28 MAY 2012



This report outlines the results of my observation in various departments at Anjani Portland cements Ltd during our induction programme. We went through various departments, technical and non-technical, and have collected detailed information on their respective functions and their impact on the outcomes of the company. I have made an attempt to describe some of the things I came across during the course of time. Non-Technical: We went to non-technical departments like P&A, Time office and weighbridge, stores, A/C and sales. In TO and WB, we learned they way the company keeps track of the in time and out-time of their employees. We also learned the different shifts the company follows and their respective timings. We also learned the conditions for applying leave and different types of leaves an employee can have. The weighbridge measures the loads of the trucks while coming in and going out thus having an idea of input raw materials. During our visit to P&A office we learned that they are responsible for maintaining health and safety of employees, their recruitment and training for increasing their potential and safety. Environmental safety also comes under their supervision. In stores they have the items that are constantly needed for the industry and other regular items like nuts and bolts, bulbs etc... They always use standard items so that they can have them for longer periods of time. We also visited the accounts department which majorly deals with cash, banks, and journals. They coordinate with all other departments and have a detailed record of production parameters, number of workers, work completion, pay sheet by personnel. Though the budget is prepared by HOD’s, this department takes care of the effective implementation of the plans.

Sales department deals with orders of the customers and supplies appropriate amount of material to them will be a sales representative of the company for each region. Different stages involved in the process of cement manufacturing are also covered in the induction programme. We are also a brief description on the different machines used in the process like crusher, raw mill, kiln etc... We also visited different technical departments like mechanical, electrical and instrumentation. We visited workshop in mechanical engineering department and learnt different basic machines like lathe, shaper, grinding machine. In the electrical department we were explained how the power distribution is done in the plant.

Personnel and Administration (P&A) office:

P&A office ensures that whether all the activities in the company are going on according to the schedule or not. Any deviations from the programme are corrected by them. Three ISO’s are followed in the plant. They are: 1. Q.M.S : Quality Management System 9001 ISO

2. E.M.S: Environmental Monitoring System 14001 ISO 3. O.H.S: Organisational Health Safety 18001 ISO The P&A department in the factory monitor these isos’. Other functions of the P&A department are briefly described below:  The department helps employees to maintain good behaviour by conducting programmes like yoga, counselling.  It makes sure that each and every employee in the organisation follows safety rules thereby prevents accidents.  P&A department maintains the employees’ insurance details and takes at most concern about the health of the employees.  P&A prepares the pay sheet and submits it over to the account department.  It prepares the vehicle bills.  It conducts the welfare activates in the factory.  It provides training to the employees to do their work efficiently.  Training is provided for the career development of the employees.

Time Office and weigh bridge:
Time office: Time office mainly keeps a record of in/out timings of the
employees. Proper software is maintained for this in which the employees have to scan their identity cards with the machine available in time office and their in/out timings are loaded automatically. They will maintain the details of only the employees who have their names in according to form25 muster roll.


These employees will be having four types of shifts and the timings for different shifts are stated below:  A shift:- 6:00am to 2:00pm  B shift:- 2:00pm to 10:00pm  C shift:- 10:00pm to 6:00am  General shift:-8:00am to 5:30pm (lunch break from 12:00noon to 1:30pm) Employees working in A, B, C shifts should leave only after the entry of the employee of the next shift. General shift employees will have weekend holidays, national holidays, and public holidays. Time office also keeps a record of the employees’ leaves. Leaves are classified as  Sick leaves  Casual leaves  Personal leaves Every employee has to submit a leave card in the time office after the approval from the HOD of the concerned department.

Weigh bridge: Their main function is to keep a record of amount of raw
materials, fuel that was taken into the company and also the amount of cement leaving the plant. For raw materials /fuel, they will note the weight of the loaded truck, after unloading they will take the weight once again and calculates the net weight of the raw material/fuel. They enter the net weights of different raw materials and will save them. For cement first they will note down the

empty weight and then the loaded weight and calculates the net weight and records them. Weight of the trucks is calculated with the help of computerized weighing mechanism which will display the weight of the truck on the indicator when a truck enters on the balance.

