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Post harvest pathogen of Brinjal

Brown spongy rot (c.o. Alternaria alternata, A. melongenae) It is a common disease and has been reported from different parts of the country like Delhi, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, etc. affecting pre harvested fruits. This disease is minor and noticed during winter. It is characterized by small, circular spots of about 0.5-1 cm diameter, with definite margin. Some of the spots are sunken with or without skin breaks, rich brown, and they often coalesce. The flesh becomes spongy, turns grayish to dark tan, with deep brown to black, scanty, superficial mycelial mass which becomes velvety due to heavy sporulation. In nature, bruises possibly permit easy access for the pathogen. Rotting is favoured by high humidity. Black mould rot (c.o. Aspergillus foetidus var. acidus) Black mould rot is a major disease of brinjal and has been recorded both in the field and markets of Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, The whole fruits turns greenish and releases watery ooze with a bad odour. The skin remains intact and a whitish colony with black conidialheads covers the surface. Wet rot of brinjal (c.o. Choanephora cucurbitarum) This disease occurs from May to September and has been reported from fields in Uttar Pradesh. And markets of West Bengal. The disease may start from anywhere on the fruit surface but mostly from the distal end. The disease appears as a small yellowish area which progresses fast and tarnishes the normal aubergine colour into orange red to yellowish red. On white skinned eggplant cultivars the affected area becomes soil foulsmelling and pulpy. The skin gets loosened from the pulp with a white scanty fibrous superficial growth. Depressed rot (c.o. Phomopsis vexans) It is the most important field and market disease of brinjal fruits and reported from different regions of the world. The infection appears anywhere on the fruit surface but mostly from the pedicel end. The infected calyx and the skin are separated from the rest of the fruit. Infection starts as naples white to light brown to khaki, slightly depressed, small, more or less

circular spots which are darker than their surroundings. The spots enlarge rapidly to about 4-6 cm in diameter. They often coalesce, with clear demarcated margins and extensive soft rotting of the pulp. Under dry conditions, the skin becomes wrinkled and shrunken with the pycnidia appearing in a circular manner. This disease is favoured by high humid conditions. Soft rot (c.o. Rhizopus nodosus, R. stolonifer) R. stolonifer is one of the most troublesome pathogens of brinjal both in field and storage reported from different parts of India. Soft rotis common and occurs round the year particularly on the borer infested fruits. Small brownish watersoaked area appears around some injury. It quickly spreads in the directions but the stringy mycelial mass bearing brown to black sporangia appears only on the extremities. The entire fruit mass decays within two to three days except in dry weather. A characteristics smell can be perceived. Etiology Alternaia alternata (Fr.) Keissler (=Alternaria tenuis Nees ex Pers). Dematiaceae, Moniliales, Hyphomycetes, Deuteromycetes conidiophores arise singly or in small groups, simple or branched, straight or sometimes geniculate, pale to mid olivaceous or golden brown, smooth 30-90 m x 3-6 m with one to several conidia. Conidia borne in long chain, obclavate or obpyriform with short cylindrical beak, pale to mild golden brown, smooth or verruculose, with up to six transverse septa and up to five longitudinal or oblique septa, 35.2-58.7 m x 8.5 19.2 m at the broadest part; beak pale, concolorous, 3.2-4.5 m thick. Aspergilus flavus Link ex Fries Conidiophores 400-1000 m x 5-18 m and gradually enlarge into vesicles, 26-40 min diameter. Vesicles dome like to flask shaped, phialides borne directly on vesicle or on metulae thereon. Conidial heads columnar. Conidia pyriform to globose, yellowish green, echinulate, 3-4 m in diameter. Sclerotia, when formed, initially white, later become brown and hard. Aspergillus niger Van Tiegh Aerial hyphae scanty. Conidiophore arise mostly from substratum, hyaline or yellow, uneven, thick walled, smoot, 200 m1.5 mm x 7-10 m. Conidial head blackish brown, purple brown or black, varying from small, more commonly globose, radiating

