaceful
citus, at

Annius. Born A. D. 232. Half-brother of Tawhose death he assumed supreme power, ruling i'rom April to June or July 267, when he was killed either by the revolting soldiers or his own
Florianus,
hand.
93.

M

peror from 276 to 2S2,

Probus, M, Aurelius. Born A. D. 232. Sonof Maximus. Emwhen murdered. His whole reign was a series of

achievements in peace and war. Carus, M. Aurelius. Born A. D. 230. Successor to ProbusKeported killed by lightning 283, but probably murdered. More successSome coins represent him with Carinus his son. ful in war than peace. 95. Carinus M. Aurelias, eldest son of Cams. Born A. D. 249. Em-

most
94.

brilliant

peror 283.
ruler,
96.

Killed 284.

who married and repudiated nine

Successful in war, a cruel, profligate and wasteful wives.

brother of Carinus. Born A. D. 254. His father-in-law, ArriusAper,v7as A wise and much beloved ruler. 97. Diocletianus, Valerius. Born A. D. 245. Emperor 284. Adopted Galerius 292; abdicated 305. Died 313. Of most obscure j^arentage, he rose by merit, and well deserved all the honors he gained. I3ut he terribly j^ersecuted the Christians.

Numerianus, M. Aurelias,

Died 284. Cfpsar 282. Augustus 283. killed on suspicion of murdering him.

The son of a 98. IKTaximianus II. Hercules. Born A. D. 250. shepherd. Associated in the Empire with Diocletian in 286 abdicated 305 retook the Empire, 306 abdicated again 308 proclaimed himself Emperor once more, 309; strangled himself, 310. A distinguished general and bad man, a relentless persecutor of the Christians.
;

;

;

;

99.

Carausius,

A. D. 287. Assassinated 293. A remarkable man, wdio rose from most lowly beginnings. He forced his powerful enemies to become his allies, and in all acts showed the greatest vigor and prudence. 100. Allectus. Emperor in England A. D. 293, by his murder of Carausius. Killed 296. A vile character.
101. Julianus, Marcus Aurelianus. (iovernorofVenitia in Italy. Usurj^ed the Imperial power A. D. 284, Avas cont^uered and killed 285.

M. Aurelius Valerius.

Emperor

in

England

102.

ConstantiusI surnamed Chlorus, Flavius Valerius. Born

A. D. 2-50. Emperor 305 with Galerius, the Ibrmerbting placed over Gaul, Britain and Spain. He was a wise and just ruler and treated Pagans and Christians with impartiality and toleration. Died 306.
103. Helena, Flavia Julia Born about A. D. 248. Wife of .Constantius I, and mother of Constantinus the Great. She was divorced through State Policy. noble lady and true Christian, she died in 328, and honors

A

were showered upon her memory.
104.

Theodora, Flavia Maximiana,

second wife of Constantinus

Chlorus, for
105.

whom

he rejiudiated Helena.
II,

Maximianus

Galerius Valerius.

Caesar b^^ Dioceletian, A. D. 292.

Adopted and named Augustus and Emperor 305. Died 311.

495

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

496

AISICIENT
106.

ROMAN

COINS.

Galeria. Valeria, daughter of Diocelitian, second wife of Maximianus II. She and her mother were beheaded by order of Licinius, A. D.
315.
107.

Hercules, A. D. oOo Augustus and end to himself A. D. 307.
;

Severus, Flavius Valerius. Named C^sar by IMaximianus Emperor 306. Compelled to put an

ew

108. of Galerius.
109.

Maximinus, Galerius Valerius.
;

Original name Daza, neph« Nan^cd Cicsar A. D. 305 assumed the title of Emperor 308.

Di^d of despair or poison 313.

A violent, undeserving and ungrateful maru
son-in-law of Galerius. Emperor A monster of rapacity, cruelty and

Maxentius, M. Aurelius,

A. D. 306, Drowned in the Tiber 312. all other vices.
110. Urbica, Magnia. to be the wife of Maxentius,

Only known by hercoins. By some supposed by others, assigned to Carus, and by others to Carinus. The coin is pronounced by certain authorities to be a forgery. Born about A. D. 300; named Caesa-r 1x1. Romulus, son of Maxentius. Died while a boy. 337; Augustus soon after.