Accounts deals with cash, banking and journals. They

maintain relation with each and every department. They hold the records of the number of workers and details of their working hours during the month and pay wages accordingly. They keep track of work completion and depending on that they pay the bills or wages. The personnel department prepares the pay-sheet and submits it to accounts department where they check it and add the wages to the respective bank accounts. The HOD’s prepares the budget and gives it to the accounts department who holds the responsibility to carry it effectively. They also make sure that the difference between the costs of production (actual) to that mentioned in the budget does not differ by more than 10%. They prepare MIS (Management Information System) which discusses about the previous and present cost of production in different areas and the respective reasons for increase or decrease in cost/production. The following are some of the factors responsible  LOP(Loss of Pay)  Increase in number of days  OT(over time)  breakdown(due to maintenance or some other reasons)


Main costs and drains in production and respective measures to be taken to reduce them even at the lowest level are taken care by accounts. For e.g., coal makes up for around 50% of the total cost of production while the other raw materials doesn’t cost much so decreasing the cost for coal other means of energy sources reduces the cost of cement by more than 10%. They maintain records of each department separately and all the respective costs are submitted to HO (Head Office).

Stores Department:
Stores department coordinate with purchase department to have an effective transport from various vendors for clearance of goods at different transports and unloads them after reaching the company. They cheques quantities of goods physically with respect to document and moves them to appropriate area where it is to be stored. They classify the materials according to departments and stores at different places. They protect material against deterioration and damage. They will keep the material according to their consumption levels. From their analysis only 5% of the total material contributes to 70% of total annual consumption, 20% contribute to 25% of the value and 75% of the items contribute only 5% to the consumption value. So, they separate the material according to their consumption value and store them with relevant locations. Stores department has to coordinate with different department in their functioning. In planning the targets of production availability of the materials plays a vital role. They will provide accurate quantities of the materials available. It keeps a track on the receipt of the purchase goods and avoids any delay in the receiving of the purchased goods. Wrong

supply/rejections/damages are reported to purchase section. They submit the receipts of various purchases to the purchase section daily. It has to process the received goods through inspection and identification marks are made ass advised by inspection department to avoid mix up of rejected and accepted goods. It forwards the details of the receipt and their inspection results to finance department for making payment the suppliers, transporters, customs duty etc…. They also inform the accounts department about the results of stock verification of material for making necessary book adjustments. They also maintain the materials required by the personnel department like stationary items, canteen furniture and others. They supply the material needed in different areas to personnel department. They supply the spares and material required by plant maintenance team and assists them in maintaining the plant safely. The main objective of stores department is to supply the necessary material required by the production department. Materials have to be issued to the production department according to the production programme released PPC within the shortest time to avoid any loss of production time. The stores department has to ensure that the materials which have been carried into store are made available whenever they are required. It follows the FIFO method for the issuing of the goods to the different departments. It makes the storing facility in three types  Main store which keeps all new items only.  Secondary Godown, keeps separately once used items with identification tags and used only in emergencies.

 Scrap yard, once used the items will be scraped thorough into scrap yard. Disposal of scrap is also one of main functions of the stores department. Once in 6 months advertisements are given for all items to be scrapped for receiving tenders. Stores assistant prepares a competitive statement from the tenders received and submits it to the superiors and a contractor with higher price is awarded the contract. Stores in charge ensure that the contractor lifts all the scrap within the scheduled time. For the transportation of materials from one place to another it uses different material handling equipment like  Fork link trunks  Platform trailers
 Chain pulley blocks

Sales Office:
The main function of Sales department is to take orders from the customers and supply accordingly. There will be a sales representative for each district. There are four sales representatives for Hyderabad region. These sales representatives take orders from the customers and send their details to the

~ 10 ~

head office. Head office gives instructions to the production nearest places.




Sales office has to follow the instructions given by the head office and has to deliver the load at the particular within a given span of time. They have to maintain the details of the load leaving from the plant and submit them to the accounts office. In the case of the bulk orders they have to properly coordinate with the customers and should deliver the load in certain intervals of time as the production unit cannot produce huge amounts in a short period of time. They maintain proper records of the orders coming and the amount of the load delivered and ensures that the orders are delivered properly.

