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ASSIGNMENT ON ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR. (Prof.

P Shastry)

(JDBIMS)

Q.Identify and explain types of groups in organization and differences between the groups?

A. A group consists of a number of individuals working together for


a common objective. Groups have significant influence on an organization and are inseparable from an organization. They are useful for the organization as they form foundation of human resources. The study of group behavior is essential for an organization to achieve its goals. Individual and group behaviors vary from each other. In 1920, Elton Mayo and his associates conducted the Hawthorne experiments and came to know that the group behavior has great impact on productivity. The importance of group behavior has been realized from time to time. Human behavior consists of individuals, who move in groups. The knowledge of group behavior as well as individual behavior is necessary for a manager. He must understand group psychology and should also understand individual behavior in the context of group behavior. The group in which he moves influences individual work, job satisfaction and effective performance.

DEFINITION OF A GROUP :
A group is a two or more individual who interact regularly with each other to accomplish a common purpose or goal. According to Marvin Shaw, "a group comprises, of two or more persons who interact with one another in such a manner that each person influences and is influenced by each other person'.

The key parts of this definition are the concepts of interaction and influence, which also limit the size of the group. It is difficult for members to interact sufficiently in a large group. Groups or work teams are the primary tools used by managers. Managers need groups to co-ordinate individual behavior in order to reach the organizational goals. Groups can make a manager's job easier because by forming a group, he need not explain the task to each and every individual. A manager can easily coordinate with the work of an individual by giving the group a task and allow them to co-ordinate with each other. But for a group to work effectively, the interactions between its members should be productive. Therefore, managers must pay attention to the needs of individuals.

NEED FOR GROUPS:


The reasons for the need, of groups are as follows: Management of modern organizations make mutual efforts to introduce industrial democracy at workplace. They use project teams and work committees where workers get due recognition. They willingly participate in decision-making. The tasks in modern industries are becoming more complex, tedious arid of repetitive nature. Work committees, work groups and teams are formed to monitor the work. They also make the environment at workplace livelier. Groups effective. help in making participative management more

Groups of all kinds and types help by cooperating in all the matters related to production and human relations to work effectively in the organization. An individual cannot perform each and every task. Group efforts are required for its completion. For example, building a ship, making of a movie, construction of a fly-over, etc. All these require coordinated and unified efforts of many individuals, working in a group. A group can judge in a better way as compared to an individual. While accomplishing tasks, all members of a group together use their creative and innovative ideas than a single individual. In a group, individuals communicate with each other, discuss their work performances and take suggestions from each other to make it better. Group efforts affect an individual, his attitude and behavior. Group has the ability to satisfy the needs of its members.

GROUP FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT


Groups can form when individuals with similar goals and motives come, together. Groups are formed voluntarily. The individuals of a group can join and leave the group any time and they can also change their tasks. Hence, understanding how groups form and develop is important for managers. There are certain motives because of which, the individuals join a group, which are as follows:

Organizational motives to join groups: Organizations form functional and task groups because such groups help the organization in structuring and grouping the organizational activities logically and efficiently. Personal motives to join groups: Individuals also choose to join informal or interest groups for unimportant reasons. Since joining these groups is voluntary, various personal motives affect membership. Interpersonal attraction: Individuals conic together to form informal or interest group, as they arc also attracted to each other. The factors that contribute to interpersonal attraction are sex, similar attitudes, personality and economic standing. The closeness of group members may also be an important factor. Interest in-group activities: Individuals may also be motivated to join an informal or interest group because the activities of the group appeal to them. Playing tennis, discussing current events or contemporary literature, all these are group activities that individuals enjoy.

Support for group goals: The individuals may also be motivated goals by the other group members to join. For example, a club, which is dedicated to environmental conservation, may motivate individuals to join. Individuals join groups, such as these in order to donate their money and time to attain the goals they believe in and to meet other individuals with similar values. Need for affiliation: Another reason for individuals to join groups is to satisfy their need for attachment. Retired/old aged individuals join groups to enjoy the companionship of other individuals in similar situation. Instrumental benefits: Group membership sometimes also helpful in providing other benefits to an individual. For example, a manager might join a Rotary/ Lions club if he feels that being a member of this club will lead to important and useful business contacts.

TYPES OF GROUPS
One common way to classify group is by whether they are formal or informal in nature. Formal work groups are established by an organization to achieve organizational goals. Formal groups may take the form of command groups, task groups, and functional groups.

FORMAL GROUPS
1. COMMAND GROUPS.

Command groups are specified by the organizational chart and often consist of a supervisor and the subordinates that report to that supervisor. An example of a command group is an academic department chairman and the faculty members in that department.

2. TASK GROUPS. Task groups consist of people who work together to achieve a common task. Members are brought together to accomplish a narrow range of goals within a specified time period. Task groups are also commonly referred to as task forces. The organization appoints members and assigns the goals and tasks to be accomplished. Examples of assigned tasks are the development of a new product, the improvement of a production process, or the proposal of a motivational contest. Other common task groups are ad hoc committees, project groups, and standing committees. Ad hoc committees are temporary groups created to resolve a specific complaint or develop a process. Project groups are similar to ad hoc committees and normally disband after the group completes the assigned task. Standing committees are more permanent than ad hoc committees and project groups. They maintain longer life spans by rotating members into the group.