Roman Ctesar or Augustus. Known only by 112. Nigrinianus. his coins. It has been conjectured by some that he was the son of Alexander, a ursurper of Africa A. D. 311, by others that he was the son of Carus.
113. Licinius; Publius Flavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus. Born A. D. 263, of peasant parents. Gained friends and rank in the army married the daughter of Constantius Chlorus. Named. Caesar and Augustus and Emperor with Galerius Maximianus 307. Prisoner of his brother-in-law Constantine, and strangled 323. A cold blooded tyrant. 114. Constantinus I., Flavius Valerius Aurelius, surnamed Magnus, or " The Great." Born A. D. 274. Son of Constantius Chlorus and Helena, son-in-law of Maximanus Hercules. Proclaimed Cnesar and Augustus in Britain 306, and Augustus by Maximanus 308. In 311 he embraced the Christian religion. Became sole Emperor 323. Quitted
;

A

Rome
OJt
0-7
.

in

330,

for

Byzantium, which he named Constantinople.

Died

115. Fausta, Flavia ^larricd to Constantine I. A. D307. Caused the deatli of her stejvson, and some historians say, was smothered to death in a warm bath by her husband's order, 326.

Maximiana.

116. 117.
l)ut to

Licinius

Licinius, Junior, Flavius Valerius Licinianus, son of I. Born A. D. 315. Made Ca;sar317. Stripped of all honors and
I.

death 326.

118. Crispus, Flavius Julius, son of Constantine A. D. 300. Named Caesar 317. Gained glory in battle. his father, at the instigation of his step-mother 326.

Put

Born about to death by
I.

119. Delmatius, Flavius Ctesar A. D. 335. Killed 337.

Julius, nephew of Constantine

Named

120. Constantinus II., Flavius Claudius, surnamed The Younger, son of Constantine I. Born A. I). ;U2. Named Caesar 316.

Ruler of Gaul, Spain and England 335.
feated

Emperor and Augustus

337.

De-

and

killed in battle 340.

497

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

49«

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.
Constans I., Flavius Julius, youncest son of Constantine I. Named Ciusar 333. Emperor"340. Killed by revolting 320. soldiers 350. An indolent, weak and profligate man. 122. Magnentius, Flavius Popilius. Bom about A.D. 303.
121.

Born A. D.

Revolted against Constans
self 353.

I.

Proclaimed Emperor 350.

Killed himCaesar A. D.

123. Decentius, brother or cousin of INIagnentius. 351. Strangled himself 353. 124.

Named

Vetranio.

An

old General.

Proclaimedhimself Emperor A. D.

350

;

abdicated in ten months.

T^ied 356.

125.

Constantius

II.,

317. artful tyrant.

Born A. D.

Created Consul 324.

Flavius Julius, third son of Constantine I. Emperor 350. Died 361. An

126. Julianus, Flavius Claudius, surnamed Born A. D. 331. 8on of Julius Constantius. Named

"The

Apostate''

peror 361. Killed in battle 363. traordinary man.
127.
basis. 128.

Caesar 355. Sole EmIn talents, principles and deeds, an ex-

Jovianus Flavius Claudius.
Valentinianus

Died 364.

Born A. D. 331. Emperor 363. Professed himself a Christian and put that religion on a legal
I.

maintained the Catholic penalty of death.

He

faith

Born A. D. 321. Emperor 364. Died 375. and forbade all Pagan ceremonials under

129. Valens, brother of Valentinianus I. Born about A. D. 328. Emperor of the East 364. Persecuted the Catholics, and was himself burned to death by Barbarians 378.
130. Gratianus, Aug., son of Valentinianus I. Born A. D. 359 made Consul 366 Augustus 367 Emperor 375. Killed 383. A pious, chaste and temperate man, but wanting in firmness.
;

;

;

131. Maximus, Clemens. Assumed the name of Augustus in Britain A. D. 383; acknowledged Emperor, seized upon Italy 387. Captured and decapitated 388.