~ 11 ~

Manufacturing of cement –Process description

1) Mines:
Anjani Portland Cement Ltd took a land of 142.14 acres for lease from the Government. There are four benches in the mining area. Breadth of each bench is 15m and its height is 3m. As we go down that means as the depth increases the concentration of limestone increases. Holes are made using drilling machines. Explosives are used to blast the mines. Depth of drilling can be up to 5m.Drilling is made in such a way that the size of the limestone should not be more than 1m.Mining area is at a distance of 8km from the plant.

2) Limestone crusher:
The crusher is meant for crushing the limestone from one meter size to less than 10mm.Crushing process consists of Primary Crusher followed by secondary crusher. Primary crusher and secondary crusher consist of vibrating screens. They act as sieves. Primary crusher crushes the limestone from one meter size to 70mm.Secondry crusher is meant for further crushing of the limestone from 70mm to less than 10mm. The capacity of the crusher is 40TPH.The crushing unit consists of buildings, control room, feeding hoppers, feeding equipment, conveyors, galleries, platforms, hand railing, de-dusting equipments, foundations etc...

~ 12 ~

3) Limestone stock pile and transportation:
The crushed limestone of size less than 10mm is transported through conveyor to the Limestone Stock Pile to stack under covered shed through Tipper conveyor. From the Limestone stock pile material with uniform quality will be transported to Hopper through Belt conveyor. This entire process consists of Control room, Feeding and Transport conveyors, Galleries, Platforms, Hand railings, Bag filters at all transfer points to control dust emissions etc.

4) Additives crusher and transportation:
The crusher is meant for crushing the Laterite an Iron ore to less than 10mm size and it will be stored in Additives stock pile under covered shed. From additive stock pile material is conveyed to Additive hoppers through belt conveyers.

5) Raw mill & raw meal preparation:
Raw mill is a Ball mill meant for grinding the limestone, Laterite, and iron ore of size below 10mm to less than 212 micron size. This powdered material is called “Raw meal” and is transported to storage silo. The Raw meal preparation process is consisting of feed hoppers, weigh feeders, conveyers, supports for conveyers, control room, Bucket elevators, Cyclone separator, coarse and fine particles separation equipment, pollution control equipment, foundations, platforms, railings and metal detectors, separators etc..
~ 13 ~

6) Blending silo & kiln feed extraction system:
Storage silo is of concrete construction meant for storage of the raw meal powder produced by raw mill and also to facilitate blending through aeration system to homogenize and maintains consistent quality of raw meal. Homogenized raw meal from the silo transported to kiln feed bin. From the kiln feed bin, the raw meal conveyed to the top of pre heater through bucket elevator. This entire process consists of silo, kiln feed storage bin, level indicators, solid flow feeder to know the feed rate, bucket elevators, air slides, bucket elevator support tower, feeding and transport conveyors, galleries, hand rails, aeration blowers, compressors, pollution control equipment and foundations.

7) Coal crushing and Transportation:
Coal is main fuel for manufacturing the clinker from RAW MEAL. The raw coal from the coal hopper is conveyed to coal crusher through series of belt conveyors. The coal crusher is meant for crushing the raw coal of size less than 200mm to less than 10mm.Crushed coal is conveyed to Coal Mill hopper through belt conveyers. This entire process consists of covered sheds, feeding hoppers, crusher, control room, platforms, feeding and transport conveyers, galleries, hand railing, pollution control equipment, foundations etc.

~ 14 ~

8) Coal mill, Fine coal preparation & Fine coal transportation to Kiln and Calciner:
Coal mill is meant for pulverizing the crushed coal of size less than 10mm size to below 212 micron size. Pulverized coal is called fine coal. It is transported to fine coal bins. Fine coal pneumatically conveyed by FK pumps and is fed to kiln and Pre-calciner. Entire process consists of Ball mill, Grit separator for separating fine and coarse material, building with control room, bins, blowers, weigh feeders, FK pumps, pollution control equipment etc.