3. FUNCTIONAL GROUPS. A functional group is created by the organization to accomplish specific goals within an unspecified time frame. Functional groups remain in existence after achievement of current goals and objectives. Examples of functional groups would be a marketing department, a customer service department, or an accounting department.

In contrast to formal groups, informal groups are formed naturally and in response to the common interests and shared values of individuals. They are created for purposes other than the accomplishment of organizational goals and do not have a specified time frame. Informal groups are not appointed by the organization and members can invite others to join from time to time. Informal groups can have a strong influence in organizations that can either be positive or negative. For example, employees who form an informal group can either discuss how to improve a production process or how to create shortcuts that jeopardize quality. Informal groups can take the form of interest groups, friendship groups, or reference groups.

INFORMAL GROUPS:
1. INTEREST GROUPS.
Interest groups usually continue over time and may last longer than general informal groups. Members of interest groups may not be part of the same organizational department but they are bound together by some other common interest. The goals and objectives of group interests are specific to each group and may not be related to organizational goals and objectives. An example of an interest group would be students who come together to form a study group for a specific class.

2. FRIENDSHIP GROUPS. Friendship groups are formed by members who enjoy similar social activities, political beliefs, religious values, or other common bonds. Members enjoy each other's company and often meet after work to participate in these activities. For example, a group of employees who form a friendship group may have an exercise group, a softball team, or a potluck lunch once a month.

3. REFERENCE GROUPS.
A reference group is a type of group that people use to evaluate themselves. According to Cherrington, the main purposes of reference groups are social validation and social comparison. Social validation allows individuals to justify their attitudes and values while social comparison helps individuals evaluate their own actions by comparing themselves to others. Reference groups have a strong influence on members' behavior. By comparing themselves with other members, individuals are able to assess whether their behavior is acceptable and whether their attitudes and values are right or wrong. Reference groups are different from the previously discussed groups because they may not actually meet or form voluntarily. For example, the reference group for a new employee of an organization may be a group of employees that work in a different department or even a different organization. Family, friends, and religious affiliations are strong reference groups for most individuals.

Group differences
Conflict within groups
Conflicts between people in work groups, committees, task forces, and other organizational forms of face-to-face groups are inevitable. As we have mentioned, these conflicts may be destructive as well as constructive. Conflict arises in groups because of the scarcity of freedom, position, and resources. People who value independence tend to resist the need for interdependence and, to some extent, conformity within a group. People who seek power therefore struggle with others for position or status within the group. Rewards and recognition are often perceived as insufficient and improperly distributed, and members are inclined to compete with each other for these prizes.

In western culture, winning is more acceptable than losing, and competition is more prevalent than cooperation, all of which tends to intensify intragroup conflict. Group meetings are often conducted in a win-lose climate that is, individual or subgroup interaction is conducted for the purpose of determining a winner and a loser rather than for achieving mutual problem solving.

Negative effects of group conflicts


The win-lose conflict in groups may have some of the following negative effects. 1. Divert time and energy from the main issues 2. Delay decisions 3. Create deadlocks 4. Drive unaggressive committee members to the sidelines 5. Interfere with listening 6. Obstruct exploration of more alternatives 7. Decrease or destroy sensitivity 8. Cause members to drop out or resign from committees 9. Arouse anger that disrupts a meeting 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Interfere with empathy Leave losers resentful Incline underdogs to sabotage Provoke personal abuse Cause defensiveness

Certain activities and attitudes are typical in groups involved in a win-lose conflict. Each side closes ranks and prepares itself for battle. Members show increased loyalty and support for their own groups. Minor differences between group members tend to be smoothed over, and deviants are dealt with harshly. The level of morale in the groups increases and infuses everyone with

competitive spirit. The power structure becomes better defined, as the "real" leaders come to the surface and members rally around the "best" thinkers and talkers

Each group tends to distort both its own views and those of the competing group. What is perceived as "good" in one's own position is emphasized, what is "bad" is ignored; the position of the other group is assessed as uniformly "bad," with little "good" to be acknowledged or accepted. Thus, the judgment and objectivity of both groups are impaired. When such groups meet to "discuss" their differences, constructive, rational behavior is severely inhibited. Each side phrases its questions and answers in a way that strengthens its own position and disparages the other's. Hostility between the two groups increases; mutual understandings are buried in negative stereotypes. Conflict affecting organizations can occur in individuals, between individuals, and between groups. Conflicts within work groups are often caused by struggles over control, status, and scarce resources. Conflicts between groups in organizations have similar origins. The constructive resolution of such conflicts can most often be achieved through a rational process of problem solving, coupled with a willingness to explore issues and alternatives and to listen to each other.