Exam 3 Review Community Nutrition 3043-01
Read Chapters 15-17 for the exam. Review your notes. Know the following:
Chapter 15: Understanding and Achieving Behavior Change Know factors influencing consumer behavior. o 1. Food supply and availability o 2. Income and food prices o 3. Sociocultural o 4. Food preferences, cognitions, o attitudes o 5. Health beliefs and practices Identify factors affecting food choice. Know definitions such as nutrition education, nutrition counseling and social marketing. o Nutrition education – formal process to impart knowledge to group or individual o Social marketing – approach to promote healthy behaviors using marketing techniques o Nutrition counseling – collaborative activity between counselor and client Know the stages of change model and which strategies are most effective in each stage. o Precontemplation – individual unaware of or not interested in making a change o Contemplation – individual is thinking about making a change within the near future o Preparation – individual actively decides to change and plans a change very soon o Action – individual is trying to make the desired change and has been working at it for less than 6 months o Maintenance – individual sustains change for six months or longer o Relapse – teach people that relapses do occur, but that is not failure. Identify major health behavior/behavior change theories and know the differences between them. o Motivational Interviewing Theory Builds upon client-centered counseling RULE Principles: o Resist urge to confront client about need to change o Understand – proceed in nonjudgmental way o Listen – express empathy o Empower – support self-efficacy o Application Used in classroom-based obesity prevention program for adolescent girls Combination of face-to-face and telephonic interviews
expectations of success Paired participants with those successful in the past Combined Health Belief and Theory of Planned Behavior Osteoporosis intervention – increased calcium intake in participants o Social Cognitive Theory Theory (Key Concepts Table 15-4): An individual’s confidence and ability to perform a behavior and his perception of outcome will influence his effort
. attitudes. self-esteem. Well-received by participants o The Health Belief Model Theory: Three components for adopting a new health behavior: o The perception of a threat to health o Expectation of certain outcomes related to a behavior – benefits o Self-efficacy – the belief that one can make a behavior change to produce outcomes Intervention strategies – Table 15-3
o Application Beliefs in connection between diet and health result in greater number of positive changes than just knowledge Public awareness campaigns are used to influence beliefs of people in highrisk groups o Application: Weight control program – surveyed participants on intentions.
Focuses on target behaviors rather than knowledge and attitudes o Theory of Planned Behavior (Reasoned Action) (Ajzen and Fishbein) behavior directly determined by a person’s intention to perform the behavior influenced by attitudes and subjective norms (the perceived social pressure to perform or not perform a behavior) self assurance readiness to begin the program Application: Weight control program – surveyed participants on intentions. self-esteem. attitudes. expectations of success Paired participants with those successful in the past Combined Health Belief and Theory of Planned Behavior Osteoporosis intervention – increased calcium intake in participants o Cognitive-Behavioral Theory Theory: Based on assumption that all behavior is learned Behavior is directly related to internal and external factors Patients are taught to use behavioral strategies (Table 15-5) Application: o Diabetes Prevention Program – intensive lifestyle modification program based upon cognitive behavioral theory o Lifestyle intervention was significantly more effective than drug therapy in reducing incidence of diabetes
The Diffusion of Innovation Model o Theory:
o Multicultural -several cultures are represented in a group. o Cultural values – principles or standards that members of a cultural group share in common. acculturation and ethnocentric. diversity. education. beliefs. religious and societal groups. Know definitions such as culture. and there are some attempts to make accommodations. socioeconomic. adopt innovation only through peer pressure Laggards – last to adopt idea
Application: Heart-Healthy Living Program – asked popular chef with recent heart attack to join group and provide modified recipes Early adopter – influenced other members of group to make changes Chapter 16: Gaining Cultural Competence Define cultural competence relating to health professionals. language. o Weaknesses in serving culturally diverse populations are realized. o Diversity -the difference among groups of people-physical. ethnic. o Causes of Health Disparities: o SE status-income. well respected by peers Early majority – cautious Late majority – skeptical. unsafe neighborhoods (minorities) o Lack of insurance o Culture-health often not a high priority o Less access to health care system
. values of racial. multicultural. age. perceive themselves as popular. o Ethnocentric -viewing one’s culture to be superior to those of other groups Identify reasons for health disparities in American culture between cultural groups. cultural values.o
o o o o o
The process by which an innovation spreads within a population Four stages: Knowledge – individual has acquired information and is aware of innovation Persuasion – individual forms attitude in favor of or against innovation Decision – individual performs activities leading to either adopting or rejecting innovation Confirmation – individual looks for reinforcement for decision and may change if exposed to counter-reinforcing messages Innovators – adopt innovation readily. actions. etc. customs. language. o Culture-shared history consisting of thoughts. are financially privileged Early adopters – opinion leaders. o Acculturation -the degree to which a person accepts the living and thinking patterns of the dominant culture.