Magnus

132.

Victor, Flavius, son of Maximus Magnus.
Put
to death 388.

Named Augustus
Born I. Emperor

A. D. 383.

133. Valentinianus II., or Junior, son of Valentinianus A. D. 371. Named Augustus and associated in the Empire 375. of all the West 383. Assassinated 392.

134. Theodosius I., surnamed " The Great." Born A. D. 346. Named Augustus and associated in the Empire by Gratian in 379, his division being the Eastern. Died 395. 135. Flacilla, Aelia, first wife of Theodosius I. Died A. D. 385. 136. Eugenius. Proclaimed Augustus at Vienna A. D. 392. Put to death two years later by order of Theodosius. 137. Arcadius, son of Theodosius I. Born A. D. 377. Named Cfesar 383. Emperor of the East 395. Died 408. A thoroughly incompetent and

weak

ruler.

499

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

500

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.
138.

Eudoxia, ^lia,

woman
band.

wife of Arcadius. Died A. D. 404 or 406. A of high spirit and possessed of great influence over her hus-

139. Honorius, Flavius Augustus, second son of Theodosius The Great. Born A. D. 384. Named Augustus 393. Emperor of the ^\'est 395. Died 423. weak ruler, his was a disastrous reign.

A

Augustus in England and III., The Tyrant. Gaul A. D. 407. Taken prisoner and put to death 411. 141. Attalus, FrisCUS. Made Emperor by Alaric at Rome, A. D. 409. Deprived of his title and resumed it in Gaul 410. Died in banishment on
140.

Constaninus

the island of Lipari.
142.
143.

Jovinus,

A. D, 411.

Proclaimed Emperor at ^Nlayence a Gaulish Captain. Defeated by Adolphus, the Gothic King, and beheaded 413.
II., only son of Arcadius.

Theodosius

BornA.D.

401.

Named

408. lished the celebrated Codex Theodosianus. kingdom was managed by others.

Augustus 402.

Emperor of the East

Died 450. In 438, was pubHe was a weak ruler and his

144. Johannes. Born about A. D. 380. Usurped the purple 423. Conquered and killed 425. 145. Placidia, Galla, wife of Constantinus III. Died at Rome A. D.

450.
146.

Valentinianus Placidius.

Born A. D.

419.

Emperor

425.
391.

Assassinated 455.
147.

Marcianus,

Emperor

brother-in-law of Theodosius II. of the East 450. Died 457.

Born A. D.

148. Leo I., Flavius, surnamed The Great and The Thracian. Born about A. D. 400, in Thrace. Emperor of the East 457. Died 474. Distinguished by remarkable talents and high moral qualities. 149. Maximus, Petronis (Anicius). Born A. D. 395. Assumed the purple 455. Murdered after a reign of about three months. 150. Severus, Libius. Proclaimed Emperor of the West at Ravenna, A. D. 461. Died 405. 151. Anthemius, Procopius, son-in-law of Marcianus. Emperor

of the

West A. D. 467. Killed 473. Glycerins. Emperor A. D. 473. Dethroned by Julius Nepos 474, and became Bishops of iSalona. Died 4i0. The last Emperor but one of the Western 153. Nepos, Julius. Empire. Created Emperor A. D. 474. Was deposed by Orestes and
152.
154.

killed 480.

the East, 474.

Born A. D. 459, succeeded Leo I. as Emperor of months. 155. Zsno or Zen on, original nanie Trascalisseus. Born A. D. 426. Son-in-law of Leo 1., lather of Leo II., and associated with the latter in the Eastern Emijire 474. Abdicated 476; regained sovereignty 477. Died 491.

Leo, Junior.
Died

after a reign of six

501

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

502

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

503

ANCIENT ROMAN COINS.

A. D. 476, he drove Zeno from 156. BasilisCUS, brother-in-law of Leo I. the throne and declared himself Emperor of the East. Zeno, next year conquered and captured him, and with his family he was imprisoned in Cappadocia, and all were starved to death. The last Roman Emperor of the West157. AugUStulus, Romulus. Son of Orestes, who proclaimed him Emperor A. D. 475, after driving out Julius Nepos. Orestes Avas the actual ruler until he was defeated and killed hy Odoacer. Augustulus Romulus, on account of his youth, beauty and innocence, was spared, but exiled to Campania. His ultimate -fate is

unknown.
e?r3C'

M^^?^^'^

^^*^^.^^

X

;

504

MEDIAEVAL COINS.
TiiEODOTTATT'S King of the Goths in Italy, A. D. r,ui. KiUed, o3(). No. 2. BADUIL1.A, cMlled by tho Gi-eel<s ToTILLA; Kinfj of the (Jotlis in Italy A. D. 541. Killed in battle with Naises, ."iryi. No. 3. Basijuscvs .see Kniperois of the East.

No.

1.

;

No. 20. Richard, A. D. 1203. England. No. 21. Alphonsu.s X. Germany and Italy or Spain? No. 22. C^SAR Rudolpiius, A. D. 1291. Switzerland.

J^o.

!')().

No.

4.

Maeciaxu.s,

.see

Emperors
;

of the East.

-No. 147.

No. No. No. No.

23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

Gtjtha (uxor?)

vxor.

Bohemia.

Catharina vxo'-. Hungary. " Clementine rj;or. and Sicily.
CiKSAR Albertus.
Germany, AusAustria. I'atriarch of Con-

at Constantinople A. 1). ToO. Ot the I^aurian (lj"nasty. De•clared Enij)erer 751 died 7X0. No. 6. Heraclu'SI. IJoni abont A. T>. 575. His extraordinary reign marks the last epoeh of ancient Roman grandeur. Emperor of the East,

No.

5.

Leo IV.,CiiA/,ARtTS born
;

tria, etc.

No. No. No. No.

Elizabeth, wife of Albcrtns.

Joannes

VI., 1356.

stantinople.

RuDOLi'HUS nzfjs. Bohemia.

Henricus CoRNi.ssouof Albertusand

27. died fi41. No. 31. Albertus III. Duke of Aus<:via, etc. No. 7. Ax.vSTASTrsT. Born A. D. 430. EmKUled by No. 32. Joannes, 1326. Bohemia. peror of Constantinople A. I). 491. No. 33. Georgius. Arch-duke Austria. thunder 518. No. 8. J uSTixtTS T. Born A. D. 4.30. Emperor No. 34. Isabella Philippi Regis. Daniae. No. 35. Maria. Spain. j)f tho East, 518; died 527. No. 36. Charles V., A. D. 1519. Spain. No. 9. MAtTKiciu.s, Flaa-itts TiiiKRiiT.s. Born •about A. D. 539. One of the f;reatest emperors No. 37. MargaretumVX. Duchy Florentine. No. 38. Joanna, ((ueen of Joannis. Portugal. •of Constantinop'e, reigned Irom 582 to 020, when, No. 39. Catiiarina Reg Portugal Joann III. with all his family, he was murdered by Phocas. No. 40. Ferdinandtjs, A. D. 1521. Hungary No. 10. Ti«KKiiTS, named Cassar, with his lirother Heraolitis. A. D. 059. Assoeiated in the and Bohemia. No. 41. i:L!ZABETn, A. D. 1545. Empire with their brother I'ogonatus 008. Killed, No, 42. Fekdinanlus. Born 1529, died 1595. «74. No. 11. Michael II., Emperor A. D. 820. Died Archduke Austria, etc. 829. No. 43. Cakolus, a. D. 1590. Archdulce AusNo. 12. Micitaei. in, Emperor A. T). 842. As- tria. No. 44. Joanna Magni, A. 1). 1.5—. Born 1547, sassinated 8(37 the reverse shows JNIiehael and died 1.578. France his son Constantinus. No. 1.3. JiEO in., Emperor A. D. 717. Died 741 No. 45. Barbara. Born ii Vienna 1.539 died 1.572. :and his son Constantinus A'. No. 46. C.'esarMaximilianusII. Germany, No. 14. Nicephorus, Emperor A. D. 742. Died
«1();
;

Elizabeth, No. 26 and No.

743.
;

Hungary,

etc.
1.592.
1.576.

No. 47. ELi.'..VBETn. Born 15.54, died No. 15. Isaacttts I., surnamed CoaiMENUS Emperor A. D. 1057; abdicated 1059; died 1061. Queen Frame. No. 48. WiNCESLAtlS. Born 1.561, died No. 10. Theodokus I., Emperor A. D. 1204. Archduke Austria, etc. Died 1222. No. 49. C.ES.\R RvDOLPHi'S II. Boru No. 17. Theodorus III., Emperor 1255. Died -1259. elected 1575. Germa .v, Hungary, etc.

1552,

No.
1067.

18. 19.

C03S^stantinus and Adronieus, A. D.
Wir.T.iAM, A.
1). 125.-,.

No.
1608.

.50.

Cesar

Matthia.s.

Born

15,57,

king

Hungary.

No.

Holland.

174

505

MEDIEVAL

COINS.

)06

MEDIAEVAL COINS.

507

MEDIAEVAL COINS.

508

170

JEWISH

COINS.

jection to the

possessed no positive coinage until the time of tlieir subSyria, of the Seleueidan dynasty, about B. C, 312, wiien Greek currency, established tln-oughout the East since t'le Macedonian conquest, circulated also in Judea, initil the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, in B. C. 176, caused the revolt of Mattathias, the chief priest, when his son Judas Maccabeus, heading the revolt, eventually re-established the long lost independence of Judea, and to his successor, Sinion, was conceded by Antiochus, the son of Demetrius, the right of coining national money, the earliest of which was issued about B. C. 144, in i)ieces of one, two, and four silver shekels, bearing different types, all relating to tlie ceremonial of Judaic worship. Obverse, a cup or clialice; legend, ''Shekel 1. Shekel of Simon Maecaboeus. " Jerusaltm the holy.'''' B. C. of Israel, rear 2; Reverse, a triple lily; legend, "

The Jewish people

Kings of

144.

Obverse, similar to No. 1 legend, 2. Half-Shekel of Simon Maecaboeus. " Half-Shekel^ year 2; " Reverse, same as 'No. 1. Obverse, two bunches of thickly-leaved 3. Copper coin of Simon IMaccaboeus. branches; legend, ''/n the fourth year one half;'''' Reverse, Palm tree between two baskets of dates, etc.; legend, " The redemption of Zion.''^ Obverse, two bundles of branches; 4. Copper coin of Simon Maecaboeus. legend, "/a the fourth year one quarter;^'' Reverse, an ethrog; legend, same as on No. 3. 5. Sixth of a Shekel, copper, of Simon Maecaboeus. Obverse, a cup or chalice; legend, " llie redemption of Zion;''^ Reverse, a Ibundle of branches between two ethrogs legend, '" In the fourth year.''"' 6. Copper coin of Simon, son of Gioras, under the first revolt of the Jews. Obverse, cluster of grapes, with tlie name " Simon,''^ alxivc Reverse, a pitcher and palm branch legend, " Second year of the deliverance of Israel.'''' 7. Copper coin of Simon. Simon, Prince of Israel,''^ on Obverse, the legend, either side of a palm tree; Reverse, the legend, " First year of the redemption of
;

A

;

;

;

'*•

aroun.d a vine-leaf. Silver coin of Simon Bar-cochab during the second revolt of the Jews, Obverse, legend, " Simon,'''' round a cluster of grapes: Reverse, " The Deliverance The coin was originally a denarius of of Jerusalem,^ around two trumpets. Trajan, whicjh has been re-struck.
Israel,''"'

8.

^

Widow's Mite.

cO^

AND THEIR

VALUATION AT UNITED STATES and ENGLISH

STAND/J^lDS.

From the latest governmental reportsof all countries possessing metallic currency, theirnational valuation lias been fonipiled and is here given, coniputeil at the standarils of the U. S. and Great Britain any variation from onr plate statements, or those on the U. S. Official Table, are in conseiiuence of the calculations being made from the sources mentioned. To purchase goods with this money in the U. S., a loss through discounton the values here given would be sustained to buy the coins, a premium, in some cases very high, would have to be paid. The nations composing the latin union, have equalized their standard for large coins the Five Franc pieces of France, Belgium and Switzerland the Five Lire of Italy, Five Pesetas and Twenty Reals of Spain, Five Drachmi of Greece, Five Boliviars of Venezuela and Peso of Chili each weigh 385.808 grains, are 900 fine, and contain 317.227 grains of pure silver, worth 72^8 cents, U. S., and 3s. -l^od., English standard, the metal being calculated at f 1 per oz. and 4s. 2d. per oz., respectively, and 1000 fine ; their current value is dG}.< cts. ia this country, and 4s. in England. Chili and Venezuela are not of the Union, but their coinage is regulated by its standard. To designate the metal in which these coins are minted, g, indicates gold s, silver, and b, base, which latter term includes all pieces not struck in gold or sUver,
;

;

;

;

,

;

COUNTRY. Abyssinia.
Pataka. s

COINS.
Haraf,
l>

u. S.
$

VAL.
4 .34

GT. BRIT. VAL.

COUNTRY.

£

COINS.

U

2s.

17d

99.96 66.98 6.69
.11
.s
(

4s.
2s.

Id
9.49d 3.34d .Uod
2.67d 6.05d
9.4;id

Afglianistan.

Kwau,
Mas,
.y

s

Sapeck, b

Africa (Portugal).
Maiutra,
5.35
36 .10

Algiers. Kial-lioudjou, Aniiain. Kwaii, s
Mas,
.? ft

66.98
6 .69
.11
1 .04

Sapeck.

Arabia.

<_aveer, 6 Diwana, 6 Dollar, Mocha, s Gass. 6 Kriisli, X Maliiiiudi, s Piaster,
.s-

3.34a 5.0od .52d

.99

83
.25

49d od
.12d 2.42a 2.54a

28.85

5.18d
.95 .46

Argentine Republic. / La Y'eiitavo,
ft

\Plaia.;i»iiza (isiH-iC).
<)iiza(l's:«-.")U),

48d
3. .3s. 10.23(1

j,

1.'>.51

Peso Kuerte, s
Real, s

y

14.6=; .79

3
4s.

4.3I><1

Asia (French),
Kaiioii, s

iX1.90 10
..52

Id

5d
.16d
9S.

Cash, 6

Austria.

". Quaar-pl.,j,' Florin, y " s New-Kreutzer, 6
,1

Ducat, r/ (Hungary), u

5.72
2.28 .28

2.86d 4.75d
5.25(1 7.25fl

2.29.16
9.13 .20

9s.

48.23
41
1.
..30

1.17s. 28. 2S.

1.50d
.20fl

i^cudo, s Tlialer, Levantine, s
i*Pe<'ies.
ft .«

.41

2.60

2.8(id

,,

'

Vereins,

Batavia,

Miireis, s Florin, s Rix Dollar, s Stiver, b Bavaria. Caroline, g D'lil Gulden, s

Azores.

vereins-Kroue, g

Baden.

99 .96 1. 2 .30 71 .40 0.64 .20 S3 .50 40
.56 4.99 .20
1

Id 2.15a

3.75d
5.5('d
8.5i'(i

Id

7sl
6.111(1

81.^
2.28 .76
II
,3.43 ..85

5.

I2d

Diieat, (7 Florin, s

4.75rt

8.50a
14s. 13s.
2(1

I.udwig

Max (POr, .7 Belgium. Centavo,
Pranc, *

(I'or.

!7

ft

3.34 .14 .19

9.07(1
.(Kid

19.30

9.G5d

510
COUSTHY.
I'iaster,

COIN.
]Nr^ikka,
,?

r

.

S.

VAL.

b

Finland.
I'cuni, b

JFraiice. Centime, b Franc, s

Louis d'Or

"

(1785),

g

|

(180'J-4U),
''

g

ASIA { '^' German Kinpii-e.
Crown, g Doppelkronc, g Krone, g
J[ark,

I'l'ennig, b

Gerinaiiv. UunUlc Thaler,
'I'lialer,
*•

s

" Tlialer, Great Britain.
* Fartliing. b

Vereins-Ivrone, g
s

Crown.
Florin,

*'

Guinea, g Penny, h

round
Greece.

Sterling, Shilling, *

g

Sovereign, g

l>rachmas

(20),

g

Drachma,
Lepta s
Phoenix, s

*

Hanover.
Ludwig d'Or, g Hesse-I>arnistaclt. Karolin, g Hungary. Ducat, g India. Anna, b
Pice, b Pie. b

Rupee, s

Ionian Islands.
Italy.
Obolo, 6 Centisimo, b Lira, s Sequin, g

Japan.
"

Sovrauo, g Zecchine, g Itakaue, g
Xtzebu, s

Kobang, g
(Imperial), g

Yen, s
Sen, b Ti-ade Dollars, s Liberia. Cent, b 10 Cent, s 25 Cent, s Madras, aiohur, g

Malta.

8tar-Pagoda, Grano, b Scudo. .9
.s-

Taro, b

Mexico.
Doubloon, g
Peso, Real,
.s' ,s-

Netlierland (Holland).
Cent, b

Double Ducat, g
Florin,
.v

" William, g Ducat, g
Hytler, g Stiver, b

Norway.
Koner, s
Oere, b

Crown, s
Cicntavo, b

Paraguay.
Peso, s Real, s

Persia.

Abassee, b Dinar, b Dinar-Bistee, 6 Kasbequi, b

^
FRENCH GRAMMES AND ENGLISH GRAINS.
COPYRIGHTED BY
A. M.

511

SMITH.

This Table exhibits tlie Grammes (French) contained in Grains f"Fnp:lish). rTlip Grnnime is weight in tlie metric system, equivalent to the weight of one cubic .-iitiiiH-t.-r of liiuv water at its the nnit of ax um density, that is, at a temperature of X)° Fahrenheit, In a vacuum It is (•(]uul to 15, 4:r grains avc liic lupois or troy
.

;

]

GRAINS

^
ESTABLISHED
1851.

piRBECK BANK.—
Southampton Buildings, Chancery Lane. allowed on DEPOSITS, repayable on demand.

THREE PER CENT. INTEREST

allowed on CURon the minimum monthly balances, when not drawn below £50.

TWO PER

CEXT. INTEREST
calculated

RENT ACCOUNTS,

The Bank undertakes
charge, the custody of
Securities
;

for its customers,

free

o^

Deeds, Writings, and other

and Valuables the collection of Bills of Exchange, Dividends and Coupons and the purchase and sale of Stocks, Shares, and Annuities. The BIRBECK ALMANACK, with full particulars, can be obtained post free, on application to FRANCIS RAVENSCROFT, Manager.
;

March

Slst, 1886.

The Birbeck Building

Society's Annual

Receipts exceed Five Millions.

HOAV TO PURCHASE A HOUSE FOR TWO GUINEAS PER MONTH, with immediate
Possession and no Rent to pay.
the

Apply at the

Office of

Birbeck Building Societv.

HOW

TO PURCHASE A PLOT OF LAND FOR FIVE SHILLINGS PER MONTH, with imApply
at the Office of the

mediate possession, either for Building or Gardening
purposes.

Birbeck Free-

hold Lakd Society.
on application. Manager. Southampton Buildings, Chancery I^ane, London.
Pamphlet, with
full particulars,

A

FRANCIS RAVENSCROFT,

Subscribers and patrons of this work will confer a favor by sending their address that they may receive notification of future supplements which may be issued.
miitically inclined, will be thankfully received

Addresses of persons collecting coins, or whoarenumisby

A. M.
P. O.

SMITH,

Publisher,

Box

754.

Philadelphia, Pa., U. S. A.

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