up to 300-400 m, but occasionally 1000 m diameter. Vesicle globose or subglobose. Phialides borne directly on vesicle of certain strains but usually on metulae. Young conidia globose, smooth, but with age become spinulose, measuring 2.5-4.8 m. Globose, superficial mustard like sclerotia produced by some strains. Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) C. Moreau (= Thielviopsis paradoxa (de Seynes) Hohnel, conidial state) Conidiophore pale brown, slender, 20-50 m x 4-6 m. Microconidia catenate, dolliform, llipsoidal or obovoid; dark brown, smooth, rather thick walled, 10-25 m x 816 m. Phialoconidia at first cylindrical and colourless, becoming ellipsoidal and pale tomid golden brown, mostly 7-17 m x 3-6 m. Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. and Rav.) Thaxter Choanephoraceae, Mucorales, Zygomycetes Sporangiophore hyaline, unbranched, broader at the tip. Sporangia spherical to slightly flattend; initially white, later black, 80-140 m. Columella pyriform to globose with a smaller collar. Sporangiospore light brown with hyaline bristles, ovid to ellipsoid, 18-27 m x 9-12.6 m. Fusairum oxysporum Schlecht Microconidia borne on simple phialides arising laterally on hyphae or from short, sparsely branched conidiophores, Microconidia abundant, variable oval, ellipsoid, cylindrical, straight or curved, 5-12 m x 2.2-3.5 m. Macroconidia on conidiophores or sporodochia, generally 3-5 septate, occasionallyup to 7 septate, fusoid with both ends pointed, 27-60 m x 2.5-3.5 m. Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. Microconidia a bundant on lateral conidiophores; 0-1 septate, rather broad and more oval with somewhat thicker walls, 8-16 m x 2-4 m. Macroconidia on sporodochia, develop after 4-7 days of incubation, fusoid, curved towards the ends, smoothly rounded at tip, mostly 3-5 septate, hyaline, 35-100 m x 2.5-8 m. Myrothecium roridum Tode ex Fr. Tuberculariaceae, Moniliales, Hyphomycetes, Deuteromycetes Sporodochia sessile, discoi, circular or irregular, green at first, later turning black, typically white rimmed without setae. Sporodochial margin woolly, compoased of

loosely intertwined unicellular hyphae. Conidiophore erect, once or twice branched, septate, hyaline with tapering main axis, 3-4 celled. Conidia borne on slender, clavate, straight. Phialides cylindrical or very slightly tapering with rounded ends; conidia one celled, hyaline, pale green, 5-9 m x 1-1.5 m. Spore mass at first green, later viscid, globular and jet black. Phoma destructive Plowe Sphaeropsidaceae, Sphaeropsidales, Deuteromycetes Pycnidia sub cutaneous, later erumpent, dark sub globose, slightly papillate, one or two ostiolate, 50-180 m. Conidia hyaline, flesh coloured when in mass, continous sub cylindrical to sub globose, 3.5-8 m x 1.5-2.5 m. Phomapsis vexans (Sacc. And Syd.) harter Pycnidial wall dark, membranous. Pycnidia with well defined beak, erumpent, 60-350 m on host but in culture 229-458 m. A-conidia hyaline, single celled, 4.9-6.5 m x 1.6-2.5 m, contnous, subcylindrical. Rhizopus rhizopodiformis (Cohn) Zopf Vegetative hyphae sub hyaline, 3-7 m in diameter. Stolons reduced. Rhizoids branched, hyaline to light brown. Sporangiophore 100-800 m in diameter. Tolons reduced. Rhizoids branched, hyaline to light brown. Sporaniophore 100-800 m, smooth walled, aseptate, light brown, simple, arising up to 3 at a place from stolons, usually opposite to rhizoids. Sporangia globose, white at first, later turning deep brown, 25-88 m in diameter. Columella 20-64.5 m x 38.8 m, oblong to pyriform, somewhat angular to sub globose, rarely short, oval or elongate. Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehren. Ex Fr.) Lind Stolons creeping, recurving to substrate in the form of arachinoid hyphae. Internode extended up to 1-3 m. Sporangiophore united in groups of 3-5 or more, rarely single, 0.5-3 m in height. Apophyses broad, cuneiform. Sporangia hemispherical with depressed, broad columella, 100-350 m. spores in equal, light brown, irregular, round, oval or angular, striate, 9.12 m x 7-9 m.