Identify and know key aspects of two cultural competence models. Amer Dietetic Assoc is 91% Anglo (non-Hispanic white) & 95% female which does not reflect the minority population we work with now.
Discrimination/racism/stereotyping Environment A problem! Creates barriers to access HCP should reflect the community they work with. values and behaviors and the function of culture in an individual’s life. Inc diversity in our organization is now a priority.
o o o o
Know the effects of culture on beliefs.
Know some key cultural differences (ethnic and religious) that relate to health beliefs or food consumption.
Describe basic methods of becoming culturally competent.
Know functions of cultural values.
and health. guest speaker. cooking demonstration.Describes the goals and objectives for intervention activities Should be realistic and obtainable by the target population Should be stated in such a way to provide an “outline” of what the target population should achieve at specific times in the education process o 3. dietary habits. o 1. Should be tailored to all learning styles.Describes the program format Ex-Three lectures.Describes the needs of the target population What learning style is best suited for the target population’s educational needs? What kinds of instructional tools will have the best impact with the target group? Can Internet activities be incorporated? o 2.Chapter 17: Principles of Nutrition Education Define nutrition education. Know the components of a nutrition education plan. passive and active learning. o An instructional method that promotes healthy behaviors by imparting information that individuals can use to make informed decisions about food.
an action figure. etc.Describes the nutrition messages to be imparted to the target population Should convey an easy-to-understand concept related to the topic at hand Present information in a novel and unusual fashion Use language that says to the consumer “Listen to this. etc. Instructional materials 4.Outlines the lesson plan Consists of: 1. Tag line-a simple.States any partnerships that will support program development or delivery Use media. o 4. Ex. for the campaign.
The available facilities.Describes the evaluation instruments Forming partnerships with grocery stores. Title 2. and tag line. government agencies. logo. etc. It is important” Use language that is immediate.Outlines the marketing plan Program name. and nonprofit organizations. Avoid using words such as “perhaps” and “maybe” Keep the message simple (KISS) Make sure the message is designed appropriately for the target population. short message that conveys a key intervention message and is used on promotional materials. Conduct Formative Evaluation Done throughout the program design process. o 9. newspaper. Sometimes allows the community nutritionist a way of receiving donated materials such as paper. Session objectives 3. o 8. equipment and staff influence format. equipment. Cartoons for kids. Learning activities 5. Internet. nutrition education materials. Examples: Focus group on program format Test key messages Develop & test program materials Conduct trial run of program Identify differences between learners based on their stage in the life cycle. o 6. Spanish language for Hispanic population. Nutrition “take-home” messages o 5.
. o 7.
the process whereby adults learn and achieve changes in knowledge.
Implications for Adult Nutrition Education o Make learning problem-centered o Make information concrete o Make learning collaborative o Encourage participatory approaches to learning o Ask open-ended questions o Seize the “teachable moments” o Recognize individual and cultural differences o Know the components of a lesson plan.a parent died from a heart attack o …Will low-fat. and their learning is facilitated when they can make connections between their past experiences. Adult Education o Adult education . o Example . values or skills. low-cholesterol eating prevent me from dying of a heart attack?
. attitudes. o Adult learners learn best when the subject matter is tied directly to their own realm of experience.
What makes for an effective nutrition message? Identify where learning activities place on the spectrum from passive to active learning and how effective various techniques are. Bolded and italicized entries are possible short answer questions. The exam is multiple choice and true/false with 1-2 short answer. Remember that Exam #3 covers all material from Chapters 15-18.
. you need to study ALL of your power point presentations and read your book. You will need a pencil only. (The upside down triangle)
Please note that this is a guide.