9) Pre-Heater:
Pre-heater is a 7 storey building with Pre-calciner, cyclones, mixing chamber, feed pipes and ducts. Kiln feed enters at a duct connected between 2nd and twin cyclones. This kiln feed is heated from 70 degrees to 1000 degrees in pre heater itself. Hot gases from the kiln and fine coal fired in pre calciner will be utilized to heat the kiln feed to 1000 degrees before it enters into the kiln. In the pre-calciner up to 92% of calcinations of kiln feed takes place. Calcination is dissociation of limestone into lime and carbon dioxide. The pre heater consists of 7 storey building, steel cyclones, steel ducts, steel chutes, flap valves, gates, doors, bucket elevator, platforms, hand railing, de dusting equipment, refractory bricks, blowers, compressors, fans, RCC floors and foundations.

~ 15 ~

10)Rotary Kiln:
Kiln is a long, steel tubular structure with refractory lining and is placed on support rollers to rotate at required speed. The hot material which is heated in pre-heater up to 900 degree centigrade enters in to kiln inlet. The kiln will be in rotating condition with controlled speed and with pumping of fine coal and air from outlet of the kiln. The entered hot material is converted at 1350-1400 degree centigrade to clinker after passing through various phases. The hot clinker is discharged in clinker cooler for further cooling. This process consists of steel shell, supporting rollers, and refractory bricks, drive motors, gear boxes, burner pipe, shell cooling blowers, gas analyzers, panels and control room.

11) Grate cooler and ESP:
The cooler is meant for cooling hot clinker which is discharged from kiln with 1100 to 150 degree centigrade by centrifugal fans. Ambient air is pumped in to cooler through fans at bottom side of grate passé through hot clinker bed. During the process the ambient air gains heat because of heat exchange between hot clinker and ambient air. Part of hot air enters in to kiln as secondary air at 1000 degree centigrade and tertiary air at 800 degree centigrade in to pre calciner and remaining hot air passes through ESP to ID fan. The clinker moves on grate plate mechanism and by the time it reaches clinker discharge, the hot clinker cools down. The cooled clinker passes through a clinker breaker and transported to clinker stock pile by means of conveyors. The cooler exit gas containing clinker dust passes through ESP

~ 16 ~

(Electro Static Precipitator), where clinker dust is separated and clean air is exhausted by ID fan through Chimney. This process consists of grate plates, moving mechanism, fans, hydraulic power pack, drive motors, gear boxes, refractory lining, clinker breaker, air blasters, deep pan conveyor, bag filters, ESP etc.

12) RABH & Bag Filters:
RABH (Reverse Air Bag House) is de-dusting equipment which separates dust from pre-heater exhaust gases. The kiln exhaust gas passes through pre-heater and pre-heater fan and then it enters in to RABH. Here dust gases are separated and clean gas went out where as the dust collected taken back in to process. The entire process consists of control room, building, steel structures, bin, steel casing, conveyors, filter bags, fans, blowers and drag chain.

Clinker Stock Pile (CSP):
Clinker stock pile is a closed shed, where clinker is stored. It is also useful for protecting clinker from rain and to reduce the dust emission while handling. Clinker discharged from cooler is transported to CSP by conveyors further the clinker i transported to cement mill hoppers through underground conveyors. CSP consists of civil structures, steel structures, conveyors and pollution control bag filters fans and clinker extraction chutes.

~ 17 ~

Fly ash & Gypsum storage and handling:
Fly ash stored in a closed silo having MS hopper where as gypsum is stored in covered shed to protect from rain. These materials are added to clinker as per required percentage in the process of cement grinding. Gypsum is conveyed to cement mill hoppers by Terex as and when required. This system consists of shed, conveyors, and hoppers.

Cement mill hoppers:
Cement mill hoppers are of concrete structures and is meant for storage and feeding of clinker and gypsum to facilitate consistent feeding to mills through weigh feeders and conveyors.

Cement Mills:
Cement mill is meant for grinding the clinker, fly ash and gypsum to a powder form around 320Sq.m/Kg. This fine powder is called cement and it is transported to storage silo through conveyors. The cement mill circuit consists of ball mill, building, control room, bucket elevator, classifier, cyclones, bag filters, fans, supporting structures, hand rails, blowers, compressors etc.

Cement silos:
Cement silo is a concrete structure and meant for storing the cement. The cement is transported from silo to packing plant for bagging. It consists of aeration system blowers, compressors, bucket elevators, air slides, supporting structures and bag filters etc.
~ 18 ~

Packing Plant:
Packing plant is meant for packing the cement into bags and transports the packed bags in the trucks. The packing plant circuit consists of rotary packing machine, buildings, control room, bucket elevator, air slides, belt conveyors, screen, bin, fans, level indicators, supporting structures, bag filters etc.

Bulk loading system:
Bulk loading system is meant for loading cement to bulk tankers. It consists of Hopper, Air slides, blowers, supporting structures etc.

~ 19 ~

TECHNICAL DEPARTMENTS: Electrical & Instrumentation department:
Electrical department mainly deals with distribution of power in the industry and the operating conditions of various electrical machines. Anjani Portland Cement Ltd. receives three phase power of 132kV from the Government power substation. Three phase power of 132kV from the Government substation directly reaches the SWITCH YARD of the company. In the switch yard it is stepped down to 6.6kV. This 6.6kV is directly given to the various substations present in the industry. From the substations power supply is given to the LOAD CENTRES. Transformers of various ratings are used in the power distribution. These transformers give maximum efficiency at 50-65% of maximum load. Depending on the requirement of the load 6.6kV can be further stepped down to 3200V or 440V or 110V etc. using step-down or step-up Transformers. At each and every sub-station, load centre, and at switch yard CT (Current Transformer) and PT (Potential Transformer) are used to measure the supply current and supply voltage. Special wire is being used to prevent surges in the Transformers which are caused due to lightning, thundering etc. Transformers are being earthed to prevent shocks. In general LV (Low Voltage) side of the Transformer is earthed. Special devices like relays are being used to detect the surges (high currents and high voltages). Mostly Induction Motors are being used in the industry. Even DC Motors are being replaced with Induction Motors. Capacitive banks are used to improve the PF (power factor) of the motors. Maximum power factor reached is around 0.997.
~ 20 ~

LRR (Liquid Rotor Resistor) is used to vary the speed of the motor in starting condition. VVVFD (Variable Voltage Variable Frequency Device) is used to change the speed of the motor in running condition. WORKSHOP: Workshop mainly deals with repairing the damaged parts that were used in machines and also designing the new parts according to the requirements. There are all basic machines that should be present in a workshop and some work specific machines that are specially used in a cement industry. The following are the machines present in workshop here in Anjani Cements.  Grinding machine  Drilling machine  Bench vice  Lathe  Pipe Vice  Shaper machine  Power axe-saw  Bending machine The most important machine used in workshop is a “Gear Motor”. It is a combination of Gear box and a normal motor. It is used to vary the speed of the motor depending on the requirement of the machine. The input rpm given to the motor is called “drive” and the output taken is called “driven”. The ratio of the gear motor is calculated by dividing drive with driven. We can even change the direction of rotation of resultant driven by using ODD or EVEN number of gears. By using even numbers of gears we can reverse the direction of driven to that of drive and vice versa.
~ 21 ~

There are also rotary feeders which help in locking air. Also there are different types of drives such as belt, chain, gear drives etc… Gear drives are used for no loss condition and depending on required output belt and chain drives are used.

The following people helped us in respective areas in completion of this report. P&A – Mr.Varma TO & WB – Ramaiah Stores, A/C, Sales – Sr. Mgr Stores, Mgr A/c, Dy. Mgr Sales Crusher – Mr. M.purushottam, Mech eng Mines – Mr. Ramachandram, sr.Mgr Workshop – Mr. PSN Raju Raw Mills, Kilns, Mills – Mr. Subbarao Packing Plant – Mr. P.Subbaraju ELE & INST – Mr. DV Subbaraju

~ 22 ~